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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 Abbreviations
 Currency equivalents
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 National research program...
 National research program...
 National research program in agricultural...
 National research program for food...
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 Civil works and development...
 Project cost estimates






Title: Brazil, agricultural research II project
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053814/00003
 Material Information
Title: Brazil, agricultural research II project
Physical Description: 2 v. in 3 : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária
International Agricultural Development Service
Publisher: EMBRAPA
Place of Publication: Brasília
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Research -- Brazil   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: developed by EMBRAPA with assistance from the International Agricultural Development Service.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053814
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000500689
oclc - 12111634
notis - ACS0322

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Preface
        Page i
    Abbreviations
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Currency equivalents
        Page vii
    National research program for babacu
        A 1
        A 2
        A 3
        A 4
        A 5
        A 6
        A 7
        A 8
        A Table 1
        A Table 2
        A Table 3
        A Table 4
        A Table 5
    National research program for rubber
        B 1
        B 2
        B 3
        B 4
        B 5
        B 6
        B 7
        B 8
        B 9
        B Table 1
        B Table 2
        B Table 3
        B Table 4
        B Table 5-1
        B Table 5-2
        B Table 5-3
    National research program for forestry
        C 1
        C 2
        C 3
        C 4
        C 5
        C 6
        C 7
        C 8
        C 9
        C Table 1
        C Table 2-1
        C Table 2-2
        C Table 2-3
        C Table 2-4
        C Table 3
        C Table 4
        C Table 5-1
        C Table 5-2
        C Table 5-3
        C Table 5-4
        D 1
        D 2
        D 3
        D 4
        D 5
        D 6
        D 7
        D Table 1
        D Table 2
        D Table 3
        D Table 4
        D Table 5
    National research program in agricultural engineering
        E 1
        E 2
        E 3
        E 4
        E 5
        E 6
        E 7
        E 8
        E 9
        E 10
        E 11
        E 12
        E Table 1
        E Table 2
        E Table 3
        E Table 4
        E Table 5-1
        E Table 5-2
        E Table 5-3
        E Table 5-4
        E Table 5-5
        E Table 5-6
        E Table 5-7
    National research program for food technology
        F 1
        F 2
        F 3
        F 4
        F 5
        F 6
        F 7
        F 8
        F 9
        F 10
        F 11
        F 12
        F 13
        F 14
        F 15
        F 16
        F 17
        F Table 1
        F Table 2
        F Table 3
        F Table 4
        F Table 5
        F Table 6-1
        F Table 6-2
        F Table 6-3
    National research program for bioenergy
        G 1
        G 2
        G 3
        G 4
        G 5
        G 6
        G 7
        G 8
        G 9
        G 10
        G Table 1-1
        G Table 1-2
        G Table 2
        G Table 3
        G Table 4
        G Table 5-1
        G Table 5-2
    National research program for animal health
        H 1
        H 2
        H 3
        H 4
        H 5
        H 6
        H 7
        H 8
        H 9
        H 10
        H Table 1
        H Table 2
        H Table 3
        H Table 4
        H Table 5
    The information and documentation system for EMBRAPA
        I 1
        I 2
        I 3
        I 4
        I 5
        I Table 1
        I Table 2
        I Table 3
        I Table 4
        I Table 5
    Civil works and development costs
        J 1
        J 2
        J 3
        J 4
        J 5
        J Table 1-1
        J Table 1-2
        J Table 1-3
        J Table 2-1
        J Table 2-2
        J Table 2-3
        J Table 2-4
        J Table 2-5
        J Table 2-6
        J Table 2-7
        J Table 2-8
        J Table 2-9
        J Table 2-10
        J Table 2-11
        J Table 2-12
        J Table 3
        J Table 4-1
        J Table 4-2
        J Table 4-3
        J Table 5
        J Table 6
    Project cost estimates
        K 1
        K 2
        K 3
        K Table 1
        K Table 2
        K Table 3
        K Table 4
        K Table 5
        K Table 6-1
        K Table 6-2
        K Table 6-3
        K Table 7
        K Table 8
        K Table 9
        K Table 10
Full Text




















Volume II: Annexes 1-22


AGRICULTURAL

(Part 2


BRAZIL

RESEARCH II PROJECT

: Annexes 12-22)


July 9, 1980









BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


TABLE OF CONTENTS


VOLUME I

Page No.

Preface i
Abbreviations ii
Currency Equivalents vii

I. THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR 1

A. The Sector in the Economy 1
B. Agricultural Development Policy 2
C. Agricultural Support Prices 5

II. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 10

A. EMBRAPA The Brazilian Agricultural Research 10
Corporation
B. Interactions with Other Agricultural Services 15

III. THE PROJECT 18

A. Introduction 18
B. Objectives and Scope 18
C. Detailed Features 19
D. Project Costs 22

IV. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION 26

A. Organization and Responsibility 26
B. Field Implementation and Research Methodology 26
C. Staff Training and Implementation 29
D. Monitoring and Evaluation 30

V. PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY 32

VI. DEMAND AND MARKET PROSPECTS 37

VII. BENEFITS AND JUSTIFICATION 40

A. Investment in Agricultural Research 40
B. Beneficiaries and Target Population Groups 41
C. Social Benefits 42
D. Project Risks 42
E. Environmental Effects 42


. ./..







TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

VOLUME II ANNEXES


1. The Agricultural Sector

2. Agricultural Research Services

3. Research Program for Farming Systems in the Semi-Arid
Tropics

4. Research Program in Farming Systems in the Humid
Tropics

5. Research Program for Farming Systems in the Campos Cerrados


National

National

National

National

National

National

National

National

National

National

National

National

National


Research Program for Rice


Research

Research

Research

Research

Research

Research

Research

Research

Research

Research

Research

Research


19. National Research


Program

Program

Program

Program

Program

Program

Program

Program

Program

Program

Program

Program

Program


for Beans

for Vegetables

for Fruits

for Coconut

for Oil Palm

for Babacu

for Rubber

for Forestry

for Basic Seed

in Agricultural Engineering

for Food Technology

for Bioenergy

for Animal Health


The Information and Documentation System for EMBRAPA

Civil Works and Development Costs

Project Cost Estimates









BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PREFACE


i The Agricultural Research II Project proposes to continue to
strengthen 6 of the 12 EMBRAPA research programs covered under Agricul-
tural Research I Project, and to add 12 new research and research support
programs. Agricultural Research I Project, initiated in 1976 with
support from the World Bank (Loan Contract NO 1249-BR), is still operative
and has resulted in the experience and increased staff competence within
EMBRAPA that make feasible this proposal for a broadened research project.

ii This project proposal was developed by EMBRAPA with assistance
from the International Agricultural Development Service (IADS), between
May and July, 1980. The services provided by IADS, under a subcontract
with the Interamerican Institute of Agricultural Sciences (IICA), were
through a team of specialists consisting of Messrs. R. Desrosiers (peren-
nial crops of the tropics), E.R. Duncan (agriculture of the semi-arid
tropics), R.P. Bates (food technology), R.W. Etheredge (architect/planner),
and G.B. Baird (research administration).

iii The proposal is presented in two volumes, the first of which
contains the proposal per se. Volume II consists primarily of a detailed
description of each of the 18 research and research support programs, as
well as of the civil works and development costs, and of project cost
estimates.








Abbreviations


ABCAR Brazilian Association for Credit and Rural Assistance
Associacao Brasileira de Credito e Assistencia Rural

ACAR Association of Credit and Rural Assistance
Associagao de Credito e Assistencia Rural

ARC Agricultural Research Center
Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria

ATA Technical and Administrative Advisory Office-EMBRAPA
Assessoria Tecnico-Administrativa

BEFLEX Brazilian Commission for Providing Fiscal Benefits to Special
Export Programs

BNB Bank of Northeastern Brazil
Banco do Nordeste do Brasil S.A.

CACEX External Commerce Bureau/Bank of Brazil
Carteira de Comercio Exterior/Banco do Brasil

CCA/UFC Agrarian Science Center of the Federal University of Ceara
Centro de Ciincias Agrgrias da Universidade Federal do Ceara

CEASA Supply Center
Centrals de Abastecimento

CENARGEN National Center of Genetic Resources-EMBRAPA
Centro Nacional de Recursos Geneticos

CENEA National Center of Agricultural Engineering
Centro Nacional de Engenharia Agricola

CEPLAC Executive Commission for the Cacao Production Plan
Comissao Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira

CFP Commission of Production Financing
Comissao de Financiamento da Produgao

CIAT International Center for Tropical Agriculture
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical

CIBRAZEM Brazilian Storage Company
Cia Brasileira de Armazenamento

CIMMYT International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo

CIP International Potato Center
Centro Internacional de la Papa

CNEPA National Center for Agricultural Education and Research
Centro Nacional de Educaqlo e Pesquisa Agropecuaria









CNPA National Center for Cotton Research
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodao-EMBRAPA

CNPAF National Center for Research on Rice and Beans
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa do Arroz e Feij'ao

CNPC National Center for Research on Goats and Sheep
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Caprinos-EMBRAPA

CNPGC National Center for Beef Cattle Research
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Gado de Corte-EMBRAPA

CNPGL National Center for Dairy Cattle Research
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Gado de Leite-EMBRAPA

CNPMF National Center for Research on Cassava and Fruits
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Mandioca e Fruticultura-EMBRAPA

CNPMS National Center for Research on Maize and Sorghum
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo-EMBRAPA

CNPSA National Center for Research on Swine and Poultry
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Suinos e Aves-EMBRAPA

CNPSe National Center for Research on Rubber
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Seringueira-EMBRAPA

CNPSo National Center for Research on Soybean
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja-EMBRAPA

CNPT National Center for Research on Wheat
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo-EMBRAPA

CPAC Research Center for Agriculture in the Cerrados
Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria dos Cerrados-EMBRAPA

CPATSA Research Center for Agriculture in the Semi-Arid Tropics
Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Tr6pico Semi-Arido-EMBRAPA

CPATU Research Center for Agriculture in the Humid Tropics
Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Tr6pico imido

COBAL Brazilian Food Company
Companhia Brasileira de Alimentos

COMPATER National Commission of Agricultural Research and Technical
Assistance in Rural Extension
Comissao Nacional de Pesquisa Agropecuaria e de Assistdncia
Tecnica de Extensao Rural

CTAA Center for Agriculture and Food Technology
Centro de Tecnol6gia Agricola e Alimentar-EMBRAPA

DDM Department of Planning
Departamento de Diretrizes e Metodos de Planejamento-EMBRAPA









DDT Department of Extension
Departamento de Difusao de Tecnologia-EMBRAPA

DFN Department of Finance
Departamento Financeiro-EMBRAPA

DID Department of Information and Documentation
Departamento de Informagao e Documentaaio-EMBRAPA

DMQ Department of Quantitative Methods
Departamento de M6todos Quantitativos-EMBRAPA

DNOCS National Department of Works Against Droughts
Departamento Nacional de Obras Contra as Secas

DPA Agricultural Information Directorate
Diretoria de Publicidade Agricola

DPE Department of Special Projects
Departamento de Projectos Especiais-EMBRAPA

DRH Department of Human Resources
Departamento de Recursos Humanos-EMBRAPA

DTC Department of Science and Technology
Departamento Tecnico Cientifico-EMBRAPA

EMAPA Maranhao Agricultural Research Corporation
Empresa Maranhense de Pesquisa Agropecuaria

EMATER Technical Assistance and Rural Extension Corporation
Empresa de Assistencia Tecnica e Extensgo Rural

EMBRAPA Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria

EMBRATER Brazilian Technical Assistance and and Extension Corporation
Empresa Brasileira de Assistencia Tecnica e Extensao

EMCAPA Capixaba Agricultural Research Corporation
Empresa Capixaba de Pesquisa Agropecuaria

EMGOPA Goiania Agricultural Research Corporation
Empresa Goiania de Pesquisa Agropecuaria

EMPASC Santa Catarina Agricultural Research Corporation
Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Santa Catarina

EPABA Bahia Agricultural Research Corporation
Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria da Bahia

EPAMIG Minas Gerais Agricultural Research Corporation
Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado de Minas Gerais


United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization


FAO









FAEM -


FITIPAL


GOB

IADS

IAPAR


IDB

IICA


INCRA


INPA


IPEF


IRGA


IRRI

ITAL


PBCT

PND


PND II


PLANASEM


POLOAMAZONIA


POLOCENTRO


POLONORDESTE


Department of Agronomy of Eliseu Maciel
Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel

Foundation for State-Level Research
Fundagao de Pesquisa de Ambito Estadual

Government of Brazil

International Agricultural Development Service

Agronomy Institute of Parana
Institute Agron6mico do Parana

Inter-American Development Bank

Interamerican Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Institute Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas

National Institute of Colonization and Land Reform
Institute Nacional de Colonizago e Reforma AgrAria

National Institute of Research for Amazonia
Institute Nacional de Pesquisa da Amaz6nia

Institute of Forestry Research
Institute de Pesquisa e Estudos Florestais

Rio Grande Institute of Rice
Institute Riograndense do Arroz

International Rice Research Institute

Institute of Food Technology
Institute de Tecnol6gia de Alimentos

Basic Plan for Science and Technological Development

National Development Plan
Plano Nacional de Desenvolvimento

Second National Development Plan
II Plano Nacional de Desenvolvimento

National Seed Improvement Plan
Plano Nacional de Meihoramento da Semente

Development Program for the Integrated Areas of Amazonia
Program de Desenvolvimento de Areas Integradas da Amaz6nia

Development Program for the Integrated Central Areas
Program de Desenvolvimento de Areas Integradas do Centro

Development Program for the Integrated Areas of the Northeast
Program de Desenvolvimento de Areas Integradas do Nordeste








PROACOOL National Alcohol for Fuel Program

PROCAL National Lime Program

PRONAPA National Agricultural Research Program
Program Nacional de Pesquisa Agropecuaria

PRONAZEM National Storage Facilities Expansion Program

PROPEC National Livestock Development Program

SAGRIMA Maranhao Secretariat of Agriculture
Secretaria de Agricultura do Maranhao

SIBRATER National Technical Assistance and Rural Extension System

SNLCS National Soil Surveying and Conservation Center

SPSB Basic Seed Production Service
Service para.-Produgo de Sementes Basicas-EMBRAPA

SUDAM Superintendency for the Development of Amaz6nia
Superintendencia para Desenvolvimento da Amaz6nia

SUDENE Superintendency for the Development of the Northeast
Superintendencia para Desenvolvimento do Nordeste

UEPAE Unit of Research Execution at the State Level
Unidade de Execucgo de Pesquisa de Ambito Estadual

UEPAT Unit of Research Execution at the Territorial Level
Unidade de Execucqo de Pesquisa de Ambito Territorial

UFV Federal University of Vigosa
Universidade Federal de Vigosa

UFRRJ Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro

UNB University of Brasilia
Universidade de Brasilia

UNICAMP University of Campinas
Universidade de Campinas

URPFCS Regional Unit for Forestry Research in the Central-South
Unidade Regional de Pesquisa Florestal Centro-Sul






Currency Equivalents

Currency Unit = Brazilian Cruzeiro (Cr$)
US$1 = Cr$ 50 (June, 1980)
1 Cr$ = US$ 0.02
Cr$1 million = US$ 20,000

Weights and Measures

m = meter (1 m = 3.28 feet)
2
sq m = square meter (1 m = 10.76 square feet)
km = kilometer (1 km = 0.62 miles)
2
ha = hectare (1 ha = 10,000 m = 2.47 acres)
2
sq km = square kilometer (1 km = 247.1 acres = 100 ha = 0.386 square miles)
3
cu m = cubic meter (1 m = 1.31 cubic yards = 264.2 US gallons)
kg = kilogram (1 kg = 2.2 lb)
ton = 1,000 kg = 2.205 lb







ANNEX 12
Page 1



BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR BABACU

I. INTRODUCTION


A. Background


Characteristics of the Crop

1. First references to babacu (Orbignia martiana, 0. speciosa,
0. Oleifera and others) date from 1820, although its actual botanical
classification was not accomplished until 1898. It was not until about
1940 that much interest was shown in its commercial exploitation, although
small amounts of oil were being pressed in the early twenties.

2. The babacu is a native Brazilian palm, growing in the wild
state, and has not been developed under systematic cultivation. It is
to be found dispersed in several Brazilian states, occupying approximately
14 million ha from Amazonas to Espirito Santo, with the heaviest concentra-
tion in the states of Maranhao, Piaui and Goias. In the principal
producing state, Maranhao, the major concentration of the palm is to be
found in the Itapecuru, Parnaiba, Meonin and Pindare river valleys.

3. The distribution of babacu shows it to be relatively tolerant
to climate, having, however, its definite limitation to areas of high
and constant temperatures and rainfall above 1,000 mm; conditions notably
to be found in parts of Maranhao, Piaui and Goias states. With the
advance of the frontier, the babacu is threatened by settlers. Fire
used in the establishment of temporary crops and in routine maintenance
of pastures can be quite destructive to palms in the vicinity. Felling
of the palm is prohibited in Maranhao by state decree (N 5252, 11/11/73).

4. Until recently, the importance of the babacu palms was based
entirely on the use of its kernels as a source of oil and cake. The
kernels contain 63-70% of an oil described as being rich in practically
all of the elements needed in the manufacture of plastics, detergents,
emulsifiers and related materials. The oil cake contains 19-27% protein.

5. The present interest in babacu, however, results from its
potential as a renewable energy source. The babacu fruit is composed of
12% epicarp, 23% mesocarp, 58% endocarp and 7% kernel. The mesocarp,
containing 68% starch (16% in relation to the total weight of the fruit),
is regarded as a valuable source of alcohol for use as motor fuel. The
endocarp can be converted into charcoal and fuel gas. The oil from the
kernel, in addition to its normal industrial use, is now considered a







ANNEX 12
Page 2



promising source of diesel fuel and lubricants. The epicarp, containing
much cellulose, is usable directly as a primary fuel or may be converted
to alcohol by the acid hydrolysis method.

Demand Situation

6. Because of transportation difficulties, babacu oil is customarily
extracted from the kernels at small plants in the producing areas. It
is estimated that the northern region has an existing oil pressing
capacity of 500 tons per year. Of this total, 60 to 71% represents
underutilized capacity resulting from low prices offered for the raw
material, and simultaneous arrival at the plants of other oil seeds
produced at lower costs. Most of the processing plants are small scale
and not very viable.

7. The export of babacu kernels was stopped in 1963 and all of
the raw material has been processed within the country since then.
Internal demand absorbs all of the raw material produced, consumes
almost 85% of the oil and accounts for 1.5% of the demand for cake and
meal. The principal foreign buyers of oil and cake are West Germany,
the United States and Argentina.

8. There was little market for cake as compared to oil prior to
the late 1960's when the cessation of the export of kernels brought
about a sharp increase in the export of cake. This has resulted in a
double loss to Brazil: (a) the highly nutritious cake, having a high
protein content, could be used to advantage in animal rations in the
country and, (b) since the cake results mostly from an extraction by
presses which are often inefficient, it provides the importing countries
with a cheap source of oil which they obtain by carrying out an additional
extraction by a solvent process.

9. Because of its heavy dependance on imported petroleum, Brazil
has taken serious steps in recent years to develop sources of renewable
energy within its own borders. Notable among these has been its campaign,
started in 1975, to use alcohol as a motor fuel. As a result, there are
already some 15,000 alcohol-powered cars in the country. African palm
oil also has been used successfully as diesel fuel, and babacu oil
appears to be superior to palm oil for this purpose.

10. The consumption of alcohol in Brazil, for all purposes, is
expected to rise to 3,569 million liters in 1982/83, up from 1,615
million liters in 1977/78. Approximately two-thirds of this usage is in
motor fuel. The possibility of eventually being in a position to export
alcohol must not be overlooked.

11. Brazil has long suffered a chronic shortage of carbon for its
steel industry. The charcoal from babacu nuts will find a ready market
there.








ANNEX 12
Page 3



Production Potential and Restrictions

12. Considering the present energy crisis, babacu presents an
extremely attractive possibility as an energy source. Ten million tons
of fruits per year can permit an annual production of nearly a billion
liters of alcohol, almost two million tons of charcoal, half a million
tons of oil, more than two million cubic feet of fuel gas and one and a
half tons of epicarp, usable as primary fuel. Ten million tons of
fruits is a modest yield (less than 1 ton per ha) to expect from the
14,000,000 ha or more of babacu in Brazil and, of course, does not
consider the increased yield to be expected from the proposed improved
management of the natural stands as well as the development of babacu in
plantation culture. The following data show the potential yield of
energy per hectare under wild, wild-improved and commercial plantation
conditions.


PRODUCT YIELD WILD WILD-IMPROVED COMMERCIAL
per ton (2 ton/ha) (7.5 ton/ha) (20 ton/ha)

Alcohol 80liters 1601iters 6001iters 16001iters
(starch)

Charcoal 145kg 290Kg 1088Kg 2900kg

Gas 174m3 343m3 1305m3 3430m3

Oil 40kg 80kg 300kg 800kg

Epicarp 120kg 240kg 900kg 2400kg

Alcohol 2401iters 4801iters 18001iters 48001iters
(starch +
cellulose)
Source:

13. The potential commercial yield shown in the last column of
data presupposes an established plantation with an efficiently spaced
stand of uniform-age trees under good management. The wild stands of
palms may contain as many as 1,000 plants per ha, ranging in age from
young to old. The "improved" condition will still have the same wide
variation in age and as many as one-third of the trees may not be in
production.

14. The potential for alcohol production of the babacu palm compared
to that of sugarcane looks favorable, assuming that a reasonable commercial
production may be achieved: sugarcane, with a yield of 65 liters of
alcohol per ton, at 50 tons of cane per ha, will yield 3,250 liters.







ANNEX 12
Page 4



15. Possible restrictions or difficulties that might arise in the
development of the project are the following:

sociological problems in the babacu-producing areas. The
offering of higher prices for kernels does not necessarily
bring in more kernels; in fact, it may bring in fewer. The
harvesters seem content with enough money to supply their
basic needs. This phenomenon may be related to the extremely
laborious and time consuming process of breaking the nuts by
hand. It is also felt that modernization of the industry
and mass movement of the fruit to processing centers would
meet with resistance by those now involved in the industry
at all levels. On the other hand, modernization of the
industry will make the work easier and create many new jobs
in the area, in agriculture and industry as well as allied
activities;

internal transport problems in the area; and

little agricultural research of any kind has been done on
babacu so background knowledge is scarce.


B. Present Research Situation


16. Much is already known about the natural population of babacu,
its genetic composition, distribution and growth characteristics, since
it has been explored and surveyed by numerous individuals and government
entities for many years. No serious diseases have been observed but
several insect pests have been identified. Most of the research on
babacu thus far has had to do with the chemical composition of the fruit
and its utilization.

17. A serious obstacle to the processing of the whole babacu fruit
has been the lack of equipment to handle decortication, breaking, and
separation of the parts. Babacu nuts have, until now, been broken in
the field by harvesters or their families by a laborious process using
an axe and a mallet. Now there is on the market in Brazil machinery
developed by two companies for the processing of the fruit. This equip-
ment is modular and units may be added to accommodate the amount of
fruit desired. The basic unit of one company handles 6 tons of fruit
per hour and that of the other 13 tons per hour.

18. Industrial processing is being studied by the Secretaria de
Tecnologia of the Ministerio da Industria e Comercio and the Fundacao
Nacional da Tecnologia as well as by other organizations and commercial
concerns. This work is well advanced and much information available.
One company is already processing babacu fruit and four or five others
are preparing to enter the business.







ANNEX 12
Page 5



19. Exploratory work has been done on the improvement of wild
stands by the Empresa Maranhense de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, EMAPA, but
beyond this, very little agronomic work has been done. Yield was raised
from about 2 tons of fruit per hectare to 7.5 tons.


II. PROPOSED RESEARCH PROGRAM


A. General Description


20. This project is concerned only with research on the growing of
the crop and not with its industrialization. For the purpose of evaluating
selections and the determination of yields per hectare of the various
products, however, the project will have to concern itself with processing
to a limited extent, and will be linked with the proposed bioenergy
program of EMBRAPA.

Research Objectives

21. Since some 14 million hectares of babacu palm exist in Brazil
and little progress has yet been made in the establishment of formal
plantations of the crop, the emphasis of the research project will be
directed toward two main objectives:

study of problems related to the existing stands of wild
palms for the purpose of making these more productive; and

study of problems associated with the establishment of
commercial plantations of superior palms selected from the
wild population and to improve the post-harvest handling of
the crop so as to achieve 100% utilization of the material
as an energy source.

Research Program Requirements

22. The following are needed for program implementation:

acquisition of necessary staff;

acquisition of necessary equipment and vehicles; and

consultant services and graduate training for some personnel.







ANNEX 12
Page 6



B. Research Strategy and Research Program


23. Full use will be made of information accumulated in previous
surveys of the crop in order to arrive at reasonable decisions regarding
procedures to follow in improving the wild stands of babacu. Collections
of plants will be made to serve as a basis for future selection for
yield, quality and other characteristics. Close cooperation will be
maintained with EMAPA, Sao Luis, MA, and other agencies and private
concerns interested in babacu. The research program will be developed
along two principal lines.

Improvement of the Existing Stands of Wild Palm

24. Surveys, evaluation and research will be carried out as follows:

field surveys for the purpose of: determination of the
distribution of species, sub-species, types and hybrid
populations of babacu and the collection of specimens of
these for establishment in a germplasm bank; determination,
by field observation, of what appears to be a reasonable
density of stand of trees per hectare and establish thinning
trials for the purpose of arriving at an optimum stand;
observation, collection and identification of diseases,
insects and other pests attacking babacu; and correlation of
apparent levels of vigor and yield, as well as distribution
of genotypes, with climate and soil;

evaluation of existing management practices such as inter-
cropping and combining with pastures;

studyof the existing harvesting and marketing practices
with a view to their possible improvement; and

study of the social and economic impact of the babacu industry
on the people of the region.

Development of Commercial Plantations

25. This second major research component embraces the following:

selection and breeding: establishment and evaluation of
germplasm collection; selection of superior specimens to
serve as basis for seedling populations; establishment of
trials of seedling populations; study of flower structure
and pollination, compatibility, location of male and female
flowers and other factors affecting fertility. Storage of
pollen for breeding purposes; and plant breeding, using
parents selected for desirable characteristics as well as
the hybrid vigor to be expected from the crossing of widely
different genotypes;







ANNEX 12
Page 7



plant production and plantation management: seed collection,
storage and germination; production of seedlings and nursery
operations; and field planting (spacing studies, ground
covers, interplanting);

soil fertility: soil fertility requirements, and soil and
tissue analysis correlated with field trials to provide
fertilizer recommendations;

disease and pest control: identification and evaluation of
diseases and pests appearing on babacu; and development of
control measures for the more serious of these; and

harvest and post-harvest handling: harvest techniques;
handling of fruit between field and processing plant in
order to facilitate 100% utilization as an energy source;
and storage problems.

Administration

26. UEPAE Teresina, PI, will coordinate the research activities
and will implement the program in cooperation with EMAPA Sao Luis, MA,
and any other research entity which may eventually become involved (see
Table 1). Close cooperation will also be maintained with the Secretaria
de Tecnologia Industrial and the Fundacao Nacional da Tecnologia on
matters related to processing and utilization, and with CENOGEN on
matters having to do with exploration and the acquisition of germplasm.
Research will be supervised in loco. Results of research will be released
through EMBRAPA's normal release mechanisms and in cooperation with the
state extension services.


C. Staffing


27. To carry out the proposed program, UEPAE/Teresina will need to
add 5 technicians at the level of senior scientist; 2 at the junior
level and 28 research support personnel. Details are given in Tables 2
and 5.


D. Technical Assistance Requirements


Training

28. During the course of the program, UEPAE will need to train 7
research personnel to the Masters level (see Table 3).






ANNEX 12
Page 8



Consultation

29. For the purpose of developing the research program, the UEPAE
will need the services of at least 5 long-term consultants in the fields
of plant breeding, physiology, agronomy, socio-economics and chemistry
(see Table 3).


E. Research Station Facilities


30. The basic facilities available for field research are deemed
adequate to commence the research program. For the effective execution
of the proposed program, some additional facilities, including a processing
laboratory and items of field equipment and vehicles will be needed, as
are detailed in Table 4.


F. Cost Estimates


31. The total incremental cost of the program is estimated at
US$2.83 million; of this amount, US$.17 million is destined to defray
development costs; US$1.07 million for technical services and US$1.59
million for incremental operations.


G. Potential Risks and Benefits


32. This project has the potential to be of enormous benefit to
the economy of Brazil and to the people of the babacu producing regions.
Because, however, of possible sociological difficulties which have been
noted by persons familiar with the area, it would be well to emphasize
the importance of a strong extension and information program to inform
the inhabitants of the importance and value of the project. The state
extension services may need strengthening for this purpose. Access
roads will have to be constructed in the area.









BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR BABACU


Institutional Participation


Location


Role Designated Within
the Project


1. Funded by the Project


UEPAI Teresina


Teresina (PI)


Coordination and
Implementation


2. Not Funded by the Project


Sao Luis (MA)


Collaboration


3. Collaborating Institutions


ANNEX 12
TABLE 1
PAGE 1


Name


EMAPA





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS

RESEARCH PROGRAM BABACU

RESEARCH STATION UEPAI TERESINA


Pre-Project
Estimates


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-1 PY-2 PY-3 PY-4 PY-5


Total Staff at
Full Development


A. Personnel
Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)
Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff
Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
1/
Salaries-I
2/
Other Operational Costs-2
Total Operating Cost


97.0
29.1
126.1


Incremental
232.5
69.8
302.3


Operating
277.5
111.0
388.5


Costs
277.5
111.0
388.5


277.5
111.0
388.5


Total Incremental
1162.0
431.9
1593.9


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13 month salary (bonus)
Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of salaries for the first two years and 40% thereafter


W t"-4 M
M N
h- o -





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS

PROGRAM BABACU

STATION UEPAE TERESINA


Man-Years
1. Consultants Long-term


Plant Breeder
Agronomist (Tree Crops)
Plant Physiologist
Socio-Economist
Chemist Products lab
Miscellaneous short-term as
needed for problem solving


Subtotal
1/
Cost US $-
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs


Short-term


2. Fellowships

A. Long-term Fellowships
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs);
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term
B. Short-term Fellowships


Total Fellowships

Total Technical Assistance Costs


1/ US $80,000 per man year


No. of Unit Cost
Participants Man Years (US$ 000!my) TOTAL COST
4 8 5.5 44.0
2 4 13.0 52.0
5.5
13.0 -
6 12 96.
8 2 7.0 14.0


110.0

1070.0


ANNEX 12
TABLE 3
PAGE 1


800.0
160.0
960.00






AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROGRAM BASE COST SUMMARY (US$ 000)


PROGRAM


BABACU


LOCATION


I. Development Cost /

1. Civil Works
2. Vehicles & Farm Equipment
3. Office & Laboratory EquipT.
4. Library & Document Serv. -
5. Research Farm Developments
6. Land Purchase


Subtotal I

II. Technical Assistance


UEPAE

TERESINA

17.0
19.0
30.0
96.0
8.0


170.0


Cost 3/


1. Consultants
a) Long-term 8(
b) Short-term 1
2. Fellowships
a) Long-term
b) Short-term
Subtotal II 10;

3/
III. Incremental Operational Cost -

1. Salaries & Wages 11(
2. Other Operational Cost 4
Subtotal III 15

IV. Total Program Base Cost 28



I/ From civil works annex
2/ 6% of incremental operational cost
3/ From individual program annexes


)0.0
50.0


)6.0
14.0
70.0



52.0
31.9
)3.9

33.9


t'd
I-


TOTAL




ANNEX 12
TABLE 5
PAGE 1


BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM BABACU

STATION UEPAI TERESINA



CATEGORY PREPROJECT INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT
I I


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff
Research Support Staff


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


Sr. Jr. Total


- 9


1- -a ,


23


Sr. Jr. Total


1

1

1









1
1







5


5 U I I-'--~- 1
- - ~. Imin I b
30


Sr. Jr. Total


92

115

29


114


28

35

9


44


1
2
1

1









1
1







30


120

150

38


188


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff


2/ .25 times (IV)


, -I I ,L I-,,


23







ANNEX 13
Page 1



BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR RUBBER

I. INTRODUCTION


A. Importance of Rubber in Agriculture


Background

1. The petroleum crisis has drastically affected the rubber
market in recent years, increasing prices of both synthetic and natural
rubber. Natural rubber utilization, presently 33% of the total, may
increase to 40% during this decade. At present, world production of
natural rubber totals about 3.5 million tons, and it is estimated that
the energy crisis will push demand to 6 million tons by 1985.

2. In an effort to increase supplies and to establish sound
cropping practices, as opposed to mere crop extraction, Brazil plans to
plant 120,000 ha to rubber in the next 5 years in favorable ecological
areas.

3. Efforts have been made to increase rubber production in the
coastal area of Southern Bahia on poor soils which are inadequate for
cacao growing. With the state's financial and technical assistance,
25,000 ha of rubber trees have been planted. Unfortunately, this area
has the type of climate classified by Koppen as "Afi," which fosters
epidemic attacks of leaf blight and leaf burn. In contrast, the small
rubber plantations on the plateaus of Sao Paulo and southern Espirito
Santo are in excellent health, have no leaf blight, and yield in excess
of 1 ton/ha/year. Nevertheless, in these states and in many others in
Central and Southern Brazil, where land is expensive, rubber culture is
limited to small plots on farms dedicated mainly to other crops.

4. It has been proven that the rubber tree does not impose great
demands on the soil (pH and nutrient availability). It does, however,
need good drainage and depths of 1.5 to 2.5 mm to allow the taproot to
grow deep. These conditions are easily found in Amazonas and neighboring
states.

5. The Afi climate must be avoided if clones highly resistant to
leaf blight are not available. The areas having excessive morning rains
during the rainy season should also be avoided because of the shorter
period left for tapping. The lower permissible limit for the average
annual minimum temperature is 20?C.







ANNEX 13
Page 2



6. For better crop performance, the plantation must be established
with selected clones and pesticides be used. The trees should reach
production by the end of the seventh year and should stabilize at about
1,300 kg/year in the fifth year of tapping (that is, 12 years after
planting). These performance figures will be achieved only by using
clones resistant to leaf blight, in areas with pronounced dry seasons
having only 100 mm of rainfall during 3 to 5 months out of the year (in
climates classified by Koppen as "Ami" and "Awi"). This is not the case
with plantations close to Belem in an Afi climate. For many years those
plantations suffered severe attacks of leaf blight but, in 1977, fungicide
applications by fogging were started and production reached 700 kg/ha/year
as compared with former yields of less than 400 kg/ha/year.

7. During the production phase, different levels of technology
will be used for the primary processing of the latex, depending on the
size of the operation. Small producers will tend to sell natural latex
or crude coagulated rubber for processing in factories. In the case of
the wild rubber collectors, technology must be oriented to the conditions
of the rubber collector who, in most cases, is illiterate and earns only
a subsistence income. His scattered distribution in areas of different
access in Amazonia makes it impossible to establish direct contact with
him and his illiteracy precludes written communication. Regardless of
the size of the operation, the labor input for tapping remains almost
unchanged. Tapping is an entirely manual operation which represents a
fixed cost of about 40% of the total operating cost of a rubber plantation.

8. In the cultivated rubber plantation, the producer is always a
landowner (this is a prerequisite for credit eligibility). No projects
implemented in Brazil to date allow planting of small modular family
operations of 2 or 3 ha in size in the form of associations. The larger
the operation, the greater the management and financial demands on the
entrepreneur.

Demand Situation

9. The world demand for rubber has been increasing at an acceler-
ated rate and reached 12.3 million tons at the end of the 1970's, of
which 3.7 million tons consisted of natural rubber and the rest of
synthetic rubber.

10. In 1978, rubber utilization in Brazil reached 294,496 tons
which represented an increase of 6.67% over 1977 and 85.8% over 1972.
Natural rubber accounted for 72,492 tons and synthetic rubber for 222,004
tons. Taking the 1977 date as the basis for calculation, utilization of
natural and synthetic rubber increased by 1.59% and 8.44%, respectively.
In 1978, Brazil produced 23,708 tons of natural rubber and 206,063 tons
of synthetic rubber for a total of 229,771 tons.

11. In 1978 world production of natural and synthetic rubber
increased by 5.08% and 9.52%, respectively. The natural rubber pro-
duction estimated for Brazil varied between 24,850 tons for 1979 and







ANNEX 13
Page 3



135,000 for 1980. However, in 1978 domestic production met only 33% of
demand and, therefore, it was necessary to import 56,244 tons. Of this
amount, 76% came from Malaysia, 22% from Indonesia and 2% from Nigeria.
Synthetic rubber production met 92.8% of domestic demand. Of the 31,716
tons imported, 56% came from the United States of America, 36% from
Western Europe, 7% from Japan and 1% from Canada.

12. In 1978, natural rubber production, 90% of which came from
wild trees, was distributed as follows: Acre, 35%, Amazonas, 22%,
Rondonia, 21%, Para, 11%, Mato Grosso, 1%, Bahia, 9%, Sao Paulo, 0.7%
and Espirito Santo, 0.3%.

13. Natural rubber is important in the manufacture of certain
products which do not allow any substitution, or of products which
demand a certain percent of natural rubber along with the synthetic.
Automobile tires require natural rubber in the mix, and the radial tires
now so widely used require more than do ordinary tires. International
studies indicate that by 1998 world production of natural rubber must
reach 6 million tons, which represents an increase of 65.4% over present
production. In order to meet this demand, it is estimated that the Far
East must increase its production by 1.0 million tons and Africa by
500,000 tons, and that Latin America will be responsible for the rest--
another 500,000 to 800,000 tons. The opportunity for future export of
natural rubber is evident.

14. The increasing cost of the petroleum-based raw material used
in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, plus the increasing costs of
production, make it highly desirable to decrease dependence on the
synthetic product.

Production Potential and Restrictions

15. Given the fact that the Amazon basin is the center of origin
of the rubber tree (Hevea spp.) and that there is a large variety of
native Hevea species which produce latex of commercial importance, it
would appear that natural rubber has considerable potential for develop-
ment in Brazil. However, the South American leaf blight (Microyclus
ulei) has hampered efforts to establish viable commercial plantations in
Latin America, and these have not met with the same degree of success
experienced in the Far East where highly profitable plantations of Hevea
braziliensis, introduced from Amazonia, are grown in the absence of
blight.

16. At present, leaf blight is the main factor limiting rubber
cultivation in Amazonia. The reason for the survival of the rubber
extractive industry in Brazil, as opposed to production on plantations,
has been the relatively low incidence of blight on isolated trees scat-
tered throughout the jungle, thus avoiding the proliferation of the
disease on a massive scale such as occurs in the monoculture of commercial
plantations. Immunity to blight is unlikely to be found but a reason-
able level of horizontal resistance, derived from more than one source,







ANNEX 13
Page 4



combined with timely applications of fungicides, is expected to provide
good control. Breeding with other species of Hevea, such as H. berthiana
and H. pauciflora, is a valuable means of obtaining resistance.

17. In addition to bringing small returns per tree and per
land unit, extractive methods are characterized by the production of low
quality rubber, as compared with that produced by commercial plantations.
Blight is, therefore, closely linked to the potential for future develop-
ment of a high quality product based on cultivation, as opposed to the
uncertain, poor quality harvest from wild rubber trees. Therefore, the
future of rubber cultivation depends, to a large extent, on the efficient
control of leaf blight.


B. Present Status of Research


18. In the past, CEPLAC (Comissao Executiva para a Recuperacao
Economic da Industria do Cacau), IPEAL (Instituto de Pesquisas Agro-
pecuarias do Leste), now CNPMF, Cruz das Almas, and IPEAN (Instituto de
Pesquisas Agropecuarias do Norte), now CPATU, Manaus, were responsible
for rubber research. Their work was sponsored and partially financed by
SUDHEVEA. In addition, the three companies with commercial rubber
operations in Brazil, Firestone in Itubera, Goodyear Marathon and Guama
Agro-industrial da Pirelli with the Taiboca plantations at Marituba,
have contributed research with immediate commercial application, and
cooperated in the government's research programs.

19. The research programs of CEPLAC and IPEAL concentrate on:
studies of soils and plant nutrition; physiology of the producing rubber
tree; plant pathology, with emphasis on the control of leaf blight and
the selection of clones resistant to this disease; entomology, with
emphasis on the chemical and biological control of pests, especially the
moth, Erinnys ello; selection and improvement of disease-resistant
clones; and economic studies of the production obtained from wild and
cultivated trees. At present, 187 clones are listed in the collections
developed by CEPLAC and IPEAL.

20. Losses caused by the South American leaf blight continue to be
the main factor limiting progress. The same has been true during the
past 50 years since the Ford Motor Company established rubber planta-
tions at Fordlandia and Belterra. Efforts to control this disease
effectively and economically have failed and, therefore, no reasonable
return has been derived from investments in rubber plantations. A
moderate degree of success was obtained with the identification of
highly resistant clones but recent efforts to control the disease with
fungicides have proved to be uneconomical. Attention is being focused
on application techniques and the use of systemic fungicides with the
aim of reducing costs.







ANNEX 13
Page 5



II. PROPOSED RESEARCH PROGRAM


A. General Description


21. In view of the need to increase rubber production to levels
compatible with the industrialization of the country, improved produc-
tion systems must be developed and tested for viability and acceptance
by producers. Therefore, in addition to developing research programs
aimed at the solution of problems, the development of an efficient
system of extension and information is required.

22. Rubber research will be coordinated by CNPSe, Manaus, which
will be working in cooperation with the UEPAE of Rio Branco, and UEPAT
of Porto Velho. The project will also benefit from the research results
obtained in other parts of Brazil, under the coordination of CNPSe (see
Table 1). Close cooperation is also maintained with the Rubber Institute
of Malaysia in a continuing exchange of rubber germplasm. CENARGEM will
conduct explorations in the Amazon in search of new germplasm.

Research Objectives

23. Research will be aimed at the generation of technology to
eliminate the factors limiting rubber production. The following are the
main objectives: selection and testing of new cultivars; shortening of
the period of immaturity by genetic improvement and cultural practices;
development of seedling production techniques aimed at reducing the time
required for the production of viable stock for grafting and establishment
of a uniform stand of plants in the plantation; identification of new
ecological niches adequate for rubber cultivation; acceleration of the
investment return by planting rubber in association with early-producing,
high-yielding cash crops; shortening of the time to flowering, and the
induction of dwarfism; use of crown grafting to renovate plantations;
evaluation of chemical weed control in rubber plantations; development
of mechanized soil preparation techniques for the establishment of
rubber plantations in view of the labor shortage; testing of equipment
and chemicals for pest and disease control; determination of the costs
of the establishment and operation of rubber plantations; and management
of wild rubber trees.

Basic Requirements

24. The following requirements are essential for the achievement
of the proposed objectives: participation of knowledgeable, technical
personnel able to find solutions to problems; supply of necessary vehicles,
machinery, agricultural equipment, greenhouses, field houses, etc.,
needed for the work; installation of laboratories adequate for the
proposed lines of research.







ANNEX 13
Page 6



B. Details of the Program


25. Emphasis will be given to weed control, plant pathology, plant
breeding, physiology, biochemistry, crop zoning, epidemiology, management
and cultural practices, soil fertility, multiple cropping, agricultural
systems, economics and agricultural technology.

Weed Control

26. Research on control of weeds will include: evaluation of pre
and post emergence herbicides in nurseries; seed size as related to
tolerance to atrazine; evaluation of herbicides used in established
rubber plantations; and effects of herbicides on the respiration and
germination of rubber seeds.

Plant Pathology

27. Disease control being a fundamental concern will involve
research on: etiology, epidemiology and control of T. cucumeris; anal-
ysis of factors which could predispose the rubber tree to attacks by
Phytophthora spp; control methods for Phytophthora spp in rubber trees;
use of thermal fogging machines in the control of leaf diseases of
rubber; effect on disease control of variations in clonal phenology and
micro-climate; persistence and translocation of fungicides; identifica-
tion and control of root pathogens, including nematodes; identification
and control of fungi associated with stored rubber seed; climatic,
phenological and nutritional factors influencing infection by M. ulei;
selection of differential clones and identification of strains of M.
ulei; and evaluation of fungicides for the control of M. ulei in nurs-
eries and in young and old trees.

Plant Breeding

28. Under this area of research the following will be included:
germplasm bank; production of homozygotic individuals, selection of
disease-resistant, high-yielding clones; selection from among the wild
rubber population of H. brasiliensis as well as H. benthiama, H. pauciflora
and others for disease resistance; selection of plants in the nursery;
testing of polyploid clones; and vegetative multiplication by tissue
culture.

Physiology and Biochemistry

29. A number of production problems call for research of a physio-
logical-biochemical nature. These include: effect of light intensity
on stomatal opening and CO2 exchange in rubber clones; utilization of
some physiological parameters in the identification of clones resistant
to drought; influence of water shortage on the diurnal variation in
photosynthetic activity of various rubber clones; effects of temperature







ANNEX 13
Page 7



on the net photosynthesis of rubber clones; physiological studies of the
root system of rubber clones; and photosynthetic rates of rubber clones
in relation to leaf anatomy and the resistance of leaves to the diffusion
of light.

Crop Zoning

30. It is important to identify with much precision areas that
have the greatest promise for production of rubber. This systematic
identification of such areas will be an integral part of the proposed
research program.

Entomology

31. Insect pests need to be identified, their damage assessed, and
means found for economic control. The research program in entomology
will include: identification of insects affecting rubber and the evalua-
tion of their possible damaging effects; occurrence of white flies in
nurseries and rubber plantations and identification of their alternate
host plants; biology of white flies in rubber trees; identification of
natural enemies and the study of the economic control of white flies in
rubber trees; determination of the seasonal fluctuation of E. ello by
means of the use of light traps; biology and massive production of
viable E. ello moths and the study of their control by biological methods;
and evaluation of application equipment and insecticides for pest control.

Management and Cultural Practices

32. The agronomic aspects of rubber production will receive attention
in the proposed research program. Management and cultural practices
research will include: techniques for the preparation of rubber seedlings
to assure superior tree growth; effects of packing, fungicide applications
and length of storage on the moisture content and germination rate of
rubber seeds; localized induction of cambium activity in viable stock
for grafting; increase in viability of grafting and worker productivity
under unfavorable conditions; spacing in established rubber plantations;
renovation of plantations composed of unselected trees by means of crown
grafting; use of legumes as ground cover; soils preparation and management
techniques for the establishment of rubber plantations; rooting of
rubber cuttings; and evaluation of rubber tapping, coagulation and
preparation methods used in wild rubber.

33. Soil fertility research will be conducted to determine:
nutrient requirements of the rubber tree; critical levels of P for the
growth of rubber seedlings; variation of fertilizer needs as a function
of soil type and age of plant; importance of different sources of nutrients;
and effect of micro-nutrients on young rubber trees. Cropping systems
will be evaluated which involve: rubber x guarana, rubber x cacao,
rubber x coffee, rubber x pepper, and rubber interplanted with beans and
maize.







ANNEX 13
Page 8



Economics

34. The economics of rubber production constitutes an important
area of the proposed research program and will include: estimation of
the establishment costs for commercial rubber plantations in the Amazon
region; determination of the physical and economic efficiency of the
production methods utilized in commercial plantations; evaluation of the
present situation of the rubber program in the Amazon region; monitoring
of the national and international market in natural rubber; and determina-
tion of the ideal size of field plots for statistical analysis and cost
calculation.

Agricultural Technology

35. While most of the proposed research will be concerned with
production technology, there is also need to be concerned with handling
of the latex. Proposed studies include: chemical composition and
physical and mechanical characteristics of different types of latex;
preparation of concentrated latex, including creaming and centrifugation;
preservation, standardization, packing and shipment of latex concentrates;
systems of rubber preparation--traditional and modern--pelltizing,
separation and fast drying; low-cost processes for the preparation of
wild rubber; and technical classification and standardization of natural
rubber and latex.

Administration

36. CNPSe-Manaus, AM will coordinate the research on rubber.
Annual meetings will be held to evaluate, propose and organize projects,
and discuss problems. The work will be continuously supervised in loco.
See Table 1 for a list of participating institutions. Research results
will be published by EMBRAPA in cooperation with EMBRATER.


C. Staffing


37. The rubber research program consists of 24 scientists (senior
and junior) and 126 support personnel. No increase in personnel is
contemplated in the expanded program. This information on personnel is
given in Tables 2 and 5.


D. Technical Assistance Requirements


Training

38. The proposed program will entail degree training for 12 researchers
and short courses for 7 researchers. See Table 3 for details.







ANNEX 13
Page 9



Consultation

39. Four long-term consultants will be used to provide orientation
to the scientists involved in program implementation. Details are shown
in Table 3.


E. Experiment Station Facilities


40. Principal laboratories, offices and ancillary buildings for
CNPSe-Manaus are being financed under World Bank Agricultural Research I
Project. Buildings which have been completed are (a) pavilion for
administration (590 sq m), (b) pavilion for information and documentation
(590 sq m) and (c) research laboratories (590 sq m) for plant pathology and
entomology. Other facilities scheduled to be completed soon are a
rubber technology laboratory (590 sq m), laboratories for physiology and
genetics (590 sq m), and a restaurant and kitchen (590 sq m), plus various
ancillary buildings. Other older buildings at this center need renovation
but are being used at present.

41. New civil works requested for Manaus under this proposal are
to be used for an auditorium/social center, greenhouses, field support
buildings and a rubber processing laboratory.


F. Cost Estimate


42. The estimated total cost of the project is US$ 2.60 million
divided as follows: US$ 1.16 million for development, US$ 0.69 million
for technical services and US$ 0.75 million for operation costs. Details
are shown in Table 4.


G. Potential Risks and Benefits


43. The rubber research program has the potential to generate
great benefits for the economy of Brazil. The expansion of rubber planting
can provide year-round employment for a large number of people in addition
to reducing Brazil's dependence on synthetic rubber.

44. The search for new sources of resistance to leaf blight continues
and the level of resistance available to commercial planters should
continue to rise. The testing of fungicidal chemicals and application
techniques also continues. If genetic resistance does not provide a
sufficient level of protection, this, plus fungicides applied by mist-
blowing or fogging should prove satisfactory.









BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR RUBBER


Institutional Participation


Location


Role Designated Within
the Project


1. Funded by the Project


Manaus (AM)


UEPAE/Rio Branco
UEPAT/Porto Velho


Rio Branco (AC)
Porto Velho (RO)


Coordination and
Implementation
Implementation
Implementation


2. Not Funded by the Project


UEPAE/Manaus
EMCAPA


Manaus (AM)
VitLria (ES)


Implementation
Implementation


3. Collaborating Institutions


Ilh6us-Itabuna


ANNEX 13
TABLE 1
PAGE 1


Name


CNPSe


CEPEC/CEPLAC


Collaboration




BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS

RESEARCH PROGRAM RUBBER

RESEARCH STATION CNPSe Manaus 3/
RESEARCH STATION CNPSe Manaus -


Pre-Project
Estimates


A. Personnel
Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)
Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff
Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
1/
:Salaries-I
2/
Other Operational Costs-
Total Operating Cost


540.0
149.8
689.8


PY-1


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


PY-5


Incremental Operating Costs


50.0
50.0


100.0
100.0


150.0
150.0


200.0
200.0


250.0
250.0


Total Staff at
Full Development


Total Incremental


750.0
750.0
750.0


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13 month salary (bonus)
Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of salaries for the first two years and 40% thereafter

No incremental staff or operating cost at other stations supported under this project.


Ig~1N
H X





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS

PROGRAM RUBBER

STATION CNPSe MANAUS 2/


1. Consultants

Plant Pathologist
Plant Physiologist
Plant Breeder
Entomologist


Man-Years
Lone-term


Short-term


Subtotal
Cost US $-
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs


2. Fellowships
No.
A. Long-term Fellowships Partic
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs) 4
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs) 4
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs) 1
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs) 3
Sub-total long-term 12
B. Short-term Fellowships 7

Total Fellowships 19

Total Technical Assistance Costs


of Unit Cost
ipants Man Years (US$ 000/my) TOTAL COST
8 5.5 44.0
8 13.0 104.0
3 5.5 16.5
12 13.0 156.0
31 32049.

7 7.0 49.0


369.5

689.5


US $80,000 per man year
No technical assistance requested for other stations supported
under this project.


ANNEX 13
TABLE 3
PAGE 1


320.0

320.0




mm MBIM M M M M Mmm

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

PROGRAM BASE COST SUMMARY (US$ 000)

PROGRAM RUBBER


LOCATION

CNPSe UEPAE UEPAT TOTAL

I. Development Cost Manaus Rio Branco Porto Velho
1. Civil Works 598.0
2. Vehicles & Farm Equipment 145.0
3. Office & Laboratory EquipT. 178.0
4. Library & Document Serv. 45.0
5. Research Farm Developments 195.0
6. Land Purchase 0 0
Subtotal I 1161.0 I

II. Technical Assistance Cost /
rt irt
1. Consultants a
a) Long-term 320.0
b) Short-term
2. Fellowships
a) Long-term 320.5
b) Short-term 49.0
Subtotal II 689.5

3/
III. Incremental Operational Cost -
1. Salaries & Wages
2. Other Operational Cost 750.0
Subtotal III 750.0

IV. Total Program Base Cost 2600.5



1/ From civil works annex M
2/ 6% of incremental operational cost
3/ From individual program annexes




ANNEX 13
TABLE 5

BRAZIL PAGE 1

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN

PROGRAM RUBBER

STATION CNPSe MANAUS


CATEGORY PREPROJECT INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT

I. Research Staff Sr. Jr. Total Sr. Jr. Total Sr. Jr. Total

1. Breeder/Geneticist 2 2 2 2
2. Agronomist 3 3 3 3
3. Plant Protection 3 2 5 3 2 5
4. Animal Protection NONE
5. Soil Scientist 3 3 3 3
6. Physiologist 4 1 5 4 1 5
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economist. 1 1 1 1
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer 1 1 1 1
18. Statistician 1 2 3 1 2 3
19. Rubber Technologist 1 1 1 1
20.

I. Subtotal Scientific/Research 16 8 24 16 8 24
Staff
I. Research Support Staff / 96 96

V. Total Research Staff (II&III) 120 -1

V. Administrative and Technical 30 -
Support Staff 2/

I. Total Staffing at Station 150 15



1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff


2/ .25 times (IV)




ANNEX 13
TABLE 5

PAGE 2


BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM RUBBER

STATION UEPAE Rio Branco



CATEGORY PREPROJECT INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT
I I


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Research Support Staff

Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


- I -- p-n -


4 mb, C 1 l


1
1














1




3


3 I M


12

15

4


19


4


19


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff


2/ .25 times (IV)


I 3





ANNEX 13
TABLE 5

PAGE 3


BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM RUBBER

STATION UEPAT Porto Velho



CATEGORY PREPROJECT INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT
U.[ J


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist.
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff
Research Support Staff -


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


--m- -- -- --

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1




















2 2 2 2


8


8

f10

3
I.. ..


13,


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff


2/ .25 times (IV)







ANNEX 14
Page 1



BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR FORESTRY

I. INTRODUCTION


A. Importance of Forestry in Agriculture


Background

1. The increasing demand for agricultural products has led to the
expansion of land under cultivation at an average rate of 3.92% per
year. As a result, natural forests are being converted for agricultural
purposes, as exemplified in the Amazon region. This loss of forests is
particularly alarming in the state of Sao Paulo where the forest area is
now less than 5%. The intense search for agricultural land there has
tremendously increased the price of available land to the point of
discouraging reforestation.

2. In accord with the Brazilian Forest Code, 20% of the regional
forests must be preserved in an effort to maintain an ecological balance
in the area. Some countries of the European Community, such as France
and Germany, have forest reserves of more than 25% and 29%, respectively,
of their land areas. These percentages allow the development of econom-
ically feasible forest activities. These lands were renovated after
World War II through the efforts of government agencies and the encourage-
ment of small- and medium-sized holdings.

3. Small landholders are faced with the problem of producing food
for direct consumption, as well as for sale to purchase basic farm and
household requirements. In many situations agro-forestry, the association
of forest and agricultural operations, is a promising alternative to
only crops and livestock. The inclusion of forestry management, in
association with agriculture, might alleviate some of the socio-economic
problems small- and medium-sized landholders face. Frequently, the
latter have a minimum infrastructure for the production of agricultural
commodities at satisfactory levels but have possibilities for the establish-
ment of small forests on marginal land considered to be too poor for
agricultural use or for agro-forestry systems.

4. The forestry research program will be concerned with 2 main
areas: agro-forestry in its wide-ranging scope; and the utilization of
marginal lands for forestry.








ANNEX 14
Page 2



Agro-forestry

5. The systems of sustained, continuous land use in which crop
and livestock production are combined with forestry, in various combina-
tions and for diverse purposes, simultaneously or sequentially on the
same piece of land, may be considered as agro-forestry systems. The
deliberate trend toward combining agriculture and forestry, now occur-
ring in Brazil, has been happening elsewhere, particularly in the past
10 years. It reflects the need to increase the available supply of
food, not only as a function of the expansion of land under cultivation,
but also the urgent need for a more rational utilization of the land.

6. Despite Brazil's potential, basic food items often are in
short supply on the domestic market. In 1979 nearly US$1.5 billion was
spent to import food, this amount accounting in large measure for the
country's unfavorable balance of payments during the period. The govern-
ment's concern is demonstrated in its continuing efforts to expand the,
agricultural frontier and, more recently, making obligatory the practice
of agriculture in connection with forestry. This is accomplished by
means of the incentive initiated by the management of IBDF, under DR-001,
April 1979, giving the forestry industry the option to plant 10% of the
area of its projects with an agricultural crop in pure stand, or 30% in
agro-forestry combinations. Thus agro-forestry, assuming that the work
is based on a sound foundation of research, will provide tremendous
benefits, including an increase in production of food and wood, a positive
contribution to the ecological balance, increase in the profitability of
agricultural and forestry properties, rational use of the capacity of
the land, protection or reclamation of soils, encouragement of people to
remain on the land, and the provision of employment opportunities raising
the level of knowledge, and biological control of diseases and insects.
Nevertheless, most of the rural landholders and forestry companies are
not aware of the possibilities which agro-forestry offers because of the
lack of research and extension in this area.

Utilization of Marginal Land for Forestry

7. It is estimated that the total area in forest in Brazil dropped
from 64.7% in 1958 to 58.5% in 1972, including "caatingas" and "cerrados."
In regional terms, the Southeast and South had the least natural forest
cover in 1972, with 4.6% and 1.3%, respectively.

8. The distribution of land in crops, pasture and forestry is
related to land capability classes which are delineated by means of
interpretive surveys which take into consideration soil types (texture,
structure, depth, stoniness and drainage), slope (0-45% at most), erosion
(sheet, internal, furrow and gully), and fertility (high, medium, low
and medium low). Based on the interaction of these factors, 8 classes
of land use are defined of which the first 5 are suitable for agriculture,
in declining order of suitability, and the last three are usable pri-
marily for forestry because of their progressive unsuitability for any







ANNEX 14
Page 3




other use. Thus, the latter three land use classes are "marginal" in
relation to agriculture, but are suitable for forestry and reforestation.

9. Silviculture in non-agricultural land is important to protect
watersheds, provide protection against erosion and flooding and maintain
ecological balance. In addition, it directly benefits the rural landholder
through the provision of already scarce forest products such as fence
posts, wood for construction, poles and especially as a fuel for grain
drying and domestic firewood or charcoal. Proper land use, based on
land use classification means an integrated and complementary relationship
among crops, pastures and forestry.


B. Present Status of Research


10. Little research has been done in Brazil on agro-forestry
systems. One experiment, published in 1962, was reported on work in
southeast Brazil on the association of maize and eucalyptus. It was
concluded that a single row of maize between two rows of eucalyptus
favorably combined the biological and economic aspects of agriculture
and forestry. In addition, there are personal communications on the
results of practical agro-forestry trials by companies. In the Amazonian
region, various trials that are being carried out by EMBRAPA demonstrate the
high potential of associations of forest trees with perennial crops such
as cacao, guarana, and black pepper. In the Tome-Acu region, colonization
based on these systems is showing satisfactory results.

11. The ideal research strategy is to obtain short- and medium-term
results, based on longer-range more basic type research which would
permit the early use of improved agro-forestry technology. To do this
it is necessary to intensify and provide incentives for research in
agro-forestry, particularly in coordination with agricultural coopera-
tives and leading landholders, in both farming and forestry communities.

12. With regard to the utilization of marginal lands for forestry
in Brazil, most research has been done in the cerrado areas. Within the
operational area of URPFCS (Unidade Regional de Pesquisa Florestal
Centro-Sul), there are many experiments in progress to study the biology
of native species but few on forestry production technology.


II. PROPOSED RESEARCH PROGRAM


A. General Description


13. The basic philosophy of the proposed Forestry Research Program
will be to generate technology by means of interdisciplinary teams, for







ANNEX 14
Page 4



improving agro-forestry and production systems of priority national
interest. Research will focus on the plant, soil and environment rela-
tionships in order to understand and improve the efficiency of production
systems now used in Brazil. Concurrently, new systems must be developed
which offer industrialists, farmers and the general public options
better suited to the ecological, economic and social conditions, and to
the general policies of the government.

14. Forestry experiments must be conducted with due regard to the
regional peculiarities of the country. The forestry problems of the
South are totally different than those of the North or Northeast. The
same forest species behave differently under the different climatic and
soil conditions.

Objectives of the Program

15. The overall objective of the program is to develop improved
agro-forestry and silviculture systems which will permit a more rational
utilization of available natural resources. The economic utility of the
practices tested and the ecological equilibrium are factors which must
receive serious consideration in the conduct and analysis of the experiments.

Basic Requirements

16. The following requirements must be met in order to carry out
the proposed research program:

civil works at URPFCS for construction and renovation of
laboratories to take care of the increased work load;

equipment, furniture, machines and vehicles;

agricultural equipment and implements;

library, documentation and information services;

technical consultation and staff training; and

increased financial resources for operational costs for 5
years.


B. Detailed Description of the Research Program


17. URPFCS will coordinate the national research program on agro-
forestry and silviculture. This role will take into consideration the
responsibilities of the Brazilian Institute of Forestry Development
(IBDF). The regional resource centers of EMBRAPA (CPATU, CPATSA and
CPAC) are particularly important elements in the research network.
Other collaborating institutions are shown in Table 1.







ANNEX 14
Page 5



Agro-forestry

18. Surveys will be conducted to determine the real needs and
opportunities of agro-forestry systems in each region, and the principal
problems to be investigated.

19. Once the regional priorities are defined, arrangements will be
made to involve persons and entities critical to the success of the
research and its extension, always under the coordination of URPFCS and
the EMBRAPA unit responsible for the program in the region.

20. Research in agro-forestry will take many forms, depending on
its specific objectives. Cropping, and the raising of animals, may be
combined with forestry to embrace a spectrum to include food, wood,
medicinal herbs, essences, oils, resins, waxes and spices. The lines of
research are divided into 4 groups: Taungya, agro-forestry systems
using medium cycle and perennial crops, pasto-forestry (with the princi-
pal objective being forestry), and pasto-forestry (with the principal
objective being livestock).

Taungya

21. "Taungya" is a term internationally used to differentiate the
agro-forestry associations which include short cycle crops in systems
permitting their being grown for 2 or 3 years at most. Experiments in
taungya will be developed basically in conjunction with reforestation in
the planting stage, to help forestry companies in their search for
increased income. The agricultural crops and their management must be
studied in relation to the trees and predetermined spacing. Preference
will be given to the study of large- or medium-size level areas which
lend themselves to mechanization. Rolling land which requires hand
labor also may be used for crops of high return.

22. Another option for annual crops would be the use of agricul-
tural lands (cooperatives or individual landholders) of continuous use,
planting part of these areas with trees at wide spacing, which permits
mechanization and the use of the association over a long period, thus
providing the owner with a supply of wood and an increase in income
without interfering with crop production.

Agro-forestry Systems Using Medium Cycle and Perennial Crops

23. This group of associations is that in which a forest tree pro-
vides shade, partial or total, over the crops, with the total integrated
utilization of the soil surface (examples are coffee, palmito, cacao,
ipecacuanha, etc.), forming multiple strata and promoting the total use
of nutrients, water and light. The forest species must be chosen with
regard to their rapidity of growth, form and type of crown, normal
branching, value of wood, root system and competition. They should be
distributed appropriately and have a life cycle similar to that of the
perennial cash crops.







ANNEX 14
Page 6



Pasto-forestry--Principal Objective Forestry

24. This is the utilization of forestry or reforestation areas for
livestock production, with the principal objective of production of
forest products. Animals are introduced, after the second or third
year, when the trees are large enough for damage to be limited. Additional
financial returns and an increase in the amount of available animal
protein are the principal objectives. This system has been used by some
companies in the south of Brazil, but without sound research guidance.
Experiments will be designed to determine the influence of animals on
development of the forest, and on the soils, as well as on animal produc-
tion. The management of forest pastures and the search for forages
which cover the critical periods of the year will receive special attention.

Pasto-forestry--Principal Objective Livestock

25. In regions of intensive cattle production of whatever kind,
growers must be motivated to plant trees. In the cattle-producing
areas, wood is used for posts, fences, corrals, houses and fuel. This
implies that part of the operation can be devoted to the planting of
valuable trees at wide spacing which will permit the raising of forage
during the first years, and the maintenance of natural pasture until the
end of the growth cycle. Research to determine the most favorable tree
spacings will be emphasized.

26. Research will be facilitated through interaction with agricul-
tural cooperatives, extension systems of the various states, research
centers of EMBRAPA, rural landholders, and other government entities
that already have means necessary to facilitate establishment of a
network of experiments on agro-forestry systems. The work will be
directed not only toward the increase in income for the forestry companies
but also toward the diversification of the activities of the rural land-
holder engaged in agriculture and livestock raising, guaranteeing them
their own supply of wood and possibly additional income.

Utilization of Marginal Land for Forestry

27. The forest can be considered a renewable natural resource only
if it benefits mankind. Based on this premise, research will be undertaken
to investigate all aspects of land considered marginal, the evaluation
of its potential and present state by means of surveys and phyto-sociological
studies, the selection of species and seed sources suitable for the
area, the obtaining production of seed of these species, and the techniques
to be used from the production of seedlings through exploitation of the
forest. This will be complemented with the study of the quality of the
products and the evaluation on silvicultural practices on soil properties.

28. Experiments for the use of marginal lands for forestry will be
developed in representative areas belonging to private companies, agri-
cultural cooperatives and research institutes after the establishment of







ANNEX 14
Page 7



regional priorities in conjunction with the regional development organi-
zations, rural extension agencies and reforestation companies. Specific
research areas on use of marginal lands for forestry are described in
the following paragraphs.

29. The problems of lands considered marginal will be evaluated in
order to be able to generate technology needed for their utilization for
forestry purposes. Knowing the problems of the area, the existing
vegetation and the plant succession will be studied with a view to
identification of likely alternatives, and to management of the area on
a sustained yield basis.

30. The introduction of new species and, later, the choice of seed
sources of these will be based on field trials using already known
species having biological characteristics which ensure favorable perfor-
mance under the local conditions. The principal factor to be considered,
following the selection of the species and the choice of diet, is the
guarantee of good quality seed. From the forestry point of view, improved
seed may be produced in a collection area, production area, or seed
orchard established for the short-, medium- or long-term.

31. The quality of the seedling established under different condi-
tions will be analyzed following the initial survival of the planting
and in the qualitative and quantitative growth of the population. In
the case of wild species, this becomes essential because of the lack of
knowledge of the natural regeneration behavior of most of the species.
The best means of planting forest trees will be identified for each
ecological situation, considering spacing, fertilization, shade and sun.

32. The systems of management will be compared under sustained
yield to furnish data needed to determine practices that are important
to obtain better quality products at remunerative prices. The quality
of the wood will be studied.

33. Operating costs constitute a large part of the final cost of
forestry products. When one considers the problems of slope, soil
structure, erosion, and other factors which cause the land to be marginal,
studies of operating methods become essential because of the serious
effect they can have on the economics of the operation.

34. The land utilization classes considered marginal possess
limiting factors that have to do mostly with the soil. On the other
hand, these lands are usually located on steep slopes and play an important
role in the maintenance of the water supply for lower areas, including
population centers. Therefore, all research in these areas must be
evaluated not only in terms of the effect on the soils, but also with
regard to the effects on the ecosystem as a whole, that is, the water
cycle, the flora and fauna.







ANNEX 14
Page 8



Administration

35. URPFCS of Colombo will coordinate the activities of the research
program, and will also carry out experiments. As mentioned earlier, the
three regional centers of EMBRAPA also have key roles in the program.


C. Staffing


Available

36. For the support of the proposed program, EMBRAPA has 31 research
personnel: 15 at the senior level and 16 at the junior level. In
addition, there are 124 technical support personnel (see Tables 2 and
5).

Needs

37. For the development of the program it will be necessary to
reinforce the multidisciplinary teams at the senior level by adding 13
senior and 5 junior scientists. See Tables 2 and 5.


D. Technical Assistance Requirements


Staff Training

38. The proposed program will call for substantial training at the
Masters and Doctorate levels (33 and 13 fellowships, respectively), in
addition to short-term training directed primarily at the areas of
silviculture, plant breeding and agro-forestry. See Table 3.

Consultation Services

39. Because of the scarcity of technicians with experience in the
area of utilization of marginal lands of forestry and, also, in the
field of agro-forestry, the program anticipates the need to contract
long-term and short-term consultants. The details are shown in Table 3.


E. Research Station Facilities


Existing

40. Facilities at URPFCS, Colombo, consist of about 750 sq m in-
cluding administration and silviculture and forest management labora-
tories. The library and documentation area totals about 275 sq m, re-
search facilities outside the main complex amount to about 500 sq m with







ANNEX 14
Page 9



a greenhouse area of 200 sq m and a supporting headhouse. This center
has a nursery with an area of about 11,000 sq m equipped with sprinkler
irrigation. Ancillary facilities include garages, shops, storage sheds,
as well as housing for 32 workers.

Required

41. Additional facilities will be needed at URPFCS including a
rubber processing laboratory, auditorium, greenhouses, and headhouses.
Some renovation of storage and existing greenhouses will be required, as
well as construction of roadways.


F. Cost Estimate


42. The incremental cost of the URPFCS forestry program, including
the sub-components of agro-forestry and marginal land utilization for
forestry in the South and Southeast, is estimated at US$7.62 million.
This total is divided as follows: development of operational units
US$1.43 million, technical services US$2.33 million, and incremental
operating costs US$3.87 million. Further information is given in Table 4.


G. Potential Risks and Benefits


43. This program will be of great benefit to the forestry industry
of the country, including the small- and medium-sized operators. The
agro-forestry component will benefit the small- and medium-size landholders
both in the provision of forest products and in the food supply. Marginal
lands utilization will have a highly beneficial effect on watershed
protection and on the ecology in general. The possibility of finding
new and useful trees among the wild population is excellent.










BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR FORESTRY


Institutional Participation


Location


Role Designated Within
the Project


1. Funded by the Project
Colombo (PR)

Planaltina (DF)
Belem(PA)
Petrolina (PE)


Coordination and
Implementation
Implementation
Implementation
Implementation


2. Not Funded by the Project


Elova-Tapajos (PA)
Felex de Paraopeba (MG)
Capao Bonito (SP)
Irati (SP)
Tres Barras (SC)
S. Francisco de Paula (RS)


Co-implementation
Co-implementation
Co-implementation
Co-implementation
Co-implementation
Co-implementation


3. Collaborating Institutions


IPEF
FUPEF
Institute Florestal
de S. Paulo


Piracicaba (SP)
Curitiba (PR)

Sao Paulo (SP)


Technical Assistance
Technical Assistance

Technical Assistance


ANNEX
TABLE
PAGE


Name


URPFCS

CPAC
CPATU
CPATSA




BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS

RESEARCH PROGRAM FORESTRY

RESEARCH STATION URPFCS Colombo


Pre-Project
Estimates


PY-1


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


PY-5


Total Staff at
Full Development


A. Personnel
Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)
Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff

Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
SalariesI/
2/
Other Operational Costs-

Total Operating Cost


276.2

187.6
463.8


73.0

21.9
94.9


Incremental
191.0

57.3
248.3


Operating Costs
309.0 392.0

123.6 156.8
432.6 548.8


392.0

156.8
548.8


Total Incremental
1357.0

516.4
1873.4


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and
Other operating costs are estimated at 30%


month salary (bonus)
salaries for the first two years and 40% thereafter


M > 4_1





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS

RESEARCH PROGRAM FORESTRY

RESEARCH STATION CPAC PLANALTINA


Pre-Project
Estimates


A. Personnel
Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)

Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff

Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
Salaries-I/
Other Operational Costs-/

Total Operating Cost


PY-1


73.0

21.9
94.9


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


Incremental Operating Costs
118.0 118.0 118.0

35.4 47.2 47.2
153.4 165.2 165.2


PY-5


118.0

47.2
165.2


Total Staff at
Full Development


Total Incremental
545.0

198.9
743.9


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13 month salary (bonus)
Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of salaries for the first two years and 40% thereafter


tIX
4-3




BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS

RESEARCH PROGRAM FORESTRY

RESEARCH STATION CPATU BELEM


Pre-Project
Estimates


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


PY-5


Total Staff at
Full Development


A. Personnel
Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)
Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff
Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
1/
Salaries-
2/
Other Operational Costs-
Total Operating Cost


41.5
12.5
54.0


Incremental
83.0

24.9
107.9


Operating Costs
83.0 83.0

33,2 33.2
116.2 116.2


83.0

33.2
116.2


Total Incremental
373.5

137.0
510.5


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13 month salary (bonus)
Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of salaries for the first two years and 40%


thereafter


tMj-~tX
t~o1N





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS

RESEARCH PROGRAM FORESTRY

RESEARCH STATION CPATSA PETROLINA


Pre-Project
Estimates


A. Personnel

Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)

Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff

Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
Salaries"I/
21
Other Operational Costs-/

Total Operating Cost


PY-1


73.0
21.9
94.9


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


Incremental Operating Costs
118.0 118.0 118.0
35.4 47.2 47.2
153.4 165.2 165.2


PY-5


118.0
47.2
165.2


Total Staff at
Full Development


Total Incremental
545.0
198.9
743.9


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13 month salary (bonus)
Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of salaries for the first two years and 40% thereafter


W X
F> K) I-
C-f





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS

PROGRAM FORESTRY

STATION CPATU, CPAC. CPATSA. URPFCS


Man-Years
1. Consultants Long-term
Agrosilviculture 2
Forest Management Specialist 2
Soil and Water Mgmt. Specialist 2
Plant Breeder 2
Fruit Taxonomist 2
Wood Products Specialist 2


Short-term


Subtotal
Cost US $/
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs


2. Fellowships

A. Long-term Fellowships
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs)
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term
B. Short-term Fellowships


No. of
Participants
19
14
2
11
46
27


Man Years
38
28
6
44
116
27


Unit Cost
(US$ 000/my)
5.5
13.0
5.5
13.0

7.0


TOTAL COST
209.0
364.0
33.0
572.0
1178.0
189.0


Total Fellowships

Total Technical Assistance Costs


1/ US $80,000 per man year


ANNEX 14
TABLE 3
PAGE .1


960.0


960.0


1367.0

2327.0




I Tm- m mnm m -Emm -J -m
BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROGRAM BASE COST SUMMARY (US$ 000)


PROGRAM FORESTRY


LOCATION


I. Development Cost -
1. Civil Works
2. Vehicles & Farm Equipment
3. Office & Laboratory EquipT.
4. Library & Document Serv. -
5. Research Farm Developments
6. Land Purchase
Subtotal I

II. Technical Assistance Cost 3/
1. Consultants
a) Long-term
b) Short-term
2. Fellowships
a) Long-term
b) Short-term
Subtotal II

III. Incremental Operational Cost 3
1. Salaries & Wages
2. Other Operational Cost
Subtotal III

IV. Total Program Base Cost


CPAC CPATU

Planaltina Belem


44.0
32.0
45.0
30.0


151.0


44.0
48.0
31.0
30.0


153.0


CPATSA

Petrolina

44.0
51.0
45.0
30.0


URPFCS

Colombo
480.0
160.0
140.0
112.0
60.0


952.0


960.0


SEE URPFCS COLOMBO


1178.0
189.0
2327.0



1357.0
516.4
1873.4

5152.4


545.0
198.9
743.9


373.5
137.0
510.5


170.0


545.0
198.9
743.9


894.9 663.5 913.0


>d

From civil works annex M t-
6% of incremental operational cost
From individual program annexes T-


TOTAL


480.0
292.0
271.0
233.0
150.0


1426.0


960.0


1178.0
189.0
2327.0



2820.5
1051.2
3871.7

-7623.8




ANNEX 14
TABLE 5

BRAZIL PAGE 1

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN

PROGRAM FORESTRY

STATION URPFCS COLOMBO (PR)


CATEGORY PREPROJECT INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT

I. Research Staff Sr. Jr. Total Sr. Jr. Total Sr. Jr. Total

1. Breeder/Geneticist 2 1 3 1 1 3 1 4
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist 1 1 1 1
6. Physiologist 1 1 1 1
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist 1 1 1 1
9. Forestry Specialist 4 1 5 2 2 4 3 7
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economist 1 1 1 1
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician 1 1 1 1
19. Agrosilviculturist 1 1 2 1 1 2
20. Ecologist 1 1 1 1

I1. Subtotal,Scientific/Research 8 3 11 7 3 10 15 6 21
Staff
:I. Research Support Staff 44 40 84

V. Total Research Staff (II&III) 55 50 105

V. Administrative and Technical 14 12 26
Support Staff 2/

,I. Total Staffing at Station 69 62 131



1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff


2/ .25 times (IV)




ANNEX 14
TABLE 5
PAGE 2


BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN

PROGRAM FORESTRY

STATION CPAC PLANALTINA (DF)


E


CATEGORY


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economist/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19. Agrosilviculturist
20. Ecologist

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff
Research Support Staff


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


PREPROJECT


I I


Sr. Jr. Total


INCREMENTAL


Sr. Jr. Total


FULL DEVELOPMENT


Sr. Jr. Total


- I y I -v 1- .


1











1


* I 5


28

35

9


44


12

15

4


19


1
2









1
1


5


I --
- I -


40

50

13


63


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff


2/ .25 times (IV)


I




ANNEX 14
TABLE 5

BRAZIL PAGE 3

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN

PROGRAM FORESTRY

STATION CPATU BELEM (PA)


CATEGORY PREPROJECT INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT


I. Research Staff Sr. Jr. Total Sr. Jr. Total Sr. Jr. Total
I. Research Staff -
1. Breeder/Geneticist 1 1 1 1
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist 1 1 1 1
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist 1 1 1 1
9. Forestry Specialist 3 3 3 3
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economist/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician 1 1 1 1
19. Agrosilviculturist 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
20. Ecologist 1 1 1 1

:I. Subtotal Scientific/Research 2 6 8 2 0 2 4 6 10
Staff
:I. Research Support Staff /32 8 40

V. Total Research Staff (II&III) 40 10 50

V. Administrative and Technical 10 2 12
Support Staff 2/

[I. Total Staffing at Station 50 12 62



1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff


2/ .25 times (IV)




ANNEX
TABLE

PAGE


BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM FORESTRY

STATION CPATSA PETROLINA (PB) (BA)



CATEGORY PREPROJECT INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT
I I 5


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economist/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19. Agrosilviculturist
20. Ecologist

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff
Research Support Staff
Research Support Staff


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


Sr. Jr. Total


1







1














2


Sr. Jr. Total


w U I


1 I 1 1
1





1 1 1 1
1 2












1 1

3 5 2 1 3


20

25

6


31


Sr. Jr. Total


1
1





1
1














4


1







1
1












1

4


12

15

419


19
.Www


.-i

10


50


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff


2/ .25 times (IV)


.







ANNEX 15
Page 1



BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR BASIC SEED

I. INTRODUCTION


A. Importance of Seed in Agriculture


Background

1. High quality seeds play an important role in the agricultural
economy: they diminish production risks, and they should enable farmers
to obtain a quick return on investment as a result of direct increases
in production. The availability of high quality seed is dependent on a
series of activities ranging from the breeding of new cultivars, to
production of basic seed stocks, to the production and marketing of
commercial seed.

2. Within this framework, basic seed production is essential for
the commerical production of improved seed, enabling the seed producers-
to utilize seed of new cultivars developed through research. When they
are carefully produced, basic seeds carry to the commercial seed producers
the full genetic potential of the improved cultivar and thereby diminish
risk in the production of improved seed, whether certified or not.

3. The estimated potential demand (in 1977-1978) for basic seed
of 7 important crops is shown in the following table. Also included are
production data of basic seed in that cropping year--for SPSB and aggregate
figures for other producers. Except for cotton, actual production of
basic seed for these crops represents only a small fraction of potential
demand. Actual demand is less than potential, but in general is increasing.
This trend is expected to continue, and probably will accelerate as
farmers adopt more efficient management methods.

Crop Potential Demand Production (tons)
(tons) SPSB Others


Maize 3,500 175 300
Beans 4,800 1,025 325
Wheat 33,000 1,600 400
Soybeans 45,000 1,350 1,750
Rice 15,000 1,150 2,100
Potato 36,000 600 2,500
Cotton 4,000 400 3,300

Source: SPSB







ANNEX 15
Page 2



4. It is particularly significant that virtually all of the basic
seed stock of potatoes is imported. This situation can and will change
as arrangements are made to produce seed potatoes in the country. There
is no biological reason why Brazil should continue to import seed potatoes.

5. Improved seeds are widely recognized as a highly important
production input. Private and public sector producers of good seed have
not had marketing problems. In the South and Southeast, the private
sector, particularly agricultural cooperatives which are heavy consumers,
represents the main component of the Brazilian market for basic seed.
In the Central West, the influence of the private sector is restricted
to crops grown on a larger scale such as rice, maize and soybeans. In
the North and Northeast, the public sector is the main buyer of basic
seed and promotes the use of high quality seed.


B. The Role of SPSB


6. EMBRAPA has established the Service for Production of Basic
Seeds (SPSB) with the objective of making available to seed producers
basic seed of new varieties of crops having priority in agricultural
development.

7. The main responsibilities of the SPSB are to:

promote the maintenance, multiplication and distribution of
basic seed;

provide financial and technical support for the multipli-
cation of promising genetic materials in advanced stages of
evaluation;

stimulate the establishment of adequate procedures for the
development of new varieties;

stimulate improved seed production from additional species
that are economically important;

collaborate with state, federal and private institutions in
the production of improved seed for delivery to farmers in
areas where private institutions are not in a position to
assume this responsibility; and

promote, support and stimulate training programs for tech-
nicians and seed producers.

8. SPSB is headquartered in Brasilia and has regional centers in
the South, Central and North/Northeast regions. Basic seed is produced
and processed at 10 dispersed units. SPSB has technical personnel







ANNEX 15
Page 3



specialized in seed production, and its modern facilities have a capacity
to store 10,900 tons and process 9,000 tons. The local branches of SPSB
in charge of managing production are strategically distributed throughout
Brazil.

9. SPSB produces part of its seed, arranging for the rest through
cooperative contracts which stipulate SPSB's right to inspect the field
in an effort to maintain high quality standards necessary to basic seed
production. During the 1977/78 and 1978/79 harvest, SPSB produced and
marketed 4,500 and 6,000 tons of basic seed, respectively. It is esti-
mated that during the 1979/80 harvest, about 10,000 tons of basic seed
will be produced. SPSB is the single largest producer of basic seed in
the country.

10. In consonance with national agricultural policy, SPSB plans to
continue to expand production of basic seed in response to needs not met
by other sources. In particular, attention will be given to the needs
of rapidly developing areas and to the regions that have thus far received
relatively little attention. Supply for the North and Northeast regions
will be expanded on a priority basis. In the more highly developed
agricultural areas, the primary emphasis will be on the improvement of
the quality of basic seeds, rather than on volume.


II. PROPOSED SPSB PROGRAM


A. General Description


Objectives

11. Under the proposed program particular attention will be directed
to the following specific objectives:

emphasis on seed supply and projection of the needs of the
North and Northeast regions;

increase in production and distribution of basic seed
especially in the regions in accelerated agricultural
development;

increase in the number of crops of economic interest in the
seed production program;

establishment of necessary conditions for the development of
improved seed industry in regions considered to be nuclei of
crop and livestock development;
I







ANNEX 15
Page 4



production of seed in irrigated areas of the Northeast where
climatic conditions are favorable;

production and storage of pre-basic seeds for utilization in
basic seed production; and

promotion, support and encouragement for the training of
technicians and seed producers.

Requirements

12. In order to achieve the program objectives, the following will
be required:

establishment of 3 new production units--2 for the Northeast
and 1 for the Central West;

expansion of the seed storage capacity in existing produc-
tion units;

establishment of irrigation systems for seed production in 2
of the seed production units;

increase in the number of technical and administrative
personnel; and

technical and administrative training for personnel partici-
pating in the program.


B. Detailed Description of the Program


Strategy and Programs

13. In order to give greater attention to the North and Northeast
regions, SPSB will establish new production and processing units at
Rondonopolis (MT), Imperatriz (MA), and Juazeiro/Petrolina in the San
Franciso River Valley. Distribution and marketing will be coordinated
by the regional management offices located in Florianopolis (South
region), Campinas (Central West) and Recife (North-Northeast).

14. Some units have land for actual production of basic seed,
while others arrange for production through cooperators, both in the
public and private sectors. SPSB works in harmony with EMBRAPA commodity-
oriented research centers in order to be prepared to produce basic seed
of promising new varieties.

15. The following data indicate that earlier seed production goals
may be increased by about 9% through this proposed program. Around 41%







ANNEX 15
Page 5



of this increase is expected for the North and Northeast. The data are
for basic seed production goals for the period 1981-1985 for cotton,
rice, potatoes, onions, beans, maize, soybeans, sorghum, cowpeas, and
wheat. The noted increases are expected to be accomplished through this
program. Quantities are in tons.



Description South Region Total
Central North/NE

Former Projection 55,321 39,741 15,049 106,111
Increase -- 3,600 6,150 9,750
Increase (%) 0.0 9.0 41.0 9.0

Source: SPSB


16. The present seed storage capacity of 10,680 tons will be
increased by 4,700 tons. The new program will provide medium-term,
controlled humidity storage facilities with a capacity of 600 tons. The
new program will also permit the establishment of a processing unit
urgently needed in the Northeast to produce of high quality cotton seed.

Administration

17. SPSB, as an integral unit of EMBRAPA, will be under the overall
administrative control of the organization. Yearly programming is
included in EMBRAPA's PRONAPA. The direct responsibility for the National
Seed Program lies with the director of SPSB in Brasilia. Coordination
of all regional and field units of SPSB is a function of SPSB headquarters.


C. Staffing


18. SPSB has about 205 staff of which 23 are senior and junior
seed technologists, 111 are in technical support services, and 71 are in
administrative support services. There is a general manager, production
manager, sales manager and planning coordinator at headquarters in
Brasilia. About 10 of the senior-junior technical staff are at headquarters,
with the rest in the regional and production units. Personnel information
is summarized in Tables 2 and 5.


D. Technical Assistance Requirements


Staff Training

19. In order to increase staff qualifications, it is planned that
20 members of SPSB work toward advanced degrees during the 5-year program.








ANNEX 15
Page 6



Further, there are provisions for short-term training. Tabular information
is given in Table 3.

Consultant Services

20. Consultants, on a short-term basis, will be needed in a number
of areas within the field of seed technology. A total of 2 man-years is
projected. Further information is found in Table 3.


E. Research Station Facilities


Existing

21. Facilities for basic seed production and storage are adequate
for a capacity of 10,600 tons. Six of the 9 sites selected for improvement
under this project have storage facilities inadequate to accommodate the
projected needs of those areas. The 3 remaining sites, Imperatriz,
Petrolina and Rondonopolis have little, if any, processing and storage
capability at present and will need complete development under this
project.

Required

22. About 1,000 sq m of medium-term storage facilities with tempera-
ture/humidity controlled conditions are being proposed for Passo Fundo,
Dourados, and Ponta Grossa. Cotton seed processing and storage is
proposed for Barbalha with facilities totaling 3,000 sq m. With the
exception of Rondonopolis, the remaining selected sites would have
processing and storage facilities of 1,400 sq m each. Rondonopolis is
proposed to have 4,200 sq m to accommodate seed processing storage plus
offices, sheds, machinery storage facilities and a restaurant.


F. Cost Estimates


23. The estimated overall incremental cost of the proposed 5-year
program is US$8.30 million. Details are provided in Table 4.


G. Potential Risks and Benefits


24. No major risks are seen in the projected basic seeds program.
There will be increasing need for improved seed, and SPSB must take the
leadership in pioneering production in heretofore neglected regions, and
in crops that have received little attention.








ANNEX 15
Page 7



25. SPSB should stimulate and encourage production by other agen-
cies, both in the public and private sectors. It will not succumb to
the temptation to discourage competition. There is ample work for all.









BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR BASIC SEED

Institutional Participation


Location


Role Designated Within
the Project


1. Funded by the Project


Brasilia DF
Imperatriz MA
Petrolina PE
Rondonopolis MT
Brasilia DF
P. Fundo RS
Dourados MG
P. Grossa PR
S. Lagoas MG
Barbalha CE


Coordination/Implementation
Seed Production
Seed Production
Seed Production
Pre-Basic Seed Production
Seed Production
Seed Production
Seed Production
Seed Production
Seed Production


2. Not Funded by the Project


Pelotas RS
Canoinhas SC
Goiania GO


Seed
Seed
Seed


Production
Production
Production


3. Collaborating Institutions


MaranhEo
Pernambuco
Bahia
Rio Grande do Norte
Para
Ceara
Cearg&


Production
Production
Production
Production
Production
Production
Production


Agreement
Agreement
Agreement
Agreement
Agreement
Agreement
Agreement


ANNEX 15
TABLE 1
PAGE 1


Name


SPSB
Local
Local
Local
Local
Local
Local
Local
Local
Local


Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit


Local
Local
Local


Unit
Unit
Unit


EMAPA
IPA
EPABA
EMPARN
EMEPA
CCA/UFC
EPACE





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS

RESEARCH PROGRAM BASIC SEED

RESEARCH STATION SPSB BRASILIA


Pre-Project
Estimates


PY-1


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


PY-5


Total Staff at
Full Development


A. Personnel
Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)
Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff
Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
1/
Salaries-l
Other Operational Costs-/
Total Operating Cost


8
15
111

71


956.0
2012.6
2968.6


111.0
277.5
388.5


Incremental
326.5
816.3
1142.8


Operating
405.0
1012.5
1417.5


Costs
731.5
1828.8
2560.3


797.5
1993.8
2791.3


Total Incremental
2371.5
5928.9
8300.4


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13 month salary (bonus)
Other incremental operations costs for this program are estimated to be 2.5 times incremental salaries


NN




BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS


PROGRAM BASIC SEED

STATION SPSB BRASILIA


Man-Years
1. Consultants Long-term


Short-term


Basic Seed Production
Seed Quality Control
Programming Statistics
Storage Tropical
Forage Seed
Vegetable Seed
Potato Seed
Onion Seed











Subtotal
Cost US $-
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs


2. Fellowships

A. Long-term Fellowships
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs):
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term
B. Short-term Fellowships

Total Fellowships


No. of
Participants

6
2

12
20


Man Years
12
4

48
66


Unit Cost
(US$ 000/my)
5.5
13.0
5.5
13.0


TOTAL COST
66.0
52.0

624.0
742.0


7.0 63.,


Total Technical Assistance Costs


1/ US $80,000 per man year


965.0


ANNEX 15
TABLE 3
PAGE 1


0,25
Q.25
Q.25
0.25
0.25
Q.25
0,25
Q.25


2.00.


16--l
16Q. O


16a,.




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROGRAM BASE COST SUMMARY (US$ 000)

PROGRAM BASIC SEED


LOCATION


I. Development Cost -
1. Civil Works
2. Vehicles & Farm Equipment
3. Office & Laboratory Equip T.
4. Library & Document Serv. -
5. Research Farm Developments
6. Land Purchase
Subtotal I

3/
II. Technical Assistance Cost -
1. Consultants
a) Long-term
b) Short-term
2. Fellowships
a) Long-term
b) Short-term
Subtotal II


SPSB

BRASILIA
3485.0
296.0
1600.0
83.0
1092.0


6556.0


160.0


742.0
63.0
965.0


III. Incremental Operational Cost -/
1. Salaries & Wages 2371.5
2. Other Operational Cost 5928.9
Subtotal III 8300.4

IV. Total Program Base Cost 15821.4



1/ From civil works annex
2/ 1% of incremental operational cost
3/ From individual program annexes


TOTAL


Ne
H -5




ANNEX 15
TABLE 5

BRAZIL PAGE 1

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN

PROGRAM BASIC SEED

STATION SPSB/Brasilia/Units


CATEGORY PREPROJECT INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT


I. Research Staff Sr. Jr. Total Sr. Jr. Total Sr. Jr. Total

1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist 8 15 23 15 12 27 23 27 50
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

I. Subtotal Scientific/Research 8 15 23 15 12 27 23 27 50
Staff
I. Research Support Staff 111 46 156

V. Total Research Staff (II&III) 134 73 207

V. Administrative and Technical 71 31 102
Support Staff


Total Staffing at Station


104 3Q9
iwmw


205







ANNEX 16
Page 1



BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM IN AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

I. INTRODUCTION


A. Importance of Mechanization to Agriculture


General Characteristics

1. Agricultural mechanization may greatly affect agricultural
productivity. Further, the level of mechanization, as measured by the
availability of tractors, cultivators, harvesters or even animal trac-
tion, can affect labor productivity in rural areas. An increase in
mechanization can lead to a more intensive use of the land and tends to
increase energy consumption. Unduly reduced efficiency of the farming
system in terms of energy can result when selection, application and
intensification of mechanization are improperly dimensioned. However,
mechanization can increase the efficiency of the rural worker and of
that sector as a whole. Thus, in addition to breeding, agronomy and
plant protection, integration of agricultural mechanization should be
considered in the development of improved farming systems.

2. In recent years, the cultivated area in Brazil has increased
at the rate of 3.8% per year. This represents about 1.6 million ha of
new land per year. In 1975 there was a total of 38.7 million ha of
cropland, of which 30.5 million ha were in annual crops. Such a dramatic
expansion would not be possible without mechanization. The population
growth rate is now about 2.8% per year, which means an actual per caput
increase of new land of about 1% per year.

3. The rural population of the country has been reduced consider-
ably. In 1950 it represented about 66% of the total population in 1960,
53%, and in 1970, 44%. The estimate for 1980 is about 38%. This has
important implications for availability of labor for agriculture and
underlines the growing need to give greater attention to appropriate
mechanization of agricultural production and processing operations.
While doing this, however, energy implications, particularly in relation
to the need for greater reliance on energy from biomass, must receive
attention.

Tractors and Implements

4. In 1960 Brazil had about 65,000 tractors. In the same year,
Brazil produced 37 four-wheel tractors, and up to 1966 had produced a
total of 48,910 units: 17,837 small units (up to 35 HP), 21,001 medium







ANNEX 16
Page 2



units (from 35 to 55-HP), and 9,277 heavy units (more than 55 HP).
According to ANFAVEA--Associacao Nacional de Fabricantes de Veiculos
Automotores (National Association of Automotive Vehicle Makers)--the
accumulated tractor production up to September 1978 was distributed as
follows: 13,191 light (30 HP average), 106,928 medium (45 HP average),
305,962 heavy (75 HP average), plus 45,575 walking tractors (9 HP), and
16,283 small tractors (18 HP). Current manufacturers include Massey
Ferguson, Ford, Valmet, Agrale, Yamar, Tobatta, St. Matilde, Case,
Malves and Caterpillar.

5. Assuming average tractor use of 600 hours per year, a serviceable
life of 6,000 hours, which includes a complete overhaul of the motor, it
is obsolescent and has to be replaced after 10 years. On this basis,
the tractors produced before 1966, including the imported ones, are
inoperative. The approximate number of active tractors in the country
is then around: 20,000 light (30 HP average), 110,000 medium (45 HP
average) and 310,000 heavy (75 HP average), besides the walking and
small tractors--45,575 and 16,283 units, respectively. A significant
number of heavy-duty tractors are used in highway construction, although
it is not possible to make an accurate estimate--100,000 units seem
reasonable.

6. On the basis of the above, agriculture in the country is
supported with tractor power as follows: 28.05 million HP by 4-wheeled
tractors, and 0.41 million HP by small and walking tractors--a total of
28.46 million HP for the total of 491,860 tractors serving agriculture
at the end of 1978. The are used for about 40 million ha of annual
crops and some 49 million ha of perennial crops. This means available
tractor power of about 0.60 HP/ha in 4-wheeled tractors, small and
walking tractors. At present there are about 44,000 self-propelled
combines, averaging 90 HP per unit, which amounts to a total of 3.96
million HP.

7. Tractor production capacity of the Brazilian industry is
presently around 100,000 units per year. Notwithstanding, economic
factors associated with rural credit have resulted in a reduction in
demand, so actual production is only about 50% of capacity. Thus a
capability exists to rapidly double production if the demand calls for
it.

Draft Animals

The available power represented by draft animals is unknown as
there is no census on animals used for this purpose. However, if we
assume that 1.5 million animals are used as draft for agricultural
purposes, with an average power of 0.6 HP (0.53 to 0.80 HP for the
bullock, 0.40 to 0.60 for the horse), we will have about 0.9 million HP
available. This represents a small part in the total draft power avail-
able in agriculture.







ANNEX 16
Page 3



Potentialities of and Restrictions to Mechanization

9. Agricultural mechanization in a wide sense implies the intro-
duction of machines to better utilize the potential of manual labor, of
animal power and of the mechanical power of whatever source available to
agriculture.

10. In the developed countries, traditionally mechanization has
been considered as a way to increase the productivity of the farm worker,
or to minimize the utilization of manual labor in agriculture. Unfortu-
nately, this stereotyped concept of mechanization has created the erro-
neous impression that any kind of mechanization leads to a massive
underemployment and thus is harmful to developing countries.

11. Although mechanization does displace labor, the displacement
is highly dependent upon the type and level of mechanization introduced.
The vital point is not whether or not to mechanize agriculture, but to
adapt the mechanization so that it increases production of food and, at
the same time, contributes positively to socio-economic balances.

12. Mechanization to increase labor productivity is reasonably
well understood, however its impact on the productivity of the land is
not explicit, since the mere substitution of mechanical power (tractors,
etc.) for manual labor or animal power does not necessarily increase
crop yields. However, through studies carried out in various countries,
under different levels of mechanization, from the less industrialized
ones to the more industrially advanced, a correlation was observed
between the power used per unit area and crop yields. It is estimated
that a minimum of 0.5 to 0.8 HP/ha is essential for an average yield of
2.5 t/ha, in the majority of the developing countries. On the other
hand, a substantial increase of power is needed to increase yields above
2.5 t/ha.

13. Considering the continental size of Brazil and its location,
there are great variations in the climatologic conditions, ranging from
equatorial climate to temperate, with the occurrence of semi-arid tropi-
cal climate in the "quadrilateral of drouths." Despite such wide varia-
tions, large rivers abound. The altitude variations are reflected in a
central plateau and several mountain ranges and peaks, which account for
regional micro-climates, enabling production of certain crops throughout
the country. For example, coffee is produced from Parana to Roraima and
to Ceara.

14. Except for the far south region, and high altitudes of the
southeast during winter time, Brazil offers favorable conditions for
perennial crops. Double-cropping (on an annual basis) is possible in
nearly all Brazil if rainfall is adequate, or if water is supplied by
irrigation.







ANNEX 16
Page 4



15. The similarity of the South region to other temperate climate
regions of the world permitted mechanization to take place easily, since
there is a direct transfer of technology for the common crops, mainly
rice, wheat, corn and soybeans.

16. Considering the rainfall conditions, temperature, relative
humidity, solar radiation and soil conditions, such as texture fertility,
relief, etc., there are striking similarities among large agricultural
regions of Brazil, which have important implications for mechanization.


B. Present State of Research


17. The primary sector of the national economy (agriculture,
mining and forestry) has been in the forefront since the beginning of
the colonization period. Even today agriculture continues to be respon-
sible for more than half of the foreign exchange earnings from export
commodities. However, its development has not been accompanied by the
technological development of other countries of the same importance and
potential.

18. The agricultural implement industries, with about 2,000 manu-
facturers, produce an average of four implements per tractor sold.
Likewise, the implement industries suffer the effects of farm credit
constraints, resulting in a limitation in production. The situation is
aggravated with the agricultural implement makers since the industries,
in general, do not have technical personnel trained for the research and
development of more efficient and more durable implements for use under
actual field conditions. The farmer, who uses the tractor and implements,
is the real field-level researcher. The risks and the costs have been
high since the failures have been numerous.

19. The poor selection of an implement, such as a plow or a harrow,
can lead to a 50% higher fuel cost per unit area cultivated. The fuel
consumption and production costs can be reduced by a simple matched
tractor/implement selection. Yet little information is available to
guide the user.

20. For the development of new machines for tropical crops, as
cassava, the difficulties are even greater. For example, there are
inadequately trained technical personnel to design, develop and test a
machine to harvest cassava roots. On the other hand, this is a priority
crop, within a priority program--PROALCOOL.

21. Standardization, terminology, testing methodology, etc., are
almost non-existent in the tractor and implement sector. With the
institutionalization of some norms and patterns in the sector, it would
be possible to improve the quality of the products, and concurrently
reduce manufacturing and maintenance costs.







ANNEX 16
Page 5



22. In the past, schools of agriculture and agricultural research
institutes were created which dealt in crop management, animal health
and plant protection. On the other hand, agricultural engineering
received little attention, partly because of the rigidity of the academic
requirements and professional status of the "engenheiros agronomos," who
had little, if any, training in engineering per se. The basic engi-
neering skills received little attention within university curricula,
which emphasized the biological sciences.

23. Many years were involved in developing a program for agricultural
engineering along the lines of courses in the United States, Canada,
England, France, etc. In 1974 the Federal Council of Education approved
a new curriculum and in 1978 the Federal Council of Engineering, Architecture
and Agronomy, through Resolution No. 256/78, specified the academic
requirements for the new professional agricultural engineers. The first
agricultural engineers were graduated in 1978 from the Federal University
of Pelotas, RS. Other universities which are about to graduate their
first agricultural engineers are UNICAMP and the Federal University of
Santa Mari, RS. The University of Vicosa has a masters program in grain
drying.

24. In principle, many of EMBRAPA's research units have work in
one or more agricultural engineering areas. Examples are work at the
National Maize and Sorghum Center on grain damages and losses in mechanical
harvest, on sorghum planters, on development of a maize/bean combine,
and on an alcohol powered micro-cultivator.

25. Another dramatic piece of EMBRAPA research is the work at the
National Soybean Research Center. Soybean production has increased
rapidly in recent years, but harvest losses became excessive, rising
from an acceptable 8% to as much as 25%. Work by that center developed
harvest techniques and recommendations that reduce losses to within
acceptable bounds, thus conserving millions of dollars in foreign exchange.

26. Developments at EMBRAPA's Center for Research of the "Cerrados"
(Savannahs) include a prototype ditcher which should speed up the building
of irrigation and drainage canals.

27. EMBRAPA's Center for Research of the Semi-Arid Tropics North-
east (Petrolina) is conducting some work with animal traction, as is the
Center for Cotton Research in the Northeast (Campinas Grande) and the
Center for Research of the Humid Tropics (Belem). The latter is looking
into utilization of buffalo for traction.

28. But these efforts are small in terms of the overall enormity
of the Brazilian mechanization challenge, and unfortunately even though
some state organizations and universities have small on-going programs,
their contributions toward meeting the challenge have been minimal with
perhaps the exceptions of Vicosa in grain drying and ITAL, UNICAMP,
Institute Agronomico de Campinas, Santa Matia, Pelotas, and Universidade
Federal do Paraiba in other areas.







ANNEX 16
Page 6



29. Brazilian industry is capable, when challenged, to develop new
machinery directly applicable to national and regional needs. Excellent
examples are: mechanical coffee harvesters by Jacto and FMC, sugarcane
harvesters by SANTAL and TOFT, alcohol tractors by Ford, alcohol engines
by Montgomery Onan, and improved planters (this time in cooperation with
EMBRAPA) by FMC and JUMIL. The proposed program will entail a close
alliance between EMBRAPA and Brazilian industry for the hardware components.

30. Taking into account the regional needs, existing EMBRAPA
research centers should provide the most suitable infrastructure for
research and development of the agricultural engineering research, in
the areas of their responsibility.

31. The establishment of regional priorities in the agricultural
engineering program will be based on the analysis of a number of consid-
erations. During the initial phase of program development, coordination
will be under EMBRAPA, Brasilia, while program implementation will be
under the centers (CNPAF, CNPMS, CPAC, CPATSA, CNPA and CPATU).


II. PROPOSED RESEARCH PROGRAM


A. General Description


32. Brazilian agriculture has experienced a growth in mechaniza-
tion, using machines and equipment more and more sophisticated and
dependent on petroleum products. This presents a serious problem because
of the scarcity and price of petroleum based fuels. Essentially, three
alternatives can be simultaneously applied to alleviate this problem:

utilization of other sources of energy (synthetic gas,
vegetable oils, charcoal, biogas, alcohol);

development and application of appropriate technology including
animal power and solar energy;

development of technology which allows greater efficiency in
the use of agricultural machines and equipment.

33. These alternatives constitute important objectives of the
proposed program. (Production of the alternate energy source will
receive major attention in the new research program on bioenergy.)

34. Another important objective is the mechanization of production
of the energy crops themselves, particularly sorghum and cassava.
Similarities during certain phases of the production cycle permit adapta-
tion of machinery originally designed for other crops, while others such
as planting, harvesting, and handling will require new developments in
machinery to perform adequately the required tasks.







ANNEX 16
Page 7



35. Gradually, as centers add human and material resources to
their projects, sub-projects or activities in the various areas of
research and development in mechanization, and incorporate necessary
funds in their budgets, the execution and coordination of the execution
will become their responsibilities. An advisory group will be responsi-
ble for overall program coordination and technical support.

Program Objectives

36. The basic orientation of the mechanization program will be to
rationalize the use of fuels through: the proper selection of tractor/
implement combinations; development and utilization of implements which
require less power for operation; proper adjustment and handling of
machines and implements; and, finally, by the development of improved
multi-purpose, low cost, motorized and animal-drawn equipment.

37. In Brazil, there is little effort in research to guide indus-
try in the manufacturing of machines and equipment suitable for the
various agricultural tasks in the different regions, and to guide the
farmer in more efficient use of these machines. Substantial improvement
can be made, particularly in land clearing and seedbed preparation.
Furthermore, a lot has to be done on machines and equipment for irriga-
tion and drainage, since irrigated agriculture is becoming more important.

38. Within this strategy, the general objectives of the program
are:

analyze the problems and needs of mechanization in agricul-
ture and set priorities for research;

design, build and evaluate manually-operated, animal-drawn
and tractorized equipment. (Attention will be given to
equipment to make better use of soil and water resources for
agriculture); and

acquire, test, and adapt local agricultural equipment and
machines to improve their efficiency and economics and
suggest modifications and improvements to the manufacturers.

Basic Requirements

39. Given regional needs, the respective centers should provide
the proper infrastructure for research and development in the selected
areas of agricultural mechanization.

40. CPATSA needs a mechanical workshop equipped with the basic
tools (dynamometer, electric lathe, electric saw, drilling machine,
grinding machine, hydraulic press, mechanical shearing machine, electric
polycart, electric plane and hydraulic winch). It is also necessary to
build a shed for the equipment, as well as to construct a corral for the
draft animals.







ANNEX 16
Page 8



41. CNPMS has a basic workshop for normal repair and maintenance
of the equipment of this center. To meet proposed program research it
is necessary to:

expand the workshop and garage, providing it a means for
development and modification of equipment;

obtain equipment, tools, furniture, tractors, motors,
implements, and vehicles; and

provide documentation and information services.

42. CPAF will need to develop an infrastructure for the research
and development for mechanization of rice production in the varzeas.
Further, a feasibility study is needed for the development of a proto-
type mechanical bean harvester.

43. CPATU needs to develop research involving draft animals (water
buffaloes) and mechanical traction for crop production in flooded areas.
Likewise, studies are needed on the mechanization of jute and malva
(from the planting to harvesting and the separation of fibers), as well
as for exploratory work in mechanized forest operations.

44. Just as for the other centers involved, CPATU needs, in addi-
tion to technical skilled personnel, basic infrastructure for the work
mentioned. This includes: expansion of the workshops (with basic
equipment), tractors, implements and motors, improvement of the existing
machines, and prototypes for specific farming operations.

45. Finally, CPAC, by virtue of the socio-economic importance of
the region, must be provided with infrastructure to enable it to carry
out work in agricultural mechanization, and CNPA will need a minimal
workshop facility to work with hand tools and low-powered appropriate
technology.


B. Detailed Description of the Program


Strategy and Research Programs

46. Application of the technical-scientific knowledge of engi-
neering sciences in agriculture constitutes the basic objective of
agricultural engineering. Within this matrix, specific areas emerge
that are now receiving attention and that are of broad interest. In the
present mechanization program and in the one proposed, the following
areas are of highest priority:

mechanization of production operations;
drying and storage;
irrigation and drainage; and
bioenergy.







ANNEX 16
Page 9



Mechanization of Production

47. The most common forms of agricultural mechanization deal with
the range of operations starting with land development and preparation,
and terminating with the harvest. Included are clearing operations,
plowing, disking, seeding, fertilizing, cultivating, insect pest and
disease control, and harvest. The major part of the agricultural mech-
anization research program will be concerned with these operations.

Drying and Storage

48. These are post-harvest operations important for success in
obtaining buffer stocks for the between-harvest periods, or for export.
Lack of attention to good post-harvest procedures has been responsible
for high losses of cereal grains, legume crops and horticulture crops.
It is also reflected in low quality of such agricultural commodities.

49. The proper processing and storage of grains, keeping them at
the right temperature, relative humidity, and providing proper ventila-
tion, allows for extension of the storage period of agricultural products,
including seeds, as well as preserving the quality.

50. In this area different forms of energy can be used: solar
energy, electricity, derivatives of petroleum and alcohol, crop residues,
wood and/or charcoal and biogas. Forced air movement can be accomplished
through use of natural air-convection, electric motors or internal
combustion engines.

51. Survey of reliable data on the local micrometeorologic condi-
tions is important in selecting sites for storage, which involves factors
that can minimize energy requirements in drying and storage of agricul-
tural products.

52. The principal role of agricultural engineering research in
drying and storage would be in the design, evaluation and adaptation of
equipment such as dryers. This work would be done in coordination with
scientists in the National Bioenergy Research Program since emphasis
will be directed to energy from biomass rather than from petroleum
derivatives. Further, there will be overlapping interests in the mecha-
nization and food technology research programs and measures will be
taken to assure appropriate coordination.

Irrigation and Drainage

53. Water management, in a general sense, covers irrigation and
drainage. It is important for the regions with deficient and/or irregular
rainfall cycles, as is the case in the Northeast and in the Amazonian
region, where double or triple cropping are desired. Water management
is important in the North, Norteast and Central-West regions, and in-
creasingly there is a need for higher levels of mechanization.








ANNEX 16
Page 10



54. Research in support of irrigation and drainage, in the context
of this program, is concerned primarily with power units and equipment
to pump water and to prepare land surfaces for irrigation and drainage
(e.g. leveling, construction of water channels). Again, it is important
for the agricultural mechanization program to work in close harmony with
the Bioenergy Research Program in view of the growing dependence of the
country on bioenergy as a substitute for petroleum.

Bioenergy

55. The separate EMBRAPA research program on bioenergy will be
concerned with production of biomass and its conversion to suitable
forms of energy such as alcohol and biogas. But this program will deal
with associated power units and equipment, particularly new harvest
equipment. Thus, the National Program for Research on Agricultural
Engineering will have an important collaborative role in bioenergy
research. It will be important for these two programs to work in concert
to ensure efficient utilizaton of personnel and facilities for the
solution of specific problems and to avoid unnecessary duplication.

Studies and Research

56. Within the strategy of action previously described, research
will be developed along the following lines:

land clearing techniques;

land shaping techniques and mechanical control of erosion;

development of machines and techniques for direct planting
of rice, soybeans, maize, sorghum and wheat;

development of more suitable implements for conventional
preparation of soil, and planting;

improvement of machines and techniques for transplanting,
cultivation and harvesting of rice in varzeas;

improvement of machines and techniques for the planting and
harvesting of vegetables;

improvement in techniques for application of plant protec-
tion chemicals;

generation of technology for mechanical harvesting of cassava;

mechanization of the harvesting and separation of the fibers
of malva and jute;







ANNEX 16
Page 11



machines and technology for harvesting edible beans;

machines and technology for the harvest of sweet sorghum and
high energy sorghum;

haying and silage technology;

development, evaluation of dryers and adaptation of crop;

development, evaluation and adaptation of water pumps and
equipment for irrigation and drainage channels; and

development of machines and techniques for gathering crops
and crop residues for use in bioenergy production.


C. Staffing


57. Incremental staff at the end of the 5-year period would com-
prise 19 scientists, 76 in technical support and 24 in administration
support personnel distributed among the major EMBRAPA centers, CPATU,
CPAC, CPATSA, CNPMS, CNPA and CNPAF. A small coordinating cell will be
established within DTC at EMBRAPA headquarters. Further information on
staffing is given in Tables 2 and 5.


D. Technical Assistance Requirements


Staff Training

58. Long-term training is proposed for 14 scientists, primarily in
the field of agricultural engineering. Of these, five would work toward
M.S. degrees and the remaining three for the degree of Ph.D. Short-term
training is planned for 23 persons. Further information is provided in
Table 3.

Consultant Services

59. Being a new research area in EMBRAPA, the mechanization program
is short on trained staff. In order to move ahead expeditiously, it
will be necessary to use outside experts in the program during the
project period. Ten man-years of long-term consultants are projected.
The areas of mechanization of crop production operation, irrigation
drainage, and crop drying would be covered. The total need (long-term
plus short-term) at 19 man-years. Further information is provided in
Table 3.








ANNEX 16
Page 12



E. Research Station Facilities


60. The basic research station infrastructure is in place at the
centers participating directly in the mechanization program. Only
modest additional workshop and equipment storage space is required.
Some workshop and field equipment will be needed at CNPAF, CNPMS, CNPA,
CPATSU and CPAC. Further information is provided in Table 4.


F. Program Costs


61. The estimated cost of this program over a 5-year period is
US$6.50 million. Additional information is given in Table 4.


G. Potential Risks and Benefits


62. The success of the program will depend, in considerable mea-
sure, on the relationship between the research staff and manufacturers
of tractors, other power units, implements and equipment. The National
Program for Research on Agricultural Engineering can catalyze manufacturers
to develop, test and adapt items needed by farmers.

63. Agricultural engineering is still a rather new specialization
in the country, and well-trained and experienced scientists in this
field are scarce. Early phases of research may be hampered by lack of
seed scientists, although this can be mitigated by judicious use of
consultants. It may be difficult to retain staff following advanced
training because of competition from private industry.





ANNEX 16
TABLE 1
PAGE 1


BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING


Institutional Participation


Location


Role Designated Within
the Project


1. Funded by the Project


Departamento Tecnico
Cientifico (DTC)


CPATU
CPAC
CPATSA
CNPMS
CNPA
CNPAF


CNP Trigo
CNP Soja


Brasilia (DF)

Belem (PA)
Planaltina (DF)
Petrolina (PE)
Sete Lagoas (MG)
Campina Grande


2. Not Funded by the Project

Passo Fundo (RS)
Londrina (PR)

3. Collaborating Institutions


Coordination

Implementation
Implementation
Implementation
Implementation
Implementation


Cooperation
Cooperation


Associacao Nacional dos
Fabricantes de Vehiculos
Automotores
Centro Nacional de Engenharia
Agricola (CENEA)
Universidade de Campinas
UNICAMPP)
Universidade Federal de
Vicosa (UFV)
Universidade Federal Rural do
Rio de Janeiro
Universidade de Brasilia (UNB)


Faculdade de Agronomia
Eliseu Maciel
Escola de Engenharia de
S. Carlos
Escola Superior de Agronomia
Luiz de Queiroz (USP)
Associacao Brasileira da Industria
de Maquinas e Equipamentor
Institute de Desenvolvimento
Industrial de Minas Gerais


Sao Paulo (SP)


Sorocaba (SP)


Campinas (SP)

Vicosa (MG)

Km 47 RJ
Brasilia (DF)


?elotas (RS)

Sao Carlos (SP)

Piracicaba (SP)


Sao Paulo (SP)


3elo Horizonte (MG)


Name





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS


RESEARCH PROGRAM AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

RESEARCH STATION ALL STATIONS


Pre-Project!l
Estimates


PY-1


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


PY-5


Total Staff at
Full Development


A. Personnel
Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)

Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff
Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
1/
:Salaries-
Other Operational Costs2/
Total Operating Cost


118.0
35.4
153.4


Incremental

344.0
103.2
447.2


Operating
442.0
176.8
618.8


Costs

633.0
253.2
886.2


696.0
278.4
974.4


Total Incremental

2233.0
847.0
3080.0


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13 month salary (bonus)
Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of salaries for the first two years and 40%
Preproject staff included as part of regular station staffing


thereafter


M t_1 M
W X
0-





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS

PROGRAM AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

STATION ALL.STATIONS


Man-Years
1. Consultants Long-term


Short-term


Agricultural Engineers

Agricultural Engineers

Others


Subtotal
1/
Cost US $-
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs

2. Fellowships
N,
A. Long-term Fellowships Part
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs),
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term
B. Short-term Fellowships

Total Fellowships

Total Technical Assistance Costs


800.0
320.0
1120.0


o. of Unit Cost
icipants Man Years (US$ 000/my)
2 4 5.5
10 20 13.0
5.5
2 8 13.0
14 32
8 4 7.0


TOTAL COST
22.0
260.0

104.0
386.0
28.0

414.0

1534.0


1/ US $80,000 per man year


ANNEX 16
TABLE 3
PAGE 1






AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROGRAM BASE COST SUMMARY (US$ 000)

PROGRAM AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING


LOCATION


I. Development Cost /
1. Civil Works
2. Vehicles & Farm Equipment
3. Office & Laboratory Equip .
&. Library & Document Serv. -
5. Research Farm Developments
6. Land Purchase
Subtotal I

3/
II. Technical Assistance Cost /
1. Consultants
a) Long-term
b) Short-term
2. Fellowships
a) Long-term
b) Short-term
Subtotal II

3/
III. Incremental Operational Cost -
1. Salaries & Wages
2. Other Operational Cost
Subtotal III

IV. Total Program Base Cost


From civil works annex
6% of incremental operational cost
From individual program annexes


ALL

LOCATIONS
321.0
910.0
465.0
185.0


1881.0


800.0
320.0


386.0
28.0
1534.0


2233.0
847.0
3080.0

6495.0


> E
r-i L-'
M4S


TOTAL




ANNEX 16
TABLE 5
PAGE 1


BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

STATION TOTAL ALL STATIONS


CATEGORY PREPROJECT- INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT
I 1


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economist/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff
Research Support Staff -


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


- r t 'i- -


7










8


- I I IminI I.m.in. & &


76

95

24


119


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff

2/ .25 times (IV)

3/ Preproject agricultural engineering staff presently accounted for
under individual station staffing








BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

STATION CNPMS SETE LAGOAS


PREPROJECT 3/


INCREMENTAL


FULL DEVELOPMENT


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff 1 -


Research Support Staff -

Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


I F I


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


rn I'- uinm I. mu -


2











2


1









3











4


16

20

5


25


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff

2/ .25 times (IV)

3/ Preproject agricultural engineering staff presently accounted for
under Sete Lagoas preproject staff


ANNEX 16
TABLE 5
PAGE 2


E


CATEGORY







ANNEX 16
TABLE 5
PAGE 3


BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

STATION CPATU BELEM


CATEGORY PREPROJECT / INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT
II


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff
Research Support Staff 1/


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


- yin, I ~ m ~ Em. -


- bmi mi I. mimi mA &m &


12

15

4


19


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff

2/ .25 times (IV)

3/ Preproject agricultural engineering staff presently accounted for under
Belem preproject staff








BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

STATION CPAC PLANALTINA


PREPROJECT -/


INCREMENTAL


FULL DEVELOPMENT


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff
Research Support Staff -


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


1 1 FI


Sr. Jr.


Total


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


- ~ F -~ Y ~ -~ -


2 2 4











2 3 5
- I I -I


20

25

6



31


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff

2/ .25 times (IV)

3/ Preproject agricultural engineering staff presently accounted for under
Planaltina preproject staff


ANNEX 16
TABLE 5
PAGE 4


I _


CATEGORY








BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

STATION CNPAF GOIANIA


PREPROJECT 1/


INCREMENTAL


FULL DEVELOPMENT


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.


I I,


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


- T I I I' -


Subtotal Scientific/Research 2 3
Staff


Research Support Staff -

Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


Sr. Jr. Total


12

15

4


19


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff

2/ .25 times (IV)

3/ Preproject agricultural engineering staff presently accounted for under
Goiania preproject staff


ANNEX 16
TABLE 5
PAGE 5


E


CATEGORY




ANNEX 16
TABLE 5
PAGE 6


BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

STATION CPATSA PETROLINA


CATEGORY PREPROJECT / INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT
I II I


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff
Research Support Staff -


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


- p* I I


- U U b i ~ i i i


8

10

2


12


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff

2/ .25 times (IV)

3/ Preproject agricultural engineering staff presently accounted for under
Petrolina preproject staff








BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

STATION CNPA CAMPINA GRANDE


CATEGORY


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff
Research Support Staff /


PREPROJECT 3/


T


Sr. Jr. Total


INCREMENTAL


Sr. Jr.


FULL DEVELOPMENT


Total


Sr. Jr. Total


- r I r -. q


-. I ~ I I A & J IL -


8


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


2

12


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff

2/ .25 times (IV)

3/ Preproject agricultural engineering staff presently accounted for under
Campina Grande preproject staff


ANNEX 16
TABLE 5
PAGE 7


E







ANNEX 17
Page 1



BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR FOOD TECHNOLOGY

I. INTRODUCTION


A. Importance of Food Technology in Brazil


General

1. Food technology (the application of basic sciences and engi-
neering to the post harvest handling and storage, preparation, processing
and utilization of foods) is increasingly recognized as an important
component in agricultural and national development. A coordinated
effort in processing and utilization must accompany commodity production
and marketing schemes. Otherwise, raw products are apt to lack storage
durability, organoleptic and nutritional quality or be produced in
quantities exceeding fresh market demands. The result may be substan-
tial post harvest losses or depressed prices to the producer. Balance
between production, processing and utilization research can lead to
nutritious, economical, stable food products based upon indigenous food
resources, greater local self-sufficiency in fresh and processed foods,
and eventually to viable regional, national and export markets. Thus,
food technology is an essential development tool with demonstrable
benefits to the farmer, food processor and consumer.

2. The successful agricultural development of Brazil illustrates
this point. As a result of the coordinated development of agroindustry
over the last several decades, Southern and Southeast Brazil now have
dynamic food processing industries which are well reflected in these
regions' food supply and internationally competitive exports (citrus,
soy products, coffee, cacao, canned foods, etc.). The following data
indicate the importance of processed foods in Brazil's economy.







ANNEX 17
Page 2


Region Processing Plants Personnel Production Value Production Value
(No.) (No.) (Cr$1,000) (%)


North 385 11,594 1,169,493 1.3
Northeast 2,273 53,336 8,726,213 9.7
Center West 636 7,420 1,889,180 2

Subtotal 3,294 72,350 11,784,886 13

Southeast 11,194 280,594 58,204,741 65
South 4,778 110,846 19,971,333 22

Subtotal 15,972 391,440 78,176,074 87

Total
Brazil 19,266 463,790 89,960,960 100


Source: IBGE and SUPLAN/MA--1979
Operations with 5 or more employees and/or sales exceeding Cr$240,000


3. Despite these impressive advances, many challenges face the
industry. Food processing is resource intensive (energy, water, fiber,
petrochemicals, minerals) and strict conservation measures, combined
with development of energy-efficient processes which also reduce other
expensive inputs, are essential tactics. Food costs must be reduced and
the line held on food-generated inflation. Furthermore, the North,
Northeast and Central West, less developed regions (LDRs) of Brazil,
have not benefited fully from the impressive food industry growth of the
South and Southeast and are to some extent overly dependent upon the
developed regions for processed foods. The attendant problems of food
availability, cost and quality are thus more severe in regions which can
least afford it. Energy scarcities, population growth/migration and
inflation will further aggravate the situation, unless effective counter-
measures are taken.

4. This proposal is designed to support the development of food
processing and utilization industries in the LDRs by: (a) strengthening
EMBRAPA's food technology research and extension capabilities; (b)
coordinating the activities of all institutions in Brazil involved in or
interfacing with food technology; and (c) integrating institutional
research with the needs of the local food industry through an aggressive
extension program.







ANNEX 17
Page 3



B. Present Status of Research


5. In Brazil research on food processing and technology started
in the late 19th century with the establishment of a laboratory for food
analysis in the state of Sao Paulo. Traditionally, Brazil has exported
raw materials and, in those days, little attention was paid to food
technology because foodstuffs were either consumed fresh or imported as
processed goods. With the exception of food analysis, no other studies
were conducted on processing and conservation of raw materials for
domestic consumption or for export. Food processing was limited to
home-made products (cottage industry), such as tropical fruit preserves.

6. With the growth of food processing industries, several univer-
sities began research on food technology, but only in 1960 were technical
research institutions formally established. The tropical fruit research
program was the initial activity of the then Centro Tropical de Pesquisas
e Technologia de Alimentos (Tropical Center for Food Research and Technology),
today known as the Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (Institute for
Foods Technology), ITAL, in Campinas. The many research accomplishments
of the Institute have led to international recognition. In addition to
being staffed by a distinguished group of professionals, the Faculdade
de Engenharia de Alimentos e Agricola (School of Food and Agricultural
Engineering) of the State University of Campinas, originally located at
ITAL, is one of the best equipped and staffed schools in Brazil.

7. Various state governments established research and development
foundations with important food research units. Some of these units
have evolved into autonomous institutions such as the Centro de Pesquisas
de Desenvolvimento, CEPED (Center for Research and Development), in
Bahia, the Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, CETEC (Technology Center
of Minas Gerais), and the Fundacao de Ciencia e Tecnologia, CIENTEC (the
Science and Technology Foundation) in Rio Grande do Sul.

8. Some federal and state institutions there are involved in
broad regional agrotechnology research, including the Instituto Nacional
de Pesquisas da Amazonia, INPA (National Research Institute of Amagonia),
the Nucleo de Pesquisa e Processamento de Alimentos, NUPPA (Food Research
and Processing Center), and the Centro de Ciencias Agrarias (Center for
Agricultural Sciences) of the Federal University of Ceara. Furthermore,
some universities have established specialized laboratories or departments
for food technology research and teaching, which conduct important but
limited work on specific products.

9. Several centers are dedicated to research on fish and milk
processing, among them technological institutes such as the Instituto
Tecnologico (Technological Institute) of the state of Pernambuco (ITEP).
In the private sector, technological progress has been achieved by
importing "know how" or by purchase of foreign technology by progressive
national enterprises. The small and medium-sized industries, for the







ANNEX 17
Page 4



most part, utilize locally-generated technology, developed through their
own efforts with limited assistance from research institutions and
sometimes from abroad. In the South and the Southeast, the food industry
has successfully utilized local 'research.

10. The Centro de Tecnologia Agricola e Alimentar (CTAA) is the
section of EMBRAPA in charge of food technology research on grains,
cereals, roots and tubers (flours and flour products) and oils and fats.
From a total number of 28 staff members with university degrees, approxi-
mately two-thirds work in the area of basic science and a third work in
technology, engineering and planning. An additional 7 technical personnel
are involved in administration and coordination activities. Overall
there are 57 research-scientists and technicians and 27 people in admin-
istration.

11. The budget shows approximately 51.0% for salaries; 24% for
administration and 25% for general operating costs. For 1980, 45% of
the financial support will come from EMBRAPA, 45.5% from BID and 9.6%
from FINEP. These latter funds are for construction and equipment.

12. In 1978 EMBRAPA established at CTAA the "Programa Nacional de
Tecnologia em Processamento de Produtos Agropecuarios" (PNTPPA), National
Agricultural Products Processing Technology Program, in order to foster
agricultural products processing technology and technology transfer and
to coordinate research and development among institutions in the public
and private sectors involved in agroindustrial development. This pro-
gram is being redefined by the Executive Board of Directors of EMBRAPA,
in accordance with the Federal Government's agricultural policy. CTAA
will be responsible for coordination of the National Research Program
for Food Technology. In this way CTAA will be both a coordinating
center and an entity for executing research.

13. In recognition of CTAA's potential to become a center of
excellence in the food technology area, BID has provided loan funds for
construction of new buildings, new equipment and technical consultants.
Thus EMBRAPA, through CTAA, has a strong institutional commitment to
providing substantial support and direction to the technological develop-
ment of Brazilian food agro-industry.

14. Table 6 gives a brief summary of the status of Brazilian food
technology institutions. A detailed survey is presently being conducted
by CTAA to provide a current and updateable inventory for planning
purposes.

Regional Activities

15. Since it is important to stress the food technology needs of
the LDRs the South and Southeast will not be described. Their contribution







ANNEX 17
Page 5



can be seen in tabulated data presented earlier. However, the institu-
tional and industrial food research talents of these regions are a valu-
able national resource which must be judiciously tapped for the LDRs
(technology transfer--with all the promise and pitfalls common to inter-
national development .

16. North--This is the most neglected area in terms of food tech-
nology activities and support. There are no large industries that can
justify a large degree of merely exploratory activities. The area has
good potential for tropical fruit and fresh-water fish culture and
related technology but, at present, the lack of a coordinated research
program hinders progress.

17. The Centro de Tecnologia (Technological Center) of the Federal
University of Para, the above-mentioned INPA, and CPATU, are in the
early stage of developing post-harvest technology applicable to food
production in the area.

18. Northeast--This region has made impressive strides in research
on fruits and processed fruit products. Regional'institutions are
involved in the processing of tropical fruits, and their efforts are
reflected in modest domestic and foreign markets from high quality
preserves and other products. However, the total agricultural potential
of the Northeast must be tapped as a means of bolstering the region's
food production processing and marketing capability. Research in post
harvest handling, storage, processing and utilization are important
priorities in increasing local food self-sufficiency.

19. The technical and financial resources devoted to food industry
development fall far short of the need. A significant national and
international commitment must be made to prevent further drouth-catalysed
economic and social deterioration in the region.

20. Central West--Food research here has emphasized meat, milk and
animal byproducts. In view of EMBRAPA's effort to increase regional
production of wheat and wheat substitutes (corn, triticale, buckwheat,
rice, sorghum), cereal product technology is a needed research thrust.
Vegetable production and processing also offer good local potential. In
the case of existing and newly introduced crops, regional marketing
research should accompany production and processing activities.

Constraints and Opportunities

21. As diverse geographically, demographically and climatically as
these three regions are, they share a number of problems:

lack of an adequate food production infrastructure for
efficient production, handling, transportation, or storage
of quality raw material for a processing industry;







ANNEX 17
Page 6



inadequate research applied to regional site-specific food
processing and utilization problems;

weak agroindustry infrastructure to provide inputs such as
storage and processing facilities, specialized equipment,
packaging or a trained labor force;

insufficient development of natural resources (energy,
water, fiber, minerals) or supporting industries (steel,
glass, fabrication) to encourage anything more than modest
operations;

inadequate marketing systems for fresh or processed foods,
beyond that required to partially satisfy a demand for basic
staples and a few specialty products;

under-supported or non-existent extension programs capable
of linking food technology research with the practical needs
of local food processing industries; and

most importantly, a severe shortage of trained food tech-
nologists and the facilities to attack those various prob-
lems by a coordinated research and extension program.

These deficiencies form a vicious circle. Any weak link--production,
knowledge, infrastructure, natural resources, marketing, extension,
personnel--seriously limits development. Thus, any strategy to develop
viable food industries must be balanced and coordinated for strengthening
of weak links in the total system.

22. The enormous size of the geographic regions of emphasis (82.3%
of Brazil) calls for site-specific research which should take advantage
of global food technology commonalities (successful research and indus-
trial practices elsewhere) while still recognizing the special needs and
comparative advantages of local resources, and being compatible with
national priorities.

23. Despite the problems and the immensity of the task, there is
little doubt that the agricultural potential of the North, Northeast and
Center West matches, if not exceeds, that of the South and Southeast,
and when rationally developed, can have just as spectacular an influence
on the national and world food supply as do Brazil's established food
industries.




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