• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 Abbreviations
 Currency equivalents
 The agricultural sector
 Agricultural research services
 Research program for farming systems...
 Research program for farming systems...
 Research program for farming systems...
 National research program...
 National research program...
 National research program...
 National research program...
 National research program...
 National research program for oil...






Title: Brazil, agricultural research II project
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053814/00002
 Material Information
Title: Brazil, agricultural research II project
Physical Description: 2 v. in 3 : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária
International Agricultural Development Service
Publisher: EMBRAPA
Place of Publication: Brasília
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Research -- Brazil   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: developed by EMBRAPA with assistance from the International Agricultural Development Service.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053814
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000500689
oclc - 12111634
notis - ACS0322

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Preface
        Page i
    Abbreviations
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Currency equivalents
        Page vii
    The agricultural sector
        A 1
        A 2
        A 3
        A 4
        A 5
        A 6
        A 7
    Agricultural research services
        B 1
    Research program for farming systems in the semi-arid tropics
        C 1
        C 2
        C 3
        C 4
        C 5
        C 6
        C 7
        C 8
        C 9
        C 10
        C 11
        C 12
        C 13
        C 14
        C 15
        C 16
        C 17
        C Table 1-1
        C Table 2-1
        C Table 2-2
        C Table 2-3
        C Table 2-4
        C Table 2-5
        C Table 2-6
        C Table 2-7
        C Table 3-1
        C Table 3-2
        C Table 3-3
        C Table 3-4
        C Table 3-5
        C Table 3-6
        C Table 3-7
        C Table 4-1
        C Table 5-1
        C Table 5-2
        C Table 5-3
        C Table 5-4
        C Table 5-5
        C Table 5-6
        C Table 5-7
    Research program for farming systems in the humid tropics
        D 1
        D 2
        D 3
        D 4
        D 5
        D 6
        D 7
        D 8
        D 9
        D 10
        D 11
        D 12
        D 13
        D 14
        D 15
        D 16
        D Table 1-1
        D Table 2-1
        D Table 2-2
        D Table 2-3
        D Table 2-4
        D Table 2-5
        D Table 3-1
        D Table 3-2
        D Table 3-3
        D Table 3-4
        D Table 3-5
        D Table 4-1
        D Table 5-1
        D Table 5-2
        D Table 5-3
        D Table 5-4
        D Table 5-5
    Research program for farming systems in the Campos Cerrados
        E 1
        E 2
        E 3
        E 4
        E 5
        E 6
        E 7
        E 8
        E 9
        E 10
        E 11
        E 12
        E Table 1
        E Table 2
        E Table 3
        E Table 4
        E Table 5
    National research program for rice
        F 1
        F 2
        F 3
        F 4
        F 5
        F 6
        F Table 1
        F Table 2
        F Table 3
        F Table 4
        F Table 5
    National research program for beans
        G 1
        G 2
        G 3
        G 4
        G 5
        G 6
        G 7
        G 8
        G 9
        G Table 1
        G Table 2
        G Table 3
        G Table 4
        G Table 5
    National research program for vegetables
        H 1
        H 2
        H 3
        H 4
        H 5
        H 6
        H 7
        H Table 1
        H Table 2
        H Table 3
        H Table 4
        H Table 5
    National research program for fruits
        I 1
        I 2
        I 3
        I 4
        I 5
        I 6
        I 7
        I 8
        I Table 1
        I Table 2
        I Table 3
        I Table 4
        I Table 5
    National research program for coconut
        J 1
        J 2
        J 3
        J 4
        J 5
        J 6
        J Table 1
        J Table 2
        J Table 3
        J Table 4
        J Table 5
    National research program for oil palm
        K 1
        K 2
        K 3
        K 4
        K 5
        K 6
        K 7
        K 8
        K Table 1
        K Table 2
        K Table 3
        K Table 4
        K Table 5
Full Text

















Volume II: Annexes 1-22


BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

(Part 1: Annexes 1-11)


July 9, 1980









BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


TABLE OF CONTENTS


VOLUME I

Page No.

Preface i
Abbreviations ii
Currency Equivalents vii

I. THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR 1

A. The Sector in the Economy 1
B. Agricultural Development Policy 2
C. Agricultural Support Prices 5

II. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 10

A. EMBRAPA The Brazilian Agricultural Research 10
Corporation
B. Interactions with Other Agricultural Services 15

III. THE PROJECT 18

A. Introduction 18
B. Objectives and Scope 18
C. Detailed Features 19
D. Project Costs 22

IV. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION 26

A. Organization and Responsibility 26
B. Field Implementation and Research Methodology 26
C. Staff Training and Implementation 29
D. Monitoring and Evaluation 30

V. PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY 32

VI. DEMAND AND MARKET PROSPECTS 37

VII. BENEFITS AND JUSTIFICATION 40

A. Investment in Agricultural Research 40
B. Beneficiaries and Target Population Groups 41
C. Social Benefits 42
D. Project Risks 42
E. Environmental Effects 42


.. /..






TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

VOLUME II ANNEXES


1. The Agricultural Sector

2. Agricultural Research Services

3. Research Program for Farming Systems in the Semi-Arid
Tropics

4. Research Program in Farming Systems in the Humid
Tropics

5. Research Program for Farming Systems in the Campos .Cerrados

6. National Research Program for Rice

7. National Research Program for Beans

8. National Research Program for Vegetables

9. National Research Program for Fruits

10. National Research Program for Coconut

11. National Research Program for Oil Palm

12. National Research Program for Babacu

13. National Research Program for Rubber

14. National Research Program for Forestry

15. National Research Program for Basic Seed

16. National Research Program in Agricultural Engineering

17. National Research Program for Food Technology

18. National Research Program for Bioenergy

19. National Research Program for Animal Health

20. The Information and Documentation System for EMBRAPA

21. Civil Works and Development Costs

22. Project Cost Estimates









BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PREFACE


i The Agricultural Research II Project proposes to continue to
strengthen 6 of the 12 EMBRAPA research programs covered under Agricul-
tural Research I Project, and to add 12 new research and research support
programs. Agricultural Research I Project, initiated in 1976 with
support from the World Bank (Loan Contract N 1249-BR), is still operative
and has resulted in the experience and increased staff competence within
EMBRAPA that make feasible this proposal for a broadened research project.

ii This project proposal was developed by EMBRAPA with assistance
from the International Agricultural Development Service (IADS), between
May and July, 1980. The services provided by LADS, under a subcontract
with the Interamerican Institute of Agricultural Sciences (IICA), were
through a team of specialists consisting of Messrs. R. Desrosiers (peren-
nial crops of the tropics), E.R. Duncan (agriculture of the semi-arid
tropics), R.P. Bates (food technology), R.W. Etheredge (architect/planner),
and G.B. Baird (research administration).

iii The proposal is presented in two volumes, the first of which
contains the proposal per se. Volume II consists primarily of a detailed
description of each of the 18 research and research support programs, as
well as of the civil works and development costs, and of project cost
estimates.








Abbreviations


ABCAR Brazilian Association for Credit and Rural Assistance
Associagao Brasileira de Credito e Assistencia Rural

ACAR Association of Credit and Rural Assistance
Associagio de Credito e Assistencia Rural

ARC Agricultural Research Center
Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria

ATA Technical and Administrative Advisory Office-EMBRAPA
Assessoria Tecnico-Administrativa

BEFLEX Brazilian Commission for Providing Fiscal Benefits to Special
Export Programs

BNB Bank of Northeastern Brazil
Banco do Nordeste do Brasil S.A.

CACEX External Commerce Bureau/Bank of Brazil
Carteira de Comercio Exterior/Banco do Brasil

CCA/UFC Agrarian Science Center of the Federal University of Ceara
Centro de CiEncias Agrdrias da Universidade Federal do Ceara

CEASA Supply Center
Centrals de Abastecimento

CENARGEN National Center of Genetic Resources-EMBRAPA
Centro Nacional de Recursos Geneticos

CENEA National Center of Agricultural Engineering
Centro Nacional de Engenharia Agricola

CEPLAC Executive Commission for the Cacao Production Plan
Comissao Executiva do Piano da Lavoura Cacaueira

CFP Commission of Production Financing
Comissao de Financiamento da Produgao

CIAT International Center for Tropical Agriculture
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical

CIBRAZEM Brazilian Storage Company
Cia Brasileira de Armazenamento

CIMMYT International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo

CIP International Potato Center
Centro Internacional de la Papa

CNEPA National Center for Agricultural Education and Research
Centro Nacional de Educagao e Pesquisa Agropecuaria









CNPA National Center for Cotton Research
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodao-EMBRAPA

CNPAF National Center for Research on Rice and Beans
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa do Arroz e Feijao

CNPC National Center for Research on Goats and Sheep
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Caprinos-EMBRAPA

CNPGC National Center for Beef Cattle Research
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Gado de Corte-EMBRAPA

CNPGL National Center for Dairy Cattle Research
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Gado de Leite-EMBRAPA

CNPMF National Center for Research on Cassava and Fruits
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Mandioca e Fruticultura-EMBRAPA

CNPMS National Center for Research on Maize and Sorghum
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo-EMBRAPA

CNPSA National Center for Research on Swine and Poultry
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Suinos e Aves-EMBRAPA

CNPSe National Center for Research on Rubber
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Seringueira-EMBRAPA

CNPSo National Center for Research on Soybean
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja-EMBRAPA

CNPT National Center for Research on Wheat
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo-EMBRAPA

CPAC Research Center for Agriculture in the Cerrados
Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuiria dos Cerrados-EMBRAPA

CPATSA Research Center for Agriculture in the Semi-Arid Tropics
Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Tr6pico Semi-Arido-EMBRAPA

CPATU Research Center for Agriculture in the Humid Tropics
Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Tr6pico imido

COBAL Brazilian Food Company
Companhia Brasileira de Alimentos

COMPATER National Commission of Agricultural Research and Technical
Assistance in Rural Extension
Comissao Nacional de Pesquisa Agropecuaria e de Assistdncia
Tgcnica de Extensao Rural

CTAA Center for Agriculture and Food Technology
Centro de Tecnol6gia Agricola e Alimentar-EMBRAPA

DDM Department of Planning
Departamento de Diretrizes e Metodos de Planejamento-EMBRAPA









DDT Department of Extension
Departamento de Difusao de Tecnologia-EMBRAPA

DFN Department of Finance
Departamento Financeiro-EMBRAPA

DID Department of Information and Documentation
Departamento de Informaggo e Documentag'o-EMBRAPA

DMQ Department of Quantitative Methods
Departamento de Metodos Quantitativos-EMBRAPA

DNOCS National Department of Works Against Droughts
Departamento Nacional de Obras Contra as Secas

DPA Agricultural Information Directorate
Diretoria de Publicidade Agricola

DPE Department of Special Projects
Departamento de Projectos Especiais-EMBRAPA

DRH Department of Human Resources
Departamento de Recursos Humanos-EMBRAPA

DTC Department of Science and Technology
Departamento Tecnico Cientifico-EMBRAPA

EMAPA Maranhao Agricultural Research Corporation
Empresa Maranhense de Pesquisa Agropecuaria

EMATER Technical Assistance and Rural Extension Corporation
Empresa de Assistencia Tecnica e Extensgo Rural

EMBRAPA Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria

EMBRATER Brazilian Technical Assistance and and Extension Corporation
Empresa Brasileira de Assist&ncia Tecnica e Extensao

EMCAPA Capixaba Agricultural. Research Corporation
Empresa Capixaba de Pesquisa Agropecuaria

EMGOPA Goiania Agricultural Research Corporation
Empresa Goi&nia de Pesquisa Agropecuaria

EMPASC Santa Catarina Agricultural Research Corporation
Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Santa Catarina

EPABA Bahia Agricultural Research Corporation
Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria da Bahia

EPAMIG Minas Gerais Agricultural Research Corporation
Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado de Minas Gerais


United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization


FAO








FAEM


FITIPAL


GOB

IADS

IAPAR


IDB

IICA


INCRA


INPA


IPEF


IRGA


IRRI

ITAL


PBCT

PND


PND II


PLANASEM


POLOAMAZONIA


POLOCENTRO


POLONORDESTE


Department of Agronomy of Eliseu Maciel
Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel

Foundation for State-Level Research
Fundaggo de Pesquisa de Ambito Estadual

Government of Brazil

International Agricultural Development Service

Agronomy Institute of Parana
Institute Agron6mico do Parana

Inter-American Development Bank

Interamerican Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Institute Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas

National Institute of Colonization and Land Reform
Institute Nacional de Colonizacgo e Reforma AgrAria

National Institute of Research for Amazonia
Institute Nacional de Pesquisa da Amaz6nia

Institute of Forestry Research
Institute de Pesquisa e Estudos Florestais

Rio Grande Institute of Rice
Institute Riograndense do Arroz

International Rice Research Institute

Institute of Food Technology
Institute de Tecnol6gia de Alimentos

Basic Plan for Science and Technological Development

National Development Plan
Piano Nacional de Desenvolvimento

Second National Development Plan
II Piano Nacional de Desenvolvimento

National Seed Improvement Plan
Plano Nacional de Meihoramento da Semente

Development Program for the Integrated Areas of Amazonia
Program de Desenvolvimento de Areas Integradas da Amaz6nia

Development Program for the Integrated Central Areas
Program de Desenvolvimento de Areas Integradas do Centro

Development Program for the Integrated Areas of the Northeast
Program de Desenvolvimento de Areas Integradas do Nordeste








PROACOOL National Alcohol for Fuel Program

PROCAL National Lime Program

PRONAPA National Agricultural Research Program
Program Nacional de Pesquisa Agropecuaria

PRONAZEM National Storage Facilities Expansion Program

PROPEC National Livestock Development Program

SAGRIMA Maranhao Secretariat of Agriculture
Secretaria de Agricultura do Maranhao

SIBRATER National Technical Assistance and Rural Extension System

SNLCS National Soil Surveying and Conservation Center

SPSB Basic Seed Production Service
Service para.,Produgao de.Sementes Basicas-EMBRAPA

SUDAM Superintendency for the Development of Amaz6nia
Superintend&ncia para Desenvolvimento da Amaz6nia

SUDENE Superintendency for the Development of the Northeast
Superintend&ncia para Desenvolvimento do Nordeste

UEPAE Unit of Research Execution at the State Level
Unidade de Execugao de Pesquisa de Ambito Estadual

UEPAT Unit of Research Execution at the Territorial Level
Unidade de Execucao de Pesquisa de Ambito Territorial

UFV Federal University of Vigosa
Universidade Federal de Vigosa

UFRRJ Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro

UNB University of Brasilia
Universidade de Brasilia

UNICAMP University of Campinas
Universidade de Campinas

URPFCS Regional Unit for Forestry Research in the Central-South
Unidade Regional de Pesquisa Florestal Centro-Sul






Currency Equivalents

Currency Unit = Brazilian Cruzeiro (Cr$)
US$1 = Cr$ 50 (June, 1980)
1 Cr$ = US$ 0.02
Cr$l million = US$ 20,000

Weights and Measures

m = meter (1 m = 3.28 feet)
2
sq m = square meter (1 m = 10.76 square feet)
km = kilometer (1 km = 0.62 miles)
ha = hectare (1 ha = 10,000 m2 = 2.47 acres)
2
sq km = square kilometer (1 km = 247.1 acres = 100 ha = 0.386 square miles)
cu m = cubic meter (1 m = 1.31 cubic yards = 264.2 US gallons)
kg = kilogram (1 kg = 2.2 lb)
ton = 1,000 kg = 2.205 lb







ANNEX 1
Page 1
VOLUME 2


BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

I. Agriculture in the Economy


General

1. Brazil, occupying almost half of the South American continent,
has a total land area of about 8.5 million sq km, or 845.6 million ha of
available land. Of this, only 36.0 million ha, or 4.3% is cultivated.
Permanent pasture represents an additional 167.0 million ha (19.7%), and
forests and woodland cover 511.4 million ha, or 60.5%. Unclassified
(other) areas total 131.3 million ha, or 15.5% of the total land area.

2. The country can be divided into 5 major ecological areas,
which follow fairly closely the 5 main geopolitical regions -- the North
(Amazonia), Northeast (semi-arid zone), Central-West (Campos Cerrados),
Southeast, and South. The areas cover a range of climatic conditions
from the hot-humid tropics in the North to the temperate zone in the
South. Within the country minimum and maximum mean annual temperatures
are 6 and 280C, respectively. Annual rate of light intensity also
varies considerably. As an example, western Santa Catalina has recorded
only 1,600 hours of sunshine per year and northeastern Bahia a maximum
of 3,200 hours. While much of Brazil receives rather abundant rainfall,
with the average annual precipitation exceeding 1,000 mm, there is a
large variation in amount and distribution. Brazilian soils are generally
low in fertility -- it is estimated that 90% of the soils present severe
limitations for agriculture. There are soils with high fertility,
however, such as those in northern Parana and in the grasslands of Rio
Grande do Sul.

Importance of Agriculture

3. Brazil, essentially self-sufficient in agricultural production
(except for wheat), is the world's second most important exporter of
agricultural commodities. The country consistently produces exportable
supplies of foodgrains, oilseeds, beverages, sugar, meat, tobacco, and
fibers. In recent years, the rate of growth in Brazil's food production
has been among the highest in the world. Production of all agricultural
commodities increased at an annual average rate of 3% between 1961-65
and 1971-75, while the production of food products alone grew at a rate
of nearly 5% per year. The rate of growth during the period 1970-79 has
ranged from a low of -1.7% in 1978 to a high of 11.4% in 1971. The
relative performance (annual rate of growth) of crops and animals in
agriculture during the period 1971-1972 is illustrated below:








ANNEX 1
Page 2




Category 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

Agriculture (%) 11.4 4.1 3.5 8.5 3.4 4.2 9.6
Crops (%) 14.8 4.0 3.2 12.4 -2.0 0.4 11.7
Animals (%) 4.3 4.3 4.3 0 14.9 12.2 5.3
Source: Perspectivas da Agricultura Brasileiro para 1978-79, Ministerio
da Agriculture


Variations reflect primarily year-to-year climatic variations in the
important agricultural areas.

4. Despite its importance, agriculture in Brazil accounts for
only 10-11% of the GNP, down from 19.9% in 1960 and 16.1% in 1972. On
the other hand, agriculture accounts for more than 60% of the country's
foreign exchange earnings (Table 1).

Exports

5. Export of agricultural commodities has shown a marked increase
over the period 1970-1977 although the share of agriculture in overall
exports has declined (Table 2). Brazil's export sector was formerly
dominated by one commodity, coffee; but by 1975 its share of export
earnings fell to 11%. In recent years, accompanying the economic growth
in the industrial sector, agricultural exports have been greatly diversified.
For example, export of soybeans and soybean products was the country's
largest foreign exchange earner in 1975. Important agricultural based
processed items such as cotton textiles and yarn, leather goods, and
twine have also contributed significantly. Other less important but
significant agricultural export items include wool, molasses, sisal,
horse meat, bananas, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, pepper, carnauba wax, and
essential oils.

Imports

6. Wheat usually accounts for one-third to one-half of Brazil's
agricultural imports (3.8 million tons in 1979). Other principal import
commodities have been live animals for breeding, temperate zone fruits
and nuts, milk and milk products, meat, and seeds. Bad crop years because
of drouth result in periodic importations of small quantities of such
basic food crops as corn, rice, and beans. In 1976 the value of food
imports was about US$ 1.1 billion while the corresponding value for
exports was approximately US$ 6.1 billion.

Crop Yields

7. While the rate of growth in agriculture has been remarkable,
it has resulted, for the most part, from increased area under cultivation
rather than from improved yields. Yields of basic food crops, including








ANNEX 1
Page 3



maize, rice, wheat, beans, and cassava have improved little, if any,
during the period 1969-79 (Table 3). Since base yields of most of the
principal crops are low, a great potential exists for increased produc-
tivity through improved technology.

Livestock

8. Brazilian cattle population, estimated at 90 million head in
1979, was reported to have increased to 93 million in early 1980.
Cattle slaughter was estimated at 10.65 million in 1979. Production
figures of animal products during the period 1972-1979 are given in
Table 4. The increase in poultry is notable. In general, beef cattle
production is a range-based operation.

The Rural Population

9. The estimated population of Brazil in 1980 is about 123 million,
with some 44.8 million (36.5%) in the rural areas. Since 1970 there has
been a strong shift of people from rural to urban areas. This has
important implications for agricultural development, including a need
for greater attention to mechanization of at least some farming operations.


Years Total Rural Urban
('000) Absolute ('000) Relative ('000) Absolute ('000) Relative ('000)
1970 93,039 41,054 44.1 52,085 55.9
1975 107,145 43,055 40.2 64,091 59.8
1980* 123,032 44,879 36.5 78,153 64.5
Source: Fundacao IBGE do Brasil, 1978
*Estimated


10. There is a wide range in population densities among regions --
from 1.0 to 43.9 inhabitants per sq km for the North and Southeast,
respectively (based on 1970 data -- see Table 5). Somewhat surprisingly
though, there is much less regional variation in the proportion of the
population in the rural areas. The Southeast is an exception, having
only about 27.52% while the other 4 have 50% or more.


II. AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY


11. The present administration has termed agriculture as the priority
sector in the economy. The government has begun to restructure existing
programs and implement new policies to boost agricultural production in
the short run. From a long-term perspective, the new government has
formulated policies aimed at: (a) shifting the agricultural economy to
a greater reliance on the price mechanism rather than on subsidized
credit; and (b) shifting government resource use to more needy farmers.








ANNEX 1
Page 4



The primary production policy tools utilized have been a remunerative
minimum price program, subsidized loans to producers for production,
financing, and financial support for research, extension, and development
projects.

Minimum Prices

12. Each year before the planting season, the Government of Brazil
(GOB) announces a set of minimum producer prices for the forthcoming
crop season. The program is administered by the Production Financing
Commission (CFP), an agency of the Ministry of Agriculture. For the
past several years CFP's minimum price program has set guaranteed floor
prices for about 45 commodities.

13. Key direct and indirect benefits of the program are: (a) guaran-
teeing support prices is useful to farmers in making planting decisions;
(b) ensuring stable long-term minimum prices as a means of stimulating
expanded output of specific commodities; (c) encouraging the storage of
excess production at harvest for release between harvests; (d) providing
a safety valve of government acquisition for periods of low prices;
(e) providing relief to consumers from excessively high prices through
the release of government stocks; and (f) assisting livestock producers
who use purchased feeds by ensuring more stable prices and supplies.
This year, to spur the government's goal of increasing the planted area
by about 10%, minimum prices were increased substantially.

Credit

14. Subsidized credit has been one of Brazil's principal means of
encouraging rapid development of the agricultural sector. Basic annual
interest rates for agricultural credit in recent years have ranged
between 13 to 22%, although annual interest rates for loans granted
under the auspices of special sectorial and regional development programs
have been as low as 7%.

15. The present administration has been taking a close look at the
credit advantages given to the agricultural sector. Costs of the credit
program have risen greatly in recent years, in part because of the
growth in the use of agricultural credit as well as because of the
growing inflation. Government policies to combat inflation, including
cutbacks in its spending, will affect the amount of subsidized agricul-
tural credit. Development programs, such as SUDAM and SUDENE, are
exempted from the ensuing less favorable interest rates.

Production Loans

16. Several recent changes seek to shift the emphasis of production
loan programs. Foremost among these changes has been restructuring the
system for financing farmers' variable costs of production. Previously,
production loans were calculated by banks as a percentage of the minimum








ANNEX 1
Page 5



price X area to be planted X a regional yield factor. The result did
not necessarily correspond to actual production costs. Under the new
system, based on the "basic production value" (VBC), cost estimates are
based on historical yield ranges calculated by the Ministry of Agriculture.
With the VBC formula, farmers with higher yields potentially can receive
more financing under the assumption that more expensive inputs are
necessary to achieve the higher yields.

17. While the program is more expensive, the Ministry of Agriculture
foresees that it will provide greater stimulus to increase significantly
the cultivated area and the use of yield-improving inputs.

18. The basic objective of the new credit policy is to give greater
market incentives to efficient producers while reducing their dependence
on subsidized credit. At the same time, assistance to small farmers is
being intensified in an attempt to reduce the income and regional dis-
parities within agriculture. Small farmers, for example, are to receive
25 instead of 10% of all production credit. New progressive schedules
of subsidized interest rates are to provide the cheapest credit to small
producers and higher rates to larger producers. Larger producers are
being encouraged to finance a greater portion of their production from
their own resources or to seek commercial loans.

Research and Extension

19. The GOB is committed to the use of research as an instrument
leading to higher agricultural productivity. Institutionally, the
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), formed in 1973
within the Ministry of Agriculture, makes and implements research policy.
The organization, confronted initially with a lack of highly trained
agricultural researchers, has financed graduate education for hundreds
of researchers--both in Brazil and abroad. Many of these students have
completed their training and are now working throughout the agricultural
research community.

20. Organizationally, EMBRAPA employs the bulk of its resources at
national research centers devoted to specific commodity problems (e.g.,
the National Rice and Bean Institute located in Goiana, Goias). In
addition, most individual states have their own agricultural research
institutions. The Rice Research Institute of the state of Rio Grande do
Sul (IRGA), for example, has a long and distinguished research record.
Currently, state research programs which meet the approval of EMBRAPA
receive a 50% subsidy from the national organization. The following
chapter deals with EMBRAPA in detail.

21. Linking research results and technical assistance to farmers
are the charges of the Brazilian Corporation for Technical Assistance
and Rural Extension (EMBRATER). Under EMBRATER, the GOB seeks to coor-
dinate a national system for technical assistance and extension with the
federal entity, setting overall policies for existing state services and
coordinating their activities.








ANNEX 1
Page 6



Development Programs

22. The GOB also has established several programs to assist certain
agricultural sectors of the economy. The National Livestock Development
Program (PROPEC) provides farmers and ranchers with low-interest loans
and technical assistance for improving pastures, dairy and beef breeding
stock, and production techniques. The Swine Development Program is
aimed at improving pork production and marketing in southern Brazil.
Other programs are directed at providing economic incentives and technical
assistance for advancing the production of limestone (PROCAL), increasing
agricultural storage capacity (PRONAZEM), and alcohol production (PROALCOOL).

23. In addition, Brazil has initiated several special regional
development programs largely devoted to agriculture. These programs
provide incentives for agricultural development of frontier or chron-
ically low income areas. Among the largest of these regional development
programs are POLONORDESTE, POLOAMAZONIA, and POLOCENTRO. The Program
for the Development of Integrated Areas of the Northeast (POLONORDESTE)
is aimed largely at increasing the agricultural growth rate in the
region by providing subsidized credits to farmers. Efforts also are
being made to improve storage facilities and the functioning of the
minimum price system in this chronically low income region. The
POLOAMAZONIA program is coordinating investment for agricultural and
mineral development in areas of the Amazon basin. SUDAM, the government's
development agency for the North, offers fiscal incentives for companies
and individuals to invest in agricultural products in the Amazon. Many
large livestock projects are being initiated as a result of these programs.

24. For the agricultural sector as a whole, the most important of
these integrated regional programs is POLOCENTRO, the program for the
development of the Cerrados (the large savanna area in central Brazil).
The current administration believes that much of Brazil's potential
agricultural growth over the next several years will come from opening
the Cerrados. For 1979, a total of Cr$1.8 billion (US$36 million) was
allocated to the POLOCENTRO budget of which agricultural research received
38%, rural electrification 19%, technical assistance to farmers 15%,
storage 14%, and roads 14%. According to government officials, during
the last 3 years POLOCENTRO has brought 2.4 million ha of cerrado land
into agricultural production including 970,000 ha for crops, 963,000 ha
for pastures and 440,000 ha for afforestation. Future efforts of the
present administration point toward expanding rice, wheat, and livestock
production in the 15% of Brazil's surface area covered by cerrados.

Trade Policies

25. Brazil has used export incentive policies to foster growth in
agricultural exports -- largely by periodic mini-devaluations, tax
forgiveness, and tax credits for exports, as well as subsidized credit
to pay for export operations. In a continuing effort to balance its
trade, Brazil has restricted imports of agricultural products for some
time.








ANNEX 1
Page 7



III. AGRICULTURAL SUPPORT SERVICES


26. Farmers, regardless of size of land holding, generally will
increase their productivity provided these requisites are met:

an improved farming system. A combination of materials and
practices that is clearly more productive and profitable,
with an acceptably low level of risk, than the one he currently
uses must be available to the farmer.

instruction of farmers. The farmer must be shown, on his
own farm or nearby, how to put the practices into use, and
he should understand why they are better.

supply of inputs. The inputs required, and, if necessary,
credit to finance their purchase, must be available to the
farmer when and where he needs them and at reasonable cost.

availability of markets. The farmer must have access to a
nearby market that can absorb increased supplies without
excessive price drops.

27. These requisites to overall national agricultural development
need to be accompanied by education for agricultural development, produc-
tion credit, group action by farmers, improving and expanding agricultural
land, and national planning.

Research

28. EMBRAPA is responsible for coordination and promotion of
agricultural research throughout Brazil, and thus plays the primary role
in the development of improved farming systems for the diverse agricultural
areas of the country. It has its own network of regional and commodity-
oriented research centers, and operates directly at the state level
through a service of research stations (UEPAE's). Furthermore, EMBRAPA
has linkages with state-operated research institutions, universities,
and other research entities in both the private and public sectors.


Extension

29. The organization primarily responsible for instructing the
farmer in use of improved technology is the Brazilian Corporation for
Technical Assistance and Rural Extension (EMBRATER).

30. EMBRATER's objective is to provide national leadership to
state extension companies (EMATERs) which will result in the transfer
and application of new agricultural technology.









ANNEX 2
TABLE 1
PAGE 1


BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

DISTRIBUTION OF EMBRAPA STAFF AT THE
NATIONAL RESEARCH AND SERVICE CENTERS


Centers and
Services Technical-Scientific Research Administration Total
BS MSc PhD Support


Rice and Beans 9 25 8 111 38 191
Cotton 10 18 1 71 28 128
Goats & Sheep 3 8 50 24 85
Genetic Resources 3 8 3 20 22 56
Cassava & Fruits 14 23 2 109 56 204
Rubber 8 11 1 56 23 99
Food Technology 10 13 2 32 30 87
Beef Cattle 5 29 6 98 42 180
Dairy Cattle 10 32 5 197 55 299
Maize & Sorghum 5 27 8 193 81 314
Soybeans 5 27 2 105 38 177
Swine & Poultry 12 15 2 50 24 103
Wheat 10 32 4 136 36 218
Soil Survey/
Conservation 20 40 5 50 44 159
Production of
Basic Seeds 6 13 3 110 74 206


Total 130 321 52 1,388 615 2,506


Source: DRH/EMBRAPA-PRONAPA 80








ANNEX 3
Page 1



BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR FARMING SYSTEMS IN

THE SEMI-ARID TROPICS

I. INTRODUCTION


A. Agricultural Importance of the Region


1. The program area, Northeast Brazil, covers 1.5 million sq km
and represents 18.2% of the national territory; it is comprised of 9
states, and 1 federal territory, and in 1977 had a population of 33.6
million inhabitants, or about 30% of the total population in Brazil.
Agriculturally, the area is diverse but can be divided into 6 major
subregions which influence agricultural activity in the area. In 1970,
agriculture accounted for 33.4% of the regional NDP. About 14.6% of the
national NDP was derived from agriculture.

Physical Aspects

2. The 6 production areas.of the Northeast semi-arid region have
the following physical characteristics:

The Middle-North comprising the state of Maranhao and northern
Piaui. This area of 382,000 sq km represents 25% of the
Northeast. Well traversed with several large rivers, it is
considered the transition zone between the Amazon basin and
the Northeast. Average temperature of the region is 26C, and
annual rainfall is in excess of 1,800mm in the west, lessening
gradually to 1,400-1,600mm in the east. The rainfall distribu-
tion gives rise to 3 types of vegetation: tropical rainforest,
"agreste" (transitional), and "caatinga" (bush). Soils of
this subregion vary among latosols, podzols, monocalcic brunizems,
grumosols and alluvials. Soil classification by the National
Resource Survey (RADAM), a project of the Ministry of Mines
and Energy, estimated the distribution of land for agricultural
use as follows: suitable, 16%; restricted use, 31%; and
unsuitable, 53%.

The Litoral or "Zona da Mata" represented by the narrow costal
strip extending from the state of Rio Grande do Norte to the
south of the state of Bahia. The area is 126,968 sq km and
represents 8.2% of the total area. Temperatures average 25 to
26C, and rainfall is in the range of 1,500 to 2,000mm per
annum, with a pronounced 4-month dry season. The area was







ANNEX 3
Page 2



once densely forested, hence its name, but it has been exten-
sively cultivated, and only forest fragments remain. Soils of
the region are variable but may be classified into 4 main
groups: fine alluvial soil of the coastal plains, wet and
fertile soils, soils of the plains which are tertiary formations
from the crystalline bedrock of the center Northeast (these
soils are usually heavily layered mixtures of sand and clay
and are very deep) and finally, the older formations in areas
characterized by hilly relief with steep slopes and soils that
are predominantly latosols and podzols.

- Small fertile valleys that occur farther inland in the hills.
Although widely scattered, the area covers 34,600 sq km, or
2.2% of the total land area. The zone is somewhat transitional
between agreste and semi-arid lands, but climate is suitable
for annual and perennial crops. The rainfall is well-distributed,
and the soils are similar to those of the Litorals but higher
in organic material and with more favorable moisture.

- The plains encompassing western Bahia state and part of southern
Piaui, an area of 94,508 sq km, which represents 6.1% of the
Northeast region. These plains, at 400 and 600 m, are sparsely
populated and rainfall is frequently insufficient to produce a
crop. Annual average temperature is 25C and there is a
marked 4-month dry season. The soils, predominantly acid
latosols and podzols, are of low fertility and are highly
permeable, and the rainfall moves through and off the undulating
soils of the region.

- The agreste or major zone of transition between the "mata" and
semi-arid "sertao," one of the major subregions of agricultural
production in the Northeast. It covers 169,698 sq km representing
11% of the area. Seven of the states in the region have some
portion of agreste, but Bahia, Pernambuco and Piaui contain
96% of this agro-ecological area. The rainfall pattern is
similar to that of the lush coastal mata but the precipitation
is only 600 to 1,000mm. Average temperatures of 210C are
lower than those of the coast. Topography is rolling, with
elevations seldom above 600m until the foothills in Rio Grande
do Norte and Pernambuco are reached. Soils are predominantly
latosols and podzols, with some calico brunizems in the drier
areas. The area is the most important subregion as a producer
of basic food crops for the large urban centers of the Northeast.

- The semi-arid region, by far the largest of the 6 subregions,
covering 741,000 sq km, or 48% of the land area. Although
agriculturally poor, it supports an almost equal portion of
the regional population (46%) and is important in the agricul-
tural economy. It is here that periodic drouths have created,
over the years, severe socio-economic problems. Of more







ANNEX 3
Page 3



importance from the agricultural viewpoint is rainfall distribu-
tion. Normally, rainfall occurs in a single 3-to-5 month
period, followed by 7-9 months of prolonged drought. Temperatures
are high, averaging between 23 to 270C, relative humidity is
low (50%), and annual evaporation is high. The region thus
fits the criteria for semi-arid agriculture. In general, the
soils are thin and of low fertilty, but by no means homogeneous.
A few soil types, such as alluvials, vertisols and latosols,
have agricultural potential. Soil permeability, rather than
soil fertility, is of much more importance in the crystalline
soils of the dry region. Agriculture in this region is confined
to the fertile alluvial plains (varzeas), along stream courses.
In addition, an estimated 50,000 ha are now irrigated along
the Sao Francisco river basin.

Population Density

3. The Northeast states having the larger populations are Bahia,
Pernambuco, Ceara and Maranhao, but the greatest population densities
are in the states of Alagoas (67.5 cap/sq km), Pernambuco (62.4 cap/sq
km) and Sergipe (46.8 cap/sq km). The following table provides population
data on the 9 states in the Northeast region in 1977:



STATE OR ARE AREA POPULATION POPULATION
TERRITORY (km ) (%) ('000) (Density Cap/km )

Maranhao 328,663 21.2 3,470.5 10.56
Piaui 250,934 16.3 2,109.8 8.41
Ceara 150,630 9.7 5,409.0 36.54
Rio G. Norte 53,015 '3.4 1,972.9 37.21
Paraiba 56,372 3.6 2,785.3 49.41
Pernambuco 98,307 6.4 6,141.0 62.48
Alagoas 27,731 1.8 1,872.7 67.53
Sergipe 21,994 1.4 1,031.3 46.89
Bahia 561,026 36.2 8,849.5 15.77


TOTAL
Northeast 1,548,672 100.0 33,642.0 21.72

Source: Statistical Year Book of Brazil, 1978


The Current Agricultural Situation


4. The gross agricultural production of the Northeast consists of
about 70% crops, 25% livestock and livestock by-products, and 5% plant
products.







ANNEX 3
Page 4



5. The cultivated area of the Northeast, with both permanent and
temporary type farming, was estimated at 15.0 million ha in 1976, 9.5
million ha in 1965, and 7.2 million ha in 1960. Thus the cultivated
area has more than doubled in 15 years. These data illustrate clearly
why increased agricultural production of the Northeast come principally
from increased area under cultivation.

6. During the period 1960-1975 the greatest changes in production
were with rice, banana, cacao and cassava, the most important crops of
the region. Tomatoes and oranges stand out among the relatively minor
crops in terms of area cultivated and overall value of the crop (see the
following table):


Average
CROP Percent/of Percent of National, Change ()
Total Production (1975) 1960-75


Cotton 17 37 -1
Beans 15 31 44
Cassava 13 51 72
Sugarcane 12 37 66
Cacao 9 96 75
Maize 6 10 62
Rice 4 17 160
Agave 4 100 92
Banana 4 43 96
Castor bean 4 55 13
Coconut 2 94 10
Tomato 1 20 116
Tobacco 1 17 16
Orange 1 7 183
Others 9

Source: ETEA MA


1/ = Value;


2/ = Quantity


7. Overall agricultural production of the Northeast in 1975
amounted to about 26% of the total national production. Regional produc-
tion of cacao, agave and coconuts were more than 90% of the total produc-
tion in the country. The corresponding figure is 55% for castorbean,
43% for bananas and 37% for cotton. Sugarcane, beans and tomato accounted
for 37%, 31% and 20%, respectively, of the national production of these
crops. In terms of national production, maize and oranges are relatively un-
important in the Northeast.







ANNEX 3
Page 5



8. For the period 1960-1975 in general, yields have either decreased
or remained static. Furthermore, the base yield levels are low, with
the exception of a few crops. The principal increase in production in
the Northeast since 1960 has come from new lands. Increases in production
simply by putting additional land under cultivation cannot continue, in
view of the diminishing amount of land suitable for cultivation. The
model based on an extensive type agriculture does not have long range
suitabilty. Improvement in crop yields is necessary for further agricul-
tural development and socio-economic progress.


B. Present Status of Research Program


9. Research activities under EMBRAPA in the semi-arid region of
the Northeast are coordinated by CPATSA at Petrolina. CPATSA also does
needed basic research and has the responsibility for most of the applied
research necessary for adapting new technologies for and into viable
farming systems.

10. During the last 3 years CPATSA has been expanding its research
program to develop new technology needed to improve farming systems.
This has resulted in improved systems for specific areas in the semi-arid
region. To promote interaction among research, extension and actual
farming, 20 meetings-workshops were sponsored by CPATSA during 1975-1978.
These involved 694 participants -- 121 farmers, 229 extensionists and
344 research workers.

11. The following state-level experiment stations and commodity
centers in the Northeast collaborate with CPATSA in development of
improved farming systems: CNPA (cotton), CNPC (goats), CNPMF (cassava
and tropical fruits), UEPAE/Caico (cotton, beans, sorghum, beef cattle),
UNEPAE/Penedo (cotton, rice, beans, tobacco, animal production), and
UEPAE/Teresina (rice, cowpeas, maize, cassava and animal production).


II. PROPOSED RESEARCH PROGRAM


A. General Description


12. Numerous attempts have been made the last quarter century to
accelerate agricultural development in this region. Among them were
credit programs, technical assistance, creation of cooperatives and some
consideration to agrarian reform. In general these programs were not
successful, largely because there was no satisfactory inventory and
understanding of physical, climatic and socio-economic conditions of the
region. In addition these programs were not supported by training
programs and did not adequately involve local people in the planning and







ANNEX 3
Page 6



review processes. To further complicate the matter, drouth conditions
seemed to be more frequent and more severe. The CPATSA program efforts
will identify and quantify the presently known constraints as well as
search for other factors limiting agricultural development.

13. The principal goal of the Farming Systems Program is to improve
the economy of the area. By strengthening research, it is expected that
new technology, capable of increasing agricultural production and farm
income, can be developed.

Research Objectives


14. The overall objectives of the Farming Systems Research Program
for the semi-arid tropics are to:

inventory the physical, climatological, surface and ground
water, and socio-economic resources, then analyze and interpret
the information and place it in a "data bank" for present and
future use;

identify native and introduced plants which can be useful in
increasing production and length of grazing season in natural
caatinga and improved pastures with emphasis on nitrogen
fixing legumes and drouth tolerant species of grasses. Also
identify and test native and introduced plants which may have
a place in cropping systems to improve farm income;

develop farming systems technology which will improve present
systems and provide economically viable alternative farming
systems for both small and large farms in the several ecological
zones in the semi-arid region. This includes work on salinized
soils; and

inform all regional, state and private research organizations
about the work and results of CPATSA and initiate opportunities
for an exchange of data and mutual cooperation.

Research Program Requirements

15. CPATSA is aware of several important constraints on economic
development of the Northeast. Included among these are:

low and irregular precipitation;

predominance of subsistence agricultural units;


- relative scarcity of arable land;







ANNEX 3
Page 7



concentration of income in the sugar economy and in extensive
livestock production; and

lack of appropriate technology designed to utilize available
labor.

16. To meet the research needs of farming systems in the Northeast,
the several diverse agro-ecological areas and their unique socio-economic
conditions must receive attention. The types of research to be conducted
must address both the constraints to and the implications of the adoption
of viable technology by both small and large farms.

17. At the Center, in order to perform sound research, it is
necessary to have a well-qualified staff, trained in team research with
access to laboratories, screen houses, consultants, a suitable library
and appropriate field equipment.


B. Details of the Program


18. To accomplish these objectives several new types of research
studies will be initiated, largely by "teams of scientists," in addition
to continuing existing studies. CPATSA will coordinate the Farming
Systems Research Program using components of the Center as well as those
developed by National Centers for cotton, sheep and goats, cassava and
fruits and by the UEPAE's of Penedo, Caico and Teresina. CPATSA will
provide needed support through its facilities as well as by direct
involvement of its research staff. Several research efforts deemed most
important at this time will include:

inventory of physical and socio-economic resources of the
areas in which farming systems work will be conducted;

complete inventory of native plants;

management of salt-affected soil;

soil and water management systems;

utilization of the caatinga for livestock production;

production of natural rubber from native caatinga plants;
and

screening and testing of components for improved farming
systems.







ANNEX 3
Page 8



Inventory

19. Development of an inventory and understanding of physical and
socio-economic resources will require improved methodology. As this
information becomes available it will be placed in a "data bank."
Specific information will be obtained by interview, soil mapping, with
chemical analysis of the soils, and characterization of weather patterns
including rainfall probability. Understandings of farm families, their
aspirations, needs, skills, and attitudes toward risk and uncertainty are as
important as knowledge of economic conditions, availability of credit,
product marketing opportunities and infrastructures.

Native Plants

20. Development of a complete inventory of native plants is needed
as a basis for improving pastures and rangeland in areas of limited and
variable precipitation. Some of these native plants may prove useful
now for other crop purposes and will serve as a germplasm bank on plant
breeding. Screening of introduced plants for possible use in cropping
systems will be a continuing process with the hope of obtaining efficient
nitrogen-producing species (including trees and grasses) and greater
drouth tolerance.

Salinized Soils

21. Development of management systems for salt affected soils will
continue. The irrigation program of Brazil, a responsibility of the
Ministry of Interior, currently has 63 projects 3 in the southern part
of the country and 60 in the Northeast. The projects in the latter
region are distributed between the Departamento Nacional de Obras Contra
as Secas (DNOCS), which has 40 projects, and the Companhia de Desenvolvimento
do Vale do Sao Francisco (CODEVASF) with 20 projects. The continuous
use of fertilizers and irrigation water in these project areas can
result in several problems, among the most important of which is soil
salinization. The amount of salts applied through irrigation water
exceeds the quantity removed by drainage or deep percolation. Thus,
salt in the soil profile increases, and the concentration in the soil
solution reaches levels that inhibit crop growth and development.

22. The salinization of soils has been a matter of constant concern
by the government. In irrigated areas of the Northeast that are not
being properly managed, soil salinization is becoming more serious. In
January 1977, the Department of Agriculture and Supplies (DAA) of the
Superintendency of the Development for the Northeast (SUDENE) described
salinization and drainage problems in irrigated areas, concluding that
about 25% of the total cultivated area had soil salinity problems. This
estimate may be optimistic since recent surveys made by CPATSA, of soils
in the Sao Goncalo Irrigation Project, show that 24% of the area in








ANNEX 3
Page 9



operation is undergoing salinization. This does not include the areas
already abandoned because of high levels of salts. Assuming this level
is representative, there must be around 67,500 ha affected by salinization
in the irrigated areas of DNOCS and CODEVASF.

23. Alternatives generally recommended to reclaim salinized soils
are subsurface drainage, use of chemicals or use of salt tolerant/resistant
species. The method selected for correction will depend on the kind and
degree or salinization, availability of funds, and finally on the
availability of technical information to handle the problems. In view
of the status and severity of the problem of salinization in the region,
the following research will be carried out to:

describe the evolution of salinity problems, monitor the
variation and nature of soluble salts in irrigated soils
over time, and determine appropriate management practices to
minimize the problems;

determine the most efficient and economical methods for
reclaiming salinized soils in the different areas;

evaluate the performance of different crops in salt-affected
soils according to different irrigation management systems
and methods;

identify selections of native and cultivated species and
varieties that demonstrate tolerance to salinity;

locate, by soil survey and soil water analysis procedures,
salinized soils and soil areas which may become salinized;

determine feasibility of using groundwater for irrigation;
and

recommend procedures for reclamation and improvement of
salinized soils, and for minimizing intensification of
salinization problems.

The above research will be carried out by CPATSA in the semi-arid areas
of the Northeast region.

Soil and Water Management

24. Good soil and water management is essential for efficient crop
production. Agriculture is essential to the economy of the Northeast,
but low total precipitation and variable distribution are limiting
factors to stable and profitable agriculture. Recognizing these problems,
government agencies have given attention to improving agriculture through
irrigation, use of fertilizer, improved crop management and soil conserva-
tion measures.







ANNEX 3
Page 10


25. Irrigation projects have developed rapidly in recent years.
In the Northeast there are 54 projects with 34 located in the semi-arid
zone under DNOCS. Twenty projects are under CODEVASF, with the goal to
irrigate 50,329 ha of which 38,072 ha are already developed for irriga-
tion.

26. To use irrigation water efficiently, management practices for
crop production and water management must be developed, taking into
account practices now in use. Detailed information will be needed on
amounts and quality of the water available and water requirements of the
crop plants. In irrigated areas, information must be provided to farmers
relating to amounts and timing of water use. To provide this information,
the researcher must evaluate present systems and their limitations.

27. There are areas where groundwater is too deep or too salty and
there is inadequate surface water available for irrigation. In these
areas technology must be improved for storage of rainfall. Use of
irrigation water can only be effective and efficient if combined with
improved varieties, adequate fertilizer, appropriate soil and crop
management practices and erosion control measures.

28. The following lines of research will be pursued to reach
program objectives under the soil and water management component:

determine the technical and economic viability of the irriga-
tion practices developed for the priority crops in the
irrigated areas, taking into account interactions with crop
pests, level of mechanization, and physical properties of
the soil;

develop ways to make more effective use of water with less
total water;

determine the effects of fertilization and irrigation on the
physical and chemical properties of the soil, as reflected
in crop performance, and in laboratory analyses;

identify soil fertility and crop management practices that
maintain soil fertility and help assure long-term stability
in agricultural production;

develop economically viable farming systems for small farmers
in small watersheds;

through outlying experiments, evaluate production factors
affecting the stability of dryland agriculture; and

study methods of storage of rainfall water in the usage
areas, while controlling erosion.







ANNEX 3
Page 11



These research components of the program will be carried out by CPATSA,
UEPAE/Penedo, UEPAE/Caico and UEPAE/Teresina.

Caatinga for Livestock

29. Utilization of the caatinga for livestock production is essential
for a successful agriculture in the Northeast. Caatingas almost completely
cover the semi-arid area of that region. They are classified eco-geograph-
ically in several categories such as Sertao, Cariri, Serido, Inhamuns,
etc.; they are also classified according to type of vegetation such as
forested caatinga and shrubby caatinga with scattered trees. Ten inventory
studies have been made to show, by the different areas, the dominant
social structure, precipitation patterns, soil types, elevation and land
exposure.

30. In recent years large areas of the caatinga of the Northeast
have been altered by planting the pastures with the grass Capim Buffel.
This practice has been effective in increasing the carrying capacity of
grazing lands, but there are doubts about the long term effects: the
capacity of this pasture crop to perform under more drouth stress, and
the ecological implications. The vegetation of the caatinga is made up,
in large part, of herbaceous legumes, and shrubs and trees, all of which
play a role as forage crops, especially the trees during the dry season.
The research work in the caatinga is designed to develop improved methods
for establishment and maintenance of grazing lands, keeping in mind both
economic and ecological considerations.

31. The following lines of investigation of this component of the
research program are:

evaluation of the different types of caatinga for livestock
production;

measurement of the effect of livestock on the caatinga
vegetation under different intensities of grazing;

determination of the influence of different levels of clearing
on the herbaceous groundcover and on soil and water conditions;

evaluation of native and introduced forage crops under
existing conditions in different areas of the caatinga;

comparison of methods for development of improved pastures
in the caatinga, including establishment, control of undesir-
able invading species and combinations of grasses and legumes;

determination of the carrying capacity of pastures developed
using both native and introduced species; and







ANNEX 3
Page 12



determination of the productivity and value of forage species
of the caatinga and identification of the more promising
ones for use in improved systems.

32. CNPC will be responsible for all of the research in the above
components of the research program as it relates to sheep and goat
production in the caatinga. The specific lines of research to be con-
ducted by CNPC are:

determination of the most effective diet for goats and sheep
in the tropical areas of the caatinga;

determination of the nutritional value of forage species of
shrubs and trees of the caatinga;

determination of the carrying capacity of native caatinga,
thinned caatinga and cleared caatinga;

determination of the need for supplementation of the diet of
sheep and goats during the dry season;

study of the relationship among the level of nutrition, milk
production and lactation period, for goats under grazing
conditions; and

determination of the nutritional requirements of goats
during gestation and lactation periods under grazing condi-
tions in the caatinga.

33. In addition to CPATSA, this research described thus far will
also involve UEPAE/Penedo which will conduct plant and animal management
research on cattle production, as distinct from that for the small
ruminants.

Manicoba

34. Natural rubber can be obtained from native manicoba (Manihot
piauiense) plants in the caatinga and can provide work for family labor
resulting in increased income.

35. Between 1870 and 1910, Brazilian production of natural rubber
(from Hevea) met 98% of world consumption. All of that production came
from Amazonia. Southeast Asia, through systematic establishment of
plantations, eventually gained a large share of the world market for
natural rubber.

36. World War II caused a new surge in exploration of the vast
native rubber areas of the Amazon Basin, primarily in response to military
needs for rubber. The demand became so great that latex was taken from
the manicoba of the Northeast. More than 3,000 tons of rubber from this
plant was exported in one year during World War II.








ANNEX 3
Page 13



37. More than two-thirds of domestic Brazilian natural rubber
requirements (about 600,000 tons) was imported in 1977. In view of this
situation, Brazil, through SUDHEVHEA, has taken steps to find substitutes
for the imported natural rubber. Manicoba can make a major contribution.

38. PROBOR II (Program for Rubber) plans to plant 120,000 ha of
Hevea during the next 5 years in Bahia and Amazonia to meet the national
goal of self-sufficiency in natural rubber. The impact of this program
would not be felt for about 8 years when the initial plantings would
reach an economic production level. Meanwhile the shortage of domestic
production would continue. Therefore, it is important to accelerate
programs for production of natural rubber at least during the intervening
period. This is possible if the potential contribution of manicoba is
exploited. Latex can be taken from manicoba, 3 to 4 years after planting,
depending on the species, with a yield of 150-250 g per tree per year,
increasing to 300-600 g after the sixth year.

39. Manicoba is a potentially important industrial crop that can
increase the options for the farmer of the Northeast. If each farmer
had at least one hectare of manicoba in production, he should obtain a
latex yield of about 187.5 kg/ha/year. This assumes a planting pattern
of 4 x 4 m resulting in 625 trees with an average production of 300
g/tree/year. Currently the price of natural rubber is around CR$ 65.00
per kg, which would mean an additional income for the farmer of CR$ 21,178
per ha/year.

40. Another consideration is the use of marginal cropland for
manicoba which is now used for annual crops, including sloping areas
that need a vegetative cover to prevent erosion. This represents another
option for use of such land in the semi-arid areas.

41. The following research is proposed to address the goals envisaged
for exploitation of manicoba as a potentially important source of natural
rubber:

carry out studies on the edafic-climate characteristics of
the areas where manicoba is found;

develop technology for sexual and assexual propagation of
the crop and nursery technology;

determine plant density technology and methods of planting
manicoba;

determine principal pests and methods of control; and

select rapidly growing species having high yields and deter-
mine the best methods for collecting the latex, taking into
account the utilization of family labor during the dry
season.







ANNEX 3
Page 14


This research will be developed by CPATSA in collaboration with CNPSe.

Farming Systems

42. Farming systems improvement must be devised for both small and
large farmers. Because farming in the semi-arid region is a relatively
high risk operation, small farmers use farming systems which tend to
minimize risks.

43. Until recently, much of the research for the semi-arid Northeast
was oriented toward monoculture, with development and evaluation of
varieties and methods based on such a farming system. In reality little
farming, especially at the small farmer level, is monoculture. These
farmers grow a variety of crops in associations. Thus development of
improved genetic material must take into account the way the individual
crops are grown. Selection efficiency can be improved by simulating
actual mixed farming systems and their unique characteristics. Research
will be directed toward the development and screening of components and
cropping systems for several areas of the region. Improved alternative
systems will be devised and tested that will enable better use of land
and labor and achieve the ultimate goal of improving income and improving
levels of living in the rural areas of the Northeast.

44. The proposed research will be conducted with the following
emphases:

identification and testing of promising genotypes in different
areas of the region, based on their contribution to improved
cropping systems;

development of crop production technology, such as seedbed
preparation, planting methods and plant density for all
crops in improved cropping systems;

determination of lime and fertilizer needs and competition
effect of crops used in different cropping systems; and

study of the production levels and stability of different
cropping systems.

45. In addition to the general research orientation to cropping
systems, attention will focus on specific crops such as cassava and
cotton, because of their importance in the economy of the region.
Arboreal cotton is always grown the first year in association
with food crops (maize and beans) and forages (sorghum and cactus), and
in subsequent years serves as shade for livestock that graze during
certain periods of the cropping systems cycle, and after the harvest.
Herbaceous cotton is grown in the "agrestes areas" in association with
maize, beans, potatoes, tobacco and forage cactus. Since most cotton is
found on small farms, where land and capital are limiting, research must







ANNEX 3
Page 15



be oriented accordingly, and serve as a means of improving the standard
of
living of operators of the small holdings as well as of providing technology
for large farmers.

46. Research efforts on cropping systems, specifically involving
cotton, will include:

identification of the relative size and characteristics of
areas that produce herbaceous and arboreal cotton;

development of improved technology for cropping systems
where cotton, maize and beans are grown in association;

determination of the best time and method for planting
maize, beans and sorghum in association with arboreal cotton --
for optimum production;

determination of the most effective crops to be used in
associations involving herbaceous cotton; and

development of improved cropping methods and systems where
cassava is grown in association with maize.

These research projects will be conducted under the overall coordination
of CPATSA which will execute some of them. Others will involve CNPA,
CNPMF, UEPAE/Penedo, UEPAE/Caico and UEPAE/Teresina.

Administration and Coordination of the Program

47. The overall administration of the Northeast semi-arid Farming
Systems Program is the responsibility of the Director of CPATSA. Since
farming systems research is also being done at several other stations in
the Northeast, he is also responsible for coordination of the farming
systems work at those stations. Furthermore, he is responsible for
assuring appropriate coordination and cooperation with EMBRAPA commodity
research centers, UEPAEs and appropriate regional, state and private
research entities. The details of the total research program, as well
as the project supervision, are the responsibility of the sub director
for research. Developing the "research teams" is the joint responsibility
of the director and the associate director for programs. Field personnel
from the Center will follow all new alternative farming systems in the
field as they are adopted and report any problems to the research teams.
Selected components added to existing cropping systems will also be
monitored.







ANNEX 3
Page 16



C. Staffing


48. On January 1, 1980 CPATSA had a research team of 32 senior
staff members, 18 junior members and 158 research support personnel.
Some of these staff members are pursuing graduate studies in Brazil and
abroad. The teams need strengthening in crop improvement, entomology,
pathology, soil fertility, agricultural engineering and weed control.
Other areas of work also need strengthening but are less urgent. It is
proposed to add 7 senior and 13 junior staff during the project period.
Some staff will also be added at other stations funded under this program.
Staffing patterns are broadly summarized in Table 5.


D. Technical Assistance Requirements


Staff Training

49. The training program is intended to provide proper training of
senior and junior staff to assure implementation of research to accomplish
objectives of the Center and its Farming Systems Program. Plans are to
train a program-wide total of 21 more staff members to the PhD level,
and 54 members to the MSc level. Many staff members (around 196) will
participate in short term training inside and outside of Brazil. Table
3 shows details of this training.

Consultant Services

50. Consultant services are needed to improved research efforts
and to generate new ideas in agro-climatology, mechanization, reclamation
of salinized soils, farming systems and soil survey, to mention a few.
An overall total of 43.5 man years is projected. Details are shown in
Table 3.


E. Research Station Facilities


Existing

51. Funding for existing buildings at CPATSA Petrolina was provided
under the Agricultural Research I Project. Facilities include laboratories
and offices for research scientists, offices for administration and
support staff and ancillary areas such as library and lecture rooms.
This center has adequate major physical facilities to support the proposed
research program.







ANNEX 3
Page 17



Required

52. Ancillary facilities such as a building for garages and repair,
a farm shed and corral are being requested under this proposal. Also
fencing, irrigation and drainage will be considered. A total of about
US $135,000 is the estimated cost of civil works for CPATSA. More
substantial civil works requirements are involved at CUPA, UEPAE/Penedo,
UEPAE/Teresina and CNPMF (see Table 4).


F. Cost Estimates


53. The total cost of this program is estimated to be US$ 21.73
million, consisting of US$ 8.69 million for development cost, US$ 5.47
million for technical assistance, and US$ 7.57 million for incremental
cost. See Table 4 for details.


G. Potential Risks and Benefits


54. There are 3 main risks to the Farming Systems Program efforts
at the Northeast semi-arid CPATSA. The first of these risks is concerned
with low and variable rainfall effect on component research and testing
of farming systems. The second risk is also related to precipitation
and its influence on establishing farming systems with farmers. The
third risk is the development of effective "team research" at each of
the units working with cropping systems. This is more difficult to
accomplish away from the home center.

55. The benefits of viable new alternative farming systems and
components for existing systems can be significant. Among the benefits
would be additional income, greater stability of the farming population,
more employment for surplus labor and a general economic improvement for
the region. This program can be made to work.









BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT
RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR FARMING SYSTEMS
IN THE SEMI-ARID TROPICS


Institutional Participation


Location


Role Designated Within
the Project


1. Funded by the Project


CPATSA
CPNA
CNPMF
CNPF
UEPAE CAICO
UEPAE PENEDO
UEPAE Teresina


Petrolina (PE)
Campina Grande (PB)
Cruz das Almas (BA)
Sobral (CE)
Caico (RN)
Penedo (AL)
Teresina (PI)


Execution and Coordination
Execution
Execution
Execution
Execution
Execution
Execution


2. Not Funded by the Project


Maceio (AL)
Maceio (AL)
Natal (RN)
Goiania(GO)
Sete Lagoas (MG)


Execution
Execution
Execution
Execution
Execution


3. Collaborating Institutions


Natal (RN)
Recife (PE)
Mossoro (RN)
Caico (RN)


Execution
Execution
Execution
Execution


ANNEX 3
TABLE 1
PAGE 1


Name


FITPAL
UFAL
EMAPA
CNPAF
CNPMS


EMATER
SUDENE
ESAM
DNOCS





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS


RESEARCH PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

RESEARCH STATION CPATSA PETROLINA


Pre-Project
Estimates


PY-1


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


PY-5


Total Staff at
Full Development


A. Personnel
Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)
Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff
Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs

:Salaries-I
Other Operational Costs2/
Total Operating Cost


32
18
158
52


1012.4
491.4
1503.8


104.5
31.4
135.9


Incremental

237.0
71.1
308.1


Operating

411.0
164.4
575.4


Costs

585.5
234.2
819.7


717.5
287.0
1004.5


Total Incremental

2055.5
788.1
2843.6


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13
Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of


month salary (bonus)
salaries for the first two years and 40%


thereafter


M t-, M
M N
I-. ') N> .





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS


RESEARCH PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

RESEARCH STATION CNPA CAMPINA GRANDE


Pre-Project
Estimates


PY-1


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


PY-5


Total Staff at
Full Development


A. Personnel
Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)

Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff

Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
1/
Salaries-I
Other Operational Costs2/
Total Operating Cost


609.6
250.0
859.6


Incremental
62.5
18.8
81.3


Operating
101.0
40.4
141.4


Costs
115.0
46.0
161.0


118.5
47.4
165.9


Total Incremental
397.0
152.6
549.6


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13
Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of


month salary (bonus)
salaries for the first two years and 40% thereafter


-----




BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS


RESEARCH PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

RESEARCH STATION UEPAE PENEDO


Pre-Project
Estimates


A. Personnel

Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)

Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff

Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
1/
Salaries-
2/
Other Operational Costs-
Total Operating Cost


PY-1


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


Incremental
--- 76.5
--- 23.0

--- 99.5


Operating
167.0
66.8
233.8


Costs
243.5
97.4

340.9


PY-5


254.0
101.6

355.6


Total Staff at
Full Development


Total Incremental
741.0
288.8
1029.8


I/ Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13 month salary (bonus)
2/ Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of salaries for the first two years and 40% thereafter


SIX
M >




BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS


RESEARCH PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

RESEARCH STATION UEPAE CAICO


Pre-Project
Estimates


PY-1


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


PY-5


Total Staff at
Full Development


A. Personnel

Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)

Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff

Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
1/
:Salaries-/
2/
Other Operational Costs-/

Total Operating Cost


199.2
96.0
295.2


Incremental

--- 94.0
--- 28.2

--- 122.2


Operating

153.0
61.2

214.2


Costs

233.0
93.2

326.2


292.0
116.8
408.8


Total Incremental

772.0
299.4
1071.4


1/ Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13

2/ Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of


month salary (bonus)

salaries for the first two years and 40%


thereafter


1,d

W t-4tT
t X1
c-P hr 1




BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS


RESEARCH PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

RESEARCH STATION UEPAE TERESINA


Pre-Project
Estimates


PY-1


A. Personnel
Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)

Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff

Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
1/
Salaries-

Other Operational Costs2/
Total Operating Cost


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


Incremental
48.5
14.6
63.1


Operating
104.0
41.6
145.6


Costs
152.5
61.0
213.5


PY-5


173.5
69.4
242.9


Total Staff at
Full Development


Total Incremental
478.5
186.6
665.1


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13 month salary (bonus)
Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of salaries for the first two years and 40% thereafter


Mi t_ ti
M
1 "L





BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS


RESEARCH PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

RESEARCH STATION CNPMF CRUZ DAS ALMAS


Pre-Project
Estimates


PY-1


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


PY-5


Total Staff at
Full Development


A. Personnel
Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)

Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff

Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
1/
:Salaries-I
2/
Other Operational Costs-/
Total Operating Cost


Incremental Operating


21.0
6.3
27.3


73.0
29.2
102.2


Costs

125.0
50.0
175.0


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13 month salary (bonus)
Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of salaries for the first two years and 40%


149.5
59.8
209.3


Total Incremental

368.5
145.3
513.8


thereafter


< IM
N t-1 M
M X
0'\) "W




BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS


RESEARCH PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

RESEARCH STATION CNPE SOBRAL


Pre-Project
Estimates


PY-1


A. Personnel
Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)
Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff
Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
1/
Salaries-
2/
Other Operational Costs--
Total Operating Cost


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


Incremental
76.5
23.0
99.5


Operating
139.0
55.6
194.6


Costs
198.0
79.2
277.2


PY-5


233.0
93.2
326.2


Total Staff at
Full Development


Total Incremental
646.5
251.0
897.5


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13 month salary (bonus)
Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of salaries for the first two years and 40% thereafter


M rnr
t IX
-J t'




BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS


PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS


STATION


PC ATSA PETROLINA


1. Consultants


Agroclimatologist
Mechanization
Soil and water Management
Plant physiologist
Salinized soils
Microbiologist
Production systems
Crop production
Social economist
Soil (morphologist)-survey
Botanist
Pasture management
Range management





Subtotal
Cost US $/
Long-term
Short-term


Man-Years
Long-term


2.5
2.5
1.0

2.0
2.0
5.0

1.5
1.5
1.5








19.5


Total Consultants Costs


Short-term


0.5



0.5



0.5
0.5





2.0


1560.0
160.0
1720.0


2. Fellowships

A. Long-term Fellowships
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs)
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term
B. Short-term Fellowships


No. of
Participants
18
9
--
5
32
36


Man Years
36
18

20
74
9


Unit Cost
(US$ 000!my) TOTAL COST
5.5 198.0
13.0 234.0
5.5 ---
13.0 260.0
692.0
7.0 63.0


755.0

2475.0


Total Fellowships

Total Technical Assistance Costs


1/ US $80,000 per man year


ANNEX 3
TABLE 3
PAGE 1


rp Alq u P TlnT .TMA


L-





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS


PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

STATION CNPA CAMPINA GRANDE


Man-Years
1. Consultants Long-term


Short-term


Entomologist
Plant Breeder
Plant Physiologist
Production Systems
Fiber Technologist
Plant Pathologist
Agricultural Machinery











Subtotal
1/
Cost US $-
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs


2. Fellowships

A. Long-term Fellowships
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs)
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term


No. of
Participants
2
1
1
1
5


Man Years
4
2
3
4
13


Unit Cost
(US$ 000/my)
5.5
13.0
5.5
13.0


TOTAL COST
22.0
26.0
16.5
52.0
116.5


B. Short-term Fellowships

Total Fellowships

Total Technical Assistance Costs


1/ US $80,000 per man year


ANNEX 3
TABLE 3
PAGE 2


560.0


560.0


42.0


158.5

718.5





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS P

PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

STATION UEPAE PENEDO


Man-Years
1. Consultants Long-term


Short-term


Animal Production
Specialist

Soil and Water Management

Production Systems Management

Intercropping Specialist


Subtotal
1/
Cost US $-
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs


2. Fellowships
Nc
A. Long-term Fellowships Part:
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs)
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term
B. Short-term Fellowships

Total Fellowships

Total Technical Assistance Costs


o. of Unit Cost
icipants Man Years (US$ 000/my) TOTAL COST
4 8 5.5 44.0
1 2 13.0 26.0
1 3 5.5 16.5
1 4 13.0 52.0
7 17 138.5
28 7 7.0 49.0

35 24 187.5

507.5


1/ US $80,000 per man year


NNEX 3
ABLE 3
AGE 3


320.0

320.0





BRAZIL
ANNEX 3
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT TABLE 3

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS PAGE 4

PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

STATION UEPAE CAICO


Man-Years
1. Consultants Long-term


Short-term


No details


Subtotal
Cost US $:
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs


2. Fellowships
Nc
A. Long-term Fellowships Part:
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs)
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term
B. Short-term Fellowships

Total Fellowships

Total Technical Assistance Costs


o. of Unit Cost
icipants Man Years (US$ 000/my)
5 10 5.5
3 6 13.0
2 6 5.5
1 4 13.0
12 26
28 7 7.0

40 33


TOTAL COST
55.0
78.0
33.0
52.0
218.-
49.0

267.0

587.0


1/ US $80,000 per man year


320.0

320.0





BRAZIL
ANNEX 3
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT TABLE 3

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS PAGE 5

PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

STATION UEPAE TERESINA


Man-Years
Long-term


1. Consultants


Short-term


No request


Subtotal
1/
Cost US $-
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs


2. Fellowships

A. Long-term Fellowships
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs)
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term
B. Short-term Fellowships

Total Fellowships

Total Technical Assistance


1/ US $80,000 per man year


No. of Unit Cost
Participants Man Years (US$ 000/my) TOTAL COST
3 6 5.5 33.0
.--- 13.0 ---
2 6 5.5 33.0
--- --- 13.0 --

5 12 66.0
8 2 7.0 14.0

13 14 80.0

Costs 80.0





BRAZIL
A]
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT T.

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS P

PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

STATION CNPMF CRUZ DAS ALMAS


NNEX 3
ABLE 3
AGE 6


Man-Years
1. Consultants Long-term


Short-term


Multiple Cropping Specialist

Plant Pathologist

Biological Pest Control


Subtotal
1/
Cost US $-
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs


2. Fellowships
Nc
A. Long-term Fellowships Part:
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs):
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term
B. Short-term Fellowships

Total Fellowships

Total Technical Assistance Costs


o. of Unit Cost
icipants Man Years (US$ 000/my) TOTAL COST
4 8 5.5 44.0
1 2 13.0 26.0
2 6 5.5 33.0
1 4 13.0 52.0
8 20 155.0
32 8 7.0 56.0


211.0

451.0


1/ US $80,000 per man year


240.0

240.0





BRAZIL
Al
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT T

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS P

PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

STATION CNPC SOBRAL


Man-Years
1. Consultants Long-term


Short-term


Disease Control

Pasture Improvement

Nutritionist

Animal Breeder


Subtotal
1/
Cost US $-
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs

2. Fellowships
N
A. Long-term Fellowships Part
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs)
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term
B. Short-term Fellowships

Total Fellowships

Total Technical Assistance Costs


320.0

320.0


o. of Unit Cost
icipants Man Years (US$ 000/my) TOTAL COST
2 4 5.5 22.0
1 2 13.0 26.0
5.5 ---
4 16 13.0 208.0
7 22 256.0
40 10 7.0 70.0


1/ US $80,000 per man year


NNEX 3
ABLE 3
AGE 7


326.0

646.0




- -i -RKZ~I L --


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

PROGRAM BASE COST SUMMARY (US$ 000)

PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS


LOCATION


I. Development Cost -
1. Civil Works
2. Vehicles & Farm Equipment
3. Office & Laboratory EquipT.
4. Library & Document Serv. -
5. Research Farm Developments
6. Land Purchase
Subtotal I

3/
II. Technical Assistance Cost -

1. Consultants
a) Long-term
b) Short-term
2. Fellowships
a) Long-term
b) Short-term
Subtotal II

3/
III. Incremental Operational Cost -

1. Salaries & Wages
2. Other Operational Cost
Subtotal III


IV. Total Program Base Cost


CPATSA CNPA UEPAE

PETROLINA CAMPINA GDE PENEDO


135.0
431.0
304.0
170.6
125.0


1165.6


1560.0
160.0


692.0
63.0
2475.0



2055.5
788.1
2843.6

6484.2


939.0
109.0
258.0
33.0
46.0


1385.0


707.0
89.0
43.0
61.8
14.0


914.8


560.0 320.0


116.5
42.0
718.5



397.0
152.6
549.6


138.5
49.0
507.5



741.0
288.8
1029.8


2653.1 2452.1


UEPAE

CAICO

80.0
351.0
154.0
64.3
295.0


944.3


320.0



218.0
49.0
587.0



772.0
299.4
1071.4

2602.7


UEPAE CNPMF CNPC


TERESINA

267.0
55.0
87.0
39.9
12.0
110.0
570.9


66.0
14.0
80.0



478.5
186.6
665.1

1316.0


CRUZ des A

2868.0
66.0
39.0
30.8



3003.8


240.0



155.0
56.0
451.0



368.5
145.3
513.8

3968.6


SOBRAL


153.0
500.0
53.9



706.9


320.0



256.0
70.0
646.0


646.5
251.0
897.5


TOTAL



4996.0
1254.0
1385.0
454.3
492.0
110.0
8691.3


3320.0
160.0


1642.0
343.0
5465.0



5459.0
2111.8
7570.8


2250.4 21,727.1


From civil works annex
6% of incremental operational cost
From individual program annexes


N
M
- .j>




ANNEX 3
TABLE 5

PAGE 1


BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

STATION CPATSA PETROLINA



CATEGORY PREPROJECT INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT
I i I


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19. Prod. Systems Specialist
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


- I ~- 0 -


9
5

5


.L


32


1
1



18


17
6

7

1


4
8


3

1
1
1
1


50


Ci.. rI- a 1


1/
Research Support Staff -

Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


158

208

52


260


Sr. Jr. Total


3
18
13

10

1


4
9

1
3

2
3
1
2


70


2
7


3

1


1


39


- Im


80

100

25


125


238

308

77


385


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff


2/ .25 times (IV)




ANNEX 3
TABLE 5

BRAZIL PAGE 2

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN

PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

STATION CNPA CAMPINA GRANDE


CATEGORY PREPROJECT INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT


I. Research Staff Sr. Jr. Total Sr. Jr. Total Sr. Jr. Total

1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist 2 1 3 2 1 3
3. Plant Protection 2 1 3 2 1 3
4. Animal Protection 1 1 1 1
5. Soil Scientist 1 1 1 1
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 3
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist 1 1 2 1 1 2
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer 1 1 1 1
18. Statistician
19.
20.

i1. Subtotal Scientific/Research 7 4 11 1 2 3 8 6 14
Staff
I. Research Support Staff 37 (actual) 13 50

V. Total Research Staff (II&III) 48 16 64

V. Administrative and Technical 14 6 20
Support Staff

I. Total Staffing at Station 62 22 84








BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

STATION UEPAE PENEDO


CATEGORY


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


PREPROJECT


INCREMENTAL


FULL DEVELOPMENT


1 1 p


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr.


Total


Sr. Jr. Total


- mj t q


1
1






1












3


3
1






1
1











6


1
5
1
1
1




1
1


1

1

2



15


SSt af f a I


Research Support Staff


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff

Total Staffing at Station


12 (actual)

18

6 (actual)


37 61
Iwmw


ANNEX 3
TABLE 5
PAGE 3


',


22

31

6


34

49

12


24








BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

STATION UEPAE CAICO


CATEGORY


Research Staff

1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.


Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff
Research Support Staff


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff

Total Staffing at Station


PREPROJECT


INCREMENTAL


I 1r


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


FULL DEVELOPMENT


Sr. Jr. Total


- y v my ; I. Urn.


2
1







1












4


- ~ ~ ~ ~ Em h- -m A I- n


15

19

8


27


26

36

6


14

14


41

55

14


42 69
II vI


ANNEX 3

TABLE 5

PAGE 4


w


. .


. .





ANNEX 3
TABLE 5
PAGE 5


BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

STATION UEPAE TERESINA


CATEGORY PREPROJECT INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT
r U


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff
Research Support Staff


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff

Total Staffing at Station


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


- Y Y ..


1


1
1





1



1

1
1



7


a q I .


16 (actual)


22

8


30


10

17

3


20


26

39

11


50


r


I


13








BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN

PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

STATION CNPMF -CRUZ DAS ALMAS


CATEGORY


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


PREPROJECT


r I


Sr. Jr. Total


INCREMENTAL


Sr. Jr. Total


FULL DEVELOPMENT


Sr. Jr. Total


- I r I 4 .


12


1




6


6tf 14 10*


Research Support Staff


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff

Total Staffing at Station


35 (actual

53

14 (actual)


67


11

17

2


46

70

16


19 86


ANNEX 3
TABLE 5
PAGE 6


E


14




14


10





ANNEX 3
TABLE 5
PAGE 7


BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS SEMI-ARID TROPICS

STATION CNPF SOBRAL


CATEGORY PREPROJECT INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT
I I


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economsit/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Sr. Jr.


Total


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


1 1 2 1 1 1 2 3
1 1 2 1 1 2
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 2





1 1 1 1


1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1




3 1 4 3 5 8 6 6 12


C F.9 a q,.1 1 .. I I


Research Support Staff


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff

Total Staffing at Station


10

14

3


17


20

28

6


34


30

42

9


51







ANNEX 4
Page 1



BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

RESEARCH PROGRAM IN FARMING SYSTEMS IN THE HUMID TROPICS

I. INTRODUCTION


A. Agricultural Importance of the Region


General Description

1. The humid tropics cover about one-sixth of the land mass of
the earth, or about 25 million sq km.

2. The South and Central American humid tropics occupy 8 million
sq km. Altogether, these areas are equivalent to about one-half of the
total cultivated land of the world. But only a small percentage of this
extensive area is presently under cultivation, despite its location in
an ecological belt where biological activity is intense and ecosystems
are highly productive.

3. The Brazilian humid tropics are located within the area known
as Amazonia, which is equivalent to 59.2% of the Brazilian national
territory. They comprise the Northern region which includes the states
of Acre, Amazonas, and Para; the federal territories of Amapa, Roraima,
and Rondonia; part of the state of Mato Grosso to the north of the 160
parallel; the state of Goias to the north of the 130 parallel; and
Maranhao west of the 440 meridian, which forms what is known as the
Pre-Amazonian Maranhense. According to 1978 statistics, the population
of Amazonia is estimated at 7.4 million, which is equivalent to 6% of
the national total. Urban populations represent 62% of the total and
show a distinct increasing trend. The average population density is 1.5
inhabitants per sq km, which is the lowest in the country.

4. The incorporation of this immense area into the national
production process has been slow and it contributes only 2% to national
revenues. In the Amazon region, the state of Para accounts for almost
half of the gross value of production, followed by the state of Amazonas
with about 30%. The federal territory of Rondonia scarcely achieves
15%, the state of Acre and the federal territory of Amapa less than 5%,
and the federal territory of Roraima slightly more tha/l%. The sectorial
composition shows the dominance of the tertiary sector- with almost 50%




S Primary Sector: Extractive (Agriculture, Mining, etc.), Secondary
Sector: Transformation (Industrial), Tertiary Sector: Services
(Government, Transportation, etc.).







ANNEX 4
Page 2



of the gross value of the regional product, followed by the primary
sector at around 40%, and the rest in the secondary sector. In the
breakdown of the gross value of agricultural production, there is a
predominance of the extractive sub-sector with more than 60%; cattle
raising and crop farming account for the rest, with cattle predominating.
This composition is one of the factors accounting for disparities in
regional income distribution, along with problems related to the extent
of the territory, its physical geography and effective utilization, and
the type of economic activity. All of these factors raise the per caput
income to slightly more than 50% of the national average, placing it
second to the Northeast in national statistics.

5. The importance of the humid tropics for the national economy
cannot be overemphasized. Agricultural activities must be expanded in
the future and the Amazon basin offers great potential for this. The
utilization of this potential, however, must be carried out with proper
planning based on scientific knowledge so as to produce not only economic
results but also protection for the environment and the avoidance of the
indiscriminate deforestation of the area.

6. Despite the vast renewable natural resources of the humid
tropics, their utilization is minimal.

Physiology and Soil

7. Because of the large area of the land under study, the soil
surveys conducted to date provide only a first approximation and are
still on a small scale. In the same sense, the area may be divided into
2 main physiographical parts: the low Amazon plateau and the alluvial
flood plains.

8. The low Amazon plateau constitutes the terra firma belonging
to different stages of formation from the Precambrian to the old Tertiary
or Quaternary (Pleistocene) and it constitutes approximately 5% of the
Brazilian Amazon territory.

9. The non-hydromorphic soils, most of which have good physical
characteristics but are chemically poor (dystrophic), are included in
the Amazon Plateau. It is estimated that these types of soils cover
about 365 million ha and that about 28 million ha are made up of eutrophic
soils (medium to high fertility). Some of the most important dystrophic
soils are yellow latosols, red-yellow podzolic soils, quartzian sands,
cambisols, and concretionary lateritic soils. The eutrophic soils are
represented by eutrophic red-yellow podzolic soils, structured terra
roxa, red brunizems, red latosols, eutrophic cambisols, and others to a
lesser extent.

10. The alluvial plains occupy one-sixth of the total area. This
area includes the varzeas, estimated at 19 million ha with medium to
high fertility. The main soils of this area are classified as semi-humid







ANNEX 4
Page 3



gley, humid gley, eutrophic alluvial soils, and other undetermined
hydromorphic soils.

11. Among the dystrophic soils, which constitute a minority and
are normally in transition areas, the most important are the hydromorphic
laterites, comprising gray hydromorphics, dystrophic alluvial soils and
hydromorphic podzols, this latter commonly found in low terraces associated
with terra firm.

12. Considering the agricultural potential of the Amazon region,
it is estimated that 297,667,100 ha (83.7%) could be used for farming.
Of this total, 216,643,000 may be used for both short- and long-term
crops depending on socio-economic factors. The area considered for
long-term crops covers 21,750,000 ha, a large part of which constitutes
the flood plains by the wide rivers. Of the areas suitable for long-term
crops, approximately 54,194,000 ha are presently occupied by forest
reserves, productive forests, Indian reservations, and ecological sites
of interest to the government.

13. Among alternatives of less intensive use, it is estimated that
15,092,700 ha (4.4%) may be used for improved pastures, after subtracting
3,033,800 ha for natural reserves; 23,524,000 ha (6.7%) may be used as
natural pastures after subtracting 3,795,000 for natural reserves;
1,765,400 ha (0.5%) may be used for forestry after subtracting 349,000
ha for natural reserves; and 16,800,300 ha (4.8%) without agricultural
potential, but which serve for ecological conservation. Of this area,
5,184,600 ha are already in areas regulated by the government. Areas
allocated to crops may be used for less intensive activities and constant
study with the passage of time will determine which land should be taken
out of crops, cultivated pastures, forestry, etc., and left only for the
preservation of the local flora and fauna.

Tropical Rain Forest

14. The Brazilian Amazon region has 358 million ha of vegetative
cover, of which 280 million ha are considered as dense tropical rain
forest. Of this last total, 273.5 million constitute the terra firma
forest, and the remaining 6.5 million are considered as forests of the
varzea. The forests of Amazonia represent 20% of the world's tropical
rain forest and 78% of the forested area of Brazil. The volume of
natural wood is estimated at 50 million cu m per year which accounts for
30% of the world's tropical wood stock. Despite the tremendous potential,
the Amazon region produces only 3 million cu m of wood, contributing
only 3% to the international market and 10% to the domestic market. The
number of tree species is estimated at 6,000 but only 60 of them are
marketed.







ANNEX 4
Page 4



Water Resources

15. Water represents another large segment of the natural resources
available in the region, considered to have the world's largest river
network with a total drainage area estimated at 7,300,000 sq km. The
fishing industry of the Amazon region has not developed as one might
expect from a region with such favorable characteristics as extensive
coastal area, the wealth of its rivers and lakes, and the variety and
value of the species found in its waterways.

Climate

16. Approximately 15% of the Brazilian territory has a climate
classified by Koppen as Afi, 44% as Ami, and 41% as Awi.

Present Agricultural Situation

17. Historically, the economy of the Amazon region has been based
on extractive industries. More recently, because of the decline of the
prices of forest products in national and international markets, and the
development of regional urban markets, agricultural activities have
increased in number and scope.

18. Agricultural activity in the region is centered around the
growing of food crops for subsistence and marketing in the regional
urban centers. There are many serious problems hindering the development
of agricultural activities in the Amazon region. Among others may be
cited the low fertility of the terra firma soils, the difficulty of
establishing pasture, and the lack of marketing infrastructure for agri-
cultural products (transportation, storage, and processing). The marketing
process distorts prices and fails to provide farmers with the necessary
incentives to produce.

19. In 1975, the northern region comprised 9.22% of the total area
of agricultural holdings in the country and barely 3.41% of the total
area occupied by temporary or permanent crops. On the other hand, farms
of less than 100 ha in size account for 84.67% of the total number of
land holdings in the area but only represent 16.64% of the total area of
land holdings. Land utilization for extractive industries and agricultural
activity is estimated as follows:

Crops 10%
Pastures/cattle production 20%
Rain forest 70%

20. About 20% of the cultivated area is used for permanent crops
and the remaining 80% for temporary crops. The area harvested for the
main commodities produced in the northern region is estimated at 500,000 ha.
Out of this total, cassava occupies 40.0%; rice, 24.3%; and maize,
17.4%. These are the most important food crops in the region. The







ANNEX 4
Page 5



following are some of the products grown largely or exclusively in the
Amazon region: jute (100%), Malva silvestris (91%), black pepper (97%),
guarana (100%), natural rubber (85%), Brazil nuts (100%). The figures
in parentheses represent the share of the total national production.

21. Livestock production plays an important part in the regional
economy, accounting for 20% of the gross value of agricultural production,
with an estimated 2.3% of the national herd. The state of Para accounts
for 61% of the cattle herd in the region, the state of Amazonas for 15%,
and the federal territory of Roraima for 13%.

22. Available data for the northern region indicate that there are
large concentrations of cattle in a small number of farms as well as
numerous farms with small herds. In the North 16.48% of the cattle are
on farms of 10-200 ha (61.17%); 14.83% are on farms of 200-1,000 ha
(16.84%); 28.26% are on farms of 1,000-5,000 ha (11.29%); and 37.17% are
on farms of more than 5,000 ha (3.19%). The figures in parentheses are
the percentage of farms in the different size categories.

23. Water buffalo are raised primarily in the Amazon region and
their population reaches 75% of the national total. In the state of
Para, 75% of the water buffalo population is found in the archipelago of
Marajo. Water buffalo are raised mainly on varzeas or other lands
subject to flooding. In general, the varzeas are not suitable for
cattle operations because of flooding but constitute a valuable area for
water buffalo. Considering the fact that there are 30 million ha of
alluvial plains in the Amazon, it is logical to assume that water buffalo
raising has a promising future in the Northern region. Because of the
water buffalo's ability to adapt to the conditions of both varzea and
terra firma, in addition to its high degree of resistance to parasites
and infectious and contagious diseases even under poor management, water
buffalo raising in the Amazon basin is developing well.

24. Agriculture in Amazonia is characterized by a low level of
technology -- rarely do farmers use fertilizers or other modern inputs.
The region utilizes 0.7% of the tractors in use in agricultural activities
in Brazil and only 1.5% of the total amount allocated for rural credit.
On the other hand, the extractive industries of the area follow traditional
patterns of predatory exploitation and declining productivity.

25. The Northern region depends on other parts of the country for
such basic staples as beef, beans, milk, fruits, and vegetables, with
consequent unfavorable effects on the level of nutrition and the cost of
living. One of the main challenges is that of improvement of the condition
of the low-income farmer.







ANNEX 4
Page 6



B. Present Status of Research Program


26. Considerable work has already been done on the soils of the
area and exploratory trials on the utilization of the varzeas are promising.
The problems and capabilities of the water buffalo, including diseases
and pests, climate adaptability, and utilization have been explored.
Diseases and pests of black pepper and its asexual reproduction are
being studied and some advances have been made. Considerable information
has been obtained on guarana, a wild crop, including its flowering,
pollination and fruiting cycles, presence of diseases and pests, and
possibilities for selection. Brazil nut, a crop now collected in the
wild, has not been extensively studied although some diseases have been
reported. Its vegetative reproduction is being studied and there exist
extensive possibilities for selection and improvement. Little has been
done in mechanization and agro-forestry.


II. PROPOSED RESEARCH PROGRAM


A. General Description


27. Research will be concerned with farming systems both in the
alluvial areas and in the terra firma. In the first area, priority will
be given to jute, rice, and water buffalo--for meat and milk. In the
second area, research will concentrate on cacao, African oil palm, black
pepper, guarana, rubber, and Brazil nuts, among the perennial crops, and
Malva silvestris, upland rice, beans, cassava, and maize among the
short-term crops. Priority will also be given to beef and dairy cattle
in addition to food crops in eutrophic soils in both areas. Low-income
producers will receive special attention.

Objectives of the Program

28. The broad objectives of research in the Farming Systems Program
for the Humid Tropics are:

to improve the diet and welfare, as well as the economic
condition of the people in the area;

to improve the productivity of the area by taking advantage
of the natural features of the terrain;

to improve the contribution to the economy of the region and
to the country of several important crops, some of which are
still harvested in the wild state, through the use of improved
farming systems; and


- to protect the ecology of the region.






ANNEX 4
Page 7



Research Program Requirements

29. In order to achieve the proposed objectives, the following
requirements must be met:

recruitment of competent staff;

enlargement and construction of adequate laboratories;

acquisition of necessary equipment, furniture and vehicles;

establishment of library, documentation and information
services;

technical services including consultation, fellowship and
training programs; and

incremental costs of the program during a 5-year period.


B. Details of the Research Program


Research Strategy and Research Program

30. The strategy will comprise the implementation of the following
groups of research components:

(a) Agricultural development on lands subject to flooding

utilization of varzeas
agricultural mechanization

(b) Development of the agricultural potential of the humid
tropics

utilization of marginal lands for forestry and
agro-forestry
development of perennial crops (Brazil nuts, guarana,
African oil palm, and black pepper)

(c) Livestock development

control of spittlebug in pastures
production and use of water buffalo

(d) Bioenergy

energy production from renewable resources.







ANNEX 4
Page 8



31. The forestry research under this program will be carried out
in collaboration with the National Research Program for Forestry head-
quartered at the Unidade Regional de Pesquisas Florestais Centro-Sul
(URPFCS), Colombo, PR; the research on African oil palm will be done in
collaboration with the National Research Program for Oil Palm, headquartered
at the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa da Seringueira (CNPSe), Belem, PA;
and that in energy will be carried out in collaboration with the National
Research Program for Bioenergy, headquartered in the Science and Technology
Department (DTC), EMBRAPA, Brasilia, D.F. These activities are not,
therefore, described in detail in this project.

32. Research will be carried out in accord with the needs of the
farmers, especially those with limited income, in close coordination
with technical assistance and rural development activities. Special
attention will be given to the preservation of plant populations and to
soil and water conservation in an effort to maintain the ecological
balance.

Utilization of the Varzeas

33. The potential of the varzeas bordering many of the muddy
rivers of Amazonia is well known. Recent studies by remote sensing
indicate that in the Amazon estuary alone there are 3.8 million ha of
high and low alluvial plains. Altogether in the region, the area of
land subject to flooding reaches 30 million ha.

34. Production trials conducted with the cooperation of small
farmers on the rivers of the state of Amazonas, show that above average
levels of productivity may be obtained without fertilizer application;
for example, 1,500 kg/ha of beans, 4,500 kg/ha of maize, and 5,000 kg/ha
of rice. In the alluvial plains of the Caete River in the state of
Para, small producers have obtained yields of 3,500 kg/ha of rice with
natural irrigation, using more productive varieties and traditional
cultural practices. In some of these areas 2 crops may be grown per
year. The above indicates that the varzeas may be exploited in the
near-term future at relatively low cost.

35. CPATU has developed technology to promote the growing of
irrigated rice in varzeas.

36. In addition to supporting basic crops such as rice, beans,
maize and vegetables, the higher varzeas offer good conditions for water
buffalo production.

37. Considering the fact that food production in Amazonia does not
keep up with the levels of consumption, despite the easy availability of
much technology to improve yields, it is evident that improved utilization
of alluvial plains for food production is highly justifiable. The
following lines of research are planned:







ANNEX 4
Page 9




soil and water management: development of technology for
soil management and water control;

weed control: determination of economical weed control
methods;

agricultural mechanization: testing of agricultural machinery
specifically developed for marshy areas; and

production systems: study of production systems used by
farmers and incorporation of new, more efficient economical
technology; testing and dissemination of production systems
in monoculture, sequences and associations involving subsistence
crops, with and without fertilization.

Agricultural Mechanization

38. Production of some agricultural commodities, typically of the
tropical areas, is not mechanized and their productivity and the expansion
of their cultivated area have been limited. The possibilities of mechaniza-
tion in cultures such as cassava, Malva silvestris, and sorghum, must be
explored.

39. On the other hand, the use of new areas such as the alluvial
plains of the Amazon region, the Araguaia-Tocantins and the pantanal
Matogrossense, has been limited by the lack of adequate equipment. It
is essential to develop technology for small operations using water
buffalo and micro-tractors for traction in systems similar to those used
in the Philippines, Korea, and Japan.

40. The use of animal traction (mules, horses, and oxen) must be
oriented in low-income, highly-populated areas where tractor mechanization
is not economical or technically unfeasible, such as the North, Northeast,
and the mountainous areas of southern Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo.

41. Considering the lack of qualified personnel in agricultural
mechanization, initially the project must give emphasis to training.
The following lines of research are planned:

mechanization of soil preparation;

agricultural implements (seedbed preparation, cultivation,
control of erosion, leveling);

tractors and harvesters (improvement and introduction of new
types), including use of alternate energy sources);








ANNEX 4
Page 10



animal traction in upland crops;

animal traction in varzeas;

machinery and equipment for the application of pesticides
and fungicides; and

machines for the processing of agricultural products (improvement
of old machines and development of prototypes for specific
crops).

Brazil Nut Production

42. The Brazil nut is one of the main export items of the North
region contributing US$29.7 million for an export volume of 20,190 tons
in 1977 (CACEX, 1977).

43. Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) grow in the terra firma of
Mato Grosso; in the valleys of the Maderia, Maues, Purus, Negro, and
Solimoes Rivers in the state of Amazonas; and in homogeneous micro-regions
of the Maraba and middle Amazon river valleys in the state of Para, as
well as in the territories of Acres, Amapa, Rondonia, and Roraima. The
state of Para contributes 60% to the regional Brazil nut production and
the micro-regions of Maraba contributes 78% of Para's total production.
Virtually all Brazil nuts are harvested from wild trees.

44. The tree grows well on terra firma in areas of tall vegetation
normally found in places of difficult access. This fact imposes the use
of a system of middlemen having as many as 5 stages, and this practice
results in losses of 30-40% of the national Brazil nut production.

45. The establishment of a sound research program would be highly
advantageous for the purpose of placing the industry on a sounder footing
through the selection of high yielding varieties with a view to the
establishment of commercial plantations. The following lines of research
are planned:

breeding (introduction of high-yielding wild materials;
cloning of accessions in experimental fields; and selection
for short stature and early bearing);

entomology (identification of insects harmful to the Brazil
nut; identification of pollinizing insects, their frequency
on the plant, and their habits; and identification of plants
on which the pollinizing insects feed);

soils and nutrition (soil surveys of regions with high
production densities; definition of the substratum and its
fertilization for good development of seedlings; and correla-
tion of the nutritional levels of the plant with the percentage
of fruit bearing);







ANNEX 4
Page 11



floral biology (determination of the viability of pollen and
receptivity of the stigma; studies of ovule fertilization
and its correlation to fruit bearing; and correlation of
fruit bearing to self- and cross-pollination);

management and cultural practices (comprehensive analysis of
grafting techniques and methods for grafted stump transplant;
establishment of adequate conditions for association of the
Brazil nut culture with other high-yielding crops; and
development of grafted Brazil nut trees); and

seeds (clarification of any problems related to Brazil nut
seed germination).

Pepper Production

46. Pepper (Piper nigrum) is grown almost exclusively in the North
region, accounting for 99% of national production. The state of Para is
the main pepper producer in the country, contributing 95% of total
production in an area estimated at 8,000 ha. Average yield in Para is
2.5 kg per plant, although yields may vary from 1.5 to 4.0 kg per plant.

47. Pepper production accounts for 22.5% of the gross value of
agricultural production in the North. Labor used for harvesting and
processing in the state of Para is estimated at 1,635,000 person-days
per year. In a period of 4 months, more than 13,000 people are employed
in activities related to this crop.

48. According to available statistics, during the period 1973-76,
the area planted to pepper expanded by 22% while production increased by
only 11%. This may be explained as resulting from the establishment of
new pepper plantations to compensate for losses suffered by Fusarium
attacks, abandonment of diseased plantations and the entry of small
farmers into pepper production.

49. The increase in the production and in the yield of this crop
is an important and realistic objective not only because of the favorable
soil and climatic conditions of the region, but also because of the
interest of local farmers in the crop as a result of the favorable price
in domestic markets. The following lines of research are planned:

breeding (increase of the germ plasm collection through
introduction of cultivars and controlled hybridization among
promising varieties; and selection of high-yielding cultivars
resistant to pests and diseases);

plant pathology and entomology (identification and evaluation
of the economic importance of pathogens and pests; and
evaluation of the efficiency of fungicides and insecticides
in the control of the principal pests and diseases);







ANNEX 4
Page 12



management and cultural practices (increase productivity
through mulching, soil drainage, and optimum planting density;
evaluation of the productivity and economic aspects of
monocultures, multiple cropping, intercropping, rotation,
and the use of "living posts"; and study of techniques for
multiplication by cuttings);

soils and nutrition (determination of economic levels of
fertilization; and analysis of the effect of different
levels of nutrients on productivity); and

economics (analysis of the price situation in domestic and
foreign markets).

Guarana (Paulinia cupana)

50. Guarana culture has created great interest among rural investors,
especially after regulations were enacted (the "Soft Drink Law") requiring
the addition of 0.02% of guarana extract to the soft drink of the same
name. Another reason for increased interest is the possible extraction
for pharmaceutical use of caffeine and other products from the guarana
seed .

51. Present production does not meet either domestic or foreign
demands and guarana constitutes only 0.56% of the value of agricultural
production in the Northern region. Most of the plantations presently in
production are composed of old trees. The plantations show great genetic
variation, lack of adequate management, and population density between
100 and 400 plants per ha. All of these factors contribute to the low
yield of 120 kg of dry kernels per ha. In the last few years, however,
guarana culture has attracted attention because of the good market
outlook. Recent demand projections indicate that, in the next 5
years, some 8,500 ha will be planted to guarana and that by 1985 the
demand for the dry kernel will have reached 2,500 tons. The following
lines of research are planned:

breeding (collection of high-yielding genetic material with
resistance to pests and diseases from among the wild popula-
tions);

plant pathology and entomology (survey of the occurrence and
severity of pests and diseases; studies on disease etiology
and epidemiology, and on pest biology; and evaluation of
damage caused by pests and diseases and the development of
proper methods for their control);

soils and nutrition (studies to identify mineral deficiencies
and critical mineral levels; methods and intervals for
fertilizer and lime applications; and identification of
economic levels of fertilizer);







ANNEX 4
Page 13



Seed technology (study of the factors influencing seed
quality);

management and cultural practices (studies of plant population
density; and crop profitability in monoculture and in associated
cropping under different management systems);

physiology (determination of the best plant structure;
research in vegetative propagation; analysis of the influence
of different light levels on the growth and acclimitization
of seedlings; and determination of the influence of leaf
area on the growth and photosynthetic capacity of the guarana
plant); and

technology (analysis of the possibilities of manufacturing
guarana soluble powder).

Control of Spittle Bug in Pastures

52. Considerable damage is caused by the species Deois incomplete
in pastures, especially during the rainy season. According to EMBRAPA,
based on 1974 prices, spittle bug damages are estimated at 76.6 billion
cruzeiros per year to the cattle industry.

53. Biological control through the use of the fungus Metarrhizium
anisopliae, has been studied since 1969 and there are encouraging results
in some regions. Guagliumi (1970) reports control rates of 21-58.1% of
the adult insects and 36-40% of the nymph population under field conditions.
Veiga, et. al., (1972) observed parasitism of Deois incomplete by the
fungus equivalent to 90-100%, under field conditions. Costa et. al.
(1974) produced the fungus in large scale and made it available in
convenient plastic containers. Aquino (1975) improved the production
method by developing a powder form which is presently sold under the
commercial name of "Metaquino."

54. In view of the lack of information on the biology of Deois
incomplete, a study will be undertaken on the life cycle of the insect.
Additional surveys and studies will be conducted on the biology of its
natural enemies. The following lines of research are planned:

determination of methods for the biological control of
spittle bug in pastures using fungi, nematodes and insects;

analysis of the resistance of forage grasses to Deois
incomplete;

study the biology of spittle bug in pastures;

determination of the population variations of the insect in
pastures;







ANNEX 4
Page 14



studies on the performance and biology of spittle bug, its
parasites and predators, in pastures;

studies on the chemical control of the insect in pastures;
and

evaluation of the damage caused to pastures.

Production and Use of Water Buffalo

55. Annual precipitation in vast areas of Amazonia exceeds 2,500 mm
per year. It is estimated that this region has close to 30 million ha
of flood plains. In the area of Marajo, the lower and the middle Amazon
River, large areas are subject to flooding during the rainy season, and
in the Baixada Maranhense, there are excellent conditions for buffalo
raising. Buffalo can also be grown in the savannahs of terra firma
north of Obidos in the state of Para, in Roraima, and in the Cerrados of
Amapa.

56. The amount of meat obtained from buffalo is equivalent to that
obtained from beef cattle. Buffalo produce an average of 5 liters of
milk per day. Some cows may even produce 20 liters per day in two
milkings. Buffalo milk has a higher nutritional value than cow's milk
and has a higher yield of cheese and butter.

57. In addition to producing milk and meat, buffalo may be used
for traction and transport. They may carry from 1,200 to 1,500 kgs at
an average speed of 3 km per hour. The exceptional characteristics of
this animal and the highly favorable conditions found in the Amazon
region for its development, have generated keen interest in water buffalo.

58. Cattle raised in the Amazon region do not produce enough milk
for local consumption. The consumption of fresh milk in this area of
Brazil is one of the lowest in the world and beef production does not
meet 50% of the regional demand. These shortages may be made up by the
water buffalo. The following lines of research are planned:

breeding (analysis of the buffalo mating systems, and selection
of herds for meat and dairy production);

health (identification of the main health problems affecting
the water buffalo; and study of the prevention and control of
infectious, contagious, parasitic and metabolic diseases in
buffalo);

nutrition (study of the establishment, fertilization and
weed control in pastures; pasture management under controlled
grazing systems; development of feeding systems for use
during critical periods of forage production; study of feed
supplementation for nursing buffalo females, especially in







ANNEX 4
Page 15



dairy herds; and studies of nutritional deficiencies and the
use of mineral supplements);

management (management systems for meat and dairy herds; and
methods for the utilization of buffalo power in agricultural
activities);

meat and milk production systems (physical and economic
evaluation of production systems in terra firma, in varzeas,
and in combinations of the two);

production technology, and byproducts (evaluation of the
chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of buffalo
meat and milk in relation to processing and industrialization);
and

marketing (study of the marketing conditions for buffalo
products and by-products).

Administration

59. The program will be coordinated by CPATU, Belem, and implemented
by CPATU with branch operations carried out by the UEPAEs of Altamira,
Para; Manaus, Amazonas; Rio Branco, Acre; and UEPAT of Porto Velho,
Rondonia. Collaboration, support and extension services will be provided
by an additional 10 organizations (Table 1). Constant supervision will
be provided in situ. Annual meetings will be held to design new research
on the basis of information brought in by extension people and the
normal evolution of the program and to evaluate the progress of the
program. Information will be released via the normal procedures of
EMBRAPA.


C. Staffing


60. The implementation of proposed research work on farming systems
for the humid tropics will require addition of 16 researchers, 64 research
support staff, and 20 administrative support staff. Further details are
furnished in Tables 2 and 5.


D. Technical Assistance Requirements


Staff Training

61. It is foreseen that a total of 64 technicians will participate
in long-term training courses and 45 in short-term courses, in Brazil
and in foreign countries. Further details may be found in Table 3.







ANNEX 4
Page 16



Consultation

62. The research work to be undertaken will require the contracting
for 7 years of long-term consultants and 8.1 years of short-term consultants.
Further details are presented in Table 3.


E. Research Station Facilities


63. Experiment station facilities are considered adequate at CPATU
and cooperating stations for the initial stages of the program. For
the expansion and development of the program certain additional facilities
and equipment, in the form of laboratories, office space, storage sheds,
vehicles and equipment will be required. These include renovation of
the chemistry laboratory and parasitology laboratories, and construction
of storage sheds, greenhouse, insectary and other facilities at CPATU;
installation of corrals, water facilities and staff houses at Monto
Alegre substation. Laboratories are also planned for UEPAE Maraus and
UEPAE Rio Branco and ancillary buildings, roads and minor works at all
the cooperating stations are also planned.


F. Cost Estimates


64. The estimated total cost of this program will be US$14.55
million, divided as follows: development costs, US$9.05 million; for
technical services, US$2.84 million; and for incremental operational
costs US$2.66 million.


G. Potential Risks and Benefits


65. Rational utilization of varzeas for food crops combined with
the water buffalo for meat and milk, will have the potential of improving
the diet of the people of the Amazon region and reducing the cost of
living, in addition to improving the economic condition of the farmers
concerned. Research on pepper, Brazil nuts and guarana will provide
information which will enable these to be grown more economically. In
the case of Brazil nuts and guarana, this involves the establishment of
commercial plantations of crops formerly collected in the wild. Enough
research has already been done on these to indicate that there are
excellent possibilities for selection and improvement.

66. Because of the difficulties of communication in the area, it
is evident that success in the transfer of information from the research
centers to the farmers will require strong extension and information
efforts. This is an area which will probably require strengthening.





ANNEX 4
TABLE 1
Page 1


BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR FARMING SYSTEMS IN THE HUMID TROPICS


Institutional Participation


Location


Role Designated Within
the Project


1. Funded by the Project


Belem (PA)

Altamira (PA)

Manaus (AM)
Rio-Branco-(AC)
Porto Velho (RO)


Implementation and
Coordination
Implementation
Implementation
Implementation
Implementation


2. Not Funded by the Project


EMAPA
ENATAM


Sao Luis (MA)
Tome-Acu (PA)


3. Collaborating Institutions
DENPASA Benevides (PA)
CENA Piracicaba (SP)
EMATER-Para Belem (PR)
ASTER-Rondonia Porto Velho (RO)
INCRA-Pic/Altamira Altamira (PR)
COOPERFRON Altamira (PR)
EMATER Manaus (AM)
CODEAGRO Manaus (AM)


Collaboration
Collaboration


Support
Support
Extension
Extension
Support
Support
Extension
Support


Name


CPATU


UEPAE
UEPAE
UEPAE
UEPAE





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS


RESEARCH PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS HUMID TROPICS

RESEARCH STATION CPATU Belem


Pre-Project
Estimates


PY-1


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


PY-5


Total Staff at
Full Development


A. Personnel

Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)

Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff

Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
1/
Salaries-
2/
Other Operational Costs-
Total Operating Cost


1

4
1


31.5

9.5
41.0


Incremental
139.5
41.9
181.4


Operating
247.5
99.0
346.5


Costs
352.0
140.8
492.8


383.5
153.4
536.9


Total Incremental
1154.0

444.6
1598.6


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13 month salary (bonus)
Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of salaries for the first two years and 40%


thereafter


tml
'13. s
>





BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS

RESEARCH PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS HUMID TROPICS

RESEARCH STATION UEPAE ALTAMIRA


Pre-Project
Estimates


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-1 PY-2 PY-3 PY-4 PY-5


Total Staff at
Full Development


A. Personnel

Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)

Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff

Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
1/
Salaries-I
2/
Other Operational Costs2/

Total Operating Cost


147.0

49.4
196.4


41.5
12.5
54.0


Incremental
86.5
26.0
112.5


Operating
86.5

34.6
121.1


Costs
86.5

34.6
L21.1


86.5

34.6
121.1


Total Incremental
387.5
142.3
529.8


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13
Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of


month salary (bonus)
salaries for the first two years and 40%


thereafter


M t,4
MX
h3 >-i





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS


RESEARCH PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEM HUMID TROPICS

RESEARCH STATION UEPAE MANAUS


Pre-Project
Estimates


A. Personnel
Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)

Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff

Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs
1/
Salaries-
2/
Other Operational Costs-

Total Operating Cost


367.4
266.8

634.2


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and
Other operating costs are estimated at 30%


PY-1


31.5
9.5

41.0


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


Incremental Operating Costs
63.0 98.0 98.0
18.9 39.2 39.2

81.9 137.2 137.2


month salary (bonus)
salaries for the first two years and 40%


PY-5


98.0

39.2

137.2


Total Staff at
Full Development


Total Incremental

388.5
146.0

534.5


thereafter


M t-4 M
M X
" z>





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS


RESEARCH PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS HUMID TROPICS

RESEARCH STATION UEPAE RIO BRANCO


Pre-Project
Estimates


A. Personnel

Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)

Junior Staff (B.Sc.)

Research Support Staff

Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs

Salaries-I/
21
Other Operational Costs-/

Total Operating Cost


309.2

135.4

444.6


PY-1


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


PY-5


Total Staff at
Full Development


NONE


Incremental Operating Costs


Total Incremental


NONE


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13 month salary (bonus)

Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of salaries for the first two years and 40% thereafter


Nfr4
^ t'3 tt
M Xi
4?- NC~


--





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

ESTIMATE OF STAFFING REQUIREMENTS


RESEARCH PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS HUMID TROPICS

RESEARCH STATION UEPAT PORTO VELHO
RESEARCH STATION


Pre-Project
Estimates


A. Personnel

Senior Staff (Ph.D. & M.Sc.)

Junior Staff (B.Sc.)
Research Support Staff

Administrative Support Staff


B. Operational Costs

Salaries-l/
2/
Other Operational Costs-/

Total Operating Cost


398.0
183.6
581.6


PY-1


Cumulative Incremental Staff
PY-2 PY-3 PY-4


PY-5


Total Staff at
Full Development


NONE


Incremental Operating Costs


Total Incremental


NONE


Includes Social Security charges (30%) and 13 month salary (bonus)
Other operating costs are estimated at 30% of salaries for the first two years and 40% thereafter


N t_1
Ln





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS


PROGRAM

STATION


FARMING SYSTEMS HUMID TROPICS

CPATU BELEM


1. Consultants
Irrigation & Drainage
Irrigated Rice
Agro Forestry
Tropical Forestry
Tropical Crops Breeder
Breeder Disease Resistance
Plant Pathologist
Entomologist
Animal Breeder
Animal Scientist
Animal Parasitologist
Water Buffalo Specialist


Man-Years
Long-term


Short-term

0.30
0.30
0.50
0.80
0.80
0.50
0.30
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50


Subtotal
Cost US $
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs


2. Fellowships

A. Long-term Fellowships
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs)
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term
B. Short-term Fellowships

Total Fellowships

Total Technical Assistance


1/ US $80,000 per man year


No. of Unit Cost
Participants Man Years (US$ 000/my) TOTAL COST
8 16 5.5 88.0
6 12 13.0 156.0
5 15 5.5 82.5
10 40 13.0 520.0
29 83 846.5

24 8 7.0 56.0

53 91 902.5

Costs 1382.5


ANNEX 4
TABLE 3
PAGE 1


6.0


480
480




BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS

PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS HUMID TROPICS

STATION UEPAE ALTAMIRA


1. Consultants
Soil Fertility Specialist
Plant Pathologist


Man-Years
Long-term
-


Short-term

0.30
0.30


Subtotal
1/
Cost US $-
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs

2. Fellowships
N
A. Long-term Fellowships Part:
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs):
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term
B. Short-term Fellowships

Total Fellowships

Total Technical Assistance Costs


0.60


48.0
48.0


o. of Unit Cost
icipants Man Years (US$ 000/my) TOTAL COST
2 4 5.5 22.0
13.0
5.5
13.0 -
2 4 22.0
5 2 7.0 14.0

7 6 36.0

84.0


1/ US $80,000 per man year


ANNEX 4
TABLE 3
PAGE 2





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS

PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS HUMID TROPICS

STATION UEPAE MANAUS


1. Consultants
Soils (Management &
Conservation)
Plant Pathology (Mycology)
Animal Management
Plant Breeder


Man-Years
Lon2-term


Short-term


Subtotal
Cost US $-
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs

2. Fellowships
N
A. Long-term Fellowships Part
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs):
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term
B. Short-term Fellowships

Total Fellowships

Total Technical Assistance Costs


560.0

560.0


o. of Unit Cost
icipants Man Years (US$ 000/my) TOTAL COST
10 20 5.5 110.0
2 4 13.0 52.0
2 6 5.5 33.0
- 13.0 -
14 30 195.0
8 4 7.0 28.0


1/ US $80,000 per man year


ANNEX 4
TABLE 3
PAGE 3


223.0

783.0


_____




BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS

PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS HUMID TROPICS

STATION UEPAE RIO BRANCO


Man-Years
Long-term


1. Consultants
Plant Breeder


Subtotal
1/
Cost US $-
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs

2. Fellowships
N
A. Long-term Fellowships Part:
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs).
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 'yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term ]
B. Short-term Fellowships

Total Fellowships ]

Total Technical Assistance Costs


Short-term

0.50


0.50


40.0
40.0


o. of Unit Cost
icipants Man Years (US$ 000/my) TOTAL COST
6 12 5.5 66.0
5 10 13.0 130.0
5.5
3 12 13.0 156.0
.4 34 352.0
1 1 7.0 7.0

5 35 359.0

399.0


1/ US $80,000 per man year


ANNEX 4
TABLE 3
PAGE 4





BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENTS

PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS HUMID TROPICS

STATION UEPAT PORTO VELHO
STATION


1. Consultants
Insect Pathology
Water Buffalo Specialist
Agro.Forestry
Forest Management


Man-Years
Long-term


Short-term

0.30
0.30
0.30
0.40


Subtotal
Cost US $-
Long-term
Short-term
Total Consultants Costs


2. Fellowships

A. Long-term Fellowships
M.Sc. in Brazil (2 yrs)
M.Sc. abroad (2 yrs):
Ph.D. in Brazil (3 yrs)
Ph.D. abroad (4 yrs)
Sub-total long-term
B. Short-term Fellowships


No. of
Participants

3

1
1
5
7


Man Years
6

3
4
13


Unit Cost
(US$ 000/my) TOTAL COST
5.5 33.0
13.0
5.5 16.5
13.0 52.0
101.5
7.0 7.0


Total Fellowships

Total Technical Assistance Costs


1/ US $80,000 per man year


ANNEX 4
TABLE 3
PAGE 5


1.00


80.0
80.0


108.5

188.5


llll






AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROGRAM BASE COST SUMMARY (US$ 000)

PROGRAM FARMING SYSTEMS HUMID TROPICS


LOCATION


I. Development Cost -
1. Civil Works
2. Vehicles & Farm Equipment
3. Office & Laboratory EquipmT.
4. Library & Document Serv. -
5. Research Farm Developments
6. Land Purchase


Subtotal I 1

3/
II. Technical Assistance Cost -

1. Consultants
a) Long-term
b) Short-term
2. Fellowships
a) Long-term
b) Short-term
Subtotal II 1

3/
III. Incremental Operational Cost -

1. Salaries & Wages 1
2. Other Operational Cost
Subtotal III 1

IV. Total Program Base Cost 4



1/ From civil works annex
2/ 6% of incremental operational cost
3/ From individual program annexes


CEPATU

BELEM
620.0

141.0
96.0
209.0
-


066.0


480.0


846.5
56.0
382.5



154.0
444.6
598.6

047.1


UEPAE

ALTAMIRA
108.0
48.0
59.0
32.0
41.0
50.0


338.0


48.0


22.0
14.0
84.0



387.5
142.3
529.8

951.8


UEPAE

MANAUS
722.0
294.0
109.0
32.0
150.0


1307.0


560.0



195.0
28.0
783.0



388.5
146.0
534.5

2624.5


UEPAE UEPAT


RIO BRANCO
2951.0
92.0
89.0

20.0


3152.0


40.0


352.0
7.0
399.0


3551.0


PORTO VELHO
2432.0
286.0
147.0

132.0
190.0


3187.0


80.0


101.5
7.0
188.5


3375.5


TOTAL


6833.0
720.0
545.0
160.0
552.0
240.0
9050.0


560.0
648.0


1517.0
112.0
2837.0



1930.0
732.9

2662.9

14,549.9


trj
M
rc-1








BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN

PROGRAM HUMID TROPICS

STATION CPATU BELEM


PREPROJECT


INCREMENTAL


FULL DEVELOPMENT


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19. Rural Development
20. Ecologist
21. Botanist
Subtotal Scientific/Research


1* I


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


- I F I ~ I -


Sr. Jr. Total


Staff


Research Support Staff l/

Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


216

270

68


338


44

55

13


68


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff


2/ .25 times (IV)


ANNEX
TABLE
PAGE


CATEGORY


260

325

81


406
- -








BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN

PROGRAM HUMID TROPICS

STATION UEPAE ALTAMIRA


CATEGORY


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.


PREPROJECT


r I


Sr. Jr. Total


INCREMENTAL


Sr. Jr. Total


FULL DEVELOPMENT


Sr. Jr. Total


-MPM ; q--


Subtotal Scientific/Research 4 4 2 2 2 4 6
Staff


Research Support Staff -/

Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


16

20

5


25


8

10

3


13


24

30

8


38


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff


2/ .25 times (IV)


ANNEX
TABLE
PAGE








BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM HUMID TROPICS

STATION UEPAI MANAUS


CATEGORY


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff
Research Support Staff


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


PREPROJECT


r I


Sr. Jr. Total


INCREMENTAL


Sr. Jr. Total


FULL DEVELOPMENT


Sr. Jr. Total


I I


4
1

2




2



1








10


1 I I I


72

90

22


112


4
1

2




2



1








10


8
1








1






1




11


- I I -


12

15

4


19


84

105

26


131


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff


2/ .25 times (IV)


ANNEX
TABLE

PAGE


I


I


'




ANNEX
TABLE
PAGE


BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM HUMID TROPICS

STATION UEPAI- RIO BRANCO


CATEGORY PREPROJECT INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT
1 E


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economist/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff
Research Support Staff


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr.


Total


Sr. Jr. Total


- V I U


- a .~ a. I. .1 a. a.


8

10

3


13


8

10

3


13
I imw


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff


2/ .25 times (IV)




ANNEX
TABLE
PAGE


BRAZIL


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT


PROPOSED STAFFING PATTERN


PROGRAM HUMID TROPICS

STATION UEPAT PORTO VELHO


CATEGORY PREPROJECT INCREMENTAL FULL DEVELOPMENT
I r


Research Staff
1. Breeder/Geneticist
2. Agronomist/Horticulturist
3. Plant Protection
4. Animal Protection
5. Soil Scientist
6. Physiologist
7. Microbiologist
8. Seed Technologist
9. Forestry Specialist
10. Animal/Plant Scientist
11. Ag. Engineer/Other
12. Chemist
13. Food Technologist
14. Economist/Sociologist
15. Energy Specialist
16. Climatologist
17. Technology Transfer
18. Statistician
19.
20.

Subtotal Scientific/Research


Staff
Research Support Staff /


Total Research Staff (II&III)

Administrative and Technical
Support Staff 2/

Total Staffing at Station


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


Sr. Jr. Total


- yu m mlm m mu


* U mum h I Em m & &


56

70

18


88


2
4
2
1
1




4












14


56

70

18


88


1/ 4.0 times number of Scientific/Research Staff


2/ .25 times (IV)


. . .







ANNEX 5
Page 1



BRAZIL

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH II PROJECT

RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR FARMING SYSTEMS IN THE CAMPOS CERRADOS

I. INTRODUCTION


A. Agricultural Importance of the Region


1. The Central West region represents 22.1% of Brazil's total
land area and has more than 6% of the total population. The region is
made up of Mato Grosso and Goias states and the Federal District. Total
income is low, but the agricultural component is increasing.

Physical Aspects

2. The Cerrados represents an area of approximately 180 million
ha. Its northern boundary is about 50 south latitude and extends south
to 230. The region ranges from about 450 to 670 west latitude. The
general physical characteristics range from the southernmost Amazon
forest area in the north to the swampy lowlands in southern Mato Grosso.
Most of the region consists of level to undulating upland plains or
savannas.

Climate

3. The region is basically tropical with annual average temperatures
ranging from 200 to 260C. Actual temperatures range from more than 330C
to as low as 50C in the south. Sunlight and temperatures are generally
favorable for agricultural production.

4. Precipitation ranges from less than 1,000 mm to more than
2,000 mm. In the central part of the region, precipitation usually
begins in October, with most favorable amounts from November through
March. Reduced precipitation (small rains) in February is normal.
There is essentially no useful precipitation from mid-May through mid-
September. As with any continental climate, it is the deviations from
average conditions that create crop production and associated problems.
Average rainfall is suitable for reasonable levels of crop yields, but
long periods without precipitation during the growing season can be
disastrous.

Soils

5. Because of its location and physical characteristics, the
Cerrado region appears to offer the largest agricultural potential of
any region in Brazil. The topography of the land surface, the climate
and characteristics of the soil are all favorable for mechanization of
crop production.







ANNEX 5
Page 2



6. The soils of the Cerrado are among the oldest in the world and
as a result are acid and low in essential plant nutrients and organic
matter -- hence in available nitrogen. The acidity plus excess aluminum
result in strong and rapid fixation of soil and applied phosphorus.
Aluminum toxicity is not uncommon, and certain micro-nutrients are
deficient. In their natural state, the soils must be considered quite
infertile. Much research will be needed to determine nutrient additions
needed and the most efficient methods for their application.

7. Upland soils are generally well to excessively drained and
subject to erosion. Lowland soils grade into swampy conditions with
little immediate opportunity for drainage. Wet soil in the river flood
plains can be drained.

8. There are 4 major areas or groupings based on soil classi-
fication:

The plains area with low shrubs and sparse grassland. The
topography is level to undulating. Soils are acid and
nutrient deficient. There are occasional areas of dense
vegetation, indicating more favorable moisture and fertility.
These latosol soils have a somewhat higher organic matter
content in the surface. These areas are found largely in
southern Goias and in central Mato Grosso.

Mato Grosso lowlands soils are part of the Parana and Paraguay
river drainage basins. These soils have poor drainage, are
somewhat more fertile than those in the plains group, and
favor rice and pasture culture.

Mato Grosso high plateaus and uplands are divided by several
mountain chains. Little is known about the agricultural
potential of these soils. The areas are isolated, and the
potential believed to be low.

Central depression of Brazil. These concretionary soils of
the higher tableland provide some arable areas which can be
classified as yellow-red podysols. Little is known about
the agricultural potential of this area.

Commodity and Production Areas

9. Based on present knowledge of crop production requirements,
the Central-West can be divided into these subregions:

Southern Goias. The main crops produced here are beans,
cassava, rice, sugarcane, soybeans, fruits and cotton. The
production of basic food crops reflects the market demand of
the 6 main urban centers in the area.







ANNEX 5
Page 3



Southern Mato Grosso. This is the most developed part of
the state because of the several areas of more fertile, red
latosol. Principal crops grown in this part of the state
are rice, corn, beans, soybeans and wheat. There are good
pastures for beef cattle also. Campo Grande is the largest
urban market in the region.

Southern and West Lowlands. This is an area of more than
100,000 sq km of poorly drained swamp. Several national
species of "pantanal" or swamp grasses, provide plentiful
grazing throughout the year. Beef cattle raising is the
most important agricultural activity.

Population Density

10. The population density of the region is relatively low. The
Federal District has a high density and it continues to increase, but
this is not representative of the area. The demand for food by Brasilia
plays a most important role in the types of crops grown in the nearby
areas and is resulting in significant changes in crop production methods
and farming systems. Brazil as a nation has an estimated growth rate of
2.9% which means that the probable 1980 population of 133 million would
double in 25 years.

Agricultural Production

11. Changes in traditional agriculture in Brazil started in the
1950s and appeared in the Cerrado Region in the early 1960s. The first
"new crop" widely accepted was upland rice. It was, and still is, used
as the first crop after preliminary clearing of trees and heavy shrub
growth prior to land preparation for pastures. Much of the rice continued
to be grown in this manner through the 1970s. New methods of clearing
and higher yields of other crops have resulted in less rice grown in
this manner. Yields of upland rice seldom exceed 1,800 kg/ha and are
usually lower.

12. Beef cattle continue to be one of the most important agri-
cultural products in the area. This region has 20 to 25% of the beef
animals in Brazil. As urban areas increase in population the production
of swine and poultry assumes greater importance.

13. The major crops grown in the region are rice, cassava, corn,
beans, cotton and, increasingly, wheat and soybeans. More than 1 million
ha of soybeans are now grown, wheat is becoming important and the region
is on the way to becoming the principal coffee-producing area of Brazil.
Yields of all crops are limited by the low water holding capacity of the
soils, variable rainfall, low soil pH, low nutrient content of the soils
and insects and plant diseases. These low yields and lack of credit
have in turn limited use of new technology which could increase yields.
Traditional production methods can no longer meet Brazil's need for food








ANNEX 5
Page 4



and exports. If the present population of 133 million doubles in the
next 25 years, food production must more than double in the same period.
More than US$500 million presently are being spent to import wheat.
Research on new technology, which provides the components for viable
improved cropping systems, can assure safe, rapid and profitable changes.


B. Present Status of Research


Results Obtained

14. The CPAC in its present form was established in 1975 from an
existing livestock research facility. Some of this work continues.
Building a staff of competent research personnel, training them to do
team research, locating suitable research areas for different types of
experiments, obtaining relevant farming systems components for screening
and application and the many other activities necessary to establish a
viable research center have taken much of the past 5 years. In addition,
adequate preliminary structures for laboratories, seed work, administration,
library and greenhouses have been constructed.

15. Outstanding progress has been made, under the circumstances,
as evidenced by the present simultaneous testing of several alternative
farming systems complete with the livestock components. CPAC reports
that farmers are not impressed with small plot research, but accept
quite readily the simulated small scale farming systems research.

16. An improved new variety of eucalyptus from Australia has been
planted in cooperation with the National Forestry Research Program. In
20 months from seed plantings, this variety has grown to trees 15 cm at
the base and approximately 8 m tall. Similar, but less spectacular
results have been obtained with certain species of pine. These preliminary
results suggest unusual opportunities for alternative energy sources and
lumber.

17. A gravity irrigation system with constant river water source
is nearing completion so that field experimental work can be conducted
in the dry season.

18. A transect of native Cerrado vegetation from the river to the
top of the plateau at the research facility has been set aside for
observation and as a source of native plants.

Potential Research Constraints

19. At present the only constraint to research at this center
would appear to be assured funding. In the longer term the effectiveness
of the farming systems research may well be the adequacy of the crop and
livestock components coming from the commodity centers. A highly qualified







ANNEX 5
Page 5



climatologist, an imaginative equipment development engineer, an experienced
agricultural economist and a marketing economist will be added to the
staff in order to have the most effective research team working on
alternative farming systems.


II. PROPOSED RESEARCH PROGRAM


A. General Description


20. Brazil is fortunate in several ways in regard to its existing
research opportunities. Significant, excellent but isolated research
has been conducted and results are available. (Rio Grande do Sul, Sao
Paulo, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, and the Distrito Federal are location
examples.) Analogue conditions may be available in other parts of the
world. Isolated long-time weather records are available. Preliminary
soil maps and chemical analyses have been made for isolated locations.
Unfortunately, little effort has been made to use research teams of
scientists. Serious efforts are now in progress and early results are
favorable.

21. A research program directed to developing useful production
systems must attack many problems simultaneously. The intermediate
results might include answers to an understanding of weather probabilities,
plant species and varieties, appropriate levels of lime and fertilizer
use, suitable pest control methods and materials, appropriate levels of
mechanization, use of marginal crop lands and ways to minimize use of
energy.

22. This program has special significance for agricultural develop-
ment in general and production systems in particular. It will allow
continuation of research presently underway as detailed in the 1975 to
1979 Annual Technical Reports of CPAC and in PRONAPA 1980. It also will
allow new areas of research with emphasis on integration into production
systems. The agricultural potential of the Cerrados simply cannot be
realized without appropriate and adequate research.

23. Since 1975 research has followed two general lines:

improvement of traditional production materials and methods
for rice and pastures; and

search for alternative useful and acceptable crops (such as
corn, soybeans, wheat, fruits, coffee and tree species
(eucalyptus and pine) that will improve old and provide new
production systems.







ANNEX 5
Page 6



24. To solve the problems of pasture improvement, a system of
interacting research must be conducted. Pest control methods, lime and
fertilizer needs, and plant varieties and species must be screened;
innoculation materials and methods of applications must be found; and
finally, management systems must be developed.

25. New and improved crop species and varieties for the Cerrado
must be found if improved production systems are to be developed.
Soybeans, corn and coffee yield well on the better soils south of the
Cerrado where precipitation is also more favorable. More than a million
ha of soybeans are already grown in the Cerrado region and the region is
fast becoming the principal coffee producer. Sorghum and cassava are
more tolerant to less favorable conditions and may be more easily adapted.
Wheat, which is a major Brazilian import, may find a place in the Cerrado
and its residues may be found useful in reducing evaporation and erosion.
Production of fast growing tree species to relieve pressures on petroleum-
based energy and on building materials must be considered for marginal
crop land. Citrus fruits are becoming important crops.

26. The CPAC Farming Systems Program has as its principal goal the
identification of the most appropriate components to form farming systems
for different areas of the Cerrado region, the testing of these components
individually and in alternative combinations and finally following the
systems under the actual farmer operations so that changes can be made
if the systems do not prove to be economically or ecologically viable.

27. The components of the farming systems (plant species or varieties,
fertilizers, methods and rates of applications, etc.) are largely developed
by the various commodity research groups. When superior materials and
methods have been identified, CPAC research teams screen and test the
components in farming systems under simulated farm conditions.

Essentially all CPAC research is conducted as a team effort
and little basic development research is done on the components of the
farming systems. Much of the research at and by CPAC can be considered
as applied.

Research Objectives

There are three broad objectives of the Farming Systems Research
Program:

evaluation of natural and socio-economic resources to determine
the quality and quantity of the resources available in the
Cerrados, to permit the use of the region most efficiently
and with minimum environmental disturbance;

use of available soil/plant/climate resources with emphasis
on research aimed at finding solutions to factors limiting
land utilization, and crop production in the Cerrados.







ANNEX 5
Page 7



(Particular attention will be given to those problems relating
to soil acidity, soil fertility, rainfall distribution and
erosion.); and

development of farming systems aimed at improving those
systems presently in use and toward developing superior
alternative systems for production in the Cerrado region.
(This will be done in close collaboration with national
commodity centers, state agricultural research institutions
and private research institutions).

Research Program Requirements

30. The three objectives as stated appear deceptively simple and
are, in fact, the heart of the program. The first objective is the most
difficult, first, because methodology has not been perfected. Second,
well integrated research teams will be essential to obtain the needed
information when the methodology has been developed. Third, the inter-
pretation and evaluation will require unusual skills. Qualified con-
sultants will be useful in accomplishing this objective.

31. Research work is underway at different centers to provide
solutions associated with the second objective. The most important
single component may be participation of a qualified agricultural clima-
tologist and plant physiologist. The understanding of drouth stress and
avoidance is essential.

32. There appears to be no problem with the third objective once
the first two have been solved. CPAC has the expertise to pursue this
objective.


B. Details of the Research Program


33. To accomplish the objectives of this program several actions
must be taken in cooperation with appropriate national centers and
commodity research stations:

obtain a thorough knowledge of the natural and socio-economic
resources in the areas to be studied. (This will require an
inventory of the soil and climatic characteristics, the
existing social and economic conditions of farm families,
identification of production patterns for different crops
.and systems planning according to agro-ecological zones.);

evaluate the existing cultural practices, systems and skills,
and determine the preferences and needs of the farmers;







ANNEX 5
Page 8



identify the key problems which limit soil productivity,
crop productivity, crop production and farm income; and

plan, develop and implement research in different farming
systems, evaluate new systems, and improve the productive
efficiency of those traditional systems in use in each
agro-ecological region.

Evaluation of Natural Socio-Economic Resources

34. It will be necessary to develop standard procedures to collect,
analyse and interpret information which will identify areas of similar
characteristics and to provide an overall view of the region. This will
provide the basis for recommendation on promising "early development"
areas. These areas will become "planning units" and will serve as
models for research activities on local problems and can, eventually,
lead to the development of the entire Cerrado region. Activities will
include:

collection of information to be entered in a central data
processing system; and

development of new information. (CPAC will furnish data on
desirable and representative areas where technology will be
tested for the development of farming systems suited to the
environment and socio-economic conditions of each area.
This effort will operate at the regional, area, and local
levels. Research in this sub-program will include: organiza-
tion of a climatic data bank, survey of surface and sub-surface
water resources, agro-climatic zoning, soil survey and
mapping, and collection and evaluation of native germplasm.)

Use of Soil/Plant/Climate Resources

35. It will be necessary to study, test and screen answers to
several known constraints to crop production. Work will be done to:

determine the agronomic efficiency of different sources of
phosphate, mainly Brazilian rock phosphate;

develop soil testing calibrations for phosphates, potassium
and lime (soil acidity) on different soils;

determine the efficiency of different rates and methods of
incorporation of lime and fertilizers;

determine the most effective methods of soil organic matter
management;







ANNEX 5
Page 9



screen plant species and varieties for tolerance to aluminum
toxicity;

study the effects of limiting on aluminum toxicity;

determine the most efficient strains of Rhizobium and Mycorhyza;

develop soil and plant management practices which will
minimize the impact of water shortage;

study water use efficiency of plants under irrigation systems;

develop suitable water and soil conservation practices;

develop more efficient mechanized methods for soil preparation; and

develop methods for reclamation and use of "wet lands."

Farming Systems Application

36. To develop new, viable, farming systems it will be necessary
to have a wide range of information and understanding. Included in
these needs are:

variety screening and selection of annual crops: rice,
soybeans, corn, wheat and cassava;

introduction and selection of species, varieties or clones
and seedling progeny of perennial crops: citrus, mango,
avocado, coffee, eucalyptus, pines, etc.;

selection, screening and utilization of forage species,
mainly legumes for pasture improvement;

development of biological and integrated practices for pest
control;

evaluation and validation of technology at the farm level; and

determine the most effective methods for the diffusion of
appropriate technology.

37. Within the farming systems program, special attention will be
given to the production of energy at the farm level from renewable
resources, especially residues. These activities will be carried out in
cooperation with EMBRAPA's bioenergy program. Minimizing the use of all
energy sources will be studied through the use of more efficient farm
equipment and field operations. The utilization of marginal land for
forestry purposes and more intensive use of land while tree crops are
being established are measures to increase land productivity.




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