• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Conference sponsors
 Program agenda
 Poster session directory
 Invited speakers abstracts
 Oral topic 1 - Chainsaw conser...
 Oral topic 2 - Linking communi...
 Oral topic 3 - Paying for...
 Oral topic 4 - Certification
 Poster topic 1 - Tropical land...
 Poster topic 2 - Tropical forestry...
 Poster topic 3 - Community forestry...
 Poster topic 4 - Non-timber forest...
 Author index
 Notes






Title: Working forests in the tropics: conservation through sustainable management
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053811/00001
 Material Information
Title: Working forests in the tropics: conservation through sustainable management
Physical Description: xviii, 114 leaves ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: University of Florida
Publication Date: 2002?
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Farming   ( lcsh )
University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053811
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62684562

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Conference sponsors
        Page v
        Page vi
    Program agenda
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Poster session directory
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
    Invited speakers abstracts
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Oral topic 1 - Chainsaw conservation
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Oral topic 2 - Linking communities
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Oral topic 3 - Paying for carbon
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Oral topic 4 - Certification
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Poster topic 1 - Tropical land use and land-cover change
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Poster topic 2 - Tropical forestry for timber production
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
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        Page 76
        Page 77
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        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Poster topic 3 - Community forestry in the tropics
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Poster topic 4 - Non-timber forest products
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Author index
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Notes
        Page 113
        Page 114
Full Text

ABSTRACT BOOK AND PROGRAM

Working Forests

in the Tropics:
Conservation through
Sustainable Management


Hosted by:


February 25-26, 2002
Gainesville, Florida

'.. UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
School of Forest Resources and Conservation
and -
The Forest Management Trust


~ II ~ _~ _







ABSTRACT BOOK AND PROGRAM

Working Forests

in the Tropics:
Conservation through
Sustainable Management











February 25-26, 2002
Gainesville, Florida
Hosted by:
UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
School of Forest Resources and Conservation
and -
The Forest Management Trust
Project #0204





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management




February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Table of Contents

Conference Sponsors ............................................ ..............

Program Agenda ....................................................................vii

Poster Session Directory.................... .............................. xiii

Abstracts

Invited Speakers...................... ............................... 1

Oral Topic 1 Chainsaw Conservation ...................... 19

Oral Topic 2 Linking Communities..........................29

Oral Topic 3 Paying for Carbon ...............................39

Oral Topic 4 Certification....................................45

Poster Topic 1 Tropical Land Use and
Land-Cover Change ........................................ ...49

Poster Topic 2 Tropical Forestry
for Timber Production.......................... ............. 63

Poster Topic 3 Community Forestry
in the T ropics .............................................................87

Poster Topic 4 Non-Timber Forest Products......... 103

A uthor Index ...................................... .............. .......... ..... 111
N otes ................................................................................... 113





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management




February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Conference Sponsors



A special thankyou to our sponsors for their
generous support of this conference:

* USDA Forest Service,
Office of International Programs

* US Agency for International Development

* Forest Trends

* University of Florida,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Office of the Dean for Research

University of Florida,
Office of International Programs

University of Florida,
Office of Research and Graduate Programs
IU






Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Program Agenda

Monday, February 25, 2002
AM
8:00-9:00 Registration and Poster Setup
General Session (Ballroom A)
9:00-9:15 Welcome Michael V Martin, Vice-President for Agriculture and
Natural Resources, University of Florida, IFAS.
Opening Remarks -Daniel J. Zarin, School of Forest Resources &
Conservation, University of Florida, IFAS.
9:15-10:00 Opening Keynote Address "Working Forests Will Be New
Ecosystems" Ariel Lugo, Director, USDA Forest Service, International
Institute of Tropical Forestry. (p. 13)
10:00-10:30 Refreshment Break
Simultaneous Oral Sessions (10:30AM- 12:05PM)
Session I Chainsaw Conservation (Ballroom A)
10:30-10:35 Introduction Francis "Jack" Putz, Department of Botany, University
of Florida.
10:35-11:00 "Deconstructing Forests" Kent Redford, Wildlife Conservation Society.
(p. 15)


11:00-11:25

11:25-11:50

11:50-12:05


"Retirement Benefits for Working Forests" Peter Frumhoff Union of
Concerned Scientists. (p. 9)
"Forestry as a Tool for Tropical Forest Conservation: Opportunity or Illusion?"
- William Laurance, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. (p. 11)
Discussion


Session II Linking Communities and Markets (Ballroom B)


10:30-10:35

10:35-11:00


11:00-11:25


11:25-11:50


11:50-12:05


Introduction Marianne Schmink, Tropical Conservation &
Development Program, University of Florida.
"Is Tropical Forest Management by Communities Sustainable?:
Perspectives from Quintana Roo" David Bray, Florida International
University. (p. 3)
"Silviculture and Conservation of Tropical Forests in Quintana Roo,
Mexico: Opportunities for Sustainable Timber Production" Patricia
Negreros-Castillo, Iowa State University. (p. 14)
"Collaboration and Adaptation in the Marketing of Timber by Indigenous
People in Lowland Bolivia" Peter Cronkleton, Center for International
Forestry Research. (p. 6)
Discussion





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Monday, February 25, 2002 (Cont.)
PM
12:05-1:30 Lunch on your own (& Final Poster Setup)
Simultaneous Oral Sessions (1:30PM- 5:00PM)
Session I Chainsaw Conservation (cont.) (Ballroom A)
PM
1:30-1:45 Discussion
1:45-2:00 "The Regional Context of 'Chainsaw Conservation': Policy Enforcement,
Road Paving and the Transformation of the Amazon Logging Sector" -
Daniel C. Nepstad, The Woods Hole Research Center and Instituto de
Pesquisa Ambiental da Amaz6nia. (p. 25)

2:00-2:15 "Limited or Unlimited Wants in the Presence of Limited Means?
Inquiries into the Role of Satiation in Affecting Deforestation" Martin
Luckert, University of Alberta. (p. 24)
2:15-2:30 "Jungle Dreams / Mahogany Nightmares: Politico-Economic Challenges
to Sustainable Forest Management in the Western Amazon" Ernesto F.
Raez-Luna, University of British Columbia. (p. 27)

2:30-2:45 "Selective Logging, Forest Fragmentation and Fire Disturbance:
Implications of Interaction and Synergy for Conservation" -Mark A.
Cochrane, Michigan State University. (p. 21)
2:45-3:00 Discussion
3:00-3:30 Refreshment Break (Rooms 233-234)
3:30-3:45 "Saving the Amazon with Sustainable Enterprises: The Amazonian
Phoenix Project Valuing Biodiversity, People and Social Progress" -
Antonio D. Nobre, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia. (p. 26)
3:45-4:00 "The Role of Silviculture in the Conservation of Tropical Forests" Todd
S. Fredericksen, Forest Management Trust and Proyecto BOLFOR.
(p. 23)
4:00-4:15 "Timber Production and Plant Biodiversity Conservation in
Mesoamerican Rain Forests: Experimental Results and Their Implications
for Adaptive Sustainability Assessment" Bryan Finegan, CATIE.
(p. 22)
4:15-4:30 "Axing the Trees, Growing the Forest: Smallholder Timber Production in
the Amazon Varzea" Robin R. Sears, Columbia University. (p. 28)
4:30-5:00 Discussion & Synthesis





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Monday, February 25, 2002 (Cont.)

Session II Linking Communities and Markets (cont.) (Ballroom B)
PM
1:30-1:45 Discussion
1:45-2:00 "Culture and Nature in the Maya Forest: A Working Philosophy at El
Pilar" Anabel Ford, University of California. (p. 33)
2:00-2:15 "Indigenous Communities and Forest Resources in Brazil: The Cost of
Conservation" Robert Pritchard Miller, Agencia de Cooperagio
T6cnica aos Programas Indigenistas e Ambientais. (p. 35)
2:15-2:30 "From Staple to Fashion Food: Agai Fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.),
Commodity Markets, and Rural Development in the Amazon Estuary" -
Eduardo S. Brondizio, Indiana University. (p. 32)
2:30-2:45 "Approaches to Sustainable Community Forestry: Perspectives from
Mexico and Honduras" Catherine Tucker, Indiana University. (p. 37)
2:45-3:00 Discussion
3:00-3:30 Refreshment Break (Ballroom B)
3:30-3:45 "Community-Based Forestry in the Brazilian Amazon: An Alternative
Strategy for Reconciling Conservation and Development" David
McGrath, Woods Hole Research Center. (p. 34)
3:45-4:00 "Does Participatory Research Stimulate Community Natural Forest
Management? Indigenous Experiences from Lowland Bolivia" Wendy
R. Townsend, Noel KempffMercado Natural History Museum. (p. 36)
4:00-4:15 "Inside the Polygon: Emerging Community Tenure Systems and Forest
Resource Extraction" Tom Ankersen and Grenville Barnes, University
of Florida. (p. 31)
4:15-4:30 "Strategies to Improve Rural Livelihoods through Markets for Forest
Products and Services" -Andy White, Forest Trends. (p. 38)
4:30-5:00 Discussion and Synthesis
(3 (S3 BO (Z
5:00-7:00 Poster Reception
Rooms 243-246 Posters
Room 235 Food (across from Ballroom)





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Tuesday, February 26, 2002
Simultaneous Oral Sessions (8:30AM- 12:05PM)
Session III Paying for Carbon (Ballroom A)
AM
8:30-8:35 Introduction Janaki Alavalapati, School of Forest Resources &
Conservation, University of Florida, IFAS.
8:35-9:05 "Making Working Forests a Reality: How Much Can We Expect from the
Kyoto Protocol" Joyotee Smith, Center for International Forestry
Research. (p. 16)
9:05-9:35 "Carbon Finance and Sustainable Forestry in Practice" David Cassells,
The World Bank (p. 4)


9:35-10:05

10:05-10:35
10:35-10:50

10:50-11:05

11:05-11:20

11:20-11:35

11:35-12:05


"Carbon Sequestration Potential through Forestry Activities in Tropical
Mexico" Bernardus H.J. de Jong, College of Southern Border. (p. 7)
Refreshment Break (Rooms 233-234)
"Cost and Potential of Carbon Mitigation in Tropical Forestry" Willy R.
Makundi, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (p. 43)
"Funding Forestry through Carbon Case Studies from Across the
Tropics" Louise Aukland, EcoSecurities Ltd. (p. 41)
"From Global Governance to Local Realities: Capturing Carbon Through
Conservation" Emily G. K. Boyd, University of East Anglia. (p. 42)
"Climate Stability through Forest Sequestration Activities" Mark van
Soestbergen, International Carbon Bank and Exchange. (p. 44)
Discussion & Synthesis
Session IV Certification (Ballroom B)


8:30-8:35 Introduction Joshua Dickinson III, The Forest Management Trust.
8:35-9:05 "Opportunities and Challenges in Tropical Forest Certification" Heiko
Liedeker, Forest Stewardship Council. (p. 12)
9:05-9:35 "When is the FSC Not Enough? Challenges and Lessons in the
Certification of Tropical Working Forests" Michael E. Conroy, Ford
Foundation. (p. 5)


9:35-10:05

10:05-10:35
10:35-11:05

11:05-11:20


"Reduced Impact Logging in Old-Growth Tropical Humid Forests: The
Necessary Evil" -John Forgach, A2R Fondos Ambientales. (p. 8)
Refreshment Break (Ballroom B)
"Sustainable Management: The Business/Economic Side" Thomas
Wilson, International Specialties, Inc. (p. 17)
"Conservation with Certified Timber: The Experience of Programme for
Belize" Erin O. Sills, North Carolina State University. (p. 48)





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Tuesday, February 26, 2002 (Cont.)


11:20-11:35



11:35-12:05

'M
12:05-1:30
12:30-1:15


"Developing Principles, Criteria, Indicators and Verifiers for Forest
Management Units: Tools for Defining, Evaluating and Communicating
the Ecological Sustainability of Forest Management in Costa Rica and
Nicaragua" -Kathleen McGinley, CATIE. (p. 47)
Discussion & Synthesis


Lunch on your own
Special Lunchtime Presentation (Ballroom B)
"Working Forests in Acre, Brazil: An Experiment in Sustainable
Development" Mr. Carlos Vicente, Executive Secretary of Forests and
Extractivism for the State of Acre, Brazil.


General Session (Ballroom A)
1:30-2:45 Panel Discussion: Is Sustainable Forest Management an Effective
Strategy for Conservation and Development in the Tropics?


2:45-3:15
3:15-4:00


Refreshment Break (& Final Poster Removal)
Closing Keynote Address "Conventional Wisdom and a Pro-Poor
Forest Agenda" David Kaimowitz, Director General, Center for
International Forestry Research. (p. 10)





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida 0 Gainesville, Florida


Poster Session Directory
Topic 1 Tropical Land Use and Land-Cover Change
Poster
Number
1 Measuring and Monitoring Carbon for Forest-Based Projects: Experience from
Pilot Projects -- Sandra Brown, Winrock International, Arlington, VA (p. 51)
2 Using Lidar to Identify Structural Differences between Primary and Secondary
Tropical Rainforests -- Charles C. Cowden and John F. Weishampel, University of
Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA (p. 52)
3 Economic Impacts of Fire in the Amazon -- Maria del Carmen Vera Diaz,
Institute de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM, Belem, PA, Brazil; Daniel C.
Nepstad, IPAM and Woods Hole Research Center WHRC, Woods Hole, MA,
USA; Ronaldo Seroa da Motta and Mdrio Jorge Cardoso de Mendonca, Instituto de
Pesquisa Economica Aplicada -IPEA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil (p. 53)
4 Long-term Monitoring of Natural and Anthropogenic Change in a Neotropical
Rainforest Using Remote Sensing Imagery -- Jonathan Greenberg, Center for
Spatial Technologies and Remote Sensing (CSTARS), University of California,
Davis, Davis, CA, USA (p. 54)
5 Natural Regeneration in an Atlantic Forest Fragment Located in Rio de Janeiro
State, Brazil -- Jose Amdrico de Mello Filho, Depto. Engenharia Rural -
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS and UFRJ, CCMN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ,
Brazil. ; Jorge Paladino Corr&a de Lima, USDA Forest Service, Athens,Ga/,USA
and Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro/ENCE, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
(p. 55)
6 Impact of Aspect and Urban Matrix in the Structure and Composition of the
Vegetation in the Limestone Hills of Puerto Rico -- J. Lugo-Perez and Alberto
Sabat, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR, USA (p. 56)
7 Effects of Livestock on Structure and Composition of Floodplain Forests in the
Lower Amazon, Brazil -- Pervaze A. Sheikh, Consultant for Congressional
Research Service, Washington D.C., USA and Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da
Amaz6nia, Belem, PA, Brazil; Azinilson Aquino, Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da
Amaz6nia, Belem, PA, Brazil (p. 57)
8 Tropical Lowland Rainforest Loss and Bird Diversity: A Case Study from
Southeast Asia Navjot S. Sodhi, National University of Singapore, Singapore,
Republic of Singapore (p. 58)
9 Forest Cover Change in a Western Honduras Community: Accessibility and
Protection as Determinants of Landscape Transformation -- J. Southworth, H.
Nagendra and C. Tucker, CIPEC, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA (p. 59)





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Poster
Number
10 The Role of Land Tenure on the Occurrence of Accidental Fires in the Amazon
Region: Case Studies from the National Forest of Tapaj6s, Parf, Brazil -- M.
Angdlica Toniolo and Eduardo S. Brondizio, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN,
USA (p. 60)

11 Reforestation Activities for Watershed Restoration in Nicaragua -- Sarah
Workman, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Carlos Rodriguez,
IITF/USDA Forest Service, Puerto Rico; Richard Chavez, Yale University, New
Haven, CT, USA (p. 61)

Topic 2 Tropical Forestry for Timber Production
Poster
Number
12 Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Selective Logging in Eastern Amazon
Using Visual Interpretation Analysis of Satellite Images -- Ane A. C. Alencar,
Institute de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amaz6nia IPAM, Belem, PA, Brazil; Daniel C.
Nepstad, IPAM and Woods Hole Research Center WHRC, Woods Hole, MA,
USA; Sanae Hayashi, Faculdade de Ciencias Agrdrias do Pard FCAP, Bel6m, PA,
Brazil (p. 65)

13 Liana Loads and Post-Logging Liana Densities after Liana Cutting in a
Lowland Forest in Bolivia Diana Alvira and Francis Putz, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL, USA; Todd S. Fredericksen, Proyecto BOLFOR, Santa Cruz,
Bolivia (p. 66)
14 Short and Long-term Effects of Selective Logging on Timber Tree Regeneration
in French Guiana Christopher Baraloto, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
MI, USA (p. 67)
15 Fire Vulnerability of Bolivian Sub-humid Forests Subjected to Different
Silvicultural Treatments -- Geoffrey M. Blate, University of Florida, Gainesville,
FL, USA (p. 68)
16 Conservation in the Service of Economics?: Financial Benefits of Skid Trail
Planning to Reduce Future Crop Tree Damage Frederick Boltz, School of
Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA;
Roberto Quevedo S., La Chonta, Ltda., Santa Cruz, Bolivia (p. 69)
17 Financial Returns under Uncertainty for Conventional and Reduced-Impact
Logging in Permanent Production Forests of the Brazilian Amazon -- Frederick
Boltz and Douglas R. Carter, School of Forest Resources and Conservation,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Thomas P. Holmes, Southern Research
Station, USDA Forest Service, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; Rodrigo Pereira,
Jr., Fundaigo Floresta Tropical, Belem, Pard, Brazil (p. 70)





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Poster
Number
18 The Secondary Forests of Tropical America; Perspectives for Their Sustainable
Management -- G. De las Salas, IUFRO Working Group 1.07.00 Colombia (p. 71)
19 Effect of Silvicultural Thinning on the Regeneration of Commercially Valuable
Trees in Strip Cuts in the Peruvian Amazon -- Chris Dolanc and David L.
Gorchov, Dept. of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056; Fernando
Cornejo, Proyecto Castanales, Puerto Maldonado, Peru (p. 72)
20 Recovery of Faunal Diversity Following Clear-Cutting and Selective Logging in
Tropical Forest Landscapes -- Robert R. Dunn, Department of Ecology and
Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA (p. 73)
21 Impacts of Pre-Logging Liana Cutting on Logging Gap Regeneration of Lianas
in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon -- Jeffrey J. Gerwing and Christopher Uhl,
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (p. 74)
22 Historical Wood Production and the Potential ofPrioria copaifera (cativo)
Forests in Darien, Panama William T. Grauel, College of Natural Resources and
Environment, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (p. 75)
23 Sustained-yield Production of Bigleaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in
Acre, Brazil: Testing Forest Conservation's Ability to Pay James E. Grogan,
Institute do Homem e Meio Ambiente da Amazonia, Bel6m, Pard, Brazil / Yale
School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT, USA; Eirivelthon
Lima, Edson Vidal, Adalberto Verissimo and Paulo Barreto, Instituto do Homem e
Meio Ambiente da Amaz6nia, Belem, Pard, Brazil (p. 76)
24 Management of a 12-15 Year-Old Secondary Forest in Southwest Costa Rica --
Sean P. Healey, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA (p. 77)
25 Dispersal of Anemocorous and Autocorous Seeds During the Dry Season in
Logged Areas in a Bolivian Tropical Dry Forest -- Bonifacio Mostacedo, Marcela
Pereira and Todd S. Fredericksen, BOLFOR Project, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Santa
Cruz, Bolivia (p. 78)
26 Long-term Silvicultural Research Project in Bolivian Tropical Forests -
Marielos Pefia-Claros, Todd Fredericksen, Lincoln Quevedo, William Pariona, Juan
Carlos Licona and Claudio Leaios, BOLFOR, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; F. E. Putz,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Dan Zarin, The Forest Management
Trust, Gainesville, FL, USA (p. 79)
27 Review of USAID's Natural Forest Management Programs in Latin America
and the Caribbean -- Douglas J. Pool, Thomas C. Catterson, Vicente A. Molinos
and Alan C. Randall, International Resources Group, Washington, D.C. (p. 80)





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Poster
Number
28 Certified Timber from a Non-Certified Sawmill: Reflections on an Amazonian
Logging Company -- Carlos E. Rittl, National Institute for Amazonian Research,
Manaus, AM, Brazil; William F. Laurance, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute,
Balboa, Republic of Panama (p. 81)

29 Small Clandestine Sawmills and the Deadlock of Predatory Logging in
Amazonia Sergio L MRivero, Universidade Federal de Rondonia, Porto Velho,
Rondonia, Brazil; Daniel CNepstad, The Woods Hole Research Center, Woods
Hole, MA, USA and Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia, Bel6m, Para,
Brazil; Ane Alencar, Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia, Belem, Pari,
Brazil (p. 82)
30 Incorporating Tree Life History Information into Forest Management Plans in
the Eastern Amazon -- Mark Schulze, The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA, USA; Edson Vidal, Institute of People and the Environment
(IMAZON), Belem, Para, Brasil (p. 83)
31 Debt-for-Nature Swaps and the Tropical Forest Conservation Act, Implications
for Preserving Forests in Developing Countries -- Pervaze A. Sheikh and Betsy A.
Cody, Congressional Research Service, Washington D.C., USA (p. 84)
32 Patch Clear Cutting to Regenerate Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) and
Sustain Forest Value in the Mayan Ejidos of Mexico Laura K. Snook and
Patricia Negreros-Castillo, CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia; Iowa State University, Ames,
Iowa (p. 85)

Topic 3 Community Forestry in the Tropics
Poster
Number
33 Community-Based Conservation and the Future of the Tropical Forest Peter
Atembe, The Environment and Rural Development Foundation (ERuDeF);
Ousseynou Ndoye and Eyebe Antoine, Center for International Forestry Research
(CIFOR) (p. 89)
34 Management of Lokta (Daphne spp.) in Nepal's Community Forests -- A. L.
Hammett, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, VA, USA; Brian Becker, University of
Florida, FL, USA (p. 90)

35 Effects of Thinning on Community Forests and Forest User Groups -- Narayan
Dhital, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands (p. 91)
36 Participatory Resource Mapping in Maya Communities of Quintana Roo,
Mexico -- Edward A. Ellis, University of Florida, Gainesville FL, USA; Christopher
T. Beck and Carmen Cruz Cdceres, Universidad de Quintana Roo, Chetumal,
Quintana Roo, MX (p. 92)





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Poster
Number
37 Resident Perspectives of Community-Based Ecotourism as a Tool for
Development and Mobilization: A Case Study in the Dominican Republic --
Amanda Holmes, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL USA (p. 93)

38 Social Institutions, Indigenous Knowledge and Tropical Forest Conservation in
Southeast Nigeria -- Uwem E. Ite, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK (p. 94)
39 Tropical Forest Conservation and Indigenous Land Rights on Southeastern
Nicaragua's Agricultural Frontier -- Gerald R. Mueller, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL. (p. 95)

40 Community Forestry: Bridging Conservation and Uses (Empirical Experiences
of Nepal) Shankar Paudel, Tropical Forestry, Wageningen University, The
Netherlands (p. 96)

41 Critical Aspects Of The Camu-Camu Industry -- James Penn, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA (p. 97)

42 Local Community Participation to Support Sustainable Forest Management --
Keith D. Porter, Forestry Department, Kingston, Jamaica (p. 98)
43 Conflicts and Lawsuits over Forest Tenure in Bolivia Byron Real, University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA (p. 99)
44 Case Study: Biodiversity Conservation and Management in the Campo-Ma'an
Area, Cameroon -- Jacqueline M. J. van de Pol, ALTERRA Green World
Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands (p. 100)

45 Forest Resources with Economic Potential in Extractive Reserve Chico Mendes,
Acre, Brazil -- Llcia H. O. Wadt, Evandro Orfan6 Figueiredo, Rita de Cassia A.
Pereira andNddia W. V Pereira, Embrapa Acre, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil (p. 101)
46 Commercialization of Community Forests in Tropical Nepal: Application to the
Asian Region and Abroad -- Edward L. Webb, Ram N. Sah and Ambika P.
Gautam, The Center for the Study of Rural Populations and Forest Resources
(RUPAFOR), The Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, THAILAND (p. 102)

Topic 4 Non-Timber Forest Products
Poster
Number
47 Conservation, Management and Population Dynamics of the Harvested Palm,
Chamaedorea radicalis, in El Cielo Biosphere Reserve, Mexico -- Bryan A.
Endress and David L. Gorchov, Miami University, Oxford, OH, USA (p. 105)

48 Forgotten Fruits: The Role of Abandoned Home Gardens in a Belizean
Riparian Forest -- P. C. Kangas, University of Maryland, College Park, MD
(p. 106)


xvii





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Poster
Number
49 Variations in Floristic Composition of Morichal Communities in El Tigre River
(Anzoitegui State, Venezuela) Carolina Peiia; Elizabeth Gordon and Lenys
Polanco, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela; Jesus Segovia,
Petr6leos de Venezuela, San Tome, Venezuela. (p. 107)

50 Proyecto Aguaje -- James Penn, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
(p. 108)

51 The Commercial Harvest of "Breu" Resin from Burseraceae Trees in the
Eastern Brazilian Amazon and the Role of Sternocoelus Weevils in its
Formation Campbell Plowden and Christopher Uhl, The Pennsylvania State
University, University Park, PA, USA; Francisco de Assis Oliveira, Faculdade de
Ciencias Agricolas do Para, Bel6m, Para, Brazil (p. 109)

52 Characterization of Adult Brazil Nut Trees in Extractive Reserve Chico
Mendes, Acre, Brazil -- Licia H. O. Wadt, Embrapa Acre, Rio Branco, Acre,
Brazil; Karen A. Kainer, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA; Daisy
Gomes Silva, Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil (p. 110)


xviii





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Invited Speakers Abstracts


* Listed alphabetically by presenting author.
* Presenting author appears in bold.





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Is Tropical Forest Management by Communities
Sustainable?: Perspectives from Quintana Roo, Mexico

David Barton Bray
Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
Patricia Negreros-Castillo
Iowa State U., Ames, IA, USA
Alejandro Guevara Sanginds
Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City, Mexico
Juan Manuel Torres-Rojo
Centro De Investigaci6n y Docencia Econ6mica, Mexico City, Mexico
Hans Vester
Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chetumal, QR, Mexico

Recent research on the sustainable management of tropical forests has suggested that it is an
oxymoron. It has been argued by Rice and others that sustainable management has failed
because returns to investment are always going to be lower than those earned from
conventional logging or other land uses. The nature of tropical forest diversity and the
special treatments required to assure regeneration of high-value species like mahogany
swieteniaa macrophylla) seem to make the costs of sustainable tropical forest management
prohibitively high. This may or may not be true for private enterprises, but what about
tropical forest logging operations conducted by communities on their own lands? This paper
will present the conceptual framework and early data for a research project designed to test
the proposition that tropical forest management by communities may be sustainable. An on-
going interdisciplinary research project conducted by a team of ecologists, economists, and
anthropologists is focusing on the community of Laguna Kani, a Mayan community in
central Quintana Roo, Mexico. Laguna Kana has been managing 10,000 ha of semi-humid
tropical forest for mahogany and lesser-known tropical species for 16 years under a
management plan, after a 25-year history of apparently unsustainable logging by outside
contractors. However, the community does not only conduct logging operations on its lands,
but extracts multiple timber and non-timber forest products in a diversified enterprise. A
community may also apply very different discount rates that include intergenerational
valuation of the forestlands. Thus, it may be that communities find tropical forest
management profitable even if private enterprises don't.


David Barton Bray, Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Miami, FL 33199,
Phone: 305-348-6236, Fax: 305-348-6137, Email: brayd@fiu.edu





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Carbon Finance and Sustainable Forestry in Practice

David Cassells and Kenneth Newcombe
The World Bank, Washington, DC

With the final agreement in Marrakesh in November 2001 on the regulatory framework for
implementation of the Kyoto Protocol the stage is set for investments in the developing
countries to achieve greenhouse gas emissions reductions through aforestation and
reforestation activities in developing countries. The World Bank is already pioneering such
investments under its Prototype Carbon Fund in Brazil and Romania, and as part of the
implementation for its proposed new Forest Sector Strategy is exploring a Prototype
Sequestration Fund to undertake emissions reductions investments in a large range of land
use and forestry activities in developing countries that would contribute to sustainable
development, biodiversity conservation, land degradation mitigation as well as climate
change mitigation.


David S. Cassells, Senior Environmental Specialist, Forest Resources, The World Bank, Environment
Department, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC, 20433, Phone: (202) 473-1376, Fax: (202) 522-1142,
Mail: Dcassells@Wrldbank.Org
L





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



When is the FSC Not Enough? Challenges and Lessons
in the Certification of Tropical Working Forests

Michael E. Conroy
Ford Foundation, New York NY

Certification according to the principles and criteria of the Forest Stewardship Council has
become a powerful new tool for encouraging and rewarding higher levels of social and
environmental responsibility in sustainable forest management in both tropical forests and
temperate and boreal forests. But the vast majority of the forests certified to date have been
in temperate and boreal zones. What explanation can we give for the relative slowness of
certification in tropical working forests?

This paper will explore, first, lessons learned worldwide in the development of the global
certification movement. It will turn, then, to a series of hypotheses about the relatively slow
development of certification in tropical forests, including a) the relatively low importance of
"branding" in markets for tropical forest products, b) the challenge of outright illegal
logging for tropical forest markets, c) fundamental problems of aggregation, scale, and
species composition vis-A-vis markets in the global North, and d) the distinct challenges of
community-scale forest product processing and marketing.

The paper will then review a number of creative options that have appeared in recent years
for meeting those challenges, including a) the rapid growth of certified processing in China,
b) innovative examples for management of the full certified value chain, and c) new
marketing tools and opportunities. It will conclude with analyses of some cases where FSC
certification, by itself, will not be sufficient for the transformation of tropical working
forests; and it will indicate what complementary policies and programs may be necessary.


Michael Conroy, Ford Foundation, 320 East 43rd Street, New York, NY, 10017, USA, Phone: 212-573-4890,
Fax: 212-351-3660, Email: m.conroy@fordfound.org





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Collaboration and Adaptation in the Marketing of Timber
by Indigenous People in Lowland Bolivia

Peter Cronkleton
Center for International Forestry Research, Santa Cruz, Bolivia

For decades, technical assistance agencies have promoted forest management as a strategy
for generating income and strengthening the land claims of indigenous people in Bolivia's
eastern lowlands. While the sale of timber continues to be an attractive option for indigenous
communities, it has been difficult for local groups to establish viable projects and maintain
control over their forest resources. Currently, indigenous groups must follow technical and
organizational guidelines established by Bolivian forestry legislation for developing
management plans, and need to negotiate with neighbors, political authorities and potential
buyers to assure that management rules are respected and to gain approval for timber sales.
Successfully implementing a management plan to sell timber requires that the indigenous
people collaborate with a diverse range of stakeholders within and around their
communities, groups that sometimes have divergent or even conflicting interests.
Furthermore, the long-term survival of such projects likely depends on the development of
mechanisms that will allow management practices to adapt to changing socio-economic,
political and environmental conditions. Forest management plans are unlikely to generate
income for indigenous people or protect resources in indigenous territories if local groups
cannot reach collaborative agreements with other stakeholders or adapt their management
system to changing conditions.

To examine the role played by collaborative and adaptive processes in indigenous forest
management, this paper will draw examples from Guarayo communities that are working
with BOLFOR's Community Forestry Unit and CIFOR's Adaptive Collaborative
Management program to establish timber management projects.


Peter Cronkleton, CIFOR % BOLFOR, 4to. Anillo esquina Av. 2 de Agosto, Casilla # 6204, Santa Cruz,
Bolivia, Phone 591-3-3480766, Fax: 591-3-3480854, Email: pcronkleton@cgiar.org





February 25-26, 2002 e J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Carbon Sequestration Potential through Forestry Activities
in Tropical Mexico

Bernardus H. J. de Jong
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Villahermosa, Tab, Mexico

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN-FCCC), allows for
market-based mechanisms to trade in greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reductions between
Annex 1 countries and non-Annex 1 countries, known as the Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM). Under a possible future carbon offset trading program, countries would
be most likely to pay for GHG reductions in another country where the cost is lower.

Evidence from the Scolel Te project in Chiapas, Mexico indicates that carbon mitigation
through forestry and agroforestry can be carried out at relatively low costs. Various land-use
systems are considered viable, with local adjustments in terms of preferred species, planting
arrangements, and rotation times. The carbon sequestration potential of these systems varies
highly between systems and ecological regions and depends mainly on tree planting
densities and growth potential.

The mitigation potential of an area of around 600,000 ha in southern Mexico was estimated
at 38 106 MgC for under $US 15 MgC1', of which 32 106 MgC by means of sustainable
forest management. The choice of a baseline rate of biomass loss in the "business-as-usual"
scenario remains a critical issue to estimate the carbon sequestration potential of forestry.
The main sources of uncertainties observed in the calculations of the GHG-offset potential
were related to: (i) classification of LU/LC types; (ii) estimation of C-stocks within each
LU/LC type; (iii) historical evidence ofLU/LC changes and related GHG fluxes applied in
baselines; and (iv) simulation techniques used to calculate future baseline and project C-
fluxes.

Bernardus H. J. de Jong, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur,Mario Brown Peralta 209-E, Villahermosa, 86180,
Tabasco, Mexico, Phone: +52-993-515074, Fax: +52-993-510893, Email: bjong@sclc.ecosur.mx





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Reduced Impact Logging in Old Growth Tropical
Humid Forests: The "Necessary Evil"

John M. Forgach
A2R Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

Even bankers hurt when they see and hear those giant Amazon trees come crashing down. It
is little consolation that the chainsaw crews are well trained in directional-felling techniques
and that the logs are pulled out with sophisticated skidders and harvested through state-of-
the-art forest-management-plans based on computerized inventories made by specialized
GPS assisted botanists.

It matters little to the canopy dwellers, bugs, birds, primates, frogs, butterflies, orchids and
other extraordinary living beings that we haven't yet even discovered, who are being
destroyed as their habitat is chopped-off and left to rot on the ground, that we are operating
under FSC-certified conditions. In fact one always wonders if it really makes any sense to
impact (to any degree) an old growth delicate ecosystem in order to destroy 90% of its
Biodiversity (the canopy) and harvest only 10% (the hard fiber)? Certified or not, does this
activity make any sense at all?

The long answer is that we are not yet sure (and might never be), the short answer is: yes, it
makes sense from environmental, economic and social points of view. In this presentation, I
review the case of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, where our learning curve for investing
in certified sustainable forest management has been quite steep.

Limited price premiums for certified wood products in today's markets are at best temporary
manifestations of market in-balances in supply and demand. The main drivers are not price
differentials. The main driver for investing in the certified logging of old growth tropical
forests is the possibility to lock-in and explore some long term capital-gain opportunities.
They include known values but also many still unquantifiable values that we can only hope
to benefit from if the old growth forests stands are still around when we finally can
appreciate their value.


John Forgach, A2R Ltda, Avenida Brigadeiro Faria Lima 2055/3a, ,Sao Paulo, SP 01451-000, Brasil, Phone:
(55.11) 3039-5888, Fax: (55.11) 3039-5889, Email: forgach@a2r.com.br





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Retirement Benefits for Working Forests

Peter C. Frumhoff
Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA

Global conservation priority-setting exercises have identified significant areas of the world's
remaining forests as having particularly high value for the conservation of biodiversity. In
the tropics and elsewhere, many high conservation value forests are threatened by current
practices of legal and illegal industrial logging. These production forests constitute a
tremendous but fleeting conservation opportunity. Conserving them while meeting growing
demands for wood products will require three concurrent actions: greatly reducing or
eliminating industrial logging operations within forests that have the greatest value for
biodiversity conservation, strengthening the sustainability of forestry operations in regions
of relatively lower conservation value (i.e. "chainsaw conservation"), and expanding wood
supplies from well-managed plantations. Too often, these approaches have been framed as
alternative, rather than complementary, conservation strategies.

This paper will address the first of these conservation strategies. I will assess the tools
available to halt or prevent industrial logging in high conservation value forests and discuss
the current challenges confronting their successful application on a wide geographic scale.


Peter C. Frumhoff, Union of Concerned Scientists, 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA, 02238-9105, USA,
Phone: 617-547-5552 x 215, Fax: 617-864-9405, Email: pfrumhoff@ucsusa.org





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Conventional Wisdom and a Pro-Poor Forest Agenda

David Kaimowitz
Center for International Forestry Research, Jakarta, Indonesia

One influential group of foresters believes that to sustainably manage a forest for
commercial timber production requires large-scale operations and detailed forest
management plans prepared by professionals. They tend to view people engaged in small-
scale forestry activities in natural forests as threats to forest resources, particularly if they are
not active participants in social forestry projects. Similarly, many of them support strict
regulation of a wide variety of forest-related activities. To improve forest management they
generally promote reforming the forest concession, trade and tax policies, stricter
enforcement of forestry laws, and forest certification. This presentation will question some
of the assumptions underlying these views. While acknowledging the importance of
improving the management of large-scale logging operations, it will argue that there are
strong reasons to believe small-scale forestry activities are often a more equitable and
sustainable option. In addition, it will show that many of the forest policy reforms currently
in fashion are not likely to greatly improve forest management, and in some cases may make
things worse.


David Kaimowitz, Center for International Forestry Research, P.O. Box 6596, JKPWB, Jakarta 10065,
Indonesia, Phone: 62-251-622622, Fax: 62-251-622622, Email: dkaimowitz@cgiar.org





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Forestry as a Tool for Tropical Forest Conservation:
Opportunity or Illusion?

William F. Laurance
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panama

Efforts to promote reduced-impact logging (RIL) must be tempered by a realistic perception
of the tropical timber industry. I will focus on the environmental risks and realities of
tropical logging, and highlight some challenges involved in implementing RIL on a large
scale.

Most commercial logging operations in the tropics are poorly managed, leading to excessive
environmental damage. Moreover, labyrinths of logging roads greatly increase physical
accessibility to frontier forests, increasing forest invasions, deforestation, and overhunting-
and to date no practical mechanism exists to halt post-logging invasions. Illegal logging is
common, and endemic bribery along with inadequate training, infrastructure, and
institutional support for forestry officers greatly impedes enforcement activities. Far too
often, logging operations in developing nations are controlled by a few powerful clans or
individuals, with the economic benefits becoming concentrated in the hands of a few.

Daunting challenges must be overcome before RIL can be applied on a large scale. Because
it is less profitable than typical logging and requires special training, external subsidies are
needed to promote RIL. Market demand for eco-certified timber is growing in Europe and
North America but not in Asia, which is an increasingly dominant consumer of tropical
timber. Although RIL techniques are well established, realistic means to undertake effective
large-scale implementation are critically lacking. Non-governmental organizations could
play an important role in promoting RIL, monitoring illegal logging, and publicizing harvest
operations that cause excessive environmental damage.


William F. Laurance, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 2072, Balboa, Republic of Panama,
Phone: 507-212-8252, fax: 507-212-8148, Email: laurancew@tivoli.si.edu





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Opportunities and Challenges in Tropical Forest Certification

Heiko Liedeker
Forest Stewardship Council, Oaxaca, Mexico

Over the past 9 years FSC has received unprecedented attention. FSC's national working
groups in 29 countries, 25 million hectares of certified forest operations in 50 countries and
its members in 60 countries worldwide have proven that development of environmentally
appropriate, socially beneficial and economically viable management of forest resources is
feasible, practical and achievable.

The presentation will discuss how the unique collaboration of stakeholders in FSC built
awareness throughout the global commodities sector, how it linked the global political
debate with concrete achievements on the ground and how its stakeholder dialogue together
with pilot projects led to significant reforms in the forest sector in several countries around
the world.

FSC needs to extend its outreach in various areas of the forest sector especially in more
complex environments where regulatory frameworks, management competence, stakeholder
participation and balance are less developed and where market conditions are less
supportive. The presentation will examine barriers to forest certification and strategies to
support stakeholder participation, capacity building and forest management projects in
regions and countries where market driven forest certification has so far proven less
attractive.

In addition FSC needs to become involved in new areas of the global forestry debate. Within
the global forest sector immediate areas include the debate on illegal logging, the
certification of carbon storage under the CDM and the certification of biodiversity. The
presentation will discuss how FSC can engage in the broader debate on forest conservation
and develop applications and services in support of environmentally appropriate, socially
beneficial forest stewardship.


Heiko Liedeker, Forest Stewardship Council, ,Avenida Hidalgo 502, 68000, Oaxaca, Mexico, phone +52 951
514 6905, fax +52 951 516 2110, Email: liedeker@fscoax.org





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Working Forests Will Be New Ecosystems

Ariel E. Lugo
USDA Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry

A new ecosystem is one whose species composition or array of species importance values is
new in the biosphere. New ecosystems develop all the time due to environmental change and
they will increase in abundance in the future. I describe the characteristics of new Caribbean
forests where humans have used landscapes for millennia. Small size, diverse topography
and ecological systems, long history of human influence, and high population densities
make Caribbean islands particularly useful as case studies of trends in land use and land
cover change. In Puerto Rico, these trends are leading to increased built-up areas,
environmental surprises, and increased dependence on external subsidies. Changes over the
past 50 yr also include a reversal in deforestation, an increase in forest patch size, and
formation of new ecosystems. These changes are the response of the biota to novel
environmental conditions that humans are introducing. Humans can imitate nature while
solving many environmental problems by explicitly accepting and designing new species
combinations that can recycle waste, absorb disturbance events, protect soil, accelerate
succession, or buffer human activity. Accepting and designing new ecosystems requires
treating all biodiversity as equally valuable and eliminating biases based on origin, type, or
bureaucratic designations of species. Tropical landscape management requires
understanding and application of natural resilience mechanisms of ecosystems, greater use
of ecological engineering approaches to infrastructure development, enforcement of zoning
laws, enlightened economic development policies, and an understanding and agreement of a
conservation vision among all sectors of society.


Ariel E. Lugo, USDA Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry, PO Box 25000, Rio Piedras,
Puerto Rico, 00928-5000, USA, Phone: 787-766-5335, FAX: 787-766-6263, Email: alugo@fs.fed.us





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Silviculture and Conservation of Tropical Forests
in Quintana Roo, Mexico: Opportunities
for Sustainable Timber Production

Patricia Negreros-Castillo
Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

In Quintana Roo, Mexico most forested land is owned through a community land ownership
system called "ejidos". The forests of Quintana Roo are part of the Maya forest region
(Belize, Guatemala and Mexico) and currently represent the largest continuous block of
tropical forest in Mexico. Historically, local inhabitants, mostly of Mayan descent, have
made their livelihood from agriculture, hunting, and gathering from these forests. Their
traditional knowledge and skills have been very effective for utilizing the forests for these
purposes and at the same time preserving the forests until recently. Recently, however, they
have been obtaining income from marketing of valuable timber species, such as mahogany
(Swietenia macrophylla ). Because the people lack traditional knowledge and scientific
methods to sustainably use the forests for timber production, there are problems with high-
grading. To ensure that indigenous people continue to be the guardians of the tropical forests
of Quintana Roo, they need to gain access to scientific information on managing their
forests, particularly the information that has been generated in the last decade. This
information should be presented to them in such a way that it becomes part of their
traditional knowledge and skills, so they can then manage the forests for timber production
in an effective and sustainable way. This paper analyzes the important role that the Maya
people of Quintana Roo could continue to play in preserving the forests, reviews the most
recent relevant silvicultural research and explores some ideas on how this scientific
knowledge can became accessible to them.


Patricia Negreros-Castillo, Iowa State University, Forestry Department, Ames, Iowa, 50011, USA,
Phone: (515) 294-5708, Fax: (515) 294 2995, Email: pnc@iastate.edu





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Deconstructing Forests

Kent H. Redford
Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY
Francis E. Putz
Department of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

Raging debates about rates and causes of deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics
obscure some fundamental confusion about what is meant by the term "forest." The
etymological roots of this term are varied and have resulted in a confusion that is more than
academic. Proponents of one position or another draw selectively from the myriad
definitions of "forest" in order to create arguments, and interpret data in ways that advance
their positions. In order to illuminate this situation we present a typology of forests that
includes many of the different definitions being used. This typology distinguishes forests on
the basis of their predominant or intended use: biodiversity forests; extraction forests;
ecosystem service forests; and agroforests. We also recognize that many forests may fit into
more than one of these categories, and that the distinctions are sometime blurred, but
nevertheless believe that by using a classification system like this one, more progress will be
made towards protecting the real forests of concern.


Kent Redford, Wildlife Conservation Society, International Conservation, 2300 Southern Blvd., Bronx, NY,
10460, USA, Phone: 718-220-6828, Fax: 718-364-4275





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Making Working Forests a Reality:
How Much Can We Expect from the Kyoto Protocol?

Joyotee Smith
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia

The debate about including forests in the Kyoto Protocol has focused on whether forests
would make genuine contributions to emission reduction. This paper focuses on an issue that
has largely been relegated to a back seat: what will Kyoto do for forests and forest people?
Synthesizing insights from the forestry literature and from pilot carbon projects, it concludes
that Kyoto's potential contribution remains highly uncertain, even though agreement on the
core elements of the Kyoto Protocol have been reached. The paper focuses on two of the
causes of uncertainty. It discusses uncertainties about the price of carbon under various
scenarios and evaluates their implications for the competitiveness of various types of planted
forests, such as fast growing industrial plantations and community plantations. It then
discusses uncertainties about the way in which the sustainable development clause of the
Clean Development Mechanism will be implemented and assesses the environmental and
social implications of a "laissez faire" approach to sustainable development versus a
"proactive" approach. Among the issues discussed are the potential impact of CDM
supported plantations on timber harvesting from natural forests. It then briefly assesses the
contribution Kyoto could make if other forestry activities were included in future
commitment periods. It concludes by arguing that Kyoto sends a powerful signal about the
willingness of the international community to pay for forest environmental services.
Investment in proactive efforts to increase collateral benefits and to reduce risks could
therefore reap dividends in future by stimulating mechanisms to support other environmental
services.


Joyotee Smith, CIFOR, P.O. Box 6596 JKPWB, Jakarta 10065, Indonesia, Phone: +62 (251) 622 622,
Fax: +62 (251) 622 100, Email: e.smith@cgiar.org





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Sustainable Management: The Business/Economic Side

Thomas E. Wilson
International Specialties, Inc.

Many of the early proponents of certification (of sustainability), have attempted to induce
producers into using and meeting the criteria of their schemes by making promises of large
"Green Premiums". In short they have told producers that if they would become certified
they could obtain substantially higher prices for their certified products. Premiums of 25 -
50% have been mentioned. These "Green Premium" prices would more than offset the
producer's cost of becoming certified. However the realities in the North American
commercial market place have shown otherwise. While in some niche markets there may be
some customers willing to pay substantially higher prices, for certified products compared to
non-certified products, the main commercial market place has not shown this tendency.
Certified suppliers have many hurdles to overcome to be financially successful. This is
especially true of those certified under schemes, which both increase their initial costs and
require them to spread their harvests over many different species, most not currently
commercially accepted. These hurdles, combined with the lack of the promised "Green
Premium" have challenged many producers and forcing some to curtail or cease operations.
With these challenges one must ask what allows certified producers to be profitable? They
must run their operations efficiently, making use of newer technologies to both lower costs
and increase utilization. They must also be inventive to be able to develop process
capabilities that increase the value of the material. They must market their products to
achieve maximum appreciation of their material. We'll cover these aspects in detail.


Thomas E. Wilson, International Specialties, Inc., 2009 Myrtle Bend Drive, Germantown, TN, 38139-3411,
USA, Phone: 901-755-2640, Email: Twilsonl6@aol.com






Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management




February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union 0 University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


* Listed alphabetically by presenting author.
* Presenting author appears in bold.


Oral Topic 1
Chainsaw Conservation





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida 0 Gainesville, Florida


Selective Logging, Forest Fragmentation
and Fire Disturbance: Implications of Interaction
and Synergy for Conservation

Mark A. Cochrane, David L. Skole, Eraldo A.T. Matricardi, Christopher Barber and Walter
Chomentowski
Basic Science and Remote Sensing Initiative, Department of Geography, East Lansing, MI, USA

Working forests are premised upon sustainable management, however, ecosystems are
mandated by disturbance. Therefore, conservation and management of forests requires
knowledge of past, present and, to the extent possible, future disturbances. Tropical forests
are increasingly impacted by degrading activities as well as outright deforestation.
Landscapes have been transformed from continuous tracts of unbroken forest into mosaics
of pastures, agricultural plots and forest fragments that have often been subjected to varying
degrees of increased disturbance from sun, wind, fire and logging operations. Multitemporal
case studies from within the Brazilian Amazon are used to illustrate the linkages and
synergy between forest fragmentation, selective logging and forest fire. A geographic
information system is then used to quantitatively and spatially relate disturbance across the
landscape so that spatially articulated disturbance regimes can be mapped. These maps
provide both knowledge of the current state of existing forests as well as the likely future of
given parcels of forest. Preliminary results have shown that forest fragmentation and forest
fire are directly linked with fires becoming edge effects that penetrate kilometers into
standing forests. Selective logging also exacerbates fire probability but with larger effects at
larger distances from forest edges. In typical anthropogenic landscapes, fragmentation
effects, fire and logging can involve nearly all of the remaining forests and pose special
challenges for sustainable management of these resources.


Mark Cochrane, Basic Science and Remote Sensing Initiative, Department of Geography, 1405 S. Harrison
Road, Room 218, East Lansing, MI 48823-5243,USA, Phone: 517-432-9205, Fax: 517-353-2932, Email:
cochrane@bsrsi.msu.edu





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Timber Production and Plant Biodiversity Conservation in
Mesoamerican Rain Forests: Experimental Results and Their
Implications for Adaptive Sustainability Assessment

Bryan Finegan, Diego Delgado and Marlen Camacho
CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica
Nelson Zamora
INBio, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica

Progress towards sustainable forest management in the neotropics will eventually require
greater emphasis on monitoring and an adaptive approach, for which baseline data on
management effects on fundamentally important plant community characteristics are still
required. In permanent sample plots (PSPs) during the first decade following intervention,
lowland rain forest at two Costa Rican sites appeared resilient and productive, although
natural mortality rates rose following silvicultural treatment at one site. Managed stands had
floristic diversity similar to comparable undisturbed forests in both under- and overstoreys,
suggesting that the ecological processes which maintain diversity continue to operate,
compensating for the immediate random species loss from PSPs produced by logging and
treatment. The diversity and abundance of lianas were reduced, however, and population
sizes and structures of some non-commercial tree species were drastically modified by
silvicultural treatment. Model simulations indicate that diversity could be maintained over
the long term in production forests. Outcome indicators of floristic change, necessary for
adaptive management, can be costly to evaluate, and these case studies indicate that
structural indicators are poor surrogates for floristic ones. Modified permanent sample plot
protocols, in combination with a focal species approach, are suggested for monitoring. Focal
species would have priority if the robustness of floristic diversity under typical
mesoamerican management regimes is confirmed by further work. Policy and institutional
mechanisms to make monitoring possible are badly needed, and attributes of forest types -
limited area, unusual characteristics and degree of threat and management operations -
type and intensity of intervention should also be used in setting priorities for monitoring.


Bryan Finegan, Apartado 93, CATIE, Turrialba 7170, Costa Rica, Phone: 00 506 556 04 01, Fax: 00 506 556
24 30, Email: Bfmegan@Catie.Ac.Cr





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



The Role of Silviculture in the Conservation
of Tropical Forests

Todd S. Fredericksen
Proyecto BOLFOR, Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Francis E. Putz
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

Minimizing the deleterious environmental impact of management activities, including those
from logging and additional silvicultural treatments, is the conservation goal in tropical
forests managed for timber production. While it is always beneficial to minimize
unnecessary damage and interventions, more intensive silviculture should not be
discouraged in tropical forests where it is appropriate, especially because the regeneration of
many commercially-valuable timber species may depend on fairly intensive silviculture.
Timber production forests where these species are not sustainably managed may be more
susceptible to conversion to other more lucrative land uses. Furthermore, indirect or
secondary impacts of over-hunting, timber theft, wildfires, colonization, and conversion that
result from or the increased accessibility of logged areas is probably more threatening than
the direct impacts of silvicultural interventions. Conservation of many tropical forests may
well depend more on the implementation of successful silviculture (practices controlling
forest stand establishment, composition and growth) than by minimizing the impacts of
these interventions.


Todd Fredericksen, Proyecto BOLFOR, Top Bol 5053, P.O. Box 52-0777 Miami FL 33152-0777, USA,
Phone: 591-3-480766, Fax: 591-3-480854 (Bolivia), Email: bolfor@bibosi.scz.entelnet.bo





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Limited or Unlimited Wants in the Presence
of Limited Means? Inquiries Into the Role of Satiation
in Affecting Deforestation

A. Angelsen
Agricultural University of Norway, As, Norway
M. K. Luckert
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

A number of recent studies suggest that, contrary to popular belief, intensified agricultural or
forest management will not necessarily reduce deforestation. Instead, of this "win-win"
situation, we may see increased output per hectare, accompanied by expanded deforestation.
Although there are numerous factors cited as causes of this result, the focus of this paper is
on the underlying preferences of those making resource use decisions. Economic scarcity is
frequently defined as "unlimited wants in the presence of limited means". This presentation
considers the first part of this quote by investigating concepts and causes of satiation.

In the presentation, satiation is defined in terms of internal and external effects on utility (i.e.
satisfaction received by resource users), and conditions are developed to describe situations
where satiation may or may not be found. Then, empirical evidence is investigated regarding
satiation in case studies involving aboriginal peoples and natural resource use. Despite
conditions that would support the potential for satiation, findings indicate that wants tend to
be unlimited. The implication for deforestation is that there is potentially yet another reason
to believe that intensified agricultural or forest management will not reduce deforestation.
People may tend to want more forest products or convert more forest land to agriculture,
even under circumstances where we may expect them not to.


Martin Luckert, 515 General Services Building, Department of Rural Economy, University of Alberta,
T6G 2H1, Canada, Phone: (780) 492-5002, Fax (780) 492-0268, Email: marty.luckert@ualberta.ca.





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



The Regional Context of 'Chainsaw Conservation':
Policy Enforcement, Road Paving and the Transformation
of the Amazon Logging Sector

Daniel C. Nepstad and David McGrath,
The Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA, USA and Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia,
Belem, Para, Brazil
Ane Alencar, Elsa Mendonza and Maria del C. Vera
Institute de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia, Bel6m, Para, Brazil
I. Foster Brown
The Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA, USA and Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco,
Acre, Brazil

Only five out of two thousand Amazon sawmills have been awarded certification for forest
management systems. More than three fourths of Amazon mills are associated with illegal
timber harvest operations. In the absence of top-down enforcement of existing forest policies
that require reduced impact forest management, the prospect of bottom-up chainsaw
conservation to conserve large areas of Amazon forest against conversion to cattle pasture
and cropland will be diminished by: (1) an abundant supply of inexpensive timber on the
market, (2) the inability of certified and legal timber companies and communities to protect
their forest holdings from illegal operators, and (3) rural violence against legal companies
and communities. The need for greater enforcement of existing forest policies, and for
frontier governance generally, is elevated by the paving of all-weather highways into central
and western Amazonia, regions that have been largely inaccessible to market-oriented
production. In expeditions along the Transamazon highway in east-central Amazonia, the
Cuiabi-Santardm highway in central Amazonia, and the Transoceanic highway across the
Peruvian Andes, interviews of mill operators and property-holders in twelve emerging
logging centers indicated that highway paving would provide these regions with rapid entry
into large domestic markets for Amazon timber, particularly in Brazil. Most sawmill owners
cited federal regulations as one of their largest costs (e.g. US$20,000 for forest management
planning), although indirect evidence suggested that most mill owners continued to operate
illegally. Two legal logging companies had received death threats. Without effective
regulation of the expanding logging frontier, the success of chainsaw conservation will be
limited.


Daniel Nepstad, The Woods Hole Research Center, PO Box 296, Woods Hole, MA, USA, 02543,
Phone: 508 540 9900, Email: dnepstad@whrc.org





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Saving the Amazon with Sustainable Enterprises:
The Amazonian Phoenix Project Valuing
Biodiversity People and Social Progress

Antonio D. Nobre
Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da AmazOnia, Manaus, AM, Brazil
Robert C. Harriss
National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA

We have designed a concept for an industry that produces ecological wood products using
fiber from secondary tree species grown on previously deforested land. We propose that this
concept in industrial ecology will evolve into a sustainable business on degraded lands along
the southern rim of the Brazilian Amazon, competing with selective logging in native forests.
In our concept model, remaining native forest becomes seed orchards, degraded lands become
intensive wood production areas and sawmills are converted from nomadic and ephemeral
existence into sustainable industrial structures.

The lack of alternative employment opportunities in this region of the Amazon is a
fundamental driving force for deforestation and destructive logging. Preliminary evidence
indicates that the proposed eco-product concept could meet the need for a locally based,
employment-intensive industry. The proposed business opportunity makes use of fast growing
tree species that invade deforested areas, and slow growing hardwood that can be consociated
with short cycle pioneer trees.

The fiber from these secondary plants has been demonstrated to be useful as a primary
component for wood composite products that could range from building materials to finished
retail items. We expect that a detailed examination of our end-to-end concept will demonstrate
that market opportunities generated by this eco-industry could attract significant venture
capital, generate considerable employment opportunities for people who would otherwise cut
virgin forest to survive, and contribute to a stronger and more sustainable Brazilian economy.

Antonio Nobre, INPA, Av. Andrd Arafijo 2936, Manaus, AM, 69083-000, Brazil, Phone: 55 92 9989-3291,
Fax: 55 92 643-3155, Email: anobre27@yahoo.com





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Jungle Dreams / Mahogany Nightmares:
Politico-economic Challenges to Sustainable Forest
Management in the Western Amazon

Ernesto F. Rdez-Luna
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., CANADA

Peru contains the 5th largest extension of closed tropical forests in the world. Amazonian
forests cover 60% of Peru's territory. For decades, Peruvian leaders have dreamt of
conquering the jungle and turning it into a food basket for the country. Instead, the Peruvian
Amazon has remained an extractive periphery. Selective logging and lumber production
(chiefly of big-leafed mahogany, Swietenia macrophyla) are keystone economic activities in
this region.

The timber industry is full of century-old problems. As much as 90% of timber is illegally
logged. About 55% of round wood is lost during primary transformation. Seventy five
percent of timber exports are minimally-processed sawn wood. From 1991 to 1999, Peru's
mahogany exports to the USA experienced a twenty-fold increase. The ongoing mahogany
fever seriously threatens the few remaining stands of the species in Peru.

A new forest law intends to reorganize the timber sector, protect mahogany, and promote
sustainable forest management (SFM). The law is strongly opposed by timber industrials,
and strongly supported by conservationists. In spite of its technical virtues, the law fails to
address the politico-economic historical structures that produce and reproduce the illnesses
of the timber sector. This is also a key failure in much of the international debate on SFM.

Historical structures operate at multiple scales. In Peru, they include nation-level center-
periphery inequalities in economic exchange and political leverage, region-level semi-
slavery relations of production between timber patrons and indigenous labor, and
community-level gender and clan inequities. I discuss those structures, their impact on SFM,
and offer a framework for solutions.


Ernesto Rdez-Luna, University of British Columbia, Chalcuchimac 582 Salamanca de Monterrico, Lima 3,
PERU, South America, Phone: (51)-1-441-9275, Fax: (51)-1-463-4459, Email: eresto@interchange.ubc.ca





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Axing the Trees, Growing the Forest: Smallholder Timber
Production in the Amazon Varzea

Robin R. Sears and Miguel Pinedo- Vasquez
Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

Smallholder farmers in Amazonia are often portrayed as ax-wielding rainforest
destroyers when in truth many are practicing forest management. We describe the
timber production systems of smallholder farmers and operations of sawmill owners
in areas of periodically inundated forests (varzea) in Amazonia from Macapd,
Brazil, to Iquitos, Peru. Through employing local knowledge and production
technologies, smallholder farmers on the varzea supply a significant portion of
timber to local, regional, and even international markets. Their role in the timber
industry is often either overlooked or frowned upon, but can be likened to the role
of small private landowners in the United States as providing a significant portion
of timber to the industry.

With recognition of farmers' intimate knowledge of natural processes such as
natural regeneration and of the autecology of critical species, we describe local
silvicultural practices, present production data, and characterize the managed forests
in terms of species richness, forest structure, and management intensity. We present
the specific case of Calycophyllum spruceanum as a valuable non-traditional timber
species managed in a diversity of production systems in the varzea environment.
We show that ax-wielding forest managers in the Amazon varzea not only meet
conditions for conservation and sustainable development but thrive on the
"consequences" of timber management and extraction: maintenance of species-rich
production forests, reduction of forest conversion, evolution of local knowledge and
extraction technologies, and expansion of the timber market to include non-
traditional species.


Robin Sears, Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, Columbia University, Apartado 172,
Iquitos, PERU, Phone: +51.94.23.1005, Fax: +51.94.26.5527, Email: rrs26@columbia.edu




February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


* Listed alphabetically by presenting author.
* Presenting author appears in bold.


Oral Topic 2
Linking Communities





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union e University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Inside the Polygon: Emerging Community Tenure Systems
and Forest Resource Extraction

Tom Ankersen, Grenville Barnes1 and Jerry Mueller
University of Florida

In this paper we focus on communities that are subjected to land tenure rules that emanate
from the national level as well as those that operate within the customary setting of the
territory. Community tenure systems have generally focused on defining the outside
boundary of the territory and on issuing a land title to the holding group. In this paper, we
make the case that it is essential to look inside this polygon if we are to promote sustainable
extraction of forest resources.

Given the external and internal pressures that are squeezing these communities, can land
tenure systems adapt so as to facilitate sustainable conservation and development? We
examine indigenous land tenure systems in Mexico (ejidos), Peru and Brazil extractivee
reserves) and show that these systems are often a contradictory mix of western law and
indigenous custom.

We explore several extraction scenarios (timber and non-timber) that demand resource and
tenure information inside the polygon. In each case we suggest how this could be managed
within a community cadastre that builds on participatory mapping techniques and local
maintenance of the cadastral information.


Tom Ankersen and Grenville Barnes, University of Florida, 345 Weil Hall, Gainesville, FL, USA, 32611,
Phone: 352-392-4998, Fax: 352-392-4957, Email: gbar@ce.ufl.edu



















SThis will be a joint presentation.





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


From Staple to Fashion Food: Agai Fruit (Euterpe oleracea
Mart.), Commodity Markets, and Rural Development
in the Amazon Estuary

Eduardo S. Brondizio
Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA

Produced in the floodplain environment, Agai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has become the
main economic activity for a large number of estuarine towns during the last thirty years.
This paper looks at the growth of the agai fruit economy as a regional urban staple food, and,
more recently, within the national and international "fashion food" markets. The focus on a
production system -- as a synthesis of multi-level social, economic, and environmental
relations -- serves as a venue to discuss the linkages among development history, local
livelihood, forest resources, and regional, national, and international markets. This work is
based on a combination of ethnographic, inventory, archive, and remote sensing data. The
paper overviews the development phases of the agai economy with emphasis on a decade
long price comparison with other regional agro-pastoral products and the intensification of
the production system. Paper's discussion covers: First, the role of the regional history in
shaping the contemporary social landscape of the estuary and the persisting invisibility of
local actors reflecting a history of social hierarchy defining agrarian structure and labor
classes. Second, it looks at the mismatch among views of regional development. Agriculture
intensification theory is discussed in the context of development models and agroforestry
systems. Third, it looks at the heterogeneity and differential trajectories of change across
communities in the Amazon estuary with emphasis on the role of land tenure, access to
resources, and markets. Whereas market growth has created new opportunities, it tends to
reproduce historical inequalities against local small-scale producers.


Eduardo Brondizio, Indiana University, Student Building 130, Bloomington, IN, 47405, Phone 812-855 6181,
Fax 812-855 3000, Email: ebrondiz@indiana.edu





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Culture And Nature In The Maya Forest:
A Working Philosophy At El Pilar

Anabel Ford
Meso American Research Center, University of California, Santa Barbara USA

Contemporary communities of the Maya forest have pioneered lands and adapted to
environmental conditions that have a long and dynamic tradition stretching back millennia
to the ancient Maya civilization. While recent community land use patterns have emerged
under different conditions, the same natural and physical resources shaped links that depend
on a complex interwoven alliance between culture and nature. Regardless of contemporary
political boundaries, the region shares a common past, is united by the related present, and
stands threatened by an ominous future. Current strategies for survival are unsustainable,
and the accelerated deterioration of cultural and natural resources could be creating a
situation of irreversible damage at every scale. Without clear appreciation of the
alternatives, this situation will persist. The El Pilar Program unites an unique
interdisciplinary research and development team that relies on an integrated science
approach to understanding one of the world's most biodiverse regions: the Maya forest. The
program dovetails with regional and local development activities of the regional resources
Maya forest. Focused effort at El Pilar are promoting a model for investigation and
conservation built on a strong research base, local and international community education
awareness, and a participatory management design.


Anabel Ford, MesoAmerican Research Center, University of California, Santa Barbara CA USA, 93106,
Office +1-805-893-8191, FAX +1-805-893-5677, Email: ford@marc.ucsb.edu





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Community-Based Forestry in the Brazilian Amazon:
An Alternative Strategy for Reconciling Conservation
and Development

David G. McGrath
Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA, US
Charles M. Peters
New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY, US
Antonio Jose Mota Bentes
Institute de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amaz6nia, Santardm, PA, Brazil

The potential of community-based timber management as a strategy for reconciling
development and conservation objectives for tropical forests has been hotly debated. The
approach has been questioned on three overlapping grounds: 1) the economic viability of
forest management, 2) the impacts of forest management on biodiversity, and 3) the
organizational capacity of communities to sustainably manage forest resources. Many
community-based forest management projects in the tropics involving timber extraction and
processing have been plagued by problems. Even where the resource base was adequate, the
large scale, technological complexity and organizational demands of the enterprise
frequently exceeded the individual and collective abilities of the local organizations that
were supposed to manage them.

Here we report progress on an alternative strategy for developing community-based forest
industries now under way in the Tapajos-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve of the state of Park,
Brasil. This strategy involves four main elements: 1) emphasis on organizational
development and skills acquisition, 2) management focused on small selective harvest of
annual growth rather than liquidation of all merchantable stock, 3) small scale, simple tools
and productive process for making furniture, and 4 ) incremental process of implementation
geared to increase the scale and technical and organizational complexity of the enterprise as
group capacity to manage forests and produce and market furniture develops. Preliminary
results indicate that this strategy has the potential to address problems encountered in many
earlier initiatives. The critical challenges are those facing any business: insuring overall
efficiency, product quality, reliability of supply and access to appropriate markets.


David McGrath, Woods Hole Research Center, P.O. Box 296, Woods Hole, MA, USA, 02543, Phone: 508-
548-9375 ext. 149, Fax: 508-540-9700, Email: dmcgrath@whrc.org





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Indigenous Communities and Forest Resources in Brazil:
The Cost of Conservation

Robert Pritchard Miller and Daniella V A. Martins
Agencia de CooperaCgo Tdcnica aos Programas Indigenistas e Ambientais, Brasilia, DF, Brazil

In Brazil, and especially the Amazon Basin, indigenous reserves occupy large tracts of
tropical forest and savanna/forest ecosystems, and will play an increasingly important role in
the conservation of biodiversity. Many indigenous communities are moving from traditional,
non-monetary susbsistence economies to full participation in national economies through the
sale of crafts, extractive forest products, agricultural products, or through wage labor.
During this economic transition the temptation to liquidate timber resources is great, unless
alternative sources of income are available. However, for indigenous groups with little
economic or managerial expertise, exploitation of timber can be disastrous from both a
social and ecological point of view.

This paper examines some of the issues surrounding timber resources on indigenous lands,
as well as the cost of creating and supporting alternative economic opportunities for two
groups, the Parakana of Para State and the Waimiri Atroari of Amazonas/Roraima. As part
of mitigation for social and environmental impacts caused by hydroelectric projects on tribal
lands, these groups are benefitted by aid programs which include health care, education and
support for production. In the case of the Parakana, this support involves the sale of
agricultural and extractive forest products, and to a lesser degree, crafts. Recently, the
Parakana have also begun to collect and market seeds of timber trees, principally mahogany.
The principal source of income for the Waimiri Atroari is the sale of crafts, which generated
approximately US$ 40,000 in the year 2000. On a yearly basis, these aid programs for the
Parakana and Waimiri Atroari require expenditures on the order of $1000 per individual of
each tribe. This value permits an idea of the costs associated with providing support for
forest dwellers, not only in terms of health care and education, but also for the development,
transport, and marketing of their products.


Robert Miller, Agencia de Cooperag~o Tdcnica aos Programas Indigenistas e Ambientais, C.P. 3731, Brasilia,
DF, 70083-970, Brazil, Phone: 61-327-6476, Fax: 61-327-6475, Email: robert@waimiriatroari.org.br





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Does Participatory Research Stimulate Community Natural
Forest Management?: Indigenous Experiences from Lowland
Bolivia

Wendy R. Townsend
Museo Noel KempfMercado, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, CIDOB Conferderation of Indigenous Peoples of Bolivia,
Santa Cruz, Bolivia

Bolivian natural forest management needs to reflect community processes and participatory
research is an effective strategy to achieve that goal in indigenous territories. Despite the
fact that more than 3 million hectares of natural forest has been claimed as indigenous,
indigenous forest management experiences are limited. The political and social tools used
to promote sustainable management by the timber industry need to be re-designed for
promoting sustainable production from indigenous territories. Recent experience has shown
that participatory research can be an important tool for stimulating indigenous people in the
sustainable use of their natural resources.

From 1997 to 2001, CIDOB (The Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Bolivia)
implemented a project financed by DFID (British International Cooperation Agency) which
focused on strengthening indigenous participation in research and management. The project
supported 20 small participatory research projects, conceived and carried out by indigenous
researchers, guided by academic co-researchers and focused on traditional resource use and
land management practices. Support was awarded by merit based on originality of the
research idea.

These experiences demonstrate that participatory research can stimulate curiosity, self-
esteem, and community participation, as well as document local knowledge. The traditional
elaboration of various commercial products was researched and this has stimulated
commercialization of the same. At least one community has had some success with selling
their non timber forest products. Other projects adapted scientific censusing techniques to
local conditions and community participation. The participatory research experience has
provided valuable lessons for achieving integrated natural forest management in Bolivian
indigenous territories.


Wendy Townsend, Noel KempffMercado Natural History Museum, Casilla 6266, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, Phone:
(+591) 355-6925), Fax: (+591) 355-6925, Email: wendyt@caoba.entelnet.bo





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Approaches to Sustainable Community Forestry:
Perspectives from Mexico and Honduras

Catherine Tucker
Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA

Achieving sustainable forest management poses many challenges for nations that aim for
economic development while also protecting their natural resources. Community forestry
has been promoted as a means to combine community development with sustainable forest
management practices. Not only does community forestry promise benefits to local
populations, it also can reduce government costs for forest monitoring and management
when communities take on these responsibilities. In theory, communities that gain income
from forests will adopt sustainable management practices in order to maintain the resource
base. Yet policy initiatives and programs to promote community forestry have encountered
numerous obstacles to success, and many communities have encountered difficulties in
finding markets or selling forest products profitably while maintaining sustainable
harvesting. This study discusses case studies from Mexico and Honduras, with a focus on
two communities that are committed to managing their common property forests wisely.
One community has limited commercial activities to resin-tapping, while the other has
chosen to market value-added timber products. Both communities have encountered
dilemmas, from external obstacles and contradictions to internal tensions. The paper
explores socioeconomic, historical and cultural dimensions that contribute to these
communities' successes and shortcomings in forest management, and their relationships to
the broader economic and policy contexts. In the process the discussion examines the
challenge of sustainable forestry and its broader implications for the role of the state and
community autonomy in natural resource management.


Catherine Tucker, Indiana University, Center for the Study of Institutions, Population and Environmental
Change (CIPEC), 408 N. Indiana Avenue, Bloomington, IN, USA, 47408, Phone: (812)855-7516,
FAX: (812)855-2634, Email: tuckerc@indiana.edu





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Strategies to Improve Rural Livelihoods through Markets
for Forest Products and Services

Sara J. Scherr and Andy White
Forest Trends, Washington DC, USA
David Kaimowitz
CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia

In this paper, we argue that global challenges of meeting growing forest product and service
demands, and forest conservation can be met while also reducing rural poverty. Forestry
plays an important role in livelihoods for the rural poor, and commercial forest markets
present a valuable development opportunity for them. Many factors presently limit forest
market participation by local people but major changes and innovations in markets,
resources and governance are re-shaping the forest sector.

We conclude that to take advantage of market opportunities and raise incomes significantly,
local producers must improve their market position by managing livelihood risks by
managing a "portfolio" of products in different income/risk categories, and maintaining the
capacity to switch products as markets change. Phased market development over time is
usually necessary, so that producer capacity has time to develop, and strategic business
partnerships can benefit both private industry and local forest producers. We also
recommend securing forest ownership and access rights of local people to expand local
business opportunities. Reducing the excessive regulatory burden on local forest producers
is necessary for them to participate profitably in legal forest markets. Forest market policies
that discriminate against poor producers must be reformed significantly to realize potentials
for local participation. Active involvement of local producers in forest policy negotiations
will result in more practical, realistic and lower-cost laws, regulations and development
plans.


Andy White, Forest Trends, 1050 Potomac Avenue NW, Washington, DC, USA, 20007,
Phone: (202) 298-3000, fax 298-3014, Email: awhite@forest-trends.org




February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


* Listed alphabetically by presenting author.
* Presenting author appears in bold.


Oral Topic 3
Paying for Carbon






Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Funding Forestry through Carbon -
Case Studies from across the Tropics

Louise Aukland and Pedro Moura Costa
EcoSecurities Ltd., Oxford, UK

The paper will present a number of forestry projects from the tropics where carbon
constitutes an additional income-generating stream for various forestry based activities.
Using examples from across the tropics, some of the key issues in the carbon project cycle
will be illustrated, including the setting of baselines, the quantification of offsets and carbon
credit accounting. This will be done for a range of activity types including reduced impact
logging and the sustainable management of a forest unit, integrated conservation and rural
development, afforestation and forest rehabilitation.

Using the case studies, the presenter will demonstrate how different funding mechanisms
can be used to meet the needs and objectives of both the project developer and the investor.


Louise Aukland, EcoSecurities Ltd, Delawarr House, 45 Raleigh Park Road, Oxford, OX2 9AZ, UK,
Phone: 44-1865-202635, Fax: 44-1865-251438, Email: louise@ecosecurities.com





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


From Global Governance to Local Realities:
Capturing Carbon through Conservation. A Participatory
Evaluation of the Noel Kempff Climate Action Project, Bolivia

Emily G. K. Boyd
School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom

In the wake of the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change a
strong interest has emerged on the role of forests as sinks for greenhouse gases. In the light
of uncertainties surrounding co-benefits of global mitigation with the localised importance
of forests, forest management and the communities dependent on them the Noel Kempff
Climate Action Project in Bolivia was assessed during five months PhD fieldwork
culminating
in a multi-stakeholder participatory evaluation workshop (2001). The paper
suggests key factors contributing to the Project's impact on local institutional
arrangements and access to common property resources includes trust and transparency
between actors, opportunity for adaptation, context specific development and enabling
legislation.

The paper contextualises the Project in the Bajo Paragui zone of Bolivia illustrating how
multiple conservation and mitigation objectives have contributed to complex inter-linkages
between local institutional arrangements, community dynamics and management regimes.
The author suggests parallels can be drawn between the project's compensation approach
and initially limited community participation with traditional Conservation and
Development projects. However, she argues that local actors do not recognize this as an
indicator of "project failure," but rather as a process of change, resulting in an adaptive
learning experience, strengthening capacity and collaboration between outsiders and
insiders.

Concluding, the paper advocates that the communities are agents of change, adapting and
exploiting benefits largely through institutional change, planning, representation and
participation. These changes have impacted community dynamics, and despite incidences of
conflict local stakeholders have chosen to engage in dialogue consolidating internal
management regimes.


Emily G.K. Boyd, School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia. Norwich, NR4 7TJ, United
Kingdom, Phone: 00 44 (0) 1603 611621, Fax: 00 44 (0) 1603 451999, Email: e.boyd@uea.ac.uk





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Cost and Potential of Carbon Mitigation in Tropical Forestry

Jayant A. Sathaye and Willy R. Makundi
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720

This paper analyzes specific activities in selected tropical countries involving carbon
sequestration and GHG emission reduction with an objective of estimating the cost and
potential for mitigation in tropical forestry. The analysis is based on studies carried in
Brazil, Mexico, Tanzania, India, Indonesia, Philippines and China using a common
methodology (COMAP) to estimate the cost and potential for carbon mitigation. The
approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios. It allows for
the estimation of monetary benefit per t C by using the data on carbon sequestration,
emission reduction and non-carbon costs and benefits. The residual cost provides a measure
of the 'at-cost' value of carbon in tropical forests in the services global climate change
mitigation.

Preliminary results show that about half the cumulative mitigation potential of 6.2 Gt C
between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries (about 223 Mt C/yr) could be realized at a
negative cost, the next 2 Gt C being achieved at a cost not exceeding $ 20 per tC, with the
remainder costing less than $100 per t C. Negative cost potential indicates that non-carbon
revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of these options. The achievable potential is likely
to be smaller, however, due to market, institutional, and socio-cultural barriers that can delay
or prevent the implementation of the analyzed options. The actual value of carbon in tropical
forests will depend on the prevailing conditions in the forthcoming market for carbon
credits.

Keywords: carbon mitigation potential, cost per tC, forestation, forest protection, tropical
forestry, carbon trading

Willy R. Makundi, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA,
Phone: 510-486-6852, Fax: 510-486-6996, Email: wrmakundi@lbl.gov





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Climate Stability through Forest Sequestration Activities

Mark van Soestbergen
International Carbon Bank and Exchange, Gainesville, FL, USA

Worries over the impact of increased carbon in the atmosphere are driving the world forestry
in a new direction. After about a decade of deliberation, sequestration activities are now
being recognized as a legitimate vehicle to harvest carbon dioxide emissions from industrial
activities. The Kyoto Protocol and other mechanisms are creating methods in which an
emitter can pay for reductions achieved by another, and count those reductions as his/her
own. The quantity of reductions expected to be realized through greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions trade is about 500 million t/C per year, with over 10% permitted in forest based
carbon sinks.

This presents an enormous opportunity and novel challenges to tropical forest communities.
In particular, issues such as ensuring project's goals while keeping costs low and the
implementation practical are central. To facilitate this process, the International Carbon
Bank and Exchange (ICBE) has created a virtual framework in which a variety of
participants can fulfill their role to enable a greenhouse gas transaction in an efficient
manner. In this paper, I will demonstrate how forestland owners can use this system to
generate carbon projects and participate in carbon emissions trading and learn how
reductions are verified and mapped to their exact location. I will make this example using
tropical forest projects, which are in progress.


Mark van Soestbergen, International Carbon Bank and Exchange, Gainesville, FL, USA,
Phone: 352-367-1144, Email: mark@icbe.com




February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida e Gainesville, Florida


* Listed alphabetically by presenting author.
* Presenting author appears in bold.


Oral Topic 4
Certification





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Developing Principles, Criteria, Indicators and Verifiers for
Forest Management Units: Tools for Defining, Evaluating and
Communicating the Ecological Sustainability of Forest
Management in Costa Rica and Nicaragua

Kathleen McGinley and Bryan Finegan
CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica

The Costa Rican Standards and Procedures for Sustainable Forest Management and
Certification (CNCF 1999) and the Nicaraguan proposal of principles, criteria and indicators
for sustainable forest management (PC&I) (INAFOR 2000) are examples of national level
efforts to establish guidelines to define, evaluate and communicate sustainable forest
management (SFM) in the neotropics. Both proposals focus primarily on the fulfillment of
sound forest practices with comparatively little emphasis on adaptive management and the
assessment of management impacts and outcomes.

CATIE's C&IEcoAdapt project: Ecological Criteria and Indicators for Adaptive Forest
Management was initiated to propose standards for the evaluation of SFM that encompass
elements of adaptive management for Costa Rica and Nicaragua, to contribute to the process
of testing and validation of existing national forest management standards in the neotropics,
and to advance the understanding and experience with processes for developing national
level standards (e.g. sets of PC&I) for the evaluation of sustainable natural tropical forest
management using existing or generic C&I sets as a starting point.

The basic research process encompassed three phases of evaluation (in-office, desk and
field) of the initial or 'starting point' set of elements taken from existing national standards
and the CIFOR generic C&I template (predominantly focused on evaluating forest
management outcomes) and involved multi-disciplinary, international groups of experts in
forest ecology, management and policy. The paper discusses the process and results of
CATIE's C&IEcoAdapt project, underscoring the development of national standards for
forest management as part of national conservation/sustainable management strategies and
ultimately, facilitating forest certification at the forest management unit and national level in
Costa Rica and Nicaragua.


Kathleen McGinley, CATIE, c/o 2104 S. Curt Circle, Tampa, FL, 33629, USA, Phone: 813-286-1676,
FAX: 813-282-4694, Email: mcginleykathleen@hotmail.com





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Conservation with Certified Timber:
The Experience of Programme for Belize

Erin O. Sills
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
Edilberto Romero
Programme for Belize, Belize City, Belize

Certified timber production has been undertaken by the non-profit organization Programme
for Belize (PfB) as part of its mission is "to link conservation of tropical forest with the
development of sustainable land uses that leave the forest and its environmental values
intact." Out of a 95,000 hectare reserve in northwestern Belize, PfB designated 17,800
hectares of subtropical moist forest for timber extraction. Between 1997 and 1999, PfB
harvested 420,200 board feet from 800 hectares. Both Woodmark (Soil Association) and
Smartwood (Rainforest Alliance) certified the timber harvest, allowing PfB to export
certified lumber. In addition to certification, PfB had the advantages of secure tenure, an
existing road network, and the possibility of sharing infrastructure costs with other activities
such as ecotourism. However, a financial analysis demonstrates that timber extraction was
not profitable. Given the current cost structure and prices, only extraction of mahogany
(Swietenia macrophylla) generates significant profits. Reasons for this lack of profitability
include some particular to PfB, such as the experimental nature and research objectives of
the operations, and the costs of contracting and monitoring agents to extract, transport, and
mill the timber. Other reasons are inherent to certified timber production in this region,
including reduced timber volumes due to previous logging, higher costs relative to
commercial loggers operating under less rigorous and poorly enforced standards, and the
difficulty of obtaining a premium price for certified wood from all but the best known
species.


Erin Sills, North Carolina State University, Department of Forestry,, Raleigh, NC, USA, 27695-8008,
Phone: 919-515-7784, Fax: 919-515-6193, Email: erin sills@ncsu.edu




February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


* Listed alphabetically by presenting author.
* Presenting author appears in bold.


Poster Topic 1
Tropical Land Use
and Land-Cover Change





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Measuring and Monitoring Carbon for Forest-Based Projects:
Experience from Pilot Projects

Sandra Brown
Winrock International, Arlington, VA

There are many pilot forestry projects that are under some stage of implementation, and
much experience has been gained from them with respect to measuring, monitoring, and
accounting for their carbon benefits. For forestry projects, not all pools need measuring-a
selective accounting system can be used that includes all pools expected to decrease and
choice of pools expected to increase as a result of the project. Such a system allows for
trade-offs between expected carbon benefits, costs, and desired precision, while maintaining
the integrity of the net carbon benefits. Techniques and methods for sampling design and
for accurately and precisely measuring individual carbon pools in forestry projects exist, are
based on commonly accepted principles of forest inventory, soil sampling, and ecological
surveys, and have been well tested in many part of the world. Experience with several
forestry projects in tropical countries have shown that with the use of these techniques
carbon pools can readily be estimated to be within less than 10% of the mean at a modest
cost. To date, there is little experience with measuring the changes in carbon stocks over
time, but use of the correct design and sufficient numbers of permanent plots, it is expected
that precision levels will be maintained at less than 10% of the mean.


Sandra Brown, Winrock International, 1621 N. Kent St., Suite 1200, Arlington, VA 22209, Tel: 703-525-9430,
ext 678, Fax: 703-525-1744, Email: sbrown@winrock.org





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Using Lidar to Identify Structural Differences
between Primary and Secondary Tropical Rainforests

Charles C. Cowden and John F. Weishampel
University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA

Remote sensing is an invaluable tool for estimating forest cover over vast or inaccessible
areas; such techniques have been applied to measure various biophysical attributes of forest
canopies including height, stand volume, and aboveground biomass. The development of
large footprint lidar (light detection and ranging) has allowed accurate mapping of canopy
structure of closed canopies with high leaf area indices (LAI). Analysis of lidar return
waveforms has yielded various structural descriptions such as canopy surface height, height
profiles, and canopy volume. Field research has shown primary and secondary tropical
rainforests to be both structurally and floristically discrete; therefore, remotely sensed
canopy characteristics may be able to distinguish primary forests from secondary forests.
Secondary forests act as nutrient sinks, and primary forests are potential sources but remain
relatively at equilibrium under natural disturbance regimes (gap-phase dynamics). Thus the
ability to discern rainforest types is integral in developing accurate estimates of global
carbon dynamics and local nutrient cycling. For this study, lidar data were collected from
primary and secondary tropical rainforests at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica in
March 1998 for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission. Using height, fractal
dimension, and semi-variance techniques on this lidar transect data, we assessed the ability
to distinguish between primary and secondary tropical rainforests.


Charles Cowden, University of Central Florida, Department of Biology, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando,
FL, USA, 32816-2368, Phone: 407-823-6649, Email: cccowd@aol.com





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Economic Impacts of Fire in the Amazon

Maria del Carmen Vera Diaz
Institute de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amaz6nia IPAM, Belem, PA, Brazil
Daniel C. Nepstad
IPAM and Woods Hole Research Center WHRC, Woods Hole, MA, USA

Ronaldo Seroa da Motta and Mdrio Jorge Cardoso de Mendonqa
Institute de Pesquisa Econ6mica Aplicada -IPEA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Fire usage is a deeply rooted cultural practice in the Brazilian Amazon. Every year, towards
the end of the dry season, farmers and landholders burn their lands to transform forest areas
into agricultural and grazing lands. Within this context, fire is one of the principal elements
in the agricultural expansion of the region. Paradoxically, when out of control, fire also
causes losses to rural property owners by burning areas that were not supposed to be burned
and generating externalities to society. This risk of uncontrolled fire stimulates property
owners to reduce investments in their properties, perpetuating the dominance of extensive
cattle ranching and slash and burn agriculture at the expense of agroforestry systems and
sustainable forest management. Fire damage valuation is complex and ignored by the
economic system, which considers, exclusively, the benefits obtained from using this
agricultural practice. Our main objective is to evaluate the economic and environmental
impacts of fire in Amazonia, for society as a whole and for rural property owners. The
impacts include burned grassland, forest, plantations, lost fences, C02 emissions and
respiratory diseases. Physical and monetary quantification of fire losses in Amazonia is done
using the environmental economics theoretical-methodological framework. Fire and smoke
damages to rural property owners and negative externalities to society are identified.
Preliminary results indicate that the losses caused by fire in the Amazon can represent 3% of
the region's GDP. These estimates constitute a valuable tool in the discussion and
elaboration of public policies related to accidental fire prevention and control.


Maria Del Carmen Diaz, Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia -IPAM, Avenida Nazare 669, Belem,
Para, Brazil, 66035-170, Phone (Fax): 55 91 241 6700, Email: mcarmen@amazon.com.br





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Long-term Monitoring of Natural and Anthropogenic Change
in a Neotropical Rainforest Using Remote Sensing Imagery

Jonathan Greenberg
Center for Spatial Technologies and Remote Sensing (CSTARS), University of California, Davis,
Davis, CA, USA

Yasuni National Park is the largest park in Ecuador and spans nearly 1 million hectares of
pristine lowland rainforest, floodplain forest and swamp communities. However, rapid
colonization and deforestation is occurring along two major oil access roads built through
the park. The ability to understand and manage deforestation requires a multidisciplinary
approach combining forest successional dynamics, human economics and wide-scale
monitoring of present and past forest conditions. Satellite-based remote sensing is an
excellent tool to provide much of the information required to adequately monitor and predict
colonization of these forests. Here, we present initial results from 35 years of remote sensing
data over the park, quantifying both deforestation rates along the two roads as well as
relevant forest parameters including turnover rate and successional stage. These data will
ultimately be integrated into a model to determine the future conditions of the forest under
current and proposed conditions, as well as examining the feasibility of realistic, alternative
management and land use practices.


Jonathan Greenberg, Center for Spatial Technologies and Remote Sensing (CSTARS), University of
California, Davis, 3592 Shelter Creek Drive, Napa, CA, 94558, USA, Phone: 707-252-1535,
Fax: 530-752-5262, Email: greenberg@ucdavis.edu





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Natural Regeneration in an Atlantic Forest Fragment
Located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

Josd Amdrico de Mello Filho
Depto. Engenharia Rural Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS and UFRJ, CCMN,
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
Jorge Paladino Corr&a de Lima
USDA Forest Service, Athens,Ga/,USA and Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro/ENCE, Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil.

In this study, the fragments of native tropical forest covering were considered inside of the
limits of the National Forest Mario Xavier. The Mario Xavier National Forest is located in
Serop6dica County, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and was created in 1986 with an area of
493 ha. It has the most important native forest fragment in Seropddica, covering an area of
about 60 ha, and is a residual part of Brazil's Atlantic Forest.
The aim of this research was to show the expansion of native forest through natural
regeneration in this tropical forest fragment, using geoprocessing technology with a field
survey.

Using aerial photo interpretation, the native forest covering was quantified and mapped in
five different moments, encompassing a period of 36 years. A sequence of images, obtained
at different ages, between 1964 and 2000, showed that in the Mario Xavier National Forest,
34.2 hectares of natural expansion of native forest have occurred over the 36-year period,
corresponding to an annual increase of native vegetation cover of 0.95 ha/year.

Expansion of native forest through natural regeneration relies mainly on naturally dispersed
seed. To identify the more important species in the Mario Xavier National Forest natural
regeneration process, a field survey was developed. Erythroxylum pulchrum_A.St.-Hill,
Casearia sylvestris Sw., Casearia inaequilatera_Camb., Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.)
Brenan, Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.), Inga marginata Willd., Tabebuia cassinoides DC.
and Genipa americana were identified among others species.


Jorge Paladino Lima, USDA Forest Service, 320 Green Street, Athens GA, USA, 30602, Phone 706.5594313,
FAX 706.5594317, Email: paladino@engenharia.org.br, Email2: jorgepalladino@yahoo.com





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Impact of Aspect and Urban Matrix in the Structure
and Composition of the Vegetation in the Limestone Hills
of Puerto Rico

J. Lugo-Perez and Alberto Sabat
University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR, USA

Urban centers may affect the plant composition and structure in limestone hills. I compared
the vegetation composition and structure of limestone hills slopes with different matrix
(urban or secondary forest) and aspect (northwest or southeast). I selected twelve limestone
hill slopes in Puerto Rico. Four different conditions of matrix and aspect were chosen:
urban (U) northwest (NW) and southeast (SE), and secondary forest (F) northwest (NW) and
southeast (SE). Plants were grouped in three categories of basal area (ba) to evaluate the
effect of conditions on different plant sizes. For small plants (0.03-30.00cm2 ba), diversity
of the community is influenced by matrix and aspect. Southeast small plant community
showed similar diversity values for both matrixes. However, F-NW had the highest
diversity and U-NW had the lowest diversity among all conditions. Southeast aspects have
higher species richness than NW, but no differences between densities were found.
Diversity and species richness for medium-sized plants (30.1-315.0cm2 ba) were higher in
plant communities adjacent to urban matrixes, but not between aspects. No difference was
found in plant density among conditions. Large plants (> 315.1cm2 ba) diversity, species
richness and density were not different between conditions. Species composition in the
small-sized category showed more similarity among communities with the same matrix.
Species composition in the medium-sized category grouped the communities by aspect and
matrix. Aspects and matrixes have an influence on the plant community structure and
composition on limestone hill slopes, but the influence of matrix and aspect varies among
plant size classes.


Javier Lugo-Pdrez, University of Puerto Rico, University of Puerto Rico, Biology Department,
P.O. Box 23360, San Juan, PR, 00931-3360, Phone: 787-764-0000 ext. 4855, Email: iguaca@hotmail.com





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Effects of Livestock on Structure and Composition
of Floodplain Forests in the Lower Amazon, Brazil

Pervaze A. Sheikh
Consultant for Congressional Research Service, Washington D.C., USA and Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental
da Amaz6nia, Belem, PA, Brazil
Azinilson Aquino
Institute de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amaz6nia, Belem, PA, Brazil

In the Lower Amazon, introduced cattle and water buffalo freely range within floodplain
forests at densities ranging from 10 15 animals/ha. Heavy livestock activity in floodplain
forests has caused concern that woody regeneration may be inhibited by livestock and
causing forests to be converted to grasslands. We inventoried 21 floodplain forest stands to
see if livestock activity was related to forest structure, woody stem species composition, and
soil properties. Each forest was assigned a level of livestock activity (heavy, moderate or
light) based on the density of pug marks found in each inventoried plot. In each forest, we
counted and measured saplings, seedlings and adult woody stems in three randomly placed
1000m2 plots. In addition, we measured soil bulk density, soil compaction and light
penetration in forest plots. We found that forests with heavy livestock activity had
significantly less seedlings, saplings, and basal area compared to forests with light activity
(p < 0.05). Forests with moderate livestock activity had significantly higher diversity and
seedling density than forests with heavy activity (p < 0.05). Soil and light properties were
also positively related to livestock activity. Ranching is expanding on the Amazon
floodplain. In the future, most floodplain forests will be exposed to heavy livestock activity.
If soil compaction and trampling by livestock is decreasing seedling and sapling density,
light penetration may increase and give a competitive growing advantage to native grasses in
the forest understory. If woody regeneration continues to be suppressed, forest may
eventually be converted to grasslands.


Pervaze Sheikh, Congressional Research Service, 423 Madison Building, Washington D.C., USA 20540-7450,
Phone: 202-707-6070, fax: 202-707-3342, Email: psheikh@crs.loc.gov





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Tropical Lowland Rainforest Loss and Bird Diversity:
A Case Study from Southeast Asia

Navjot S. Sodhi
National University of Singapore, Singapore, Republic of Singapore

There has been unprecedented loss of tropical lowland rainforests in Southeast Asia. This
trend is continuing despite the fact that Southeast Asia is one of the mega-biodiversity
regions of our planet. I studied the effects of tropical lowland rainforest loss on bird
diversity in Singapore. Singapore is an island state and is one of the most densely populated
areas of our planet. Since mid 1800s, forest loss in Singapore has been extensive with only
5% of the native forest cover currently remaining. As a consequence, Singapore has lost
67% of its forest-dependent avifauna. Comparisons with larger forests in Peninsular
Malaysia show that the bird communities are depauperate in Singaporean forest patches.
Artificial nest experiments also reveal possibly very high predation in the forest patches.
Studies from Singapore show heavy and irreversible loss of avian diversity following forest
loss. Countries in Southeast Asia should reconsider their heavy deforestation practices. It
may be essential to protect large tracts of lowland rainforests for the long-term viability of
avian communities.


Navjot Sodhi, National University of Singapore, Department of Biological Sciences, Blk S2, 14 Science Drive
4, Singapore, 117543, Republic of Singapore, Phone: (65) 874 2700, FAX: (65) 779 2486,
Email: dbsns@nus.edu.sg





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Forest Cover Change in a Western Honduras Community:
Accessibility and Protection as Determinants
of Landscape Transformation

J. Southworth, H. Nagendra and C. Tucker
CIPEC, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA

This study addresses the issues of trajectories of forest cover change and their relationship to
the social and biophysical trajectories of the landscape in Western Honduras. This region
presents a complex mosaic of land cover change processes that involve multiple human and
environmental dimensions. Remote sensing imagery of 1987, 1991 and 1996 were used to
examine land cover change and landscape fragmentation with regard to elevation, and
distance from roads. Changes in landscape pattern can be related to increasing pressure on
the land, and concurrent shifts in land use. Through the 1990s export coffee production has
expanded in the region, resulting in clearings of forest on steeper slopes and higher
elevations. We also examine the effectiveness of park boundaries in deterring deforestation
within this study region for Celaque National Park. Over time, there is increased
deforestation in the buffer region, while the park boundary and core region appear to be
maintaining forest cover. Forest plot level vegetation analyses were used to link the ground
based and satellite data to evaluate changes in forest cover over the larger study area. A
community level analysis within this larger study area shows the importance of land tenure,
with higher rates of deforestation and lower rates of reforestation in communal versus
private forest. This research highlights the importance of multi-disciplinary analysis in
linking the spatial patterns of land cover change to the processes driving land use change
within this complex, dynamic landscape.


Jane Southworth, CIPEC, Indiana University, 408 N. Indiana, Bloomington, IN, 4748, USA,
Phone: (812) 855-2863, FAX: (812) 855-2634, Email: jsouthwo@indiana.edu





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


The Role of Land Tenure on the Occurrence of Accidental
Fires in the Amazon Region: Case Studies
from the National Forest of Tapaj6s, Pari, Brazil

M. Angelica Toniolo and Eduardo S. Brondizio
Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA

During the dry season of 1997, the Brazilian Amazon region experienced fires on a vast
scale. Logging, cattle ranching, and agriculture have impoverished and fragmented
significant portions of the forest and increased the unwanted spread of fires beyond their
intended limits.

The main question addressed in this research is whether variation in property regimes affects
the incidence and spread of accidental fires. Property regimes produce different incentives
for land use with implications for the spatial and temporal patterns of deforestation. Distinct
landscape patterns create differential conditions for the spread of accidental fires. To fully
understand the relationships between land tenure, land-use systems, landscape structure, and
incentives, it is important to consider how the specific rules devised within a given tenure
regime shape farmers' decisions about land use and fire management at the local level, and
to what degree, these rules depend on higher level decision-making processes.

Working forests are embedded in institutional landscapes and this paper will discuss the
conceptual approach to this topic. The paper presents a research design to capture these
relationships and presents preliminary results. Archive research, field surveys, and analysis
of remotely sensed data are used. The paper explores important aspects of sampling within
different land tenure systems, the main variables that allow capturing these aspects, and how
these aspects relate to land use/land cover.

This is a particularly relevant study area because the governmental property overlaps
common and private properties, which is representative of numerous conservation units
throughout Latin America.


M. Angelica Toniolo, Indiana University, 701 Kirkwood Avenue, SB #331, Bloomington, IN, USA, 47405-
7100, Phone: 812-855-2642, Fax: 812-855-3000, Email: ATONIOLO@INDIANA.EDU





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Reforestation Activities for Watershed Restoration
in Nicaragua

Sarah Workman
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Carlos Rodriguez
IITF/USDA Forest Service, Puerto Rico
Richard Chavez
Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA

The torrential rains of Hurricane Mitch in October 1998 caused great damage to the
infrastructure and natural resources of Nicaragua. Hurricane effects most heavily impacted
the Departments of Chinandega, Leon, Esteli, Nuevo Segovia, and Madriz. The area around
Casitas in the Maribios volcanic chain and steep-slope zones in departments farther north
suffered severe landslides that resulted in stream channel scouring and massive
sediment/debris deposition. Much of the disaster can be linked to the combination of slope
steepness, previous deforestation with lack of soil conservation in farming systems, and
grazing practices. Maintenance of perennial tree cover in the landscape is one of the best
watershed management practices possible. The USDA Hurricane Mitch Restoration Project
was active in 2000 and 2001. Reforestation efforts focused on establishment of perennial
vegetation on sloping lands and along upper reaches of stream courses as well as restoration
of tree cover on agricultural lands and riparian areas damaged by floods. From July-
September 2000, USDA directly sponsored communities planting 40,000 fruit tree seedlings
and 350,000 forestry seedlings across the western half of Nicaragua with NGO/PVO partner
groups. Efforts in 2001 focused on projects with small grants to NGOs, demonstrations, and
training events. Concentrated technical assistance to the National Tree Seed Center for tree
seed collection and storage helped assure quality germplasm for partner groups and other
reforestation efforts in country. Additional USDA support for the forestry sector included
technical training and assistance in nursery production, agroforestry, forest products
certification, forest policy, and GIS/remote sensing applications for forest management.


Sarah W. Workman, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110410, Gainesville, FL, USA, 32611,
Phone: 352-846-3496, Fax: 352-846-1277, Email: sworkman@ufl.edu






Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management




February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union 0 University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


* Listed alphabetically by presenting author.
* Presenting author appears in bold.


Poster Topic 2
Tropical Forestry
for Timber Production






Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Selective Logging
in Eastern Amazon Using Visual Interpretation Analysis
of Satellite Images

Ane A. C. Alencar
Institute de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amaz6nia IPAM, Belem, PA, Brazil
Daniel C. Nepstad
IPAM and Woods Hole Research Center WHRC, Woods Hole, MA, USA
Sanae Hayashi
Faculdade de Ci6ncias Agrdrias do Pard FCAP, Bel6m, PA, Brazil

There are uncertainties related to the area annually affected by selective logging in the
Amazon. Methods that include measurements of satellite images and interviews have been
used to quantify the area annually affected by logging in this region, producing results that
vary from 1500km2 up to 15000km2. In this study, an alternative method is presented to
assess the extent of logged area using visual interpretation of digital images. This method
consists of multi-date analysis of selective logging scars on 4 coregistrered Landsat TM
scenes of 32,340 km2, during a 7 year period. The study area is located between the cities of
Paragominas and Tailandia, two important logging centers in the eastern Amazon. The
images used were path/row 223/62 from June 1993 and 1995, August 1999 and 2000. The
purpose of this study is to quantify the logging area per year, to map the use of logging areas
after the logging activity and to identify the temporal and spatial distribution of the logging
areas. Preliminary results indicated that an average area of 2,600km2 per year was affected
by logging in 1999 and 2000. In this old logging frontier, 82 % of the area logged was
abandoned to forest regrowth from 1993 to 1999, while 12% of the logged area was
deforested and 6% logged again. This method is suitable for identifying areas of recent and
intensive logging in the Amazon, and is a fast and simple tool for monitoring this activity in
the region.


Ane Alencar, Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia -IPAM, Avenida Nazare 669, Belem, Para, 66035-
170, Brazil, Phone (Fax): 55 91 241 6700, Email: ane@amazon.com.br





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Liana Loads and Post-Logging Liana Densities
after Liana Cutting in a Lowland Forest in Bolivia

Diana Alvira and Francis Putz
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Todd S. Fredericksen
Proyecto BOLFOR, Santa Cruz, Bolivia

Liana infestations are a problem in many forest management areas because lianas decrease
rates of tree growth, damage tree boles, and inhibit regeneration. We described "liana sheds"
of canopy trees and quantified liana regeneration in felling gaps after selective logging in a
liana-rich moist lowland forest in Amazonian Bolivia. Of 80 individual trees >10 cm in
DBH representing 11 commercial species, 90% had at least one liana >2 cm diameter.
Infested trees with lianas hosted an average of 14 lianas (14.9 = 1sd.; range: 1 to 68
lianas). The mean area of the crown affected with lianas was 35% (29.7). Of the trees
colonized by lianas, 90 % had lianas within the crowns and 10 % had lianas only on their
boles. Crown position and crown quality were not correlated with liana infestation, but a
higher than average proportion of slightly curved trees were liana-laden. There was a weak
positive correlation between crown size area and degree of liana infestation. Liana shed area
was a function of crown area. Most lianas on trees were rooted below their crown (90%), the
number of lianas decreased with increasing distance from the crown edge, but lianas
colonized trees as far as 8 m from the edge of their crown.
Liana regeneration in felling gaps after selective logging was mainly by sprouting of fallen
stems. Pre-logging liana cutting reduced liana density and post-logging liana proliferation in
logging gaps.


Diana Alvira, University of Florida, Department of Botany, 220 Bartram Hall, Gainesville, FL, 32611-8526,
Phone: 352- 392-1175, Fax: 352-392-3993, Email: dalvira@botany.ufl.edu





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Short and Long-term Effects of Selective Logging
on Timber Tree Regeneration in French Guiana

Christopher Baraloto
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Timber tree regeneration is an important component of any sustainable management strategy
that includes selective logging. I have investigated how logging damage influences patterns
of regeneration after selective logging in French Guiana.

In a before-after survey of logging damage at 220 sampling points, I characterized post-
logging microhabitats based on differences in physical parameters. Skid trails had increased
light availability and soil compaction; and sites where trees were cut had more open canopy
and less compacted soil. However, in a site logged twelve years earlier (264 sampling
points), I found only slight differences among post-logging microhabitats. Skid trails still
received more light than understory sites, but not as much as actual canopy gaps. And no
soil characteristic differed between post-logging microhabitats and undisturbed understory.
Significantly, I found no relationship between harvest intensity (basal area removed of 0 -
42m2) and damage to the physical environment.

In an experiment simulating soil disturbances characteristic of recently-logged
microhabitats, two large-seeded and a very-small-seeded pioneer species exhibited little
reduction in survival in response to compacted and bare soils, while other small-seeded non-
pioneers failed to establish seedlings. In contrast, survivorship from seed differed only
slightly among post-logging microhabitats in forest logged twelve years earlier.

These results suggest that small-seeded timber tree species lacking a seed bank may
experience reduced seedling establishment immediately after logging, especially in
microhabitats with soil disturbances. However, if seed sources are ensured and dispersal
syndromes remain intact, then these results predict little long-term effects of logging damage
on seedling establishment in French Guianan rainforest.


Christopher Baraloto, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
MI, 48109, Phone: 734-764-1490, Fax: 734-647-0884, Email: baraloto@umich.edu





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Fire Vulnerability of Bolivian Sub-humid Forests Subjected
to Different Silvicultural Treatments

Geoffrey M. Blate
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

Fire, an increasingly important disturbance in tropical forests, threatens the potential to
manage these forests for a number of key objectives including sustained timber yields. The
risk of severely damaging fires may be particularly high in forests that require intensive
management to achieve sustained yields. Such management is probably necessary in
Bolivian sub-humid forests to enhance the currently inadequate regeneration, recruitment
and growth of commercial species. If intensive silviculture which disturbs the soil and
creates large canopy openings is necessary to sustain commercial timber yields, an
important tradeoff may be greater vulnerability to fire because of increased fuel loads and
faster dry down rates. I tested this hypothesis in La Chonta, a Bolivian timber concession
situated in a sub-humid forest.

To assess whether flammability varied significantly across the range of microsites created
by different management intensities, I first established a relationship between vegetative
cover and fuel dry down rates during the dry season. Because this relationship was relatively
weak, I tested whether the litter layer could carry fire under the same range ofmicrosites.
Despite significant differences in the area burned across this range, fire carried in nearly all
cover conditions indicating that most of La Chonta is vulnerable to fire. These results
suggest that intensifying management for silvicultural objectives will not significantly
increase fire susceptibility in this forest. It may, however, increase fire severity. Moreover,
because forests like La Chonta are highly flammable, silvicultural objectives may be
undermined unless accompanied by efforts to prevent and control fires.


Geoffrey M. Blate, University of Florida, Botany Department, c/o Proyecto BOLFOR, TOP BOL 5053,
P.O. Box 52-0777, Miami, FL, USA, 33152-0777, Phone: 591-3-480-766, Fax: 591-3-480-854,
Email: gblate@botany.ufl.edu





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Conservation in the Service of Economics?: Financial Benefits
of Skid Trail Planning to Reduce Future Crop Tree Damage

Frederick Boltz
School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Roberto Quevedo S.
La Chonta, Ltda., Santa Cruz, Bolivia

Research comparing planned and unplanned logging operations in Brazil, Guyana, and
Suriname has shown that the increased costs of skid trail planning are compensated by
financial gains from greater skidding efficiency. Moreover, studies throughout the tropics
have demonstrated that damage to the residual forest is significantly reduced in planned
versus unplanned operations. Of further interest is whether the financial benefits of
protecting future crop trees outweigh the increased cost of skid trail planning to avoid these
trees. We undertake a simple analysis of operations conducted in the forestry concession of
La Chonta in Guarayos, Santa Cruz, Bolivia to examine this question. The analysis is based
upon cost and damage data from La Chonta and estimates of improved planning costs
extrapolated from planned logging studies in Brazil. Our conservative estimates indicate that
the present value of financial benefits gained in improved future crop tree conservation may
be expected to exceed planning expenses. FCT protection plus the cost reductions that result
from greater skidding efficiency within a planned forest infrastructure should provide
adequate incentive for the adoption of this forest-conserving practice by Bolivia's forest
concessionaires.


Frederick Boltz, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, 373 Newins-Ziegler
Hall, Gainesville, FL, USA, 32611-0410, Phone: 352-846-0904, Fax: 352-846-1277, Email: fboltz@ufl.edu





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Financial Returns under Uncertainty for Conventional
and Reduced-Impact Logging in Permanent Production
Forests of the Brazilian Amazon

Frederick Boltz and Douglas R. Carter
School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Thomas P. Holmes
Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
Rodrigo Pereira, Jr.
Fundaglo Floresta Tropical, Beldm, Pard, Brazil

Reduced-impact logging (RIL) techniques are designed to improve the efficiency of timber
harvesting while mitigating its adverse impacts on the forest ecosystem. Research on RIL in
select tropical forest regions has demonstrated clear ecological benefits relative to
conventional logging (CL) practices, however, the financial competitiveness of RIL is less
conclusive. We conduct a comparative analysis of financial returns to one and two cutting-
cycle harvests for representative RIL and CL operations of the eastern Amazon.
Uncertainties of forest productivity and market conditions and observed variability in
harvest efficiency and are introduced in a stochastic simulation of future biological and
financial returns to the alternative logging systems. Despite the perceived investment risks,
RIL harvesting operations generate competitive or superior returns relative to CL for a wide
range of discount rates due to gains in harvest efficiency and forest conservation.


Frederick Boltz, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, 373 Newins-Ziegler
Hall, Gainesville, FL, 32611-0410, Phone: 352-846-0904, Fax: 352-846-1277, Email: fboltz@ufl.edu





February 25-26, 2002 e J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



The Secondary Forests of Tropical America; Perspectives
for Their Sustainable Management

G. De las Salas
IUFRO Working Group 1.07.00 Colombia

Failure to recognize the advantages of tropical secondary forests reflects certain generalized
perceptions, notably: the forest does not produce commercial timber; trees are very small or
they do not have marketable value; their floristics represents an obstacle to develop modem
industrial processes; natural regeneration of traditional timber species is often inadequate;
the recuperation process of already degraded forest sites is quite expensive. These
considerations overlook the formidable potential of secondary forests as producers of goods
and services.
The need for a new ethic to properly manage tropical forests is essential. The following
elements are necessary: absence of corruption, stable policies, open and transparent
processes to allocate resources, dedicated forest personnel and accessible information. An
optimistic view of sustainable forest management must emphasize: i) resilience instead of
fragility, ii) available technology, iii) use of global commitments and iv) long-term and
pertinent research.

Keywords: Forest conservation, Secondary forests, tropical America, Forest management,
Forest Ecology,


Gonzalo De las Salas, Universidad Distrital, Calle 140 No. 53 A 41, Bogotd, Colombia, Phone: 571-6134030,
Fax:571-6248797, Email: gonzalo5@hotmail.com





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Effect of Silvicultural Thinning on the Regeneration
of Commercially Valuable Trees in Strip Cuts
in the Peruvian Amazon

Chris Dolanc and David L. Gorchov
Dept. of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056
Fernando Cornejo
Proyecto Castanales, Puerto Maldonado, Peru

High-grade logging practices in Amazon rain forests often result in reduced commercial
value, damaged trees, and soil compaction. An alternative, the Palcazu Forest Management
System, purports to avoid these problems by clear-cutting the forest in narrow strips. Strips
are allowed to regenerate naturally and are expected to be re-harvested in 30-40 years.
We've found the early regeneration is dominated by pioneer species of low commercial
value, indicating the system may not be sustainable. To test whether silvicultural thinning
promotes the growth of commercially valuable hardwoods, in 1996 we girdled pioneer trees
of the Melastomataceae and Alchornea < 10 m tall and all Cecropia in 2 strips that were
cleared in 1989 in lowland rain forest in Jenaro Herrera, Peru. Advance regeneration and
stump sprouts throughout the strips have been measured regularly (1989-2000), as have new
trees (>2m) recruiting on selected plots. Survival of commercial trees was high in both
thinned and control portions of both strips. Growth increment (1996-2000) was significantly
greater in thinned portions of strip 1 for commercially valuable stump sprouts and advance
regeneration. Thinning significantly increased growth increment (1996-2000) of
commercially valuable advance regeneration (in strip 1), recruits in (strip 2) and stump
sprouts (in both strips). New recruitment (1996-2000) of non-pioneer taxa was not
significantly higher in thinned plortions of strip 1, but twice as great in thinned plortions of
strip 2. These findings suggest that silvicultural manipulation enhances the sustainability of
strip-cutting by encouraging growth and recruitment of commercially valuable taxa.


Chris Dolanc, Miami University, Botany Department, 386 Pearson Hall, Oxford, OH, 45056, USA, (513)529-
4253, (513)529-4243, Email: dolanccr@muohio.edu





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Recovery of Faunal Diversity Following Clear-Cutting
and Selective Logging in Tropical Forest Landscapes

Robert R. Dunn
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA

Chainsaws rip through most of the tropical forests of the world as I write. This action is
often viewed as irreconcilable with conservation of biodiversity, however, this is not
necessarily so. As tropical forests regenerate following clearance, animal communities can
recover their diversity relatively quickly, but this depends on how forests are cleared. Using
a review and meta-analysis of published literature and a case study from the Northern
Bolivian Amazon, my research explores the factors that affect the recovery of animal
communities following forest clearance. I focus in particular on the relative recovery rates
from clear-cutting vs. selective logging. Differences in the recovery of rate of animal
communities between selectively logged and clear-cut sites appear to depend complexly on
the scale of study and the metric by which biodiversity is measured.


Robert R. Dunn, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT,
06269, USA, Phone: 860-486-0858, Fax: 860-486-6364, Robert.Dunn@uconn.edu





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Impacts of Pre-Logging Liana Cutting on Logging Gap
Regeneration of Lianas in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon

Jeffrey J. Gerwing and Christopher Uhl
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

The cutting of all lianas prior to logging is a reduced-impact logging technique that is
predicted to reduce liana proliferation in logging gaps. This study compared liana abundance
and species composition in gaps created during typical and reduced-impact logging in the
eastern Brazilian Amazon. Logging treatments were conducted in side-by-side 100 ha plots.
Shortly following logging, 50-m2 plots were located in the approximate centers of four small
(single treefall) and four large (multiple treefall) gaps in each logging area. Six years
following logging, there were ca. 40% fewer climbing lianas in reduced-impact gaps than in
typical logging gaps. In both logging areas large gaps had higher liana densities and a higher
proportion of lianas recruiting from seed than small gaps where sprouts from cut or fallen
lianas were more common. The mean number of liana species encountered per plot varied
little among treatments, however, increased species evenness in the reduced-impact logging
gaps resulted in them having significantly higher diversity overall (Fisher's a). Indices of
quantitative species similarity showed that among all possible pairs of logging treatment and
gap size, large gaps in the two logging treatments were most alike in terms of species
composition and relative abundance. This similarity resulted from the presence of several
species that regenerated new climbing stems almost exclusively from seed in large gaps. The
results of this study suggest that pre-logging liana cutting can significantly reduce post-
logging liana proliferation in gaps, with no discernible negative impact on the species
diversity of regenerating lianas.


Jeffrey Gerwing, Interdepartmental Program in Ecology, Pennsylvania State University, 208 Mueller labs,
University Park, PA, 16803, USA, Phone: 814-863-5895, FAX: 814-863-7034, Email: jjgl56@psu.edu





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida


Historical Wood Production and the Potential
of Prioria copaifera (cativo) Forests in Darien, Panama

William T. Grauel
College of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Eastern Panama is one of the most diverse and species-rich areas in Central America. Darien
National Park contains five Holdridge life-zones including swamp forests dominated by
Prioria copaifera (cativo).

Cativo has historically supplied up to 95% of the raw material for the domestic plywood
industry in Panama. Although the original area of cativo forest decreased from 60,000 ha to
15,000 ha in recent decades, cativo extraction still provides a major source of income to
local communities adjacent to Darien National Park. In contrast to species-rich tropical
lowland forests, wetland forests dominated by cativo contain few other tree species. This
homogeneity, combined with abundant regeneration and reasonable growth rates, has
allowed some cativo-dominated forests to persist despite four decades of exploitation.

Although few harvestable trees remain in degraded riverine cativo forests, they still contain
19 to 42 m3 ha"' of wood in trees > 60 cm dbh. These forests could provide sustained wood
production given that they also contain 150 175 m3 ha-' of wood in trees between 40-60
cm dbh. Unfortunately, careless and unplanned historical exploitation has left these residual
forests with few well-formed individuals. Intact inland swamps, in contrast, contain up to
190 m3 ha"- in harvestable trees and are the focus of current mechanized extraction,

Promotion of improved cativo management in areas adjacent to Darien National Park can be
viewed as a biodiversity conservation tool. Providing income through sustainable wood
extraction activities to local communities should reduce pressure to exploit the natural
resources in the park.


William T. Grauel, College of Natural Resources and Environment, 103 Black Hall, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida, USA, 32611-6455, Phone: 352-392-1176, FAX: 352-392-3993, Email: bil@ufl.edu





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Sustained-yield Production of Bigleaf Mahogany
(Swietenia macrophylla) in Acre, Brazil:
Testing Forest Conservation's Ability to Pay

James E. Grogan
Institute do Homem e Meio Ambiente da Amaz6nia, Belm, Para, Brazil /
Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT, USA
Eirivelthon Lima, Edson Vidal, Adalberto Verissimo and Paulo Barreto
Institute do Homem e Meio Ambiente da Amaz6nia, Belem, Pari, Brazil

After three decades of bigleaf mahogany's predatory extraction across its vast Brazilian
range, the logging frontier for tropical America's most valuable timber species is
approaching the western Amazonian state of Acre. There, primitive transportation
infrastructure, a fragile local timber economy, mahogany's low landscape-scale density, and
the federal moratorium on new logging licenses for mahogany since 1996 have prevented its
wholesale removal. But with the Pacific highway via Peru nearing completion, pressure
builds for extraction of a resource often called "green gold". The state government of Acre's
Secretariat of Forestry & Extractivism (SEFE) and the Bel6m-based Institute of the
Amazonian Environment (IMAZON) have recently initiated an experimental management
project on privately owned land to answer the following questions: Are sustained-yield
production systems for mahogany and associated high-value timber species technically
feasible at industrial scales? Can income generated from managed forests compete with
other land-use options? Management prescriptions are derived from a life history study of
mahogany in southeast Pard underway since 1995, with silvicultural interventions designed
to enrich original stockings of adult trees. Forest structure and composition will be retained
essentially intact, safeguarding capacity to generate other goods and services (e.g., non-
timber forest products, biodiversity, watershed protection). The project's overall objective is
to develop a management protocol for mahogany and associated species that provides both
for conservation and profit, and which could be implemented at both industrial and
community scales. We describe technical, ecological, financial, institutional, and legal
constraints and opportunities associated with logging bigleaf mahogany sustainably in
western Amazonia.


James Grogan, Instituto do Homem e Meio Ambiente da Amaz6nia/Yale School of Forestry & Environmental
Studies, 9 Chestnut Street, Turners Falls, MA, USA, 01376, Phone: 413-863-9417, Fax: 203-432-3809,
Email: jgrogan@crocker.com





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Management of a 12-15 Year-Old Secondary Forest
in Southwest Costa Rica

Sean P. Healey
University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

Inventory of a forest growing on an abandoned field on Costa Rica's Osa Peninsula revealed
abundant natural regeneration of potentially valuable, long-lived trees. The canopy of this
forest was dominated by short-lived, fast-growing species such as Trichospermum galeotii
(Tiliaceae) and Ochroma pyramidale (Bombacaceae). However, almost no regeneration of
these dominant species was established in the understory, suggesting a shift in stand
dominance upon the senescence of the current dominant cohort. Silvicultural treatments
were applied to 21 experimental plots to explore the possibility of accelerating the growth of
desirable species currently in the understory. Treatments included thinning, vine removal,
thinning plus vine removal, and no action. Treatments were evaluated by their effects on
seedlings of Brosimum utile (Moraceae), a tree with commercial potential that is dominant
in nearby mature forests. None of the treatments, which required approximately 3 worker-
days ha significantly affected mean seedling height growth (32.9 cm) or new seedling
establishment (143 ha"1) over a twelve-month study period. It was therefore concluded that
at this early stage of the forest's development, costly measures to promote natural
regeneration would be ineffective and economically unfavorable.


Sean Healey, University of Washington, Box 35200, Seattle, WA, USA, 98195-2100, Phone: 206-543-2788,
Email: healeyl@u.washington.edu





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Dispersal of Anemocorous and Autocorous Seeds
During the Dry Season in Logged Areas
in a Bolivian Tropical Dry Forest

Bonifacio Mostacedo, Marcela Pereira and Todd S. Fredericksen
BOLFOR Project, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Santa Cruz, Bolivia

The influence of gaps created by dry-season logging on the temporal distribution of wind-
and gravity-dispersed vine and tree species was studied in a Bolivian dry forest. Three areas
were selected (large logging gaps, small logging gaps, and undisturbed forest) for the
location of seed traps. The number of seeds trapped was counted monthly for each species
from May-September, 1998. The abundance of seeds and the richness of species producing
them increased significantly during the end of the dry season. Approximately 50% of tree
and vine species dispersed seeds throughout the dry season, while the remainder had shorter
dispersal periods. Wind-dispersed species had longer seed dispersal intervals than gravity-
dispersed species. In general, species richness and seed abundance of wind-dispersed species
increased at the end of the dry season, while that of gravity-dispersed species peaked during
the middle of the dry season. While the seed abundance of some species increased in gaps
compared to undisturbed areas, seed abundance did not vary by gap size. The effect of
logging gaps on the dynamics of animal-dispersed seeds also deserves study.


Bonifacio Mostacedo, BOLFOR Project,, Casilla # 6204, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, Tel: 591-3-480766,
Fax: 591-3-480854, Email: mostaced@ufl.edu,





February 25-26, 2002 0 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Long-term Silvicultural Research Project
in Bolivian Tropical Forests

Marielos Penla-Claros, Todd Fredericksen, Lincoln Quevedo, William Pariona,
Juan Carlos Licona and Claudio Leaios
BOLFOR, Santa Cruz, Bolivia
F. E. Putz
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Dan Zarin
The Forest Management Trust, Gainesville, FL, USA

Silvicultural treatments applied in Bolivian forests are restricted to diameter-cutting limit
and some pre-harvest vine cutting. Silvicultural treatments are needed to guarantee the long-
term productivity of forests managed for timber. A long-term silvicultural research project is
being established to evaluate the sustainability and cost-effectiveness of various silvicultural
treatments, and to study their effect on stand dynamics, biodiversity and forest ecosystem
function. Plots of 20 30 ha are being established in concession areas located in different
forest types (tropical humid forest, tropical dry forests and Amazonian wet forests). Four
different silvicultural treatments varying in intensity are applied to the plots, so that there are
3 5 replicates per treatment per forest type. All trees with a diameter at breast height
(DBH) > 40 cm are measured, mapped and tagged. Trees 10 40 cm are sampled in
subplots. Silvicultural treatments applied include vine cutting (on commercial and future
crop trees -FCT), marking and liberation of FCT from overtopping, timber stand
improvement, and soil scarification. Plots have already been established in the tropical
humid forest site. There are about 100 tree species, from which 8-10 are currently being
harvested for timber. Preliminary data from the site suggest that several of the harvested
species require large disturbances for establishment and that silvicultural treatments may be
necessary to promote tree growth and improve stand quality. For example, about 60 % of the
trees have some level of liana infestation and about 60 % of the trees have a regular to bad
stem quality for timber extraction.


Marielos Peifa-Claros, BOLFOR, Casilla 6204, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, Phone: 591-3-480766,
FAX: 591-3-480854, Email: mpena@bolfor.org





Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management


Review of USAID's Natural Forest Management Programs
in Latin America and the Caribbean

Douglas J. Pool, Thomas C. Catterson, Vicente A. Molinos and Alan C. Randall
International Resources Group, Washington, D.C.

Forestry activities have long been part of USAID's thrust in Latin America and the
Caribbean. In the past most of these efforts were directed at tree planting, reforestation and
agroforestry activities aimed at appropriate land-use solutions for small holders on marginal
lands or for restoring degraded lands. Currently, effective management of natural resources
is featured as one of the goals that can contribute to the economic growth and agriculture
pillar of USAID's increasingly focused approach to the development challenge.

In the latter half of the 1980s, USAID initiated several projects focusing on natural forest
management (BOSCOSA and FORESTA in Costa Rica and the Forestry Private Enterprise
Initiative in Ecuador). Subsequently, USAID has undertaken similar projects and programs
in seven countries of the region (BOLFOR in Bolivia, support for reduced impact logging
and forest sector diagnostic studies in Brazil, MAYAFOR in Guatemala, Central Selva
Resources Management and BIOFOR in Peru, SUBIR in Ecuador and the Forestry
Development Project in Honduras).

This assessment is not an evaluation of the USAID program. Rather, it was a concerted
effort, using consultations with those most directly involved, to identify what it takes to
achieve real results in natural forest management programs. The findings attempt to avoid
minutiae, focusing instead on recurrent themes that the team's interactions and observations
suggest are the most meaningful for program success. These findings are organized along
the analytical framework inherent to the internal make-up of the team and its
specializations-policy and institutional development, forest management technologies,
forest business and market development, and social and community development. The
assessment team recognizes that in many cases these themes are linked; they have been
separated here for ease of analysis, interpretation, and response.


Douglas Pool, International Resources Group, 1211 Connecticut Ave. NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C., USA,
20036, tel. 202-289-0100, fax 202-289-7601, Email: dpool@irgltd.com





February 25-26, 2002 J. Wayne Reitz Union University of Florida Gainesville, Florida



Certified Timber from a Non-Certified Sawmill:
Reflections on an Amazonian Logging Company

Carlos E. Rittl
National Institute for Amazonian Research, Manaus, AM, Brazil
William F. Laurance
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Republic of Panama

The status of environmentally and socially sound certified forests has changed the
international timber market. Certification of primary forests is enthusiastically supported by
environmentalists. Demand on tropical timber is significantly increasing, and so are the
areas of certified forests. These trends indicate the necessity of a deep reflection on the
certification process.

Certification is applied to forestry management practices only. However, other aspects,
directly linked to forest management, should also be considered within the certification
process.

Precious Woods Amazon, the first certified company in Brazilian Amazon, has accelerated
its operation, and is already harvesting areas that should be logged only in 2011. A new area
was also acquired for future harvesting. This is a consequence of low productivity of the
sawmill (e.g., in October, 2000, only 11% of the harvest was processed into saleable
products), among other factors.

Consequences for the forest have been huge. Schedule of harvesting was accelerated,
increasing the annual area to be logged. Roads and trails cannot be opened with the
necessary lack of time to receive heavy traffic (about one year), and need to be frequently
repaired. Logging must be conducted in dry and also in rainy seasons. Pools of mud can be
easily found in loading areas, trails and roads, ultimately polluting streams.

Tropical forestry certification should necessarily be associated with certification of sawmill,
or chain of custody. Otherwise, it will not ensure good, long term forest management.


Carlos Rittl, National Institute for Amazonian Research, Divisao do Curso de Ecologia, Av. Andre Arafjo,
2936, Manaus, AM, 69011-970, Brazil, Phone: 55-92-643-1909, Fax: 55-92-642-1838,
Email: rittl@inpa.gov.br




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