Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Chapter I: Development of modern...
 Chapter II: Farm management
 Chapter III: The business side...
 Chapter IV: Land tenure
 Chapter V: Types of farming
 Chapter VI: Choosing a farm
 Chapter VII: The farmstead
 Chapter VIII: Planning the...
 Chapter IX: Crops and crop...
 Chapter X: Soil management
 Chapter XI: Farm equipment
 Chapter XII: Relation of live stock...
 Chapter XIII: Farm labor
 Chapter XIV: Farm improvements
 Chapter XV: Determining the cost...
 Chapter XVI: Farm records
 Chapter XVII: Some factors that...
 Back Cover

Title: Farm management
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053802/00001
 Material Information
Title: Farm management
Physical Description: 237 p. : incl. illus., plans, forms, tables. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Boss, Andrew
Publisher: Lyons & Carnahan
Place of Publication: Chicago
New York
Publication Date: [c1914]
Subject: Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053802
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000604591
notis - ADD3657
lccn - 14005780

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Chapter I: Development of modern agriculture
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Chapter II: Farm management
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Chapter III: The business side of farming
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Chapter IV: Land tenure
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Chapter V: Types of farming
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Chapter VI: Choosing a farm
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Chapter VII: The farmstead
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Chapter VIII: Planning the farm
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Chapter IX: Crops and crop rotation
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Chapter X: Soil management
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Chapter XI: Farm equipment
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Chapter XII: Relation of live stock to farm management
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    Chapter XIII: Farm labor
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Chapter XIV: Farm improvements
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Chapter XV: Determining the cost of farm products
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Chapter XVI: Farm records
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Chapter XVII: Some factors that affect farm profits
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
    Back Cover
        Page 238
        Page 239
Full Text





Farm Management as a subject for study in the class room is
comparatively new. Specialists have for years pursued certain
lines of agricultural education and have gained a vast fund of
information about the treatment of the soil, the culture of crops
and the care of animals. This information is of use to the
farmer only when it can be applied to the management of the
farm. It is the duty of the teacher of farm management to
bring together in a systematic manner the information gained
by the specialists that may be applied in an organized way to the
business of farming.
This text has been prepared for use in the secondary agri-
cultural schools and in high schools giving courses in agricul-
ture. It is intended to follow the more specialized subjects,
such as farm crops, feeding and care of live stock, soils,
and other similar courses. The best results will follow its use
in the junior or senior years. Only the large and more general
problems in farm management have been discussed. It is
impossible to treat, in a text book of moderate size, all of the
problems that a farmer would meet in operating a farm of even
average size and complexity. It is believed that a careful study
of the problems presented will enable the reader to understand
the principles of farm organization.
The value of the instruction in farm management will
depend largely on the instructor. The pupils should be encour-
aged to undertake the exercises at the end of each chapter.
So far as possible, these exercises should be connected with the
home life of the students in the class. If the exercises are
connected directly with the farms from which they come or with
farms in the vicinity of the school, they will be much more
useful than if performed in an abstract manner. The pupils
should be required to work the problems following each chapter.


The correct solution of these problems will give much infor-
mation regarding farm enterprises and operations and give
training that will be useful in meeting and solving successfully
the problems that arise in the management of farms. So far
as possible supplementary reading should be assigned. It is
expected that the text, with the exercises and problems, will
make a full semester course. It should be preceded if possible
by a semester course in farm records and accounts, thus
completing a full year in farm management.
While the book has been prepared primarily as a text book
for students in agricultural and high schools, it is believed that
it will prove useful to farmers as well. The problems discussed
are of a practical nature. Technical terms have been avoided
so far as possible. In reading the book the viewpoint at least,
of good farm management can be gained. Following the exer-
cises and working the examples would benefit many farmers.
Acknowledgments are due my associates in the Minnesota
Agricultural College for many helpful suggestions and criti-
cisms. Messrs. F. W. Peck and A. H. Benton have assisted in
reading the copy and in preparing the problems. Mr. Guy
Fitzpatrick has given valuable assistance in the preparation of
the illustrations for chapters vii and viii. Mr. T. J. Horton
and Mr. C. H. Welch kindly assisted in preparing the other
illustrative material.
The author is indebted to Professor C. G. Hopkins for the
tables on Fertility and Farm Produce and Fertility in Manure,
Rough Feeds, and Fertilizers, used in the appendix, which are
taken from the book "Soil Fertility and Permanent Agricul-
ture," published by Ginn & Company of Boston.


FARM LABOR .... .. .... .

. 15
....... 15
. 20
. 35
. 43
. 53
. 65
. 79
. 92
. 102
. .. 112
EMENT . 123
. . 140


Weights of bushel, statutory
Seed, amount to sow .......
Prices and yield of crops ..
Weights and measures ...
Estimating grain and hay ....
Number of hills or plants per acre
Foods for cows, table of ..
Haecker feeding standard .
Cement construction, figures on .
Silo, sizes needed ...
Silos, capacities of .......
Fertility in farm produce ...
Fertility in manures .. ...
Wolff feeding standards for stock
Nutrients, digestible ......

Manure, amounts from different animals . ... .233

FARM RECORDS . .......



1. Primitive Agriculture. Historical writers agree that in
early days, the inhabitants of the earth gained a livelihood by
hunting and fishing. When the population of a region became
so dense as to deplete the supplies of food to be gained in this
way, the more enterprising ones tamed and domesticated some
of the wild animals for their own use. These animals were
given protection and provided with food so that they multi-
plied rapidly. In this'way a supply of meat was insured for
those who cared for and protected them. From hunting and
fishing the people turned to such pursuits as grazing and herd-
ing, and gave much of their time to caring for animals. This
was known as the pastoral stage of subsistence. It was more
reliable than hunting and fishing for several reasons. By pro-
tecting the domesticated animals from the beasts of prey and
driving away the less useful animals, larger numbers of useful
animals were enabled to live in a given region. Food supplies
of meat were therefore more plentiful and certain.
This custom of providing food supplies for animals led to the
discovery that certain plants were better adapted for food than
others. To raise these desirable plants in abundance it became
necessary to destroy other plants that were not so useful, but
which contended with the useful plants for possession of the soil.
This may be said to be the beginning of agriculture. At least
it was the first indication of the organization of nature's forces

to meet the needs of man. The demand for land for grazing
and tilling purposes led to mutual agreements for territory
which should be used for such purposes by certain persons or
tribes, and is the first suggestion of land allotment or ownership.
2. British Agriculture. The agriculture of England has
passed through many different stages. Because of scarcity
of agricultural laborers between 1350 and 1375, many of the
owners of large estates were forced to change their system of
farming. Previous to that time most of the tillable land had
been devoted to grain raising, bread being the chief article of
food. Then the land was changed into pasture, and sheep and
cattle raising took a prominent place in British agriculture.

FIG. 1.- An American farm home

The greatest development came about the middle of the
seventeenth century with the introduction of clover and
turnips as field crops. The chief advantage in these crops was
the increased amount of feed, which enabled the farmer to keep
more cattle on his land. Keeping of cattle gave manure that
was applied to the land and resulted in better handling of the
farms. The turnips took the place of bare fallowing which had
previously been practiced, thus enabling the farmer to use all
of his land each year.
Improved methods of tillage followed rapidly. About the
first of the eighteenth century Jethro Tull started the practice
of drilling the grain in rows, later advocating tillage between
the rows, and inventing implements for the work. Lord Towns-


hend, about the same time began the rotation of crops, greatly
improving the producing power of his land thereby. Another
notable man in British agriculture is Coke of Holkham, who like
his predecessors grew turnips and clover, but who also studied
economical management of his farm. He reduced the number
of horses used in plow teams and increased greatly the efficiency
of his live stock. Following the work of these three men, farm-
ing became a gentleman's profession in England and progress
since has been rapid. The development and improvement of

FIG. 2.- One of the old style reapers. Grain was cut and left on the
ground unbound. This method of harvesting required a large amount
of man labor.
live stock has received so much attention at the hands of
British breeders that the whole world practically has been
drawn to their markets for foundation stock.
3. American Agriculture. The agriculture of America has
been developed largely from the methods followed on the
British Isles. The American colonists brought with them the
customs of the British farmers and have since gone frequently
to the mother country for improved seeds, for live stock, and
even for men to do certain parts of the farm labor, as for
instance, caring for the more valuable imported stock.

The development of agriculture during colonial days was
slow and full of hardship. The British and European methods
of agriculture required re-adapting to the new conditions. The
people were forced to live a new kind of life, to clear land of
trees and stones, and to learn by experience what crops were
adapted and what methods of tillage would succeed. From the
Indians they learned how to grow corn and tobacco, which have
ever since been two of our important crops. From them also

FIG. 3.- A modern self-binding harvester. One man cuts and binds
all of the grain and carries the bundles into windows. One man can shock
the grain after the harvester. Two men in this way do the work of the
six that were required to operate the old style reaper.

they learned many of the secrets of soil and climate. The
agricultural development proceeded along two lines. In the
South large plantations with negro slaves as laborers were
established. Such establishments were practically self-sustain-
ing because they supplied nearly all articles of food and cloth-
ing. In the North the family farm was developed largely and
the labor of the farm was performed mainly by the farmer and
his family. The conditions existing in the North encouraged
the cooperative spirit and developed sociability among the


people. Land in either section was abundant and the greatest
problem in the management of farms was that of economizing
The colonial development was along the eastern sea coast.
Following the Revolutionary War, settlement moved westward
beyond the Alleghany Mountains and into the Great Central
Basin. The invention of the cotton gin about 1793, and the
development of the cotton industry, changed rapidly the sys-
tems of farming in the South. Slavery became greatly extended
to provide cheap labor for the cotton fields, and probably had
much to do with the rapid settlement of the southern states.

FIG, 4.- One of the early types of plows.
Cotton and tobacco growing were the leading industries in
these states and agricultural improvement was slow because
labor was cheap as compared with that in the northern states
and the use of improved machinery was not so imperative.
Migration westward was encouraged by the opening of the
Northwest Territory in 1785. A liberal land policy on the part
of the National Government and the discovery of gold in Cali-
fornia served to stimulate the movement westward and aided
the rapid settlement and development of the great prairie
regions of the Mississippi Valley. The invention and perfection
of farm machinery, begun about 1825 to 1830 and continued to
the present time, has also been a great factor in the development
of agriculture in America. The reaper, invented in 1831-1834,


the thresher, perfected about 1850, and steel plows for turning
the soil, manufactured since 1840, have had a great influence
on the agriculture of the northern states which were especially
interested in grain and corn raising.
Live stock raising was followed to some extent in the northern
states also, but received great impetus about 1839 by the
importation of the English thoroughbred stallion "Denmark"
into Kentucky. Percheron draft horses from France were
also introduced soon after. Corn raising on the western prai-
ries stimulated greatly the growing of hogs. Cattle raising on

FIG. 5.- Gasoline tractor drawing 12 plow bottoms. Tractors are
used quite extensively on the large prairie farms. A tractor may be
used for drawing many farm implements other than the plow.
the vast prairies also was greatly extended during this period.
Dairying began to develop about 1850. The improvement of
machinery and the increase in stock and grain raising went on
steadily in the northern states, not being interrupted seriously
even by the Civil War. In the South where cotton and tobacco
grown on large plantations by slave labor were the main crops,
agriculture was seriously demoralized by the war which set free
the slaves, thus destroying the source of cheap labor. Several
years were required to build up a new system of agricultural
production and to adjust labor problems, but the agriculture of
the South is now on a much better basis.

During the past twenty-five years agricultural development
has been particularly rapid. The establishment of experiment
stations in 1888 in every state in the Union, through the passage
by Congress of the Hatch Act in 1887, and the development
of Agricultural schools and colleges has led to a systematic
application of science to agriculture. Crop growing has become
much more certain and live stock growing has been largely
developed. The occupation and settlement of the prairie lands,
the perfection of machinery, and extended opportunities for
agricultural education, have been large factors in improving
conditions for farming. In the days of abundant land, large
holdings were secured by many farmers. The tendency in later
years is to reduce somewhat the size of farms and to take up
more intensive forms of agriculture. Greater efficiency is
demanded in the management of farms in order that greater
profits may be realized by the tiller of the soil.
4. Farming Must Be Organized. During the period of
cheap land and comparatively cheap labor, many crops were
raised which do not under existing conditions, yield a profit.
Methods of tilling the land and handling the crops that were
followed during that period would not now give large enough
yields to support the farmers and their families. Crops and
methods of tillage must be readjusted to meet; the changed eco-
nomic conditions and satisfy the demands of the rapidly growing
population for food stuffs. The practice of grain raising so
prevalent in many portions of the United States must give way
to live stock raising, fruit and vegetable growing and other more
intensive systems of agriculture. A great variety of crops and
a larger supply of all food stuffs and clothing material is
required by the present population. The value of the agricul-
tural products in the United States in 1910 was $8,694,000,000.
The total value of all live stock on farms in the United
States in 1910 was $4,925,000,000. The demand is constantly
increasing. The future supply of these commodities is a
matter demanding the most serious consideration.


It is important that the old soil robbing types of farming
be superseded by more conservative methods; that the land be
so tilled that it will bring the largest crops at the least expense
of soil fertility; and that these crops be used or fed as near
as possible to the land upon which they were grown, the manures
and crop residues being returned to the soil. It is important
also that the farmer receive a fair compensation for his labor.
Crops must be selected that pay the best profits. These will
differ in different years and localities. The farmer, therefore,

FIG. 6.-A steel beamed walking plow such as is commonly used by
many farmers.

must learn to select wisely and manage well so as to make a
reasonable profit on his labor and investments.
The business of farming is constantly becoming more com-
plex. The keen demand for land, the scarcity of labor, the
desire for financial gain and the call of the city residents for
supplies are acting as a spur for still greater effort. To meet
these demands a new science is being developed which aims to
correlate the various factors entering into the farmers' business
so that it will be certain and remunerative. An effort is being
made to organize the business of farming so that it may provide
for the needs of the present generation without exhausting the
source of supplies for generations yet to come. This new
science is called Farm Management.


5. Meaning of Farm Management. Farm Management is
the application of business principles and the scientific prin-
ciples of agriculture (as discovered by the chemist, the physicist,
the agronomist, the animal husbandman and other specialists)
to the business of farming. The farm manager is the one who
plans the farm, arranges the cropping scheme, provides the
equipment and actually transacts the business and sees to the
operation of the farm.
The term is a new one and it is important that students of
farming get a clear understanding of its meaning. Because
of the close relation of farm management to soils, farm crops,
live stock, and other agricultural subjects, people often confuse
the terms and gain erroneous ideas of what farm management
really is.
Farm management is also related closely to rural economy.
There is danger of confusion arising in the consideration of these
terms also., Questions which relate to the single farm as a unit
or to a group of farms operated under the same organization
are matters of farm management. Those which relate to a
group of farms operated separately, or to a community, are
matters of rural economy. The farmer must meet both classes
of questions. To state it differently, those things that have to
do with the organization and operation within the individual
farm relate to farm management. Those that have to do with
the external relations of the individual farm to the group or
community, relate to rural economy.
6. The Relation of Farm Crops to Farm Management. The
farmer must grow crops on his land either to sell or to feed to his
'live stock. This makes it necessary for him to know how to


prepare the land, sow the seed, cultivate the crops and harvest
and store the product. In gaining this knowledge he studies
the questions from the viewpoint of the agronomist and con-
siders only what will be necessary to provide the best conditions
for the growing crop.
The farmer must also decide what crops he will grow. One
farmer will want to grow corn, another will grow cotton, and
still another will grow hay, wheat or potatoes. Usually he
will grow several different crops. He will need to decide how
much of each ohe should be grown. In deciding these questions
he will study the questions from the viewpoint of the farm
As an agronomist, the farmer is interested only in how to
grow the crop. When the crop is mature and harvested, the
problem is completed. As a farm manager he still has to settle
the question of what to do with the crop. It may be sold. Would
it pay better to feed it to live stock? If so, what kind of live
stock will give the best returns for the feed used? These are
farm management questions.
7. Relation of Animal Husbandry to Farm Management.
Most farmers grow some live stock. They must know the
nature of the animals they wish to grow, the kind of food they
eat, how to prepare it for them and when to feed them. They
should also know how to select the best animals and to what
purpose the various classes of animals are best adapted. In
answering these questions they study them from the viewpoint
of the animal husbandman and consider only what is best for
the animals.
The farmer must decide, however, what classes of stock he
will grow. On some farms dairy cows will be best, on others
beef cattle and hogs will be a desirable combination. There are
farms on which horses and sheep with some poultry will be
preferable. There are also the questions of how much live
stock the farm will supply feed for, or what to do with the sur-
plus when more is produced than is required for the live stock.


In answering these questions they are studied from the view
point of farm management.
8. Relation of Rural Economy to Farm Management. The
management of a farm includes the buying and selling of
products. It is important
that the farmer have a
knowledge of markets and
of values, and that he know
when to buy and sell. Often
cooperative marketing offers
the best opportunity for
disposing of products at a
profit. So long as the
farmer is concerned only
with the business enter-
prises relating to his own
farm, he is within the field
of farm management.
When the business activi-
ties and social welfare of
several farms or an entire
community are collective-
ly considered, the question FlG. 7.--The Percheron draft horse
becomes one of rural econ- originally imported from France is the
most common motive power in use on
omy. Farm management the farms of the United States.
deals with the problems of
the individual farm from the business point of view. Rural
economy deals with the problems of a collection of farms or an
entire community.
9. Studying Farm Organization. The student of farming is
taught how to grow crops by the agronomist, how to grow live
stock by the animal husbandman. He learns how to know
insects and combat them from the entomologist, and how to
cooperate with his neighbors in selling his crops or his stock,
from the rural economist. Finally, from the viewpoint of a


farmer, he will need to select a specific farm, make plans for its
arrangement into fields, select the kind of stock and crops that it
will be best to raise, and determine how much of each should
be raised. He must provide the buildings and equipment,
estimate the capital required and the labor necessary to operate
the farm. The farm is thus organized into business form and its
operation is simplified. This art of farm organization is learned
from the farm manager.
10. Meaning Made Clear by Questions. "How shall I
grow corn?" is clearly an agronomy question.
How to select and grow cattle, is just as clearly a question
for the animal husbandman.
"Shall I grow corn? or some other crop? or cattle? Having
grown corn, shall I sell it? or feed it to cattle? or to hogs?"
are farm management questions.
If questions similar to the above are put to each problem
presented there should be no difficulty in distinguishing the
viewpoint from which it should be attacked.
11. Definition of Terms. In the pages following, reference
will be made to the terms, "Capital," "Inventory," "Farm
Receipts," "Farm Expenditures," "Farm Income," and
"Labor Income." An explanation of these terms is given below.
12. Capital. Economists divide capital into two classes:
(1) Fixed capital, including land, buildings and permanent
equipment, as teams, implements and live stock for purposes of
production; and (2) circulating capital, which includes values
in seed, feed, fertilizers, supplies and market stock or crops as
well as cash for operating the farm. The term is limited to
those forms which disappear in the process of production,
reappearing in other materials of similar kind.
There is a tendency on the part of farmers to tie up most
of their capital in fixed forms, leaving too little for circulating
or operating capital.
13. The Inventory is a detailed list of the farm property with
values assigned. An average of the values at the beginning of


the year and at the close is considered to be the value of the
capital invested in the business. The difference between the
opening and closing inventories shows the increase or decrease
in the value of the farm property.
14. Farm Receipts are derived from two sources: (1) direct
and (2) indirect. The direct receipts are represented in the cash
received from the sales of crops, live stock, live stock products,
for labor for others and from miscellaneous sources. The indi-
rect receipts would arise in an increase in the inventory due to
permanent improvements or to appreciated values of any of the
various forms of property. Values should not be inflated for
the purpose of showing a gain in the inventory. Debts cannot
be paid on anticipated rises in land values or in values of prop-
erty unsold.
15. Farm Expenditures. Items paid for in cash for the sup-
port of the farm only can properly be classed as farm expendi-
tures. Items of personal or family expense should not be
charged against the farm in determining the profits from farm-
ing. A decrease in the inventory is considered as an indirect
expenditure. The amount of the decrease should be deducted,
with the direct expenditures, from the receipts to show the net
farm income.
16. The Farm Income is the difference between receipts and
expenses. It is the return for the use of capital and unpaid
labor. The farmer and his investment unite in earning the
farm income. To learn what is earned by the unpaid labor
only, the amount that the value of the investment would earn
if placed at interest, must be subtracted from the farm income.
17. The Labor Income is the amount earned by the farmer
alone. To learn what this amount is, the amount earned by
the money invested at the local interest rate and the value of
the labor of other members of the family at local wages while
employed at labor on the farm, must be deducted from the
farm income. The balance will be the labor income of the


18. Farming as a Business. Farming has not usually been
considered a business. The diversity of the duties of the farmer,
the area over which the operations of the farm extend and
the complexity of the records required, combine in making
difficult the organization of the details of farming into busi-
ness form. The successful financial operation of a farm pre-
sents quite as complex problems and calls for at least as much
business ability and judgment as is required in operating a
store with the same investment. Farming, therefore, should
be considered as a business, and the man who can produce his
crops and products at the lowest cost and sell them at the
highest price, investing the proceeds to the best advantage,
should be considered the best farm manager. The man who
knows the details of the cost of production and operation,
and whose records show the profitable and unprofitable lines of
production, thus enabling him to eliminate those that do not
yield a profit, may be counted as the best business man.
A farmer should know the elements of soil fertility. He
must understand the principles of the movement of soil water,
and the action of soil bacteria. He should understand the
nature of plant growth and be familiar with varieties and
species of plants and with the effect of one crop on the crop
following. He must also be familiar with animals and their
habits and know how to feed and care for them. In addition,
he must know how to buy and sell to advantage, make con-
tracts, and plan his buildings and his farm so as to necessitate
a light expenditure for labor, also that he may distribute his
labor to advantage over the various farm enterprises. And
he should know how to keep accounts.


The farmer in organizing his business could well follow the
example of the merchant. The merchant first takes an inven-
tory of his stock. He studies the demand for his goods, both
present and prospective. He notes the supply, the cost, and
the demand for each article. He calculates the labor, required
to operate his business and such other items of expense are
considered as may be legitimately charged against the busi-
ness. He regulates his purchases and his prices according
to the cost of securing his goods and putting them on the

FIo. 8.- Raising small fruit is a remunerative type of farming in sections
where soil and climate are adapted to it and the markets are good.
market. In conducting a large store business, it is customary
to organize it into departments, putting some competent
person in charge of each department and having the labor
and accounting charges so systematized and recorded as to
show the profit or loss from each department and from the
business as a whole.
The farmer should likewise take an inventory of his capital,
stock, and equipment. He should consider the type of farming
to which the soil and climate are adapted. He should con-
sider the fertility of the soil and the demand that will be made
upon it by the crops grown. He should consider, in connection


with the soil fertility, the sources from which it may be renewed
and at what cost. He must study the markets, the transpor-
tation, and the demand for such crops as he grows; also the cost
of producing each of the crops and the probable net profit
that will be returned. His labor likewise should be charged
against the various crops or enterprises and distributed to
the best advantage.
In studying the problems of farm organization, interest on
investment, taxes, insurance, and other expense must be
included as they affect the financial result. As in a large store
business, it is frequently necessary to organize the large farm
into departments, keeping accounts with the dairy, with the
swine, the grain crops, the garden, and other similar enter-
prises. Where the business is large enough, it is well to put
an expert in charge of each large branch or group of enterprises,
thus enabling one to use cheaper labor for performing the work
or making the labor more effective by closer supervision.
Where the farming is conducted as an organized business, and
accounts are kept with the various lines of work, it is possible
at the end of the year, to make a business statement which
will show which lines have been profitable. The manager then
can change his methods or drop out those lines that prove to
be unprofitable and the business as a whole may be put on
a better basis.
19. Investment. The investment of money in land, build-
ings, and equipment demands careful consideration. It is
possible to pay so much for a farm that it will be impossible
to produce sufficient revenue to meet the expense of operation
and to pay a normal rate of interest on'the money invested.
This is particularly true where low-priced products are pro-
duced. A farm may be highly productive but so located that
it will be impossible to market the produce on a profit bearing
basis. One should study closely the market facilities of the
neighborhood and raise supplies which can be successfully
marketed locally, or which can be transported to a market


that pays well for such produce. Unless the produce of the
farm is well related to the market, the farm is likely to be
operated at a loss.
20. Proportion in Real Estate. It is a mistake for one to
invest all of his capital in the real estate itself. Sufficient
capital should be reserved for operating the farm. The hunger
for land has induced many farmers to buy more land than they
can equip and operate well. Such farmers are said to be land
poor. They would secure greater profit from a medium sized
farm, well tilled and managed, than from a large one which
is insufficiently equipped and poorly operated. Rarely should
more than 50 or 60 per cent of the capital be tied up in the land.
The size of the farm and the amount of equipment are closely
related to the possible profits. A farm of forty 'or eighty
acres devoted to diversified crops and live stock, cannot be
so economically equipped per acre as a larger farm. The
investment per acre in machinery will be higher as the cost
will be spread over fewer acres than the machinery has capacity
to handle. Investment in other equipment will also be cor-
respondingly high. Often the labor on such a farm is not
fully employed and loss results from inactivity of labor and
equipment. A medium to large sized farm, when well organ-
ized, fully equipped, and with sufficient capital reserved to
operate it well, will pay a much better labor income than a
small farm.
21. Proportion of Investment in Machinery. Investments
in machinery are worthy of quite as much consideration as
investments in land. Machinery is looked upon as one of the
means of reducing the cost of production. The wise use of
machinery saves time and labor and enables the farmer to
handle large acreages. In this light, the use of ample machinery
is wise. The fact remains, however, that investments in
machinery are often poorly made and that many farmers are
embarrassed by debts for machinery. Frequently, farmers
purchase machinery because it is fashionable or because a


neighbor has it, rather than because carefully made calcula.
tions show that a certain machine can be used profitably.
A safe rule is to buy no machine until carefully made calcu-
lations show that the cost of production of a certain crop or
product will be reduced sufficiently by the purchase to cover
the cost of the machine. That machinery investments can be
studied from a business standpoint is quite plain. The follow-
ing example, showing the relative cost of cutting corn with a
machine versus cutting by hand, will illustrate:
The original cost of a corn binder is $125. The annual
depreciation, as shown by statistical records covering ten
years' work with farmers in Minnesota, is $12.50. The interest
on the investment at the average value of the binder through-
out its life will be $4.12. Repairs, shelter, and insurance will
cost $2 annually. The total annual cost for the use of the
binder, therefore, will be $18.62. If only twenty acres of
corn are grown each year, the annual cost an acre for the corn
binder will be $.93. The cost of cutting corn would be as

Binder cost .... . . .. ..
Cutting and binding (horse and man labor) . .
Shocking and tying . . . .
Picking up ears . . . .. .
Twine ... . . . . ....
Total cost an acre . . . .
(One acre a day per man)
Labor, including board, per day . . .
Twine for tying shock, and general expense . .
Total cost per acre . . . .

. .$0.93
. .666
. .526
..... .249
..... .467
. .$2.838

. .$2.60
. . 10
. .$2.70

It will be noted that a twenty-acre corn field can be more
economically harvested by hand where labor is available.
On a ten-acre field, the difference in expense would be still
greater in favor of the hand harvesting, as the cost of machinery
per acre would be doubled. The scarcity of labor, however,

and the necessity of harvesting corn quickly to save it from
frost, would often warrant the expenditure for the machine,
even though it does slightly raise the cost of harvesting per
acre. The greater the acreage, the more useful the machine
becomes in harvesting, and the less the expense per acre for
machinery use.
Calculations similar to this should be made before purchasing
a machine for any purpose. If it can be shown that the cost
of performing the labor may be reduced by the machine, and
that the labor can be performed in a more satisfactory and

FIG. 9.- Grain raising has been for many years the leading occupation
of the American farmer.

efficient manner with the use of it, then the purchase may
be warranted. In many cases, however, calculation will show
that the purchase is not warranted and that it would be better
to hire labor and rent the machine, or to buy in partnership
with some one else.
22. Cost of Motive Power. Another factor that should
receive consideration is the cost of motive power in use on the
farm. Horses usually furnish the farm motive power, though
tractors are used to advantage in some cases. Auto trucks
and automobiles can often be used to advantage in marketing
dairy, fruit and garden products and the cost of using them,
when it can be ascertained, should be compared with the cost

of horse power. It costs from $40 to $100 per year to keep
a work horse, depending on the locality and on the price of
feed stuffs; also on the work that the horse does. The average
cost a year of keeping a horse in Minnesota for the years 1904
to 1907, varied from $75.07 at Halstad, to $90.40 at Northfield.*
Often a large number of horses are kept because the farm has
been devoted to grain raising and the horses are needed at
seeding and harvest times. They run in the pasture during
the summer and are idle during the winter months. They

FIG. 10.--A barn that cost over $20,000. Such buildings throw a
heavy interest charge on the farm and raise the cost of shelter for livestock
to an unnecessary figure.

must be fed and cared for during this time. The money
invested in them would be drawing interest if invested some-
where else. Farmers should reduce the horses kept to the
number actually required to do the work, unless the surplus
are colts growing in value as one of the market products of
the farm. The work of a farm can often be lessened by adopt-
ing a good crop rotation and using such crops as do not demand
large amounts of horse labor at the same time. In this way
a farm of 160 to 240 acres can often be worked with four to
six horses, whereas eight to ten are frequently kept. The
Bulletin No. 117 Minnesota Experiment Station.

support of two or three extra horses per year would amount
to $200 to $250 and is an item well worth saving.
23. Investment in Buildings. Investment in buildings,
fences, and other items of equipment should be considered
in the same business-like way. A barn costing $4,000 and
providing shelter for forty head of cattle would carry with
it an annual cost of $440. This annual cost is made up from
the interest on the investment, insurance, depreciation, paint,
and repairs. It will be about 11 per cent on the total invest-
ment. If the same forty cattle could be housed in a barn

FIG. 11.- A small but comfortable barn, conveniently arranged, giving
comfortable quarters for live stock at reasonable expense.
costing $2000 the total annual cost would be only $220, charg-
ing the same interest and expense rates as in the first instance,
and assuming that the rate of depreciation would be the same.
While the $4000 barn would undoubtedly be a better barn,
it would not add to the production of the cows housed, unless
it was much more comfortable. It would not add to the net
profit from the investment unless the labor of doing the chores
and caring for the cows would be considerably reduced by
greater convenience. The cost of horse barns, swine barns,
and other buildings can be similarly calculated. One should
not erect a building unless it is going to add to the efficiency


of the live stock, shelter hay or machinery, or lessen the labor
of doing the chores. It is wiser to invest money in drainage
or in better tillage of the soil, than to invest it in buildings
that shelter unproductive stock, or that add nothing to the
earning power of the farm.*
24. Cost of Labor. The employment, organization and
direction of labor demands considerable study. The value
of a good farm manager lies quite as much in his ability so
to select and direct labor as to yield a profit, as it does in his
ability to drive a good bargain or sell his crops well. The only
reason for employing labor is to increase the product and con-
sequent profit. If a farmer can, by employing a man eight
months in the year at $40 per month, increase the product of
his farm by $500, he will be warranted in employing the labor.
If, however, the $320 invested in labor should yield an increase
of only $200 in the products of the farm, employment would
be at a loss.
25. The Factors of Production. Three primary factors are
necessary in agricultural production. These are capital, land,
and labor. The adjustment of these three factors is an impor-
tant part of the business of the farm owner or manager, and
determines largely the profits that may be made from the
individual farm.
Capital, as commonly understood, includes the money value
represented in the investment of the farm property, no matter
what the form may be. Implements, live stock, teams, build-
ings, and other articles of equipment, are each a part of the
capital of the farm. Cash for operating is also included.
Good buildings and fences and a well kept farm often help in attract-
ing customers for stock, seed grain or other products. As an advertisement
they may increase the earning power of the farm indirectly. The satis-
faction of owning good buildings and their influence in keeping the young
folks on the farm or in enabling one to keep hired help should also be con-
sidered. The reputation of a farm in this respect may become a business


Land represents the larger part of capital' on most farms,
and demands special consideration because the amount of land
available for agricultural purposes is limited. Farmers have
for this reason, regarded it wise to secure large quantities in
localities where it was cheap, anticipating a rise in value.
Location and demand for land in particular sections has led
to much speculation, and land values fluctuate frequently.
The proportionate investment in each of the three forms,-
circulating capital, land, and labor bears a vital relation to the
profits possible from the farm, and must be given the most careful
consideration by the person who is buying and equipping a farm.
26. Capital Classified. There are two forms of capital in
common use. They are known as fixed or invested capital,
and circulating or working capital. The fixed capital properly
includes all forms of permanent equipment, such as investment
in land, buildings, implements, teams, and other articles that
are used continuously. In land it includes the natural value
and the value of the improvements that have been made upon
it. Picking stones from a rough section of land adds to its
value and increases the capital invested. Clearing trees from
the land has the same effect. Wells, drainage, roads, fences,
and other forms of improvement which are permanent and
which become part of the land, -also add to the natural value
and become a part of the fixed capital.
Buildings also are looked upon as part of the fixed capital.
Strictly speaking, only those buildings which add to the pro-
ducing power of the farm should be included in the capital
invested in the farm. The dwelling house, while commonly
added to the investment in the farm, is really intended for
the personal use of the farmer and his family. Except in so far
as it shelters the help employed on the farm, it can add but
little to the returns from it. So far as making a statement
of the business of the farm is concerned, it would be better
were the farm-house inventoried separately from the other
buildings and regarded as a personal expense to the farmer,


just as the house of the banker in the city is separated from
the business of the bank. All other buildings including silos,
corn cribs, granaries, and buildings for sheltering the stock
and necessary in conducting the farm business, should be
included in the inventoried capital of the farm.
Equipment in the way of teams for work purposes; imple-
ments; live stock, such as cows, brood sows, sheep and poultry,
that are kept for live stock products, are all a part of the per-
manent equipment, since they are permanently employed and
if sold are replaced by other animals for the same purpose.
The circulating or working capital, includes such items of
equipment as are frequently changing. Seed grain, household
and farm supplies that are immediately used or marketed,
live stock, such as fattening steers, and money for hired labor,
are examples of circulating capital. The classification intends
that the term "circulating capital" shall include only those
items that are used once and disappear. If sold for cash, the
cash may be invested in other forms of working capital which
in turn disappear. Needless to say, the amount of working
or circulating capital varies greatly in accordance with the
type of business done, with the market, and with the tastes
of the farmer. No rule can be given for the exact adjustment
of capital for these reasons.
27. Production Limited by the Deficient Factor. It is a
common experience that the production on a farm is limited
by the minimum amount of the one deficient factor. Diffi-
culty is experienced in securing profitable production on a
limited land area. In such a case, labor will not be fully
employed or the equipment cannot be used effectively. On
the other hand, a large land area and large equipment cannot
be used to advantage without a plentiful supply of labor.
Again, neither land nor labor can be used to the best advantage
if the equipment is inadequate. It therefore stands to reason
that these three factors must be carefully considered and
proportioned in accordance with the needs of the business.

In purchasing and organizing a farm with limited capital,
it is believed best to make the investment in about the follow-
ing proportions:.
45% for land investment;
20% in buildings, provided they are to shelter
productive live stock or market products;
22% in work animals and live stock;
8% in implements and tools;
5% reserved as working capital.
In buying a farm and equipping it with new machinery, the
land investment will run lower than above indicated and the
implements and tools investment will run higher. The
machinery, however, will depreciate in value while the land is
more likely to increase in value. As the farm becomes older
and the land is improved, the proportion of investments will
gradually change. On old farms near city markets, the machin-
ery investment may become comparatively insignificant. The
proportionate investment will necessarily vary with the type
of farming followed: In the highly intensified forms of farming
much more will be invested in live stock. H. W. Mumford,
in Bailey's Enclopedia of Agriculture, gives a table showing
the investment on a live stock farm in Illinois, from which
it is calculated that there is invested in land and buildings,
60 per cent; in machinery, 4 per cent; in live stock, including
horses, 30 per cent; and in labor, 5 per cent.

1. Farm Inventory. Have the pupils take inventories of their fathers'
farms, providing a form similar to the following. The inventory may be
taken on the regular weekly holiday. Prices should be checked over by
the proprietor of the farm and brought to class for discussion and comple-
tion. The teacher should, if possible, go with the class to some farm and
take an inventory, with the help of the proprietor, before starting the class
members on their individual work. Allowing for any withdrawals of or
additions to capital, the difference between the totals of two successive
inventories will be the gain.


Example of Inventory Form

Land (160 acres at $50.00) .
40 rods tile drain at $3.00 .
240 rods woven wire fence at 70S
House. . . .
Barn . . .
Other buildings. . .

. . $8,000.00

. .. 120.00
. 168.00 $8,288.00

S. $2,000.00
. 1,500.00
. 800.00

4 horses at $175.00
10 cows at $60.00 .
6 brood sows at $20.00
20 sheep at $8.00 .
75 hens at 40 .

. . . $700.00
. . 600.00
. . 120.00
. . 160.00
. . 30.00

1 plow ...... .......... $12.00
1 grain drill .............. 45.00
(List each machine on the farm as above)
List separately all tools valued at $2.00 or
more. Those under $2.00 may be included
in a lump sum as hand tools . .. 20.00

Check account at bank .
Cash in pocket . .
300 bu. oats at 30 . .
2 tons bran at $22.00 .
20 tons hay at $7.00 . .
2 bu. clover seed at $9.00 .

. .. $72.00
. 22.50





18.00 292.00


Notes Payable and Notes Receivable are not included as they are not
related to the proportion of investment. They will be discussed in
Chapter XVI on Farm Records.
2. Proportion of Investment. Have the pupils find the total invest-
ment and the per cent of the capital invested in each of the forms of
equipment used in classifying the inventory.


3. Cost of Shelter. Have the pupils learn the cost of the barns on their
fathers' farms. Ask them to calculate the interest at the prevailing rate.
Determine the amount of depreciation on each barn at 5%. Learn the
cost of insurance and repairs for the year. Include the interest, depre-
ciation, insurance, and repairs in one sum called the "Annual Cost."
Divide this annual cost by the number of animals sheltered and learn the
cost of sheltering one head on each of the farms. Where different animals
are kept, they may be reduced to a comparative basis by estimating the
weight and considering 1000 pounds as a unit. Ten pigs weighing 100
pounds each would equal 1 cow or colt weighing 1000 pounds.

1. A farm which sells for $14,000 has a house worth $1400; a barn worth
$1200; a machine shed worth $200; a silo worth $350, and a chicken
house and other buildings worth $450. What per cent of the capital is
invested in buildings?
2. If $2000 is necessary to equip the above farm of 160 acres what must
be the gain per acre in order to pay 6% on the capital invested and allow
the owner.a labor income of $450?
3. A man wishes to build a barn to house 6 horses and 15 cows, and he
decides that $3.00 per head per year should be allowed for interest on the
money invested in the barn. Money bears 6% interest. How much
should the barn cost? If insurance on the building costs '% and depre-
ciation on the building is 5%, what is the total barn cost per animal for
each year?
4. If the proper ratio for investment in a farm is 45% for land; 20%
for buildings; 22% in work animals and live stock; 8% in implements
and tools; 5% in working capital what should be the amount invested
in the various divisions given if the bare land is worth $4500?
5. A man wishes to go into live stock farming and purchases a herd of
30 Shorthorn cattle for $3000, 4 mares for $1000, 10 brood sows for $400
and poultry $100. According to the records of an Illinois farm, the
investment should be as follows: Land and buildings 60%, machinery
4%; live stock 30%, and cash for labor 5%. What should be the amounts
invested in the various other forms of equipment on this farm?
6. A farm of 125 acres can be bought for $12,500. It can be rented
for $5 per acre. The insurance is $20 per year; taxes $50; repairs $50.
The increase in valuation of land offsets the depreciation in buildings.
What per cent would be received on the investment by the owner?
7. A man can increase his corn yield 5 bushels per acre by hiring a man
for 3 months and 3 bushels more by hiring a second man for the same


length of time. How many acres of corn should he have in both cases to
pay the hired man if he pays $30 per month and board? (Board costs
$12 per month.) The yield of corn without the -extra care will be 40
bushels. The average price of corn is 500 per bushel.
8. A barn costing $1850, shelters 16 cows, 10 head of young stock
and 6 horses. Allowing 4 per cent for depreciation, 5 per cent for
interest, I per cent for insurance and $20 for repairs and general expense,
what is the cost per head for shelter?
9. A granary valued at $800, has capacity for storing 2000 bushels of
wheat, 1000 bushels of oats and 500 of rye. If the interest rate is
6 per cent, depreciation 3 per cent, insurance 2 per cent, and repairs
and general expense $12.50 a year, what is the cost per bushel for storage
if the granary is filled to its full capacity?
10. A mower costs $45.00 Interest is charged at 6 per cent, deprecia-
tion at 8 per cent, shelter costs 75 cents and oil and repairs $2.30. If
15 acres of hay are cut, what is the cost per acre for the mower?
A man and team costing $3.50 a day can cut 7 acres a day with the
above mower. A man with a scythe can be hired for $1.75 a day and
can cut 1 acres a day. Which will be the cheaper way to have the
hay cut?
How much is the difference per acre?
11. A farmer has 5 work horses. The cost for maintenance annually
is, feed, $293.50; labor in caring for them, $70.30; shoeing and general
expense, $4.90, and harness depreciation, $8.20. The horses were inven-
toried at $875.00 and depreciated in value, $35.00. Interest is charged on
the investment at 6 percent. The horses work 963 hours each during the
year. What is the cost per hour for horse labor?
12. A farmer employed a man for eight months, beginning April 1st.
He paid him $25.00 a month for the first three months, and $30.00 a month
for five months. He also gave him board, which cost 43 cents a day, and
kept a horse for him, at a cost of $6.00 a month. The man worked 9 hours
each working day, during 3 months, and 111 hours a day, for 5 months.
What was the cost per hour for his labor?

Efficient Distribution of Farm Capital.-Wisconsin Experiment Station
Bulletin 228, page 46.
Some Profitable and Unprofitable Farms in New Hampshire.-U. S.
Department of Agriculture, B. P. I., Circular No. 128.
Equipment and Capital for Different Kinds of Farms.-Bailey's
Cyclopedia of Agriculture, Vol. I, pages 162-202.


28. Relation of the Farmer to the Farm. The use of land
may be acquired in two ways: (1) by ownership; (2) by
rental. The form of rental varies with localities and systems
of farming, but may be either cash or share. Sometimes
combination cash and share rental is followed. The question
is always before the farmer as to whether it is best for him to
own the land or rent it. If he rents the land, which system
offers' the greatest advantages? These questions cannot
be answered to cover all conditions and localities. It has
been generally assumed that ownership tended toward the
best returns from the land. It is a fact, however, that the best
farming in the world probably, is carried on under a rental
system. Much of the high priced land of Great Britain and
of France is tilled by renters. The farming is intensive and
the returns are very high. The advantages to the tillers of
the soil in these cases lie in their ability to rent at a low figure.
The owners of the land are satisfied to take their returns in
"added nobility," which comes from owning land in these
countries and from receiving the speculative value accruing
in the rise of land. Whether it is best to own or rent, can be
determined approximately by careful calculations of the prob-
able crops and products to be grown and comparing these
figures with the probable cost of growing them, and with the
receipts that may be obtained from the market at hand.
It has been generally assumed by the American farmer that
he should own his land. Encouragement has been given to
this idea by the fact that through the Homestead Act and
others, looking toward the settlement of the land, he has been
able to secure possession of the land at low cost. Land values


have been rising rapidly and farmers have been anxious to
gain the appreciation. Another reason why farmers have
preferred to own their land in America lies in the difficulty
of getting satisfactory leases for a long term of years. A five
or ten year lease would encourage a tenant to grow crops which
would nourish the soil and greater attention would be given
to keeping out noxious weeds. Fertilizers and manures would
be more freely used and the inclination to exploit the soil would
be lessened. Short leases result in frequent moves on the
part of the tenant, and moving is always attended by more
or less loss. Under this system only the poorest farms have
been available for renting, and returns have not been sufficient
to attract good tenants. Abundance of free or cheap land
has tended toward ownership rather than toward developing
a satisfactory leasing system.
29. The Advantages of Ownership. There are several
advantages arising from the ownership of land. (1) Ownership
assures long tenure or permanent possession. This stimulates
an interest in building up the place and making improvements.
Land is likely to be better tilled and the fertility of the soil
better conserved. Systematic rotation of crops is more likely
to be followed, and an effort made to build up a permanent and
lasting business. This leads to the erection of good buildings
and the maintenance of a permanent home. The owner feels
that his interests all lie in the community and he becomes a
better citizen from the fact that he owns the land. (2) Owner-
ship gives to the owner the possibility of profits on the appre-
ciation in land value. In this way the occupant of the land
gains all of the value resulting from good tillage and the
improvement of the land, and he secures the returns from
any special forms of improvements that may be added to the
property. (3) Ownership of the land obviates vexatious
questions of leases and contracts in dealing with landlords.
It offers freedom from annoying inspection by the owner,
who to protect his property and prevent the depletion of


the soil, must insist on certain forms of cultivation, care and
Against these advantages must be considered the risk incurred,
which must be carried by the owner, in a large investment.
This risk must be carried whether the crops are good or
poor. In poor crop years the money invested in the farm
may be made to bear only a very low rate of interest, or the
farm may be run at a loss. Buildings depreciate to a certain
extent and the owner of the land must bear the depreciation.
Land poorly tilled also depreciates in value in certain commun-
ities, and if one buys in a poor location and pays too much
for the land, he is likely to meet loss from depreciation in land
value. The taxes and insurance must be paid and repairs on
buildings must be made. These items all add to the annual
cost of upkeep and must be counted among the disadvantages
of land ownership.
30. Advantages of Cash Rental. The advantages of cash
rental to the renter lie in the reduction of the investment and
in shifting the payment of taxes, depreciation and upkeep to
the landlord. Where good farms can be rented for cash, this
system often brings better results to the renter than owner-
ship, though he loses the possibility of securing the appreciated
value of the land. The advantages of cash rental over share
rental are as follows: (1) The renter gets all of the advan-
tages of superior tillage and management. If a long lease can
be secured, quite as much encouragement is given toward
building up good systems of farming as where the land is owned.
(2) The renter is not subject to close supervision and inspec-
tion by the landlord, which in some cases becomes very objec-
tionable. (3) A greater latitude is allowed on the cropping
system and in the management of the farm. It should be
borne in mind, however, that in the case of cash rental, the
renter bears all of the risk of crop failure, which in some local-
ities is considerable, due to adverse climatic conditions or to
a refractory soil.

The advantages of cash rental over share rental to the owner
are: (1) Freedom from responsibility in planting, cropping,
and in the management of the farm; relief from the task of
frequent supervision. (2) It lessens the risk to the owner
from crop failure, provided the tenant is responsible. In cases
where the tenant is not financially responsible and cannot
meet the bills, the owner is forced to lose the rent.
31. Advantages of Share Rental. Renting land on shares
lightens the investment of the renter materially and makes
it possible for men to secure farms who have not the capital
to buy their farms or rent for cash. In most cases of share
rental the renter furnishes the live stock for work purposes,
the machinery, and household equipment. The landlord
furnishes the other essentials for working the place. The
crop is divided on a share basis which lightens the burden of
the renter in case of crop failure.
The disadvantage to the renter from share renting lies in
the fact that he gets only a share from the increase due to
superior cultivation. Often the increase from this cultivation
does not pay for the work he is required to do. To illustrate,
it may be that a renter will put a dollar's worth of extra work
on an acre of land in putting in a wheat crop and increase the
yield two bushels. If wheat should sell at 84 cents, which is
the average price for wheat for a ten-year period, and the crop
is divided on a half and half basis, the operator would get
only 84 per cent of the dollar's worth of work. The fact that
the increase must be shared with the landlord and that there
is a probability of getting only slightly larger returns on good
tillage, results in share-rented farms being poorly tilled and
unsystematically cropped.
32. Ownership, Cash or Share Rental. It is possible to calcu-
late approximately the returns from the land under each system
of land tenure, as the following figures will illustrate. On a
farm of 160 acres in the Central West, where farm records were
made the figures under the ownership system were as follows:


In the land . . . ... ..$12,000.00
In buildings . .. . 4,000.00
In live stock. ................. 1,162.00
In tools and machinery . . .... 389.00
Making a total investment of. . ... .$17,551.00
This amount should bear at least 5 per cent interest. The
expense of operating the farm under the ownership system was,
Interest on investment . . .. $877.55
Building repairs and depreciation . 160.00
Machinery purchased . . ... 331.00
Taxes ........... ......... 85.00
Insurance. .... . . ..... 15.00
Seed ................... 80.00
Stock purchased. . . . 256.00
Feed and supplies purchased . ... 62.00
Labor ................... 33.00
Cash for incidental expenses . ... 50.00
Total . . . . $1,949.55

The receipts from the farm were,
From crops . .
From live stock products . .
From sales of live stock . .
Increase in inventory . .
Total . . .
This would leave a net income for

. .. .$1,278.00
. : 105.00
. . 290.00
. . 800.00
..... $2,473.00
labor of $523.45, after

5 per cent interest has been paid on the investment.
Under the cash rental system the interest on the land, depre-
ciation on buildings, taxes, and insurance would be shifted
to the owner. The operator would have the following expense:
Interest on money invested in live stock, tools, and
machinery, at 5% . . .... $77.55
Cash rent, 160 acres at $4.25 . ... 680.00
Machinery purchased . . .... 331.00
Personal taxes and insurance .. . .. 15.00
Seed . ..... . .. 80.00
Labor .................. .. 33.00
Feed and supplies . . .... 62.00
Stock purchased . ... . . 256.00
Cash for operating. . . . 50.00
Total ....................... $1,584.55


The receipts would be as before,
From crops . . . .... .$1,278.00
From live stock products . . .. 105.00
From live stock sales . . .... 290.00
Increased inventory . . .... 800.00
Total . . . .... $2,473.00
This leaves a net balance or labor income to the renter of
$888.45, a gain of $365.00 over the ownership system. It
should be borne in mind, however, that this gain is offset by
the fact that the renter does not gain the advantage of rise in
land value. The land owner receives only $680.00 for the
use of his farm which is only 2.5 per cent on its net value. It is
the possible appreciation in land value that satisfies the owner
with the low interest rate received. He is also free from the
care and labor of managing the farm.
Under the share-renting system on a lease where the tenant
owns all the live stock, feeding them with his own feed, and
where the crops and hay are equally divided and the landlord
furnishes the seed, the results to the renter would be as follows:

Interest on money invested in live stock, tools, and
machinery at 5% . . ... $77.55
Machinery purchased . . .... 331.00
Personal taxes and insurance . ... 15.00
Labor ....... ........... 33.00
Feed and supplies . . 62.00
Stock purchased. . . . 256.00
Cash for operating . . 50.00
Total ................. $824.55
One-half of crop sales . . .... .$639.00
Live stock products sold . . .. 105.00
Live stock sold . . . 290.00
Increased inventory . . .... 593.00
Total .. ...... . . $1,627.00
Expense . . . .... 824.55
Receipts less expense . . .. $802.45


The tenant would receive a labor income of $802.45 which
is $86.00 less than he would have received under the cash
renting system, but $279.00 more than he would have made
in owning the farm himself. The reward for the loss of the
$86.00 is in the freedom from responsibility for a large cash
indebtedness and lessened risk from poor crops. The imme-
diate returns from share renting would be greater than from
owning the farm, but the one who rents sacrifices the possibility
of gain from rises in land values. In localities where depre-
ciated values are likely to be met, a share rental system would
be preferable for the farm operator.
The land owner would receive for his share $639.00 from
sale of crops, less $80.00 for seed, or $559.00. He would also
have one-half of the hay. To make as much under the share
renting system as under the cash renting, he would have to
sell $121.00 worth of hay.

1. Have the pupils find out how many farmers in the school district
are living on owned farms and how many on rented farms. Also have
them learn the usual terms of leasing farms in the neighborhood.
2. Have them determine the probable labor income for the operator
under each form of land tenure suggested in the text. In doing so use the
figures or estimates made by the owner or operator of the land.

1. A renter on half shares employed an extra man and team for 5 days
at $3.00 per day to plow corn, and got an increased yield on 24 acres of
3 bu. per acre. How much did the renter make by the transaction if corn
sold for 500? How much did the owner make? How much would the
renter have made if he had paid cash rent?
2. Records for Clay County, Minnesota, show that it cost $23.37,
exclusive of land rent, to produce an acre of potatoes in 1907. What
yield should a renter secure in order to make a profit of $5.00 per acre, if
land rental is $5.00 and the price of potatoes 400 a bushel?
3. A man has a farm of 100 acres in tillable land and agreed to rent it on
shares, furnishing one-half of the feeding and breeding stock, amounting


to $1000. He was to receive one-half of the increase in live stock. The
threshing expense and purchases of seed grain are to be shared equally and
the owner receives one-half of the proceeds from the crops sold. The
threshing bill will be $54.00, and the seed bill $50.00. The receipts from
the increase in live stock will be $600.00, and the receipts from grains and
other items $375.00. The land is valued at $85.00 per acre. How much
will the owner receive and what per cent will he make on his investment?
4. How much will the above tenant make and what per cent on his
'investment of $3000 if he pays $100 for hired labor?
5. A farmer makes a labor income of $650 on a rented farm. He can
buy a farm of 90 acres which will net $900 above expenses. To do so it
would be necessary to draw $3000, which he has on deposit bearing 31
per cent and borrow $5000 at 6% interest. Would his labor income be
increased or decreased by making the purchase?
6. If he bought the farm in the above problem and sold it at the end of a
year at an advance of $5 an acre, how much would he gain by buying?

A Profitable Tenant Dairy Farm.-U. S. Department of Agriculture,
Farmers' Bulletin 280.
A System of Tenant Farming and Its Results.-U. S. Department of
Agriculture, Farmers' Bulletin 437.
Methods of Renting Farms in Wisconsin.-Wisconsin Station Bulletin
Land Tenure.-Cards' Farm Management, Chapter V.
Principles of Rural Economics.-T. N. Carver, pages 224-236.


33. Types of Farming in the United States. Many types
of farming are followed in the United States, each type being
adapted to some particular locality, climate or crop. The
individual farmer must first settle for himself which type of
farming will be most agreeable to him. Some men are attracted
by fruit growing, others by vegetable gardening, some by cotton
or corn raising, and others by grain raising. Under certain
conditions live stock raising also is attractive. Here again
there are numerous kinds of live stock, and not many farmers
can raise all of them. A choice must be made. It will be
necessary to determine the possibilities for marketing dairy
products and beef products and a decision will have to be
made between cattle raising or horse raising as the main
business. Sheep, swine, and poultry raising must also be given
consideration and fitted in to the plan of farming when they
can be added to advantage. Besides the personal preference,
the adaptability of soil and climate and demands of the market,
of facilities for marketing goods, and the labor supply, must
all be considered. Often the amount of capital that can be
invested will determine the type of farming. The equipment
for certain kinds of farming is much more expensive than for
others. Some types of farming call for large amounts of land
and small equipment, while other types demand but little land
but extensive equipment. These matters can be studied out
carefully and correlated so as to balance the business and
permit profitable operation. All of these factors are closely
related to the financial returns from any farm.
The soil and climate especially must be studied before deter-
mining the type of farming. It would be unwise to try to


grow corn on cold and wet ground, or to try to grow spring
wheat in the tropical climate of the South. Crops, live stock,
and methods must be suited to the locality or they cannot
succeed. One who wishes to follow a special type of farming,
such as fruit growing, cotton raising, or the production of
spring wheat must hunt out the locality where the natural
conditions are favorable to such crops. This results in much
migration and frequent changes. It is best to study out the

FIG. 12.- Market gardening is common near large cities. This type of
farming is especially adapted to small farms and intensive tillage.
conditions necessary and meet them so far as possible before
becoming established in a business, as moving is expensive.
34. Types of Farming Classified. Types of farming are
usually classified on the basis of source of income, i.e., whether
from wheat, or from corn, or from live stock, or some other
form of produce. The type may be classified on several other
bases such as: (1) The relation to maintenance of fertility,
where it is spoken of as exploitive farming if no attempt is
made to maintain soil fertility. The prairie soils of America
have as a rule been farmed under the exploitive type of farming
until the power of producing has been seriously decreased. It
has been necessary to change the type of farming to build up


the soil under some other type less destructive of the decaying
plant and animal matter which forms an important part of
the plant food. History shows that in most cases, twenty to
fifty years of exploitive farming has been sufficient on most
soils to reduce the production below a paying basis. (2) On
the intensity of land operation, whether extensive, as wheat
and flax growing on large acreages on the prairies, or intensive,
as adapted to truck growing of various kinds. (3) On the
diversity of crops or products, thus we have single crop farm-
ing as cotton raising or tobacco growing; and the dominant
crop farming, where some one crop is made the leading line of
production and is supported by two or more supplementary
35. Classified as to Source of Income. As before stated,
it is usual to classify the type of farming under the source of
income. By this it is meant that the line of production which
brings in the major portion of the income determines the type
of farming. If more than fifty per cent of the income from a
farm arises from the sale of dairy stock or produce, it would
be known as a dairy farm. If more than fifty per cent comes
from wheat raising, it would be a wheat farm; or if from cotton-
growing, it would be classified as a cotton farm. A discussion
of the advantages of some of the types of farming as classified
under the source of income, follows.
36. Vegetable Gardening. There are several types of farm-
ing that are properly classified under crop growing. Truck
farming looking to the production of vegetables is one of the
most common. This form of farming must be intensive, and
because it is usually necessary to locate a truck farm in the
vicinity of a large city or in a particularly favored locality, it
calls for high capitalization. Because of high capitalization,
large amounts of labor are required on a truck farm and land
may be limited in amount but must be highly cultivated. This
type of farming requires two to ten acres of land per family.
It requires much ability in business management because the


marketing problems are numerous and must be handled intel-
ligently. The profits from this type of farming are somewhat
uncertain though under favorable conditions they may be
large. One of the advantages lies in the quick returns from
the capital invested. Many garden crops mature within six
weeks to two months from the time they are planted and are
usually sold for cash. Gardening does not offer employment
in the North throughout the year, and unless a greenhouse
or hotbed business can be built up with it, there is often lack

FIG. 13.-Green houses and cold frames enable the gardener to
start his crop early and provide winter work, thus giving employment
to labor over a greater part of the year.

of employment for labor through a part of the season. It is
not adapted to a new country but follows the development of
large markets in the vicinity of large cities.
37. Fruit Growing. Fruit growing like vegetable growing
is an intensive form of farming calling for high capitalization
and requiring a large amount of labor per acre. It is adapted
to somewhat larger land areas than truck gardening, and a
family can handle from five to forty acres and often more
where fruit growing is made the specialty. Great care is
required in the management of the orchards in most localities.


While this type of farming is often urged as particularly remun-
erative and easy, the opposite is usually the case. No type
of farming calls for greater watchfulness, more careful atten-
tion to details, or more business ability, than fruit growing.
Where the best of care is given it may be made a very profitable
business. Like truck farming it is not particularly adapted
to a new country, though modern transportation methods
have to a large extent improved the facilities for marketing
the crop. Apple growing will pay in some places between

FIG. 14.-A fruit farm. Fruit raising is attractive to many people
and in sections adapted to it gives good returns on the money invested.

$50 and $150 per acre.* Under the most favorable conditions
it may pay four or five times as much in favorable years.
38. Crop Growing. The single crop system such as cotton,
wheat, corn, or tobacco raising requires much less equipment
per acre than either truck farming or fruit growing, and can be
carried on in a more extensive way. The average cotton farm
in the South contains twenty to thirty acres and will grow,
when properly managed, $400 to $500 worth of cotton. It is
necessary to use a fertilizer in connection with cotton growing
to keep up the production as it is an exploitive type of farming,
See Cornell Bulletin No. 220.

depleting the fertility rapidly. Wheat growing in the West,
especially in the Plain regions along the Pacific Coast, is another
example of single crop farming. There is no limit to the size
\of the farm that can be handled, as the climate is particularly
favorable, the dry season at harvest time permitting the grain
to stand for a great length of time without injury. Corn
growing in the Middle West and South is another example
of extensive single crop or dominant crop growing.

FIG. 15.-A poultry and fruit farm. A combination of poultry raising
and fruit growing gives a good distribution of labor through the year and
fully occupies the land.
In the vicinity of large cities or markets, hay raising is a
common type of farming. Because of the low cost of handling
land in hay this is one of the most remunerative types of single
crop farming. It also has the advantage of being the least
exploitive. Hay land is not likely to wash as badly as culti-
vated land and the humus content of the soil is less likely to
be consumed because the land is not tilled as frequently.
Where the hay is sold, manures or fertilizers must be supplied
to keep up the production.
Tobacco growing, as followed in Maryland, Virginia, Florida,
Georgia, Kentucky and some of the other southern states, is


another form of single crop farming that is adapted to small
scale farming. Five acres per man is the usual size. Tobacco
growing is particularly
destructive of soil
fertility and great
attention must be
given to the matter
of supplying organic
matter. Commercial
fertilizers have been
used and in fact have
been thought indis- FIG. 16.-A field of tobacco in full leaf.
pensable in tobacco
growing. Potash especially is demanded by the crop.
Tobacco growing is remunerative when properly conducted, but
calls for high grade management and business ability.
Rice growing along the Atlantic coast and Gulf states;
sugarcane growing in the Gulf coast states; and hopraising
in certain favored localities, are still other forms of single crop
growing that are remunerative under certain favorable con-
ditions. All are more or less exploitive of soil fertility and
uncertain, as any single crop system of farming must be.
In most parts of the United States, a dominant crop system
is better than any single crop system of farming because if
the main crop fails there will be sufficient supplementary
crops to provide for a reasonable amount of income or at least
provide for a living for the family until another crop can be
39. Mixed Stock and Crop Farming. In the northern states
at least, and in the southern states to a large extent, mixed
crop growing and live stock raising will be found advisable.
The proper arrangement of crops in rotation aids in the main-
tenance of production to some extent. If these crops can be
fed on the farm to live stock which is adapted to the locality
and the market, quite as great profit can be made from the

crops by marketing them through the medium of live stock as
by selling direct. When the manure from the live stock is
returned to the
farm, the physical
condition of the
soil is maintained
and the chemical
elements of the
soil built up to
some extent.
Such farming
allows for the em-
ployment of labor
throughout the
FIG. 17.-Live stock raising is replacing grain ear and pro
raising in many parts of the United States. y videos
a steady income.
This type of farming is adapted to large or small farms, the size
of the business often being determined by the amount of labor
available to care for the live stock. It allows for the selection
of a dominant crop or live stock products suited to the demands
of the market. While it does not pay so large a margin per
acre as some of the intensive single crops, the returns from
mixed stock and crop farming are much more certain. Under
this system the average farm family can care for the products
from eighty to one hundred-sixty acres of land. When well
managed, and the crops and live stock properly propor-
tioned, they may handle farms of two hundred forty acres or
more in size to advantage. Gross returns from the farms so
handled should be $15 to $25 per acre.
40. Live Stock Farming. In certain sections of the United
States live stock has been made the main line of production.
Live stock farming includes the production of beef cattle;
the production of sheep; hogs; dairy cattle; horses; and
poultry. Some conditions call for the production of only one
class of live stock. Other conditions will permit the combi-


nation of two or more kinds. Stock raising of any kind calls
for high capitalization in buildings and live stock equipment.
It carries large risks and demands a large amount of labor.
This field particularly calls for managing ability on the part
of the farmer. Unless live stock is well bought, properly
matured and finished, and well sold, there is likelihood of loss.
Where good management is given, however, live stock raising
is one of the most remunerative types of farming and provides
a certain income. Dairying especially is looked upon as
providing a sure income when conducted in the vicinity of good
markets. With cows of high yielding qualities it is possible
with good management, to secure a good income.

1. Have the pupils determine by conferring with their parents the main
sources of income and the approximate amount of each crop or product
from their respective farms. Have them determine the per cent of income
from each source and name the type of farming followed.
2. Arrange a debate on the question: "Resolved that this locality is
better adapted to dairying than to grain raising." or "Resolved that this
locality is better adapted to corn raising than to fruit growing." Con-
siderations: climate, soil, distance to market, market demand, labor
supply, plant diseases, etc.

1. When 50% of the total receipts from a farm come from one source,
as live stock, or grain and hay, or fruit, it is classified as a stock farm, or a
grain and hay, or a fruit farm.
Where 50% of the receipts does not come from any one source it is classi-
fied as a general farm.
Classify the following farms:
(a) Mr. A sells from his farm $200.00 worth of milk; $175.00 worth of
cattle; $74.00 worth of hogs and $150.00 worth of grain.
(b) A man sells $500.00 worth of milk; $800.00 worth of apples and
$150.00 worth of grain and hay.
(c) A farmer sells $400.00 worth of wheat; $200.00 worth of barley;
30 tons of hay at $8.50 per ton; 20 hogs at $15.00 per head, and 10 head
of cattle at $52.50 per head.


2. It requires about 10 years to bring an apple orchard into profitable
bearing. The care of the orchard during this time and the interest on
land worth $50.00 an acre will amount to $125.00 an acre. For the first
five years after coming into bearing the orchard returns a net profit of
$100.00 an acre per year. What will an owner have made an acre per year
for the 15 years?
3. The yields of certain crops were as follows: potatoes 90 bushels;
wheat 17 bushels; hay 2 tons, and corn 40 bushels. The cost of producing
them per acre, exclusive of interest on land, was for potatoes, $23.36;
corn, $11.79; wheat, $5.40, and hay, $3.65. Interest rate, 6%. Which
is the most profitable, raising potatoes at an average price of 500 per bushel;
corn at 410 per bushel; wheat at 900 a bushel, or hay at $10.00 per ton?
The potato land is worth $60.00; corn land, $60.00; wheat land, $40.00,
and hay land, $35.00.
4. A farm survey in New York indicates that the most profitable farms
return at least 25% of their receipts from farm crops.
If a farmer sells $150.worth of wheat; $225 worth of corn; $65 worth
of hay; $50 worth of miscellaneous crops, what would be his total receipts
on the above basis?

Types of Farming in the United States.- Year Book U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture 1908, pages 351-366.


41. The importance of wise selection in choosing a farm
cannot be overestimated. The problem is somewhat different
than is the problem in choosing for any other business, because
two interests must be considered. The farm itself is a business
proposition and must be treated as such. The possibility of
making a living and a satisfactory income from the farm is
the first consideration when viewed from the business stand-
point. In this respect it is no different from any other busi-
ness, but a farm becomes the home of the farmer's family as
well as his place of business. Its consideration as a home is
quite as important as its consideration as a business. Not
only the farmer's tastes must be suited, but the tastes of each
member of the family, because if the family is not satisfied
and contented with the surroundings, home life is not pleasant
and business cannot be well conducted. The home and the
business are so closely associated that all factors must be
balanced and in the right relation.
42. Healthfulness. The first consideration for the home
should be that it have healthful surroundings. This is quite
as important in the farm home as in the city home. Health-
fulness on the farm is affected by the kind of soil; by the eleva-
tion of the land, whether high or low; by drainage; and by
climate. A clay soil that is low and wet is especially unhealth-
ful. If stagnant water stands on the land, the danger to health
may become serious. If the low spot is a small one, often
drainage can be provided that will relieve the unhealthfulness.
If the area is large and affects the entire locality, it is some-
times difficult to improve the healthfulness of the locality.
A sandy soil that is well drained and that can be easily tilled

is more likely to be healthful. Disease germs do not multiply
as rapidly in such a soil and there is less danger of malaria,
typhoid, or other diseases. In selecting a farm, one should
determine whether it is
possible to provide drainage
and to improve conditions
so as to make the place
healthful and desirable as a
family home.
43. Neighbors. Farmers
should not live by them-
selves. The nature of the FRo. 18.-Sloughs or ponds of stag-
business of farming, in nant water near the farmstead are
which each family produces objectionable and frequently are
which each family produces dangerous to the health of the family.
nearly all of the necessities
of life, tends to make farmers more or less independent. It is not
unusual for farmers and their families to live too much by them-
selves, not participating in the social functions of the neighbor-
hood. Thisis especially likely to occur if the neighbors are unpro-
gressive and backward. Sometimes the nationality of the
neighbors prevents social intercourse. The farmer in choosing
a farm should bear in mind that it is the children of the
neighbors that his children will go to school with, that they
will meet them in lodges, farmers' institutes, county agricul-
tural clubs, and other semi-social and business gatherings.
Unless the children of the neighbor are such as he would be
willing to have his children associate with, and perhaps
marry, it would be better to seek some other locality where
the neighbors would be more congenial.
44. Markets. Good markets near a farm give many advan-
tages in selling the crops or farm produce. If one can locate
where the spirit of cooperation is strong, additional advantages
may be gained. Cooperative elevators, shipping associations,
creameries and stores often help to reduce the cost of marketing
the produce. Cooperative ownership of pure bred stock and


of machinery may reduce the cost of production and a coopera-
tive laundry run in connection with the creamery gives a possi-
bility of greatly reducing the heavy labor of the farmer's wife.
45. Schools. It is important that good schools be near
the farmer's home, especially if the .farmer is a young man
and has a family that will be likely to require educational
advantages. While school organizations are changing rapidly
in rural districts, it is still quite possible to settle in a neighbor-
hood where schools are undeveloped and backward, and where
the neighbors may be unprogressive enough not to. desire
efficient schools which will give some training along the lines
in which the farmer is interested. If one can locate in a neigh-
borhood center near a small village or city where a good school
can be attended while the children are living at home, it is an
advantage that should be carefully weighed against possibly
more desirable farms farther away, or where the schools are
poor. The consolidated rural schools, such as are rapidly
being organized in Minnesota, Iowa, Ohio, the Dakotas, and
other states, will do much to encourage the farmers' children
in remaining in the vocation. While consolidated rural schools
are usually more expensive than the old one room district
school, they are also much more efficient. The cost of main-
taining them is not nearly so great as would be the cost of
sending the children away from home for preparation for college.
These schools connected with the high schools in which courses
in agriculture are given make easy steps forward in educational
lines and lead to the special agricultural schools and colleges.
46. Churches and Social Centers., Quite as important as
the schools are the churches and social centers for farmers'
families. So far as possible, the country church should be
made the social center of the neighborhood. Frequently the
church and the school can be conducted in the same building
or at least in the same school or churchyard. The social
activities of the whole community should center around these
institutions. The school is a common meeting place of the

is more likely to be healthful. Disease germs do not multiply
as rapidly in such a soil and there is less danger of malaria,
typhoid, or other diseases. In selecting a farm, one should
determine whether it is
possible to provide drainage
and to improve conditions
so as to make the place
healthful and desirable as a
family home.
43. Neighbors. Farmers
should not live by them-
selves. The nature of the FIo. 18.-Sloughs or ponds of stag-
business of farming, in nant water near the farmstead are
which each family produces very objectionable and frequently are
which each family produces dangerous to the health of the family.
nearly all of the necessities
of life, tends to make farmers more or less independent. It is not
unusual for farmers and their families to live too much by them-
selves, not participating in the social functions of the neighbor-
hood. Thisis especially likely to occur if the neighbors are unpro-
gressive and backward. Sometimes the nationality of the
neighbors prevents social intercourse. The farmer in choosing
a farm should bear in mind that it is the children of the
neighbors that his children will go to school with, that they
will meet them in lodges, farmers' institutes, county agricul-
tural clubs, and other semi-social and business gatherings.
Unless the children of the neighbor are such as he would be
willing to have his children associate with, and perhaps
marry, it would be better to seek some other locality where
the neighbors would be more congenial.
44. Markets. Good markets near a farm give many advan-
tages in selling the crops or farm produce. If one can locate
where the spirit of cooperation is strong, additional advantages
may be gained. Cooperative elevators, shipping associations,
creameries and stores often help to reduce the cost of marketing
the produce. Cooperative ownership of pure bred stock and


a good part of the year. The proportion of the farm products
required for supporting the family is larger and as a conse-
quence, little is left to sell. On a farm of 160 acres which can
be operated with only a little more equipment and machinery,
a much larger acreage is handled for the money invested in
equipment. As a consequence, the cost of production is greatly
reduced. Farms of 240 to 320 acres devoted to raising farm
crops or farm crops and live stock combined, offer a possibility
of still larger incomes through the more effective use of machin-
ery and equipment, and a consequent decrease in the cost of
production. While it is impossible to specify the size of farm
that will be most profitable under all conditions, it is safe to
say that the medium to large farm can be handled to the best
advantage, can be most economically equipped, and will return
the largest labor income to the farmer when properly managed.
Special types of farming such as truck or fruit growing, are of
course, adapted to small sized farms and this general statement
will not hold true regarding them. The size of the farm must
therefore be adapted to the type of farming and the kind of
business to be done.
48. Producing Capacity. The producing capacity of a farm
should be the first consideration from a business standpoint.
Soil that is naturally rich and well drained is adapted to large
production. Clay and clay-loam lands of the United States
where drainage and climate provide satisfactory moisture
conditions, are best adapted to crop production. The mixed
black prairie soils of the West are rarely abandoned, and while
they have been decreased in producing power by unwise crop-
ping, they are easily built up and converted into profitable
farms. It is much easier to secure large production on these
soils than it is on the hilly, stony farms of New England, or on
the sandy lands of the. Great Pine regions. They respond
to tillage better and yield larger crops than the lands on areas
where semi-arid conditions prevail. In selecting a farm,
therefore, one should pay especial attention to the soil. He

should consider the possibility of a large production of the
crops that he wishes to grow and the possibility of securing a
market for his products. The topography of the land has
considerable effect upon the producing capacity. If the land
is hilly and rolling, it may wash badly or be unadapted to the
growth of certain crops. This will prevent the free changing
of crops, resulting in poor rotations and lack of soil building
methods of farming. The amount of waste land on a farm
should also be considered. Besides being unproductive, waste
land also interferes with the proper arrangement of fields and
increases the cost of production by unnecessary turningorfences.
49. The Soil. The character of the soil is of the greatest
importance. It is easy to determine whether a soil is clay,
sand or sand-loam. A mixture of sand and clay in nearly
equal parts provides the best foundation soil for most crops.
In examining the soil one should note the proportion of sand
to clay, even going to the trouble of washing out some of the
soil in a saucer or other dish, so as to observe the proportion
of sand. The soil that appears to have but little sand on
examination when dry, will be found to contain large amounts
when washed out. The surface soil should first be examined,
noting the proportion of sand and clay, also whether there is
vegetable matter in sufficient quantities to provide good
physical condition. The subsoil also should be examined to
a depth of at least two or three feet. Frequently a thin layer
of good soil on the surface will be underlaid by a deep stratum
of sand or gravel. Such soil is likely to be leachy, drouthy,
and of low productive power. In inspecting the farm it is
best to carry a spade or posthole augur, making frequent
examinations of the soil in various representative spots to a
depth of at least three feet. Testing the soil with litmus
paper will show whether or not it contains alkali or is acid in
nature. It should be nearly neutral for the best results. A
slightly alkaline soil will grow better crops than one that is
acid in character.


When the soil cannot be examined as mentioned above, an
idea of the nature of the soil can often be approximately deter-
mined by observing the plants growing upon it. Oak, maple
and other hardwood trees are usually found growing, upon
clay land, which when cleared is productive and satisfactory
for growing the small grains and corn. Sandy lands are indi-
cated by the vegetation growing upon them. Jack-pine land
is likely to be sandy and is somewhat hard to bring into strong
producing power when cleared. Land which produces an
abundant crop of weeds will be found strong in crop producing
power. Similar observations may be made in the way thai
grasses and other crops grow. Certain grasses such as timothy,
the clovers, and redtop, are adapted only to the heavier or
mixed soils. They are not found to be growing in profusion
on sandy soils unless these sandy soils are well watered. In
judging the soil by the nature of the crops that grow upon
them, one must always bear in mind the kind of a season. A
very moist season may show a large growth on sandy, drouthy
land, where a dry season would show almost a total failure.
50. The Climate. The climate is also an important factor
from a business standpoint. Fortunately, it is now possible
with very little trouble to learn a great deal about the climate
of any locality. The United States Weather Bureau, Wash-
ington, D. C., will supply tables showing in most parts of the
United States, the amount of rainfall by months and the total
for the year; the date of the earliest killing frost and of the
latest frost; and the extremes of heat and cold. In most places
additional data can be secured on the velocity of the winds,
the frequency of high winds, the appearance of droughts, or
other climatic disturbances. These facts should all be looked
up before settling on a farm which may become the permanent
residence of the family.
51. Proximity to Markets. Farm products must be put on
the market. Often the nature of the product makes it neces-
sary to market frequently, and certain kinds of farm products


must be shipped promptly to reach the markets in good con-
dition. The distance to market, therefore, becomes an impor-
tant factor. A farm bordering a village or located near a
shipping point, equal in producing capacity to one located
eight or ten miles away, would have a decided advantage.
The percentage of profit due to the saving of time in marketing,
and to the possibility of putting the product on the market in
better condition, would be large.' The best markets are
afforded by the large cities. Consequently, the nearer to a
large city the farm can be located, the greater the possibility
for securing the maximum price for the product. If the goods
are shipped in, the freight rates are lower. If they are hauled
in by team, the time required is correspondingly low and the
expense less. The distance to market is not always measured
in miles. A farm three miles from town on a good road may
be no farther distant, so far as time is concerned than one
located only a mile and one-half from the town on a poor road.
The character of the roads leading to the shipping point or
the marketing point, should be observed in deciding between
52. Improvements. In addition to the points mentioned
in the preceding sections relating to the business side of choosing
a farm, careful comparisons should be made of the improve-
ments on each of the farms under consideration. Frequently
a natural spring or creek may provide a water supply which
is highly desirable. The value of a wood lot on a farm should
not be overlooked. These two natural resources add greatly
to the convenience and ease of operating a farm. Orchards
should be examined and their condition noted. An orchard
in good condition for bearing has a direct money value. An
orchard that is old and where the trees have been poorly cared
for, is often worthless. The fences, out-buildings, and other
items of equipment which would be transferred with the
property, should be examined and their condition noted also.
The condition of the buildings especially should be studied


so as to determine their value. It is not an uncommon mistake
to buy a farm where the buildings have been poorly arranged,
or where they are poorly adapted to the type of farming to. be
followed, and must be remodeled before they can be useful.
Remodeling old buildings is an expensive and unsatisfactory
task. It is much better as a rule to buy a farm on which few
buildings have been erected, thus giving an opportunity to
erect buildings that conform to the purchaser's taste. The
shape of the farm in view of the possible arrangement of fields
and getting produce to the farmstead and manures back to
the fields, should be studied. Account must be taken also
of the amount of waste or broken land which would not
be useful and may even be in the way of working the
good land. Natural meadows have a value also for live stock
Groves, wind-breaks, and suitable arrangement of
farmstead, should be carefully considered, both from the
business point of view and from the view of home-mak-
ing. In any event, one should hunt for the best bargain
possible. A wide range from which to select is sure to result
in more wise selection and more permanently satisfactory


1. Have the class compare several farms in the neighborhood, learning
the prices for which they could be bought and determining which is the
best bargain.
2. Have them score several farms, using the score card given below.
1. Healthfulness of surroundings . . 5
2. Neighbors ................... 5
3. Schools . . . . . 5
4. Churches and social centers. . . ... 5 20


5. Size of farm (as adapted to kind of farming) . 5
6. Natural advantages (wood, water, drainage) . 5
7. Improvements:
Ditches, tile drains, buildings . . 5
Site of farmstead .. . . 5
Shape and size of fields . . .. 5 25
8. Soil:
Natural fertility .. ........ .... .10
9. Condition (freedom from stones, stumps, weeds, and
waste land) .. .............. 10
10. Topography (as affecting erosion and ease of cultivation) 10
11. Climate (annualrainfall, temperature, frosts) 5 35
12. Wagon roads (kind and condition) . 5
13. Local markets (kind, distance from) . .. 10
14. Shipping facilities . . . .. 5 20

1. A man with cash and credit of $10,000 can purchase either of two
farms. The first contains 80 acres and can be bought for $80 per acre.
The second contains 160 acres, but can be bought for $50 an acre. If
35% of the purchase price is necessary for equipment, live stock and cash
for operating, how much more credit would he need to buy the second
2. A man wishes to go into dairying and has two farms in view. One
is located three miles from a cheese factory, and the other six miles. It
takes one hour to deliver milk from the first farm, and two hours from the
second farm. He delivers milk six days in the week. The man and team
labor cost 27' per hour. How much more could he pay fqr the first farm
than the second and make the same amount on his dairy when he pays 6%
for money?
3. A 5-acre wood lot adjoining a farm is for sale, and the owner is
considering the purchase of the same. His coal bill is $65.00 per year.
It costs him $5.00 to put in the coal. It would cost him $20.00 more
a year to cut and haul the wood than it does to haul the coal." How much
can he afford to pay per acre for the wood lot, in order to secure a fuel
supply alone, if he must borrow the money at 6% interest?


4. Freight rates on milk are 250 per 100 lb. for each 100 miles shipped.
A man has 80 cows each producing 5000 lb. of milk annually. What will
be the difference in net returns per cow if he is 100 miles, or 200 miles
from the city?
5. A farmer buys a farm on a poor highway and finds it costs him 250
a ton to haul produce to market. He can secure a good turnpike at a cost
of $200.00 distributed over ten years. If it will cost him only 122 per ton
on the new road, how many tons a year must he haul to pay the annual
ten-year assessment?

How to Choose a Farm.-T. F. Hunt.
Farm Management.--F. W. Card, Chapter VI.
Cyclopedia of American Agriculture.-L. H. Bailey, Vol. I, pages
Farm Development.-W. M. Hays, pages 89-95.


53. Organization. The organization of the farm should
begin with the farmstead. It is from the farmstead that the
daily operations will be directed. Its location and arrange-
ment are vital to the successful and profitable management
of the farm and should be carefully studied. Two opposing
factors will demand consideration in making the plans. (1) It
is to become the home of the family. Everything that will
add to their pleasure, comfort, and happiness should be included.
(2) It is the center of the business operations of the farm, and
it is essential that the plans provide for the economical admin-
istration of the farm business.
The first factor demands for the farmstead a position near
the highway for the sake of social convenience, or near a lake
or pleasant landscape view for aesthetic reasons. The second
factor demands that the buildings and yards be near the center
of the farm with easy access to the fields so as to permit quick
connection with the work and short distances for transporting
the farm products to the farm center. These opposing factors
must be harmonized as far as possible and the best location
chosen, all things considered. Whatever the location finally
decided upon, the economical operation of the farm depends
upon the farmstead being well arranged and the farm work
being organized into a systematic and definite relationship
with it.
54. Location of Farmstead. In locating the farmstead it
is best to choose a place near the center of the farm when this
can be done without sacrificing the social interests of the family.
The advantages of having the farmstead located near the center
of the farm are many. Time is economized in getting to and


from the fields. All four sides of the farmstead are in connec-
tion with the fields, allowing minor rotations to be arranged
for, which will provide the live stock with pasture and paddocks
close to the building. This permits live stock to be taken
quickly from the fields to yards or barns. From a central
location the farm manures can more easily be taken to all of the
fields of the farm without hauling it long distances. Also,



FIG. 20.-Farmstead near center
of farm. This location brings all
sides of the farmstead in direct con-
nection with the fields, thus reduc-
ing the amount of travel between
the fields and the farmstead.

FIG. 21.-Farmstead at center
of one side of farm. This location
brings the house near the road
where travelers can be seen and
where neighbors will be encouraged
to stop. Three sides of the farm-
stead are still in contact with the

the crops grown on the various fields can be more readily
brought to the farmstead.
The objection to a central location is that it results in the
isolation of the farmer's family, which is a serious phase of
farm life. Families of farmers enjoy seeing passing teams
and should be near enough to the road to encourage social
calls from their neighbors. Convenience of getting to school
and to market should also receive due consideration. The
economic advantage of being near the center of the farm is


I Il

shown in Figure 20, but it is doubtful whether this advantage
is sufficient to outweigh the social advantages of living near
the main road at the center of one side of the farm, as illus-
trated in Figure 21. When the farmstead is properly arranged

FIa. 22.-Farmstead showing lanes leading to minor rotation.

with short lanes leading to the minor rotation fields as in
Figure 22, and with the major rotation fields connected by roads,
but little of the economic advantage is lost. (See Figure 23.)
Both locations should receive careful consideration and the one
adopted which gives the greatest comfort to the family and which
does not call for useless expense in the operation of the farm.


55. Size of the Farmstead. The size of the farmstead
should be in proportion to the size of the farm. It will often
be determined by the nature of the farm business. Live stock
raising with suitable barnyards and paddocks demands more


2.'7ACRES. .82ACRES. 483ACREd






FIG. 23.-Short lanes to the minor rotation fields and roads to the fields
in the major rotation give easy access to all fields on the farm.

land in the farmstead than where grain raising or fruit grow-
ing is the principal business of the farm. Fdur to six acres
on a 160-acre farm is not too much for the farmstead on a
diversified grain and stock farm. Six to ten acres can often
be used to advantage. A plot of ground 32 by 40 rods in


dimensions on reasonably level land will give an eight acre
farmstead of suitable proportions. The dimensions can be
varied in any way desirable, or necessary to suit the particular
farmstead to be planned. Room should be reserved for wind-

FIG. 24.-Drives between the buildings add to the convenience of
doing the work about the farmstead.
Key to Buildings: (1) farm house; (2) wood shed; (3) work and tool room;
(4) machine shed; (5) milk and well house; (6) corn crib; (7) hog house;
(8) silo; (9) horse and cow barn; (10) granary; (11) poultry house.
breaks or shelter-belts. The orchard, garden, poultry runs
and buildings for live stock, with suitable yards and paddocks,
should be included. Provision should be made for drives and
walks between the buildings. (Figure 24.) A generous lawn
adds greatly to the beauty and attractiveness of the farm home.



The only objection that can be made to such a lawn is that
much labor would be required to keep it up. By a little careful
planning a large part of the labor can be avoided (Figure 25).
By grouping the
plantings of shrubs,
protecting them by @
light wire hurdles, A .c '
and by providing .
permanent fences
on certain sides, it | s
is often possible to
keep the lawn.
trimmed by allow-
ing the sheep and '
calves to graze on
the lawn for two. "
or three hours each\
day. It may be
necessary occasion- FIG. 25.-Suggestive arrangementof buildings
ally to run the lawn and grouping of shrubbery and trees on a well
planned farmstead.
mower over it to Key to Buildings: (1) house; (2) shed; (3)
even it up but or- workshop and toolroom; (4),machine shed; (10)
even t p, r- granary; (11) poultry house.
dinarily, where a Key to Plantings: (1) elm trees; (2) spirea van
houti; (3) rosa rugosa thickets; (4) flowering cur-
little attention is rant; (5) high bush cranberry; (6) Virginia creeper
or climbing roses; (7) peony beds; (8) Colorado
given to the grazing blue spruce; (9) mountain ash; (10) snowball or
lilac; (11) ferns.
of the sheep and
calves, they will keep the lawn in good shape without additional
labor. The only objection to this plan is that the droppings from
thle animals are disagreeable. This annoyance can be avoided
to some extent by turning the animals on for two hours or so
early in the morning when the animals have been off feed over
night. By using the orchards for poultry runs or for pig or
calf pastures, good use can be made of the land. Other portions
of the enclosure may be used for permanent paddocks or stock
runs, putting the less objectionable animals in the foreground.


The whole effect of the landscape should be broad and com-
manding with the shelter-belt as a background, and with
suitable decorative plantings and lawns in the foreground.
An acre of the land can be used about the house itself to good
56. Location of the House. The house should have the
choicest position in the farmstead. It should be on high
ground, sloping in all directions so as to provide good surface
drainage. An east front is considered best and if the house
can be located to the south or east of the farm there will be
less annoyance from objectionable odors during the summer
season when the prevailing winds are from the south and south-
east. It should not be located near a slough or pond of stag-
nant water unless provision can be made for drainage. In
starting with a new farmstead, little trouble will be experienced
in finding a proper site for the house if the grounds are examined
carefully, and if the farmstead is mapped out to scale on paper.
After the 'paper plan is made, the land should be measured
and stakes set for the various buildings, thus establishing the
proper relations and distances between them and the house.
Provision should always be made for future growth. Sites
should be reserved for buildings which are to be added later,
and these buildings should be located upon the paper plan.
In this way it will be possible to avoid moving buildings or
destroying wind-breaks, orchards, or groves which have been
planted in the wrong place. Pleasant views should always be
sought from the site of the farmhouse. A lake, a grove, a
schoolhouse, or a view in the distance of some city or town,
or of a mountain or hill, may be had by arranging suitable
openings in the wind-breaks or groves. In like manner,
unpleasant objects can be hidden from view by groups of trees.
Frequently a building in the farmstead itself may be made
to shut out an objectionable view from the house. It is a
mistake to plant trees too close to the house, thus shutting
out a free circulation of the air. Allowance should be made


for, the growth that trees make and they should be planted
some distance apart, or plans should be made for taking out
every other tree as they get larger.
57. Remodeling an Old Farmstead. In remodeling an old
farmstead the problem is somewhat more difficult. Frequently
the buildings are improperly placed. It is not always possible
to work such a farmstead over into a satisfactory farm home.
Groves can be changed, however, in the course of eight or
ten years and minor buildings may be moved at small expense,
and new buildings erected where they will fit in with the plan
as it must be followed. It is always possible to hide objection-
able views by clumps of shrubbery or by hedges. Drainage,
the filling of low spots, or a little grading about the house and
farmstead, will often change an undesirable place into one
that is quite satisfactory.
58. Grouping of Buildings. In arranging the buildings on
the farmstead, certain groupings should be made which will
greatly reduce the amount of time required in doing the daily
chores. The horse barn and machine shed with workshop
included, should be placed near together. Both should be
located near to the main lane leading to the fields. Considera-
tion of the daily tasks shows that the farmer is required to
go to the horse barn for his team; from there he goes to the
machine shed for the implement he is to use, and he should
then go direct to the field. The horse barn is the starting
place for most of the farm operations where power is required.
The machine shed furnishing the implements and the work-
shop should be convenient for the sake of economizing time in
keeping the tools and machines in repair. Going from the horse
barn across the farmstead for a machine and thence back on
the way to the field, causes much unnecessary traveling and
should be avoided where possible. On three farms in Minne-
sota the distance traveled in going to and from the machinery
shed and the horse barn varied from 11.3 miles where the build-
ings were closely connected, to 68 miles per year, where the


buildings were widely apart. Some such arrangement as is
shown in Figure 26 should be made whenever possible.
The cattle barns and the buildings containing feed supplies,
should be located closely together. If the feed can be stored
in the same building, so much the better. The silo and hay-

FIG. 26.-The close grouping of the horse barn and machine shed and
of corn crib and hog pens reduces greatly the labor of doing chores. (1)
house; (2) well; (3) barn; (4) poultry house; (5) machine shed; (6) granary;
(7) shop and engine house; (8) corn crib: (9) feeding floor, and (10) hog
mow at least should be closely connected. Grain supplies
can be brought from a distance if necessary, but it is better
to make provision for them in the barn. A milk room should
be provided if possible. It may be combined with a well-
house and tank which will supply water at convenient points
for the live stock. It is sometimes included in the barn,

though there are many objections to this plan as it is difficult
to keep the barn odors from reaching the milk. It is best
to have the milk room separate from the barn.
It is very essential that the corn crib be closely connected
with the hog and cattle feeding yards. A trip of 250 feet
across the farmstead and back three times a day for a basket
of corn may mean as much as 103 miles of travel per year.
This can be avoided by placing the corn crib near the hog
feeding floor. Too much attention cannot be given to this
matter of suitable connections between buildings, as it bears
closely upon the economy of performing the daily tasks about
the barns and yards.
The poultry house should, if possible, be given a location
near the farmhouse and not far distant from the grain supplies.
Frequently the poultry house can be near the orchard. Both
are looked after or visited frequently by the women of the family
and they, as well as the men, should be saved every unneces-
sary step. The orchard can sometimes be used for the poultry
run, thus keeping down the insects and making double use of
the land. The garden also should be near the house, and it
should be fenced to keep the poultry out, unless the poultry
is confined in a yard of its own.
Lanes and drives to the fields should be arranged for in the
plans of the farmstead. The permanent fence lines should
be laid out with this in view, temporary fences being erected
when necessary to aid in keeping the farmstead clean and attrac-
tive. Main drives and roads to the fields should, be open to
give easy access. By putting a temporary hurdle ,or, fence
across, the corners of the farmstead and the ground adjoining
the barns and storage buildings can be trimmed up by turning
in the sheep or the colts for grazing a few hours each day. In
this way the whole farmstead can be kept attractive and bad
weeds subdued.
59. Time- Required for Chores. That the arrangement of
the farmstead has a great deal to do with the economy of time


FIG. 27-Buildings poorly located,- (1) farm house; (2) poultry house;
(3) hog house; (4) horse barn; (5) smoke house; (6) milk and well house;
(7) corn crib; (8) machine shed; (9) ice house; (10) cow barn and granary;
(11) silo; (12) hog shed. Distance from horse barn to machine shed 220
feet; from corn crib to hog pen 250 feet and from well to hog pen 155 feet.
In one trip three times a day for a year between the corn crib and the hog
house and between the well and hog house, 199.6 miles would be traveled.
In one trip a day between the machine shed and horse barn 26.1 miles would
be traveled, and going to the poultry house three times a day for a year
would require 78 miles of travel. A total of 264 miles would be traveled
which, at the rate of 15 miles a day would require 18.1 days.



3a I a



FIG. 28.-Buildings moved and more closely grouped. (1) farmhouse;
(2) poultry house; (3) hog house; (4) horse barn; (5) smokehouse; (6)
milk and well house; (7) corncrib; (8) machine shed; (9) ice house; (10)
cow barn; (11) silo; (12) hog shed; (13) feeding floor. In doing the same
chores described under Fig. 29, only a little over 30 miles need be traveled
and but 2.24 days would be required. The water is piped to the hog
house and barns, greatly reducing the labor. The feeding floor joins tht
corn crib and hog house and the machine shed is only 30 feet distant from
the barn.

in doing the daily chores is well illustrated by Figures 27 and 28,
showing the amount of travel in doing certain chores when
the buildings are poorly located and the saving made by moving
and relocating some of them.
60. Building Plans. The plans of the buildings should
be considered quite as much as the plans for the farmstead.
Before erecting a building, a plan should be made of it, draw-
ing to scale, with all of the interior arrangements made. Feed
storage rooms should be provided which will permit quick and
easy feeding of the live stock. Convenient arrangements
should be made for watering, and an attempt made to lessen
the labor in every way possible. The harness rooms, milk
rooms, and grain bins should all be at convenient points and
located with the view of lessening the amount of travel. If a
harness room is provided, it should be at a central spot and
where every stall can be reached with the minimum amount of
travel. The milk room, where included in the barn, should
be located near the center but where it can be well ventilated
and where the objectionable odors of the barn can be kept
from it. The grain bin frequently can be placed overhead,
with an elevator run by a gasoline engine for elevating the
grain into it. By providing suitable spouts, feed boxes, and
alleys, the work of feeding the animals is thus greatly reduced.
Attention to details of arrangement is the first essential in
providing economical and convenient buildings.
1. Have the pupils measure the distance from the house to the well on
their own farms and keep a record of the number of trips made forwaterin a
week. Find the average number of trips per day. Calculate the number of
miles traveled in a year in carrying water for house use. How much does
it cost if labor is worth 16 cents an hour? How large an investment in
water pipes would the labor cost pay interest on?
2. Have the pupils measure the distance between their corn cribs and
hog feeding pens. Keep a record of the number of trips made between
them in feeding the pigs for a week. Find the average trips in a day.
Calculate the number of miles traveled in a year.


3. In the same way determine the time required and the labor cost of
doing other chores. Compare the results from the various farms and
suggest ways of remedying badly arranged farmsteads.
4. Have them record distances traveled between feed bin and mangers
in feeding horses and cows, and in other ways call the attention of the
pupils to wasted time or energy.
1. By placing the farmstead at the center of a 160-acre farm, the distance
to a 20-acre field can be shortened I mile. An average of six trips per week
are made to this field by man and team. The trips would be made at the
rate of 2l miles an hour. If horse labor is worth 9t an hour and man labor
160, how much could be saved a year on this 20-acre field by locating the
farmstead at the center of the farm?
2. By building a lane in order to reach a 40-acre field, a farmer can save
I mile in going to the field. The lane will be 80 rods long. Smooth
wire fencing can be put up at a cost of 90 per rod. Four hundred thirty
trips are made to the field in a year with man and team traveling at the
rate of 2l miles an hour. Man labor costs 16 and horse labor 9N an hour.
How many years will it take to pay for the fencing for the lane in saving
of time alone?
3. A man's corn crib is located 12 rods from the hog-feeding floor where
he feeds 2,000 bushels of corn annually. A hired man's time is worth
160 an hour; he can carry a bushel at each load, and walks three miles an
hour. How much does it cost to carry the corn to the hogs annually?
4. A farm house is located 100 ft. from a spring from which the water
is carried for household use. An average of 10 buckets are carried each
day. Allowing 5 minutes time for each bucket of water carried, and 10l
an hour for the time, how many days would it take to pay for a hydraulic
ram costing $25.00 and galvanized pipe at 121~ per foot?
5. A dairyman delivers milk 6 days out of the week to a creamery four
miles distant from the nearest corner of the farm. His farmstead is one-
half mile farther away. If he drives at the rate of 6 miles an hour, how
much more time does he spend on the road than if he were on the corner
nearest the creamery? If man and team are worth $3.00 for a 10-hour day,
what will be the total cost a year under each condition?
6. A man hauls a barrel of water to his hog pasture each day for 4 months
in the year since it is not in the farmstead. It takes a horse and man
I hours each day to haul the water. Horse labor is worth 9t per hour and
man labor 160. He can arrange for a hog pasture in the minor rotation
by erecting 50 rods of fence costing 42t a rod, and can pipe the water to it
at a cost of $10.00. How long would it take to pay for the changes?


U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin
No. 236.
Planning and Adorning the Farmstead.- Iowa Experiment Station
Bulletin No. 126.
Farm Development.- W. M. Hays, pages 96-126.
Minnesota Farmers' Institute Annual No. 22, pages 23-29.


61. Need of Planning. A practical, well-balanced farm
business cannot be built up without a great deal of careful
planning. Among the most important plans to make is one
of the whole farm, showing the location of the farmstead and
its connection with the fields, also the size and the arrange-
ment of the fields themselves. The ease with which the farm
may be operated and the cost of the farm products are largely
dependent upon the arrangement of the buildings and fields,
and upon the plans for. operating the farm. So important
is this matter that several different plans should be made
before adopting a final one. Often it will be found impossible
to make a plan that can be immediately adopted. A tenta-
tive plan may be followed for a year or two, while the fields
are being subdued and cleared, or it may be necessary to change
the type of farming within a few years. These prospective
changes, however, should not prevent one from working out
the complete plan for future operation.
SIn fact, the more one works over the plan, the greater the
possibility of having all features of the farm in proper balance.
Owing to the great difference in the topography of the land
used for farming, it is not possible to present a plan which can
be adopted by everyone. Planning a farm is like planning
a house in that the tastes of the individual family that is to
live upon it must be consulted, and the size, shape, and internal
arrangements should be determined by the use to be made
of it. The principal factors are presented to serve as a guide
to those who wish to work out a plan for operating a farm.
62. Access to Fields. In laying out the farm, the farmstead
should be located and planned so as to permit easy access to

all of the fields. (See Figure 23.) On most farms the products
of the fields are brought to the farmstead for preparation for
market or to be fed to live stock. The manures from the barns
and barnyards should all be taken back to the fields to aid
in maintaining soil fertility. Easy access to all of the fields
makes more certain the even distribution of manure over the
farm and lessens greatly the labor in hauling in the products
and returning the by-products.

i L


FIG. 29.-Under this plan the average distance to the fields in the major
rotation is .56 of a mile, to the minor rotation fields, .20 of a mile. Com-
pare this with the one shown in Fig. 30.

The shorter the distance to the fields, the more economically
can this be done. A large number of trips are made to and
from the fields in preparing the land, and in cultivating and
harvesting the crops. If each of these trips is only a few rods
longer than is necessary, much loss of time will result. Such
loss of time is expensive and increases the cost of producing
the crops. As an example of how great this loss may be,
attention is called to Figures 29 and 30, showing the average
distance from the farmstead to the fields on a farm poorly
planned and the distances on the same farm, well planned. It


is estimated that with the farmstead 45 rods farther on the
average from the fields than need be, a distance of 107 miles
would be traveled in raising a crop of corn on a 27-acre field.
The total trips to and from the field would be 383, which
multiplied by 90, the unnecessary distance from the fields,
would make 107 miles. This would be equivalent to four days
of extra time, which, at the ordinary price for farm labor,
would cost $16 to $20.

~0 .

ki / --""" ""' ^

FIG. 30.-The average distance to the fields in the major rotation
is .16 of a mile, to the fields in the minor rotation, .06 of a mile. Compare
this with the plan shown in Fig. 29.

The cost of growing the other crops would be proportionately
as great. One cannot over-estimate the advantage which
comes from having fields well planned and closely connected
with the farmstead. Provision should be made for the men
and teams to begin working immediately upon leaving the
63. Shape of Fields. The shape of the fields also has con-
siderable influence on the economy of handling the farm. A
long, narrow field is more economically worked so far as the
use of the teams and machinery is concerned. Such a field

requires less turning which consumes the time of the men and
the team. A triangular field is very expensive to work as are
fields with irregular outlines. Observations made on the time
required to turn with the various farm implements, and calcu-
lations as to cost, show that the expense of growing crops on
a square field is increased twenty to twenty-five per cent by
running a. ditch diagonally across the land. So far as possible,
therefore, with a view to economy in operation, the fields
should be made comparatively long and narrow.

FIG. 31.-In fencing an 80-acre farm into five fields as shown in A,
688 rods of inside fencing would be required. As shown in B, only 448
rods would be required for inside fences. As shown in C, it would take
but 426 rods. The outside fencing would be the same in each case.
Courtesy of A. D. Wilson.
As an opposing factor, however, the expense of fencing
fields of such shape must be considered. A piece of land one
rod wide and 160 rods long, contains an acre. It would require
322 rods of fencing to enclose it. An acre of land square in
form would be 121 rods on each side and would require only
51 rods of fencing to enclose it. The problem of fencing must.
be balanced against the ease of working the land and a medium


between the two reached. Ordinarily the rectangular field,
about twice to three times as long as it is wide, works out to
the best advantage when both of these factors are considered.
The diagrams of an 80 acre farm fenced in each of three different
ways, illustrate forcefully the wisdom of careful planning in
this regard. (Figure 31.)
64. Size and Number of Fields. The size of the fields is
also an important factor in planning the farm. So far as pos-
sible, the fields should be uniform in size, as uniformity in
size leads towards making the farm business more systematic.
Such an arrangement of fields provides a definite acreage of
each crop each year and enables one to regulate the amount
of live stock to be kept. It gives the assurance of a plentiful
feed supply each year and a somewhat constant income.
The amount of machinery, the work stock for operating
the farm, and numerous other factors are also influenced
by the size and uniformity of the fields. So far as
possible, the fields should be of good size. They must be
suited to the rotation that is to be followed on the farm.
On many farms it is impossible to change the size or the shape
of the field materially.
The topography of the land has much to do with the divi-
sions in the fields. Creeks, rivers, or sloughs, often present
unconquerable barriers to the proper division of the fields.
Hillsides, rocky ridges, and even sandy bottoms may change
materially the desired arrangements so far as the size and
shape of fields is concerned. All of these matters must be
considered, however, and the ideal followed as nearly as possible.
Many people believe that the adoption of a rotation of crops
will increase the number of fields on the farm and object to
it for that reason. Careful study of hundreds of farm plans
presented in the farm management class of the Minnesota
Agricultural School show. that the adoption of crop rotation
and the division of the farms into fields reduces rather than
increases the number of fields on most farms.

65. Rotation Groups. On many farms it is well to have at
least two, and in some instances, three groups of fields, suited
to different rotations. The major rotation may consist of
three to six or seven fields, and should receive the greatest

FIG. 32.-Original plan of a 160-acre farm. Note the numerous small
and irregular fields.

consideration because it covers the larger part of the farm.
It is on the major rotation fields that the main crops of the
farm will be grown and where most of the work will be per-
formed. These fields should be comparatively large and the


farm so planned that there is a field for each year in the rota-
tion. So far as'possible, the fields should be of the same size.
On most farms it is possible to have a minor rotation group
of small fields. The fields in this group should be located
close to the farmstead and intimately connected with it by
short lanes, and it is desirable that they be fenced. Minor
rotation fields are calculated to grow pasture and early forage
crops for the live stock and to supplement the major rotation
in the production of certain desirable crops.
On large farms it is sometimes wise to have two or more
groups of rotation fields. This arrangement permits of raising
double quantities of some of the more staple crops, and of reduc-
ing the amount in the minor, crops. The arrangement of the
farm into groups for rotation purposes is illustrated in Figure 34.
66. The Original Plan. The first step in planning a farm
is to make an outline drawing, showing the plan of the farm
as operated at the present. This original plan should show
the natural subdivisions of the land and the topography
so far as possible. It should show roads, fence lines, as well
as creeks, tile drains, or open ditches, and the location of the
farmstead and any groves or trees that may be on the place.
Distances should be measured or closely estimated, and as
many of the details as possible filled in. This original plan
will serve as the basis for future development. It is illus-
trated in Figure 32.
67. Transition Plans. In the development of the plans of
the farm, it is frequently necessary to make one or two transi-
tion plans showing the changes from year to year. It is impos-
sible, without loss, to change immediately to the desired
plan. Fields will need to be seeded to grass, and those
in grass will, it may be, have to be broken. So it takes
two or three years to bring about the complete transformation.
The transition plan is necessary as showing the record of the
crops and the projected plans for the future. A transition
plan is shown in Figure 33.


68. The Permanent Plan. The permanent plan when'
completed should show the location of the farmstead, the
minor rotation fields, and the major rotation fields. It should
show also the lanes and roads connecting with these fields;

FIG. 33.-The transitory plan of the farm is shown in Fig. 35, showing
the change in shape and size of fields. The land is now tile drained and
a permanent plan of cropping is being developed.
the location of the buildings; arrangement for water supply;
and the complete plan of cropping for each rotation cycle. The
more complete the plan is made, the less trouble will be expe-
rienced in following it. Provision should be made for changing


from time to time, as market conditions or the inclination of
the owner should demand. Provision should also be made
for catch crops and for filling-in when crop failures are exper-
ienced. The necessity for filling-in is bound to rise through

FIG. 34.-The permanent plan, for the farm shown in Figs. 32 and 33,
showing the arrangement of fields and the cropping system after the land
has all been drained and put under cultivation.
crop failure, but such failure should not interrupt for any
length of time the plans for the permanent operation of the
farm. (Figure 34.)
69. Crop Ledger Plan. A very convenient form of recording
the yield and production of the farm is shown in the crop


ledger plan. This consists of an outline drawing, showing the
fields and their arrangements. It is planned that one of these
maps will be used each year in filling in the crops grown, the


S.2570 .CRES
846.2 bu.-
IS h&ad of cofle for month 41 Abpe:
20.90 ACRES
4/60bhu. -O2 h. per aor 9- IC ,y
31C .74A CRES
S6.6 bu.- 40.5 u. per ae

"eLD-E rselsr -;f8
rel. T I.tl41.M = M.,^ 9S k-! M hyZ.S- o pe -o


FIG. 35.-The crop ledger plan. An outline drawing of the farm, as
IELto recodD -A

yield per acre, and the total yield on each field of the farm.
21.73 ACRES
6t s s as u l8.8 bu.ma ad whe bu. peer- i


FIG. 35.-The crop ledger plan. An outline drawing of the farm, as
permanently planned. One of these forms is used each year upon which
to record the crops and yields.

yield per acre, and the total yield on each field of the farm.
It serves as useful memoranda and when preserved it will
often be referred to as a part of the crop history of the farm.
The use of this system is illustrated in Figure 35


70. History of Manuring. A record should be made of the
date on which each field is manured. Ordinarily, barnyard
manure is applied preceding the corn crop, and a record of

I --
FIG. 36.-By cross hatching or otherwise designating the portion of
the land covered with manure each year, a complete history of the manage-
ment of the land may be shown.

this could be made in the regular rotation plan. Any devia-
tion from the plan, however, would not be shown, and it seems
advisable to use a separate outline map of the farm as a basis
for the history of manuring each of the fields. By using the
same outlines used in planning the 'rotations for the farm, the


history of manuring each field can easily be designated by
"cross-hatching" the particular field manured and inserting
the number of the year in which the manure was applied.
Where only a part of the field is manured in a single year, that
part of the field to which the manure was applied should be
"cross-hatched." Figure 36 illustrates the method of keeping
the record of manuring.

1. Make an outline map, to scale, of the home farm, showing the
location of farmstead and all natural divisions of the land. Show the
fences-and field divisions, and the crops grown last year.
2. Make a separate plan of the farmstead, showing locations of the
various buildings and the distances between them.
3. Make a revised plan of the farm showing how it can be laid out so as
to be worked to better advantage.
4. Calculate the number of rods of fencing that will be required under
the new and the old plans.
5. Calculate the average distance from the barn to the fields under the
old and the new plans.
1. Under one plan the fields of a farm average 14 rods from the farm-
stead. Under another plan the average distance is 46 rods. How many
miles would be traveled in going to and from the fields in each case in
raising a 30-acre field of corn requiring 396 trips? Traveling at the rate
of 3 miles an hour, how many more days, of 10 hours each, would be
required in producing the crop under the second plan?
With a yield of 40 bushels an acre, how much more would it cost to
produce a bushel of corn on the second field than on the first, if man and
team are worth $4.50 a day?
2. How many more turns must be made in plowing a field 80 rods
square with a walking plow turning a 14-in. furrow, than would be
necessary in plowing a field 40 rods wide and 160 rods long?
If it requires 30 seconds to make each turn, how much longer will it
take to plow the first than the second?
3. A man has a rectangular forty-acre field to manure. His manure
spreader will hold just enough to go across the field. The spreader is
brought back empty. Would the distance traveled in manuring the field
be increased or decreased if he were to manure to the middle of the field


and back with the first load, and from the middle of the field to the farther
side and back to the middle with the second load, continuing in this way
over the entire field? The spreader covers a strip 4Q ft. wide in spreading.
How many miles would be traveled in manuring the field under each
4. Man labor is worth 160 an hour and horse labor costs 100 an hour.
A man and team can cover 1 acres of land with manure in a 10-hour day.
How many bushels an acre must the yield of the first crop of corn be
increased in order to pay for the cost of manuring, if corn sells for 420 a
5. What will bethecostof fencing with wovenwire 80 acres of land which
is 160 rods long and 80 rods wide, if four fields are made, 40 x 80 rods?
Woven wire fence can be erected for 650 per rod.
6. The wire fence in the above problem takes up 11 feet on each side.
How many acres will be lost to cultivation on fencing the four fields allow-
ing loss only on one side of the outside fences? How many, if only two
40-acre fields are made running the fence across the farm?
7. A swamp in a 150 acre farm makes 20 acres unfit for cultivation and
necessitates $50.00 additional cost in working the fields already under
cultivation. Disregarding the increase in value of the whole farm, what
could one afford to pay an acre for drainage if money can be borrowed
at 5%?
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin
No. 236.
Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, Vol. I, pages 142-161; Vol. II,
pages 90-109.
Farm Development.- W. M. Hays, pages 96-126.
Farm Management.- G. F. Warren, pages 365-401.


71. Main Crop Desirable. In most farming regions some
leading crop usually becomes the main market or feed crop.
This is desirable in most instances because it gives opportunity
for specialization in one crop or commodity. The main crop
is usually chosen because of especial adaptation to climate
and soil, or because of market facilities for that crop, or because
of labor conditions favorable to its growth.
In the Dakotas, Minnesota and Canada, wheat has been
the leading crop on most farms. It will continue to be the
leading crop so long as satisfactory yields are secured, and
shipping facilities are good. The wheat crop is especially
adapted to new regions where the product must be shipped
long distances to market. It stands transportation well.
.Less capital is required to equip for wheat raising than for
stock raising and is favored for that reason also. And many
who settle on new lands do not care to take up the more com-
plex systems of farming. In Illinois, Indiana, and other Central
states, Indian corn is the leading crop, and the one which deter-
mines largely the system of farming. Likewise, the Southern
and Southeastern states are especially adapted to cotton and
fruit growing. In some sections, cotton leads, in others fruit
growing is the main line of production. Kansas, Utah, and
some of the other Western states are especially adapted to
alfalfa growing; California to fruit growing, oranges, grapes and
lemons being the specialties. The New England states are more
concerned with the production of hay and dairy products.
72. Dangers of. Continuous Cropping. Where single line
farming is followed extensively, there are grave dangers and
trouble is likely to be experienced either from (1) weeds, (2)


insect pests, or (3) plant diseases. In the spring-grain growing
territory, wild oats and wild mustard become serious pests.
Many of the fields in the spring-grain growing states are so
badly infested with these weeds that yields are materially
reduced, because large areas are farmed and it is sometimes
impossible to plow all of the land. As a consequence, the land
is disced in the spring and the grain sown in the stubble of
the crop of the previous year. On land so farmed, Russian
thistles, Canada thistles, wild rose bushes, and the weeds above
mentioned have secured a strong foothold. The chinch-bug

FIG. 37.-On the left is corn growing on land that has grown corn
continuously for 19 years. On the right is corn in a five-year rotation.
Both fields were planted on the same day to the same kind of corn. The
yield on the field to the left is 27.5 bushels an acre. The field on the
right gives 61.3 bushels an acre. These are the average yields for ten

is a common enemy to the spring-wheat growers. The clover
midge is likely to infest clover fields unless frequent changes
are made. The corn root louse and corn root worm infest
the land that is planted continuously to corn. Flax growing
has been discontinued in some regions because the land has
become infested with the disease known as wilt. Recently,
investigators have found that fungus diseases attack the roots
of the small grain plants when continuously grown, interfering
with the full development of the plants and reducing the yield.
Smut and rust of wheat are likely to follow continuous wheat


growing. Corn smut infests the crop grown on land that has
produced corn continuously. There are many adverse con-
ditions and diseases which are met by the one who tries to
grow a single crop
F o a. for any number of
.R.o years on the same
k piece of land.
73. Difficulties
Avoided by Crop
Rotation. Most of
these difficulties
may be avoided by
crop rotation. It
does not necessarily
follow that because
crops are rotated, a
main or leading crop
cannot be grown.
The combination of
fields and the ar-
rangement of crops
may be made in
such a way that
more of the main
product is secured
than where single
line farming is fol-
lowed. The yields
on the rotation
FIG. 38.--An old alfalfa field after plowing.
Note the roots in the soil. In decaying, these plots at University
form humus. Farm, Minnesota,
indicate that as much wheat can be produced in three years by
rotating the crops, as can be produced in four years of continuous
cropping. There is also much less trouble from weeds and insect
pests, and moisture conditions are more easily controlled.

FIa. 39.-On the left at the top is corn growing on an alfalfa field that has been plowed
up. Beneath it is a shovelful of dirt from the field. Note the presence of roots and
other vegetable matter. At the right is corn growing on land raising corn continuously.
Beneath it is a shovelful of dirt from it. Note the absence of vegetable matter of any kind.



Crop rotation means only a proper classification of crops
and a systematic and fairly regular change (rotation) in the
order of growing. In arranging the crops in rotation, however,
especial attention should be given to providing crops which
will restore the organic matter in the soil. The legume crops
are desirable for this purpose as they supply nitrogenous;
material in larger quantities than the other crops.
74. Farm Crops Classified. Farm crops may be thrown into
three rough groups, for the purpose of arranging crop rotations;
(1) grain crops; (2) grass crops; (3) cultivated crops.
The grain crops include wheat, oats, barley, flax, rye, and such
other cereals as may be grown for the mature grain. The roots
of all of these crops are shallow and feed near the surface. A
part of the plants, the stubble, is returned to the soil and the
crop may be said to be neutral as to the destruction of vegetable
matter in the soil.
The grass crops include timothy, red top, blue grass, bromus,
orchard grass, rye grass, and others of the true grasses.
Included with them are the clovers, alfalfa, cow peas, soy beans
and. such other leguminous crops as are ordinarily grown for
forage. These crops produce a large amount of leaves, many of
which are broken off and returned to the soil. The roots of the
clovers and alfalfa penetrate deeply and aid materially in
renovating and aerating the soil. The crowns and roots of all
of these plants are large, and when plowed under or allowed to
decay in the soil, add considerable vegetable matter. These
,crops are useful also in keeping down weeds, and encouraging
the production of live stock, thus providing manures for the
land. The grass crops may be said to increase the vegetable
:matter in the soil.
The cultivated crops such as corn, cotton, potatoes, and root
.crops of all kinds, form the third group. While usually grown
for the purpose of cleaning the fields of weeds, and looked upon
:as soil-building crops, they are as a matter of fact, more exhaus-
itive of soil fertility than grain or grass crops. The frequent


cultivation breaks down the vegetable matter rapidly. The
destruction of vegetable matter renders the soil hard and
compact. Air does not enter readily and moisture conditions
are not so good as in the soil that contains a large amount of
decaying plant matter. The roots of the cultivated crops
supply little or no vegetable matter and where grown con-
tinuously, the soil usually gets in bad physical condition. The
cultivated crops are very destructive of vegetable matter.
Harmful results will follow continued production of any of
these crops. A change of crop within the group should not be
considered as crop rotation. A succession of wheat, oats,
barley, and flax, going back to wheat and growing the crops in
the same order, would be a change of crops but not a true rota-
tion. The growth of timothy and clover followed by timothy
raising for a number of years, would not be rotation, though it is
a kind of farming frequently practiced, especially in the Eastern
states. Any scheme of cropping which provides for the alter-
nation of the crops included in the three groups, would be a true
crop rotation. Grain, whether wheat, oats, barley, or some
other cereal, followed by grass, such as timothy and clover, for
one or two years and followed by a cultivated crop, such as
corn or potatoes, and this in turn followed by another grain
crop, would result in the change of crops and gives a suggestion
of ideal crop rotation.
75. Examples of Good Rotations. Combinations of crops
are so numerous that it would be impossible to give all. A few
standard rotations are included as suggestive of what may be
done in properly arranging crops for rotation purposes.
In the spring-grain-growing regions, a five-year rotation of
(1) wheat, seeded to timothy and clover; (2) meadow; (3)
pasture, fall plowed; (4) grain (flax, oats, or wheat); (5)
manured eight tons per acre, corn; is a popular and profitable
rotation. A three-course rotation for the same section, where
dairy and live stock raising is followed, would be, (1) grain,
seeded to clover; (2) clover; (3) manured six tons per acre,


corn. Where grain raising is followed extensively, a seven-
course rotation is sometimes practiced. The following is a
favorite one: (1) Manured ten tons an acre, corn; (2) wheat,
seeded to timothy and clover; (3 and 4) grass; (5, 6, and
7) grain crops, with clover or rape among the grain, to be
plowed under each fall as green manure.


IS9- Whet- eed to cloer

o0 acres

/193- Clover
1915-Wheaoved to clovern


JA3 -Com.
19/4-Wheoet-sed to clover
1915- Clover.

FIG. 40.-One field for each year in the rotation. Fields arranged for
a three-year rotation.

In the Southern states where cotton raising is practiced
extensively, rotation becomes somewhat difficult. The cotton
is usually rotated with corn, but as corn is a cultivated crop, this
rotation fails in maintaining soil fertility. A rotation that is
highly recommended for this region is, (1) cotton; (2) corn,
with cow peas between the rows; (3) oats, followed by cow peas.
A rotation recommended by the Kansas Experiment Station
for that region is (1) corn; (2) grain, seeded to clover and grass;
(3 and 4) clover and hay or pasture. Alfalfa is one of the

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most valuable forage crops that can be grown. It is not adapted
to short rotations, however, as it should remain for five or six
years when once established. It can be used in rotation where
the farm is so laid out that the rotation can be shifted once in
each five or six years. A four-year rotation on a five-field farm,
or a five-year rotation on a six-field farm works successfully.
The extra field stays in alfalfa until the end of the rotation
cycle. In the corn belt it is customary to grow corn for two or
three years, followed by oats one year, and in some cases clover
is seeded with the oats and plowed under the next spring for
corn. A four-year rotation of (1) corn, with cow peas, soy
beans, or clover as a catch crop (clover sown at last cultivation);
(2) oats, with wheat seeded in the fall; (3) wheat, with clover
seeded in the spring; (4) clover (first crop used for hay, and
second for seed or pasture) is recommended. For additional
rotations suited to the needs of the other portions of the United
States, see Bailey's Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, Vol. II,
pages 99 to 109.
76. Rotation of Crops Not Difficult. When the farm has
been well planned and the fields regularly laid out,'the rota-
tion of crops is not difficult. In fact, the management of a
farm under crop rotation becomes more or less automatic,
and offers fewer perplexing problems than does the manage-
ment of a farm which has irregular fields and no systematic
method of cropping. Where two rotation cycles are followed,
the cropping becomes more flexible than where only one is
used. In this way, a change of crops can be made within
rotations frequently, which will allow one to meet market
fluctuations, seasonal disturbances, or changed labor conditions.
In arranging rotations, it is only necessary that three groups of
crops be included, and that the effect of each group upon the soil
and upon the crops which are to alternate with it, be considered.
It is not uncommon to divide the grain fields, sowing wheat
on one portion, oats on another, and flax on a third. The effect
of all these crops on the land is practically the same and all

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