• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 First you need a management...
 Regenerating the forest
 Intermediate cultural treatments...
 Harvest cutting
 Intermediate cultural treatments...
 Forest protection
 Managing for multiple use
 Economics
 Marketing the forest crop
 Where to go for help
 Reference
 Glossary






Group Title: Management bulletin R8-MB 1
Title: Managing the family forest in the South
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053799/00001
 Material Information
Title: Managing the family forest in the South
Series Title: Management bulletin R8-MB
Physical Description: vii, 92 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Williston, Hamlin L
Balmer, William E
Tomczak, Don
United States -- Forest Service. -- Southern Region
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region
Place of Publication: Atlanta GA (1720 Peachtree Rd. N.W. Atlanta 30367)
Publication Date: 1998
Edition: Slightly rev. ed. Dec., 1998.
 Subjects
Subject: Forest management -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Woodlots -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 86-89).
Statement of Responsibility: by Hamlin L. Williston, William E. Balmer, Don Tomczak.
General Note: "Supersedes general report SA-GR 22, same title, September, 1982."
General Note: Shipping list no.: 99-0147-P.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Coastal Engineering Department series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053799
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002455342
oclc - 41237311
notis - AMG0663

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    First you need a management plan
        Page 2
        Management objectives
            Page 3
            Page 4
    Regenerating the forest
        Page 5
        Natural regeneration
            Page 5
        Management systems for naturally regenerating pine
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Seeding characteristics of southern pines
            Page 10
        Site preparation
            Page 11
            Logging
                Page 11
            Herbicides
                Page 11
            Prescribed burning
                Page 12
            Chopping, disking, and dozing
                Page 12
        Advantages and disadvantages of naturally regenerating pines
            Page 12
            Natural regeneration guide
                Page 13
                Page 14
        Planting the southern pines
            Page 15
            Five crucial phases
                Page 16
            What trees to plant - and where
                Page 16
            Seed source
                Page 16
            Insects and diseases
                Page 17
                Page 18
                Page 19
            Transporting, handling and storing seedlings
                Page 20
            Site preparation
                Page 21
            Planting methods
                Page 22
            Hand planting
                Page 23
            Planting time
                Page 23
                Page 24
            Spacing
                Page 25
            Machine planting
                Page 26
            Planting follow-up
                Page 27
        Direct seeding
            Page 27
            Advantages and disadvantages
                Page 28
            When to use direct seeding
                Page 29
            Species selection
                Page 29
            Seed handling and treatment
                Page 30
            Follow-up
                Page 30
        Regenerating hardwoods naturally
            Page 31
            Sources of regeneration
                Page 31
            Cutting methods
                Page 32
                Page 33
        Planting hardwoods
            Page 34
            Direct seeding
                Page 35
    Intermediate cultural treatments for pine
        Page 36
        Precommercial thinning
            Page 36
        Thinning
            Page 36
        Pine release cutting
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Improvement cutting
            Page 39
        Pruning
            Page 40
        Hardwood control techniques with herbicides
            Page 40
            Cut-surface treatments
                Page 41
                Page 42
            Directed foliar spray applications
                Page 43
            Basal applications
                Page 43
            Soil spot applications
                Page 44
                Page 45
                Page 46
    Harvest cutting
        Page 47
    Intermediate cultural treatments for hardwoods
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Forest protection
        Page 50
        Fire
            Page 50
        Insect and disease damage
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
    Managing for multiple use
        Page 56
        Wildlife habitat improvement
            Page 56
            Squirrels
                Page 56
            Quail
                Page 56
                Page 57
            Deer
                Page 58
            Turkeys
                Page 59
            Nongame birds
                Page 60
        Cattle grazing
            Page 61
        Watershed management in the forest
            Page 62
            Page 63
        Recreational opportunities
            Page 64
    Economics
        Page 65
        Financial considerations
            Page 65
            Page 66
        Tax considerations
            Page 67
            Recordkeeping
                Page 67
            Capital gains
                Page 68
            Reforestation tax incentives
                Page 68
            Casualty losses
                Page 68
            Cost-share programs
                Page 69
    Marketing the forest crop
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Where to go for help
        Page 85
    Reference
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Glossary
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
Full Text


United States
Department of
Agriculture
Forest Service
Southern Region


Managing /

the Family Forest

in the South


Management Bulletin R8-MB 1


Slightly Rev. December 1998













METRIC CONVERSIONS
1 inch ............................. 2.54 centimeters


1 foot ............... .

1 pound ...............

1 acre ............... .

1 board foot
(12 x 12 x 1 inch thick,
without bark, '/4-inch Inter-
national Scale) ..........


....... 30.48 centimeters

........... 453.59 grams

........... 0.4047 hectare





........... 0.00348 cubic meter


The use of trade, firm, or corporation names in this publi-
cation is for the information and convenience of the reader. Such
use does not constitute an official endorsement or approval by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture of any product or service to the
exclusion of others which may be suitable.




The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis
of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or
family status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative
means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA's
TARGET Center at 202-720-2600 (voice and TDD).
To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326-W, Whitten
Building, 14th and Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410, or call 202-720-5964 (voice or
TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.












Managing the Family Forest

in the South
By
Hamlin L. Williston, retired; formerly Softwood
Management Specialist
William E. Balmer, retired; formerly Forestation
Specialist
Don Tomczak, Forest Management Specialist




USDA Forest Service
Southern Region
1720 Peachtree Road, N.W.
Atlanta, GA 30367










This publication supersedes General
Report SA-GR 22, same title, September 1982.
Slightly revised edition. December, 1998.





TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Introduction ......................... ....... ..... 1

First You Need a Management Plan .................... 2

Management Objectives ................... .. 3

Regenerating the Forest ....................... . 5

Natural Regeneration ............................ 5

Management Systems for Naturally Regenerating Pine ... 6

Seeding Characteristics of Southern Pines .......... 10

Site Preparation ................... ... ........ 11
L ogging ..................... ........... 11
H erbicides ................ ................ 11
Prescribed Burning ............... ........ 12
Chopping, Disking, and Dozing ............... 12

Advantages and Disadvantages of
Naturally Regenerating Pine ...................... 12
Natural Regeneration Guide .................. 13

Planting the Southern Pines .................. 15
Five Crucial Phases ......................... 16
What Trees to Plant and Where ............ 16
Seed Source ............................... 16
Insects and Diseases ....................... 17
What is a Quality Seedling? .............. 19
Transporting, Handling and Storing Seedlings ... 20
Site Preparation ........... ................ 21
Planting Methods ........................... 22
Hand Planting ................. ......... 23






TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

Planting Time ............... ........... 23
Spacing .............. .................. 25
Machine Planting ........................... 26
Planting Follow-up ........................ 27

Direct Seeding ................................ 27
Advantages and Disadvantages ................ 28
When to Use Direct Seeding ....... ........... 29
Species Selection ........................... 29
Seed Handling and Treatment ................ .30
Follow-up ................. ............. 30

Regenerating Hardwoods Naturally ................ 31
Sources of Regeneration ..................... 31
Cutting M ethods ........................... 32

Planting Hardwoods .......................... 34
Direct Seeding ............... ........... 35

Intermediate Cultural Treatments for Pine ............... 36

Precommercial Thinning ................... ..... 36

Thinning .................................... 36

Pine Release Cutting ............................ 37

Improvement Cutting ............................ 39

Pruning ..................................... 40

Hardwood Control Techniques With Herbicides ...... 40

Cut-Surface Treatments ...................... 41







TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)



Directed Foliar Spray Applications ........


Basal Applications


Soil Spot Applications .............


Harvest Cutting .........................


Intermediate Cultural Treatments for Hardwoods


Forest Protection ........................


F ire . . .. . .. . . .. .


Insect and Disease Damage ..............


Managing for Multiple Use ..................


Wildlife Habitat Improvement ...........
Squirrels .........................
Quail .........................
Deer .......... ............
Turkeys ..........................
Nongame Birds ..................


Cattle Grazing .......................


Watershed Management in the Forest .....


Recreational Opportunities ..............


Economics


Financial Considerations


........ 44


......... 47


..... .... 48


........ 50


.......... 50


...... .... 5 1


.......... 56


.......... 56
.......... 56
.......... 56
.......... 58
.......... 59
.......... 60


...... .... 6 1


.......... 62


........ 64


.......... 65


.... 65


. ....... 43


.....................






TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Tax Considerations .............................. 67
Recordkeeping ......................... 67
Capital Gains .......................... 68
Reforestation Tax Incentives ............... 68
Casualty Losses ......................... 68
Cost-Share Programs ..................... 69

Marketing the Forest Crop ............................ 70

Where To Go For Help .............................. 85

References ...................................... 86

Glossary ........... ................... ......... 89






INTRODUCTION


Many of our forefathers came to this country because it
offered an opportunity to own land. This desire is still inherent
in many farmers and other private individuals who own 67 percent
of the 182,164,000 acres of commercial forest land in the South.
The practice of forestry on these holdings offers individuals some-
thing that can be both financially and spiritually rewarding and,
at the same time, contribute to the local and national economies.

Many small woodlands are on highly productive sites and
are close to good markets. However, the net annual growth on
these forested acres often fall far short of their potential growth
rate. This suggests that most landowners are not fully managing
their forest resources.

To some, forest management means only management for
timber production. However, in its broadest sense, forest manage-
ment means management of forested acres for the continuous
production of goods and services such as wood, water, wildlife,
forage, and recreation. Owners should assess their own objectives
so that their management plans will meet these objectives. The
following pages describe how to increase timber yields, improve
wildlife habitat, protect watersheds, obtain greater enjoyment from
owning land and, in certain circumstances, use the forest forage.
Sound forest management involves these steps:

Locate and mark property boundaries and covers. Get technical
advice, if needed

Develop a forest management plan with the help of a professional
forester

* Use your State's Best Management Practices' in all your
activities


'Contact your State forestry agency for a copy.






* Draw up, and follow, a schedule of forest practices

* Provide for fire protection

* Sell only marked or designated timber

* Get technical assistance when making timber sales

* Use a timber sales contract when selling timber or other forest
products

* Set aside part of your timber sale revenues to reinvest in
reforestation and other activities to keep your property productive.

* Take advantage of cost sharing assistance

* Supervise cultural operations

* Check the forest periodically for insect and disease problems

* Acquaint your whole family with the forest

* Keep good records on costs and returns

* Enjoy your ownership and the practice of good forest resource
management.

If you follow these steps faithfully a whole new world will
open up to you and your family. The following pages describe
sound forest management practices in detail.

FIRST YOU NEED A MANAGEMENT PLAN

What would you think of someone starting an automobile
trip in an unfamiliar area without a roadmap or with an unidentified
destination? Adventurous? Unwise? Forestland owners who operate
without a management plan are very much like such a person. A
well-prepared forest management plan serves as a roadmap (a






series of scheduled activities) showing how to reach some pre-
determined destination (your management objectives). A manage-
ment plan can save you money, increase your profits, and decrease
your taxes. Management plans don't need to be lengthy or complex.
They may be as simple as a page or two with a map, as shown by
the example in figure 1.


MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES

What you want from your property is considered your
management objectives. They are important and uniquely yours.
Do you desire your forest to produce optimum levels of wildlife
populations? What levels of scenic qualities do you wish to
maintain? Are you interested in receiving sustained periodic income
from the property? From what sources? Leases? Timber sales?
Perhaps you prefer a combination of two or more objectives to
diversify the benefits you receive. Once you select your management
objectivess, it becomes your destination or target toward which
future management activities are planned.

Management objectives should be compatible with the potential
of the sites and property you own. For example, managing for
optimum bobwhite quail habitat in hardwood forest isn't
recommended. Neither would management for gray squirrel on
properties with few hardwoods.

If you are interested in maximizing and sustaining forest
income from future timber sales, follow these basic principles:

1. Build up the total volume of your timber growing stock to the
property's potential by cutting only a part of the annual or
periodic growth. Allow the uncut growth to accumulate as
"principal in the bank." Once the total timber volume on the
property has reached its optimum level, then harvest cuts should
begin to equal annual or periodic growth.

2. Consider the growth potential of each stand. Sometimes an
understocked stand can be rehabilitated by "growing itself" into





A Forest Management Plan


Prepared
For:


(cJWat /ylA4Lt


Stand Forest Type Treatment Treatment Treatment Treatment Treatment
# Acres Current Preferred Year Year Year Year Year Remarks
/ 5 0 L-P PL/ 12.qq Po-F/,1 7l o 7 o4/27o
z g OP OP 7t/q4 -l /iqo Zolo
3 // LP L-P T/ 4q3 T42llo10 PlzoS- ec/C-Zo2 2 q PL 207___2,
/L /0 LP LP T7 /l1q3 T4 ,So 7T/42o0 -
S 3 YVL VVL-
Ss- is i-s ,c _
7 /2- OP LP P&//,92 STlJ/ q3 RST//le FC0 712dlo_ _.

9 S OP OP 74 / 93 -iJ- /qqs w1/ o -
/ If LP I 277- 5 I!93 'T/70/0 RSZ/2/3 PT l/o/lr &

Management O0jectIves -/- Prepared By:




Forest Codes Treatment Codes
7 6 T/ L.- -
V^-'L'OPSTf. Sr-




____ __ '4P
"0 F4:7 ruc~


Fi ure 1.- Exam-le of custom-made forest mana ement Plan






full stocking more quickly and economically than starting over
with new reproduction.

3. If regeneration treatments are necessary, concentrate first on
your most poorly stocked stands. Also, getting your most fertile
sites productive should take priority over the less fertile sites.

4. Control spacing by initial planting density or thinning so your
best trees reach the most valuable product sizes in the shortest
period of time.


REGENERATING THE FOREST

The best time to plan on regenerating a stand of trees is before
harvest. Unfortunately, many acres of forest land harvested in the
South are not regenerated adequately by natural means, by planting,
or by seeding. The end result is usually a tract of land with little or
no reproduction of desirable species. "Accidental" forestry seldom
pays good dividends.

Before harvest, you should decide on the species desired, the
methods of regeneration and the timing of treatments to fully reforest
the land.

Two regeneration alternatives are open to landowners. The
first alternative is to manage for natural regeneration through planned
cultural practices. Secondly, you may wish to harvest completely,
and follow up with planting or seeding to establish the new forest.

NATURAL REGENERATION

Natural regeneration involves more than simply letting nature
take its course. Forests must be carefully managed for effective
natural regeneration. If this is not done, the time lag between harvest
and the establishment of a new crop of trees could mean economic
suicide. Excessive numbers of seedlings could require expensive
precommercial thinning, wiping out any savings in planting cost. A






full stocking more quickly and economically than starting over
with new reproduction.

3. If regeneration treatments are necessary, concentrate first on
your most poorly stocked stands. Also, getting your most fertile
sites productive should take priority over the less fertile sites.

4. Control spacing by initial planting density or thinning so your
best trees reach the most valuable product sizes in the shortest
period of time.


REGENERATING THE FOREST

The best time to plan on regenerating a stand of trees is before
harvest. Unfortunately, many acres of forest land harvested in the
South are not regenerated adequately by natural means, by planting,
or by seeding. The end result is usually a tract of land with little or
no reproduction of desirable species. "Accidental" forestry seldom
pays good dividends.

Before harvest, you should decide on the species desired, the
methods of regeneration and the timing of treatments to fully reforest
the land.

Two regeneration alternatives are open to landowners. The
first alternative is to manage for natural regeneration through planned
cultural practices. Secondly, you may wish to harvest completely,
and follow up with planting or seeding to establish the new forest.

NATURAL REGENERATION

Natural regeneration involves more than simply letting nature
take its course. Forests must be carefully managed for effective
natural regeneration. If this is not done, the time lag between harvest
and the establishment of a new crop of trees could mean economic
suicide. Excessive numbers of seedlings could require expensive
precommercial thinning, wiping out any savings in planting cost. A






scarcity of new tree seedlings could under-utilize the planting site,
robbing the owner of potential returns from the land. Effective
natural reforestation is seldom free; it does not "just happen."

MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR
NATURALLY REGENERATING PINE

If you decide to use natural regeneration for pines, a variety of
uneven-aged and even-aged management systems are open to you.
After removing most of the poor quality trees in your stand,
you may still have a good stocking of vigorously growing pine over
much of the acreage. Therefore, you may want to manage for an
uneven-aged forest. Do this by periodically harvesting groups of
trees, creating openings for natural regeneration. The result, in
time, is a mosaic of groups or small stands of different aged trees.
If you want to use even-aged management (all trees in a given
area are regenerated at the same time), at least five methods are
available:
1. Seed tree is the most frequently used natural regeneration method
in even-aged management. The number of seed trees left depends
upon size, species, cone-bearing characteristics, and site condi-
tions. See figure 2. The recommended number of well-distributed
seed trees for five species of pines is given in table 1.
2. Clearcutting in. strips enables you to make periodic harvest
cuts while managing even-aged units. The clearcut strips may
be of any length, but preferably about 200 feet wide. Strips
should be perpendicular to the direction of prevailing winds to
ensure good seed dispersal. See figure 3.
3. Shelterwood entails leaving many seed trees. Usually, about 25
to 40 square feet of basal area are left per acre, depending upon
the species. This is the equivalent of 23 to 37 14-inch trees
(diameter at 4.5 feet) per acre. See figure 4.
4. Seed-in-place involves clearcutting the stand after the peak of
seed fall, but before the start of germination. This method is
best applied during a 4- to 5-month winter logging period. As
with the seedlings-in-place method (described below) this tech-
nique can be used only when an ample crop of seed is available.
See figure 5.


































Figure 2. Seed trees.


Table 1. Minimum recommended number of seed trees, for
pine species.


D.B.H.' Shortleaf Loblolly Slash Longleaf2 Virginia

9 6

10 20 12 12 55 5

12 14 9 9 38 4

14 12 6 6 28 4

16+ 12 4 4 21 4

'Diameter of trunk in inches at breast height (4V2 feet above ground).
2Shelterwood 30 square feet basal area.


At



















I I' -


Figure 3. Clearcutting in strips.


WV ~


#0
-4


Figure 4. Shelterwood.


1


n






5. Seedlings-in-place involves clearcutting a stand during the
summer following a good seed year. See figure 6. Using this
method, you will lose some height growth when compared to
the seed-in-place method because seedlings spend most of the
first growing season in the shade of the overwood. However,
the loss in height growth may be offset by additional volume
growth of harvested trees. With the seedlings-in-place technique,
you can be more certain of having a satisfactory actual number
of seedlings following germination of the fallen seed.


-~ f /

L~~I7 ~e


.j~nimrg


Figure 5. Seed-in-place.


Figure 6. Seedling in place.


L~id~~


7774 *--


~







SEEDING CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUTHERN PINES

Seeding characteristics of the southern pine species vary with
the area, species, weather conditions, and other factors. The land-
owner, with the guidance of a professional forester, must estimate
the best time to catch and utilize a seedfall. Here are a few points to
consider:
1. Loblolly, Virginia and shortleaf pines are the most dependable
seed producers. Trees that have an adequate growing space
usually will produce an adequate seed crop at least every 2 or 3
years. Cones of the major species of southern pines are shown in
figure 7. The number of seed trees needed for a good crop of
seed from pines is shown in table 1.
2. Longleaf pine is not a prolific seed producer. Its large seeds
appeal to a host of predators, including squirrels, birds, and
mice. A carefully selected stand, 30 or more years of age, with a
density of about 30 square feet of basal area per acre, produces
usable crops at about 3-year intervals on average sites.
3. Slash pine seeds are generally produced on 3-year cycles,
although some are borne almost every year.








Slash pine
Loblolly pine White pine








Virginia pine Longleaf pine Shortleaf pine

Figure 7. Cones of each of six species of pine.






SAbout 50,000 seeds per acre is the minimum needed to
restock a prepared seedbed.
SWhen selecting seed trees, remember that pine pollen is not carried in
effective quantities farther than 300 feet.
SThe range of longleaf seed flight is only one and one-half times the tree height.
Effective dispersal by wind of loblolly and shortleaf pine seed is about 200
feet.
SReleasing seed trees from competition usually stimulates a substantial increase
in seed production by the third year following release.

SITE PREPARATION

Site preparation is generally desirable for natural regeneration. Longleaf
id slash pines in particular require a seedbed of exposed mineral soil to achieve a
atisfactory restocking of seedlings. The types or combinations of site preparation
eeded depend upon the expected seed crop and the species of pine. An important
oint to remember is that most natural pine regeneration in the South has resulted
n too much stocking, not too little.

Logging

In some cases, soil disturbance occurring during the logging operation is
efficient to provide a good seedbed.

Herbicides

If hardwood competition is moderate, aerial or ground application of
erbicides can be done within 1 to 3 years after logging. Assuming only one
treatment for release from hardwood competition is needed, the cost should run
bout $15 to $25 per acre for the chemical. Herbicides reduce development of
competing vegetation, allowing pine regeneration to become established within 2
o 3 years, without severe competition. If necessary, treatments may be repeated 3
o 4 years after pine seedlings are established, to keep hardwood competition in
heck.






SAbout 50,000 seeds per acre is the minimum needed to
restock a prepared seedbed.
SWhen selecting seed trees, remember that pine pollen is not carried in
effective quantities farther than 300 feet.
SThe range of longleaf seed flight is only one and one-half times the tree height.
Effective dispersal by wind of loblolly and shortleaf pine seed is about 200
feet.
SReleasing seed trees from competition usually stimulates a substantial increase
in seed production by the third year following release.

SITE PREPARATION

Site preparation is generally desirable for natural regeneration. Longleaf
id slash pines in particular require a seedbed of exposed mineral soil to achieve a
atisfactory restocking of seedlings. The types or combinations of site preparation
eeded depend upon the expected seed crop and the species of pine. An important
oint to remember is that most natural pine regeneration in the South has resulted
n too much stocking, not too little.

Logging

In some cases, soil disturbance occurring during the logging operation is
efficient to provide a good seedbed.

Herbicides

If hardwood competition is moderate, aerial or ground application of
erbicides can be done within 1 to 3 years after logging. Assuming only one
treatment for release from hardwood competition is needed, the cost should run
bout $15 to $25 per acre for the chemical. Herbicides reduce development of
competing vegetation, allowing pine regeneration to become established within 2
o 3 years, without severe competition. If necessary, treatments may be repeated 3
o 4 years after pine seedlings are established, to keep hardwood competition in
heck.






SAbout 50,000 seeds per acre is the minimum needed to
restock a prepared seedbed.
SWhen selecting seed trees, remember that pine pollen is not carried in
effective quantities farther than 300 feet.
SThe range of longleaf seed flight is only one and one-half times the tree height.
Effective dispersal by wind of loblolly and shortleaf pine seed is about 200
feet.
SReleasing seed trees from competition usually stimulates a substantial increase
in seed production by the third year following release.

SITE PREPARATION

Site preparation is generally desirable for natural regeneration. Longleaf
id slash pines in particular require a seedbed of exposed mineral soil to achieve a
atisfactory restocking of seedlings. The types or combinations of site preparation
eeded depend upon the expected seed crop and the species of pine. An important
oint to remember is that most natural pine regeneration in the South has resulted
n too much stocking, not too little.

Logging

In some cases, soil disturbance occurring during the logging operation is
efficient to provide a good seedbed.

Herbicides

If hardwood competition is moderate, aerial or ground application of
erbicides can be done within 1 to 3 years after logging. Assuming only one
treatment for release from hardwood competition is needed, the cost should run
bout $15 to $25 per acre for the chemical. Herbicides reduce development of
competing vegetation, allowing pine regeneration to become established within 2
o 3 years, without severe competition. If necessary, treatments may be repeated 3
o 4 years after pine seedlings are established, to keep hardwood competition in
heck.






Prescribed Burning


Two or more annual bums before harvest provide good seedbed
conditions and a high degree of hardwood control. A single bur
following harvest has the same result, but there is always the danger
of burning up the seed trees if logging slash (broken limbs and other
debris left after harvest) is unusually heavy. To minimize seed tree
damage, remove all slash near seed trees. The after-harvest bur
should be carried out no sooner than 2 months before seedfall. The
area should be checked before burning, to be sure that adequate
seed or seedlings are not already present.
Prescribed burning is a good tool for site preparation and at the
same time, improves wildlife habitat. Burning sets back woody
plants, making new sprout growth available for deer. Burning also
stimulates seed germination and growth of valuable herbaceous
plants, making their seed more available to birds by removing litter
accumulation.

Chopping, Disking and Dozing

Limit the use of heavy machinery to the more difficult sites -
those with extensive hardwood or other plant competition, to sites
with a dearth of seed trees, or those that are extremely dry or
sites with hard-to-regenerate species. If precautions are not used,
too dense a stocking may result. In dozing, a shearing blade is
preferable; unless skillfully used the straight blade or root rake
removes too much topsoil, reducing site quality. Chopping, com-
bined with a herbicide and/or burning, generally will suffice.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF
NATURALLY REGENERATING PINE

When compared to clearcutting and planting, natural regenera-
tion has numerous advantages and disadvantages. The advantages
include:
Lower establishment cost
Less labor and heavy equipment required






Prescribed Burning


Two or more annual bums before harvest provide good seedbed
conditions and a high degree of hardwood control. A single bur
following harvest has the same result, but there is always the danger
of burning up the seed trees if logging slash (broken limbs and other
debris left after harvest) is unusually heavy. To minimize seed tree
damage, remove all slash near seed trees. The after-harvest bur
should be carried out no sooner than 2 months before seedfall. The
area should be checked before burning, to be sure that adequate
seed or seedlings are not already present.
Prescribed burning is a good tool for site preparation and at the
same time, improves wildlife habitat. Burning sets back woody
plants, making new sprout growth available for deer. Burning also
stimulates seed germination and growth of valuable herbaceous
plants, making their seed more available to birds by removing litter
accumulation.

Chopping, Disking and Dozing

Limit the use of heavy machinery to the more difficult sites -
those with extensive hardwood or other plant competition, to sites
with a dearth of seed trees, or those that are extremely dry or
sites with hard-to-regenerate species. If precautions are not used,
too dense a stocking may result. In dozing, a shearing blade is
preferable; unless skillfully used the straight blade or root rake
removes too much topsoil, reducing site quality. Chopping, com-
bined with a herbicide and/or burning, generally will suffice.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF
NATURALLY REGENERATING PINE

When compared to clearcutting and planting, natural regenera-
tion has numerous advantages and disadvantages. The advantages
include:
Lower establishment cost
Less labor and heavy equipment required






Prescribed Burning


Two or more annual bums before harvest provide good seedbed
conditions and a high degree of hardwood control. A single bur
following harvest has the same result, but there is always the danger
of burning up the seed trees if logging slash (broken limbs and other
debris left after harvest) is unusually heavy. To minimize seed tree
damage, remove all slash near seed trees. The after-harvest bur
should be carried out no sooner than 2 months before seedfall. The
area should be checked before burning, to be sure that adequate
seed or seedlings are not already present.
Prescribed burning is a good tool for site preparation and at the
same time, improves wildlife habitat. Burning sets back woody
plants, making new sprout growth available for deer. Burning also
stimulates seed germination and growth of valuable herbaceous
plants, making their seed more available to birds by removing litter
accumulation.

Chopping, Disking and Dozing

Limit the use of heavy machinery to the more difficult sites -
those with extensive hardwood or other plant competition, to sites
with a dearth of seed trees, or those that are extremely dry or
sites with hard-to-regenerate species. If precautions are not used,
too dense a stocking may result. In dozing, a shearing blade is
preferable; unless skillfully used the straight blade or root rake
removes too much topsoil, reducing site quality. Chopping, com-
bined with a herbicide and/or burning, generally will suffice.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF
NATURALLY REGENERATING PINE

When compared to clearcutting and planting, natural regenera-
tion has numerous advantages and disadvantages. The advantages
include:
Lower establishment cost
Less labor and heavy equipment required






* No problem with geographical origin of seed
* Reduced tip moth damage
* Better early root system developed by natural seedlings
* Selection management more practical with this system
* Less immediate visual impact
* Less soil movement

The disadvantages include:
* Less control over spacing and initial stocking
* Longer rotations needed
* Risk of seed tree loss
* Generally lower yields
* No use of genetically improved or disease resistant stock
* Loss of a year or more of growth because of failure to regenerate
promptly
Need for precommercial thinning in many stands to obtain good
growth
Limited use in pulpwood rotations because of low seed production
from dense, young stands
Irregular stands are not well suited for mechanical harvesting
Poor access for fire equipment


Natural Regeneration Guide1
Situation Species What to do

Well-stocked stand. Loblolly, shortleaf Starting at leeward
to be managed and slash pine side clear-cut strips
in even-aged units, about 200 feet wide.

'Intended only as a quick checklist. In many cases, you have more than one alternative;
decisions must be made based on the individual site and the owner's preferences.






Natural Regeneration Guide', continued
Situation Species What to do
while making period- Burn strips after
ic cuts. the fuel is cured and
before next seedfall.

Well-stocked stand, Loblolly, shortleaf Use seed trees.
to be managed in and slash pine
even-aged units.
Periodic cuts not For loblolly, seed-
required in the in-place and seed-
immediate future ling-in-place also
can be used.

Well-stocked stand; Loblolly and Harvest groups of
owner wants to shortleaf pine trees periodically
manage forest as to create openings
all-aged units for regeneration.
while making per- May be able to pre-
iodic cuts. scribe burn for
seedbed site prepar-
ation in some cases.
Treat hardwood brush
or inject unwanted
trees, as needed, with
herbicide to free
young pine from
competition.

Mature, slow-growing, Loblolly and Cut back to seed
or sparse pine shortleaf pine trees. Burn before
stands. seedfall in a good
year. Remove seed
trees when the
young pines are 1-
to 3-years old.






Natural Regeneration Guide1, continued

Situation Species What to do

Understocked or Longleaf pine Cut back to shelter-
mature stand, wood of 30 square
feet of basal area
per acre. Remove
when seedlings are
established.

Stands of seed- Virginia pine2 Use even-aged
bearing size. management only.
Clearcut in alter-
nate or progressive
strips using seed
trees for final strip.

Scattered sawlog All pine species. Chop and burn when
pine. Heavy under- debris is dry, or
story of hardwood spray with herbi-
brush. cides in May or
June. Burn in
late August or early
September.
2Grow Virginia pine only for short rotations because of its limbiness and susceptibility
to heart rot. Avoid thinning it because of potential wind and ice damage. Under some con-
ditions, light thinnings starting at an early age may be used to develop a sawtimber stand.
If large products are desired and the site is good, consider conversion to other species.


PLANTING THE SOUTHERN PINES

Most of the successful regeneration of southern pine is accom-
plished by planting seedlings. Planting, however, is not without it's
pitfalls. Success depends on these steps: Combine the right species
with. the right site to achieve the best growth and survival; plant at
the right time; follow time-proven steps throughout the planting
process. Following recognized guidelines is important to the land
manager, professional forester, vendor, or any landowner who plans
to invest in tree planting.






Five Crucial Phases


1. Obtain professional advice for local conditions.

2. Choose the right species and the best adapted geographical seed
source.

3. Plant quality seedlings.

4. Protect seedlings from excessive heat and loss of moisture, from
the time you get them from the nursery through all steps in
planting.

5. Plant trees in the proper manner.

These are five crucial links in the tree-planting chain. Ignore
any one of these links and you will unnecessarily risk your invest-
ment.

What Trees to Plant And Where

The next decision is to select the tree species. Your choice will
depend to some extent upon the soil and location of the planting
site. Remember, the biggest mistake made in tree planting has been
to plant the wrong species on the site to be regenerated. See figure 8
for general guidelines for planting pines.

Seed Source

After choosing the species, the seed source must be considered.
If the wrong seed source is used, profits may be reduced or disappear
because of poor survival or slow growth of the seedlings. Seedlings
bought in one State may or may not grow successfully in
another State. Before considering such a step, check a seed source
guide.
Select the species best suited for the site, to produce the desired
products) within an acceptable rotation length. Remember, if
Virginia pine or sand.pine are planted, pulpwood will likely be the
principal product.






Five Crucial Phases


1. Obtain professional advice for local conditions.

2. Choose the right species and the best adapted geographical seed
source.

3. Plant quality seedlings.

4. Protect seedlings from excessive heat and loss of moisture, from
the time you get them from the nursery through all steps in
planting.

5. Plant trees in the proper manner.

These are five crucial links in the tree-planting chain. Ignore
any one of these links and you will unnecessarily risk your invest-
ment.

What Trees to Plant And Where

The next decision is to select the tree species. Your choice will
depend to some extent upon the soil and location of the planting
site. Remember, the biggest mistake made in tree planting has been
to plant the wrong species on the site to be regenerated. See figure 8
for general guidelines for planting pines.

Seed Source

After choosing the species, the seed source must be considered.
If the wrong seed source is used, profits may be reduced or disappear
because of poor survival or slow growth of the seedlings. Seedlings
bought in one State may or may not grow successfully in
another State. Before considering such a step, check a seed source
guide.
Select the species best suited for the site, to produce the desired
products) within an acceptable rotation length. Remember, if
Virginia pine or sand.pine are planted, pulpwood will likely be the
principal product.






Five Crucial Phases


1. Obtain professional advice for local conditions.

2. Choose the right species and the best adapted geographical seed
source.

3. Plant quality seedlings.

4. Protect seedlings from excessive heat and loss of moisture, from
the time you get them from the nursery through all steps in
planting.

5. Plant trees in the proper manner.

These are five crucial links in the tree-planting chain. Ignore
any one of these links and you will unnecessarily risk your invest-
ment.

What Trees to Plant And Where

The next decision is to select the tree species. Your choice will
depend to some extent upon the soil and location of the planting
site. Remember, the biggest mistake made in tree planting has been
to plant the wrong species on the site to be regenerated. See figure 8
for general guidelines for planting pines.

Seed Source

After choosing the species, the seed source must be considered.
If the wrong seed source is used, profits may be reduced or disappear
because of poor survival or slow growth of the seedlings. Seedlings
bought in one State may or may not grow successfully in
another State. Before considering such a step, check a seed source
guide.
Select the species best suited for the site, to produce the desired
products) within an acceptable rotation length. Remember, if
Virginia pine or sand.pine are planted, pulpwood will likely be the
principal product.



























Figure 8. Species-site guide for planting southern pines.

Genetically improved seedlings are being produced in steadily
increasing numbers; consider their use when possible.
Improved seedlings can be expected to increase yields, as well
as improve the quality of the wood and resistance to disease.

Insects and Diseases

Fusiform Rust. This is the most important disease of
loblolly and slash pines. In areas where fusiform rust is a problem,
consider planting rust resistant stock. You may also choose species
least susceptible to rust, such as longleaf, shortleaf, Virginia and
white pine. Cultivation and fertilization increase growth in slash
and loblolly pines, but also increase their susceptibility to fusiform
rust.
Littleleaf Disease. This is a major problem with shortleaf
pine and, to a lesser extent, loblolly pine in Alabama, the Piedmont
of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia, as well as
parts of Mississippi and Kentucky. See figure 9. Until disease-









LEGEND
SSevere Littleleoaf

Scattered Littlel

_ Commercial Ran(
Shortleaf Pine E(


Figure 9. Areas where littleleaf disease of pines are most
likely to be a problem.

resistant planting stock is available, favor loblolly pine in areas
where littleleaf disease is a problem.
Annosus Root Rot. This disease kills many trees in thinned
stands, in some areas. High-hazard sites are those with 12 inches or
more of sand over heavy clay. Low-hazard sites have poor internal
soil drainage, high seasonal water tables, or a depth to clay less
than 12 inches. The disease is more common and severe on old-
field sites. Preventive measures on high-hazard sites include planting
at a spacing wider than 8 by 8 feet to reduce frequency of thinning;
sprinkling powdered borax on fresh stump surfaces; and, in locations
south of 34 degrees north latitude3, thin your stands during the
hottest months (May through August) except when bark beetles are
a potential problem.
Brown Spot Disease. This can be a major problem with
longleaf pine, particularly in areas from southwestern Alabama to

3Includes most parts of the Gulf States, Georgia, South Carolina, lower part of Arkan-
sas, and southeastern North Carolina.






the western tip of the longleaf range in Texas. A prescribed fire is a
good way to control brown spot in plantations if infections are
heavy. The systemic fungicide, benomyl, can be used as a seedling
root treatment to control brown spot in field plantings. Brown spot
resistant strains of longleaf pine are being developed and should
soon be available.
Southern Pine Beetle. This insect has killed many pines
throughout much of the South. The beetle attacks primarily loblolly
and shortleaf pine stands that are under stress from drought, over-
stocking, poor drainage, disease, storm damage, or logging damage.
Good stand management offers the cheapest, most practical, and
longest lasting means of control, especially where beetle epidemics
occur frequently. Recommended preventive measures include
matching site and planting stock; thinning overstocked stands;
promptly salvaging lightning-struck, diseased or damaged pines.
Take care in the use of equipment in forests, including road
construction; and when harvesting all mature trees.
Pales Weevil This is the worst insect pest of pine seedlings
on recently cutover pine lands. In problem areas, apply an insecticide
if suitable chemicals are registered for this use in your State (check
with your State forestry agency for current information). Otherwise,
delay planting for one season following harvest cutting. If the
southern pine beetle is a problem in your area, consider planting
slash pines rather than loblolly, within the natural slash pine range.

Optimum characteristics of southern pine seedlings
Characteristics Loblolly and
Longleaf slash Shortleaf
Stem length (inches) 10 8
Root collar diameter 9/16 7/32 3/16
(inches)
Tap root length (inches) 6 6 6
Laterals (number) < 5+ first--
order laterals
Winter buds Present Present Present
Nature of stem Stiff, woody, Stiff, woody,
with bark with bark
Mycorrhizae Present Abundant Abundant
Shoot/root ratio
(volume) 1:1 2 1/2:1 2 1/2:1
Lantz (1985).






Transporting, Handling and Storing Seedlings

Once a quality seedling is produced at the nursery, only half
the battle is won. From the time a seedling is lifted from the nursery
bed until it is safely planted in the field, the greatest danger to its
life is too much root exposure to the sun, wind, or just dry air. Do
not expose roots to the sun or wind for more than 10 minutes.
Avoid hauling seedlings for long distances in open trucks,
particularly in warm weather, to prevent overheating and drying.
Freezing can also kill seedlings. Heavy damage can result if seedlings
are separated while they are frozen. If time is a factor, immerse
frozen bales in cool water before separating the seedlings.
After receiving seedlings from the nursery, immediate planting
is not always possible, so some method of storage must be planned.
Whatever the method used, stickers (1 by 2 inch or wider boards)
must be placed between stacked packages to allow air to circulate
and prevent heating.
Cold storage is the best method. Dormant seedlings can be
held at temperatures from 32' to 400F, for as long as 10 weeks if
packed in standard Forest Service bales, and 12 weeks if in kraft-
polyethelene (k-p) bags. Plant non-dormant stock first.
If cold storage facilities are not available, seedlings may be
stored in a warehouse or on shaded racks, but the seedlings will
need special attention. If seedlings are packed in standard Forest
Service bales with wet media, watered upon receipt and bi-weekly
thereafter, they can be stored up to 8 weeks. At the same time, they
must be protected from heat and subfreezing temperatures. If
seedlings are packed with a clay slurry dip, no watering is needed.
If packed in k-p bags, seedlings can be stored up to 8 weeks,
provided they are encased in wet packing or a clay slurry dip.
Otherwise, 4 weeks is the maximum storage time. K-P bags should
not be watered.
Plant sand pine seedlings within 1 week after they arrive from
the nursery. Bales or packages of sand pine seedlings should not be
stacked in storage.






Site Preparation


In some cases, it pays to reduce or eliminate competing
vegetation before planting. Weigh the initial costs of treatment
against future returns. Too intensive a treatment may be uneconomi-
cal, even though an increased volume results. Too intensive a
treatment may actually decrease site productivity. On drought
soils with limited organic material, intensive site preparation may
increase survival at the cost of later growth. Ideally, site preparation
reduces competition without removing or destroying top soil and
organic matter.
Disking and furrowing are most successful where heavy sod is
present. When performing these operations:
1. Do not plant in furrows where the water table is close to the
surface. Water standing in the furrows or very close to the
surface inhibits root growth and may kill the seedlings.
2. Do not furrow light sandy soils. Survival usually is improved
but, because top soil is removed, long-term growth may lag.
3. Always install furrows on contours to reduce erosion. For the
same reason, avoid disking slopes of 10 percent or more.
In light sod, disking and furrowing are not usually needed. A
scalper on the tree planter removes grass competition and clears
trash from its path in one operation.
A rolling drum chopper can effectively reduce woody compe-
tition with minimal soil disturbance. Large choppers are usually
more effective than small ones; two choppers in tandem are more
effective than one. If trees are scattered or too large to chop, treat
them by other methods.
Shearing or KG blading is often the best way to remove large
numbers of stems that are too large to disk or drum chop. With
care, little soil is disturbed and most debris that would hinder
planting is removed. If debris is piled in windows, allow frequent
breaks for access by planting equipment and firefighting equipment.
Large piles and windows of debris deteriorate slowly. They also
occupy more planting site and result in greater loss of top soil
through pushing of material farther across the ground. Keep the
aisles and windows as narrow as possible. Hand planting usually
eliminates the need to window or pile debris.






Rootraking and bulldozing can also be used to remove trees
and shrubs. Disadvantages of these techniques include excessive
soil disturbance, and considerable topsoil often ends up in the
windows.
Apply chemicals for individual stem treatment or on larger
areas. No soil is disturbed and litter is not destroyed. When chemicals
are used alone, machine planting is not practical unless hardwoods
are very small.
Individual tree release is best suited to smaller tracts in areas
of abundant labor. Release is usually accomplished immediately
after planting, by injecting a herbicide or by felling competing
trees, with herbicide applied to the stumps.
Foliar use of herbicides by equipment on the ground or aircraft
is usually the cheapest and fastest method of hardwood control.
However, use these methods only when there is no hazard from
drift. Be sure to contact your State forestry agency for the latest
information on herbicide usage.
Prescribed fire is a valuable supplement to some forms of
mechanical or chemical control of competing vegetation. Other
benefits are improved access and visibility, which increase efficiency
and safety of planting operations. Drum chopping and fire, used in
combination, is one of the most effective and least destructive
methods of intensive site preparation. Some drawbacks of prescribed
fire are: local or State laws on smoke management may prevent
burning during part of or all of the year, or on sites with minimal
litter present; fires may be erratic when used alone; fire will seldom
provide lasting benefits; andfire must be used skillfully for safe and
effective results.
Caution: When conducting any practice that disturbs the soil,
leave undisturbed strips along streambanks to filter out sediment.
Strips should be 25 feet wide plus an additional 2 feet for each
1-percent increase in slope.

Planting Methods

There are two options: to plant by hand or with machines. If
the site is a vast, open expanse, machine planting is by far the more
economical method, enabling the same crew to plant four to five






times more trees per day than in limited areas. Hand planting is
more efficient on small areas, where the terrain is very rough, or
where numerous stumps, debris or large diameter hardwoods impede
the use of machines. See figure 10.

Hand Planting

Three tools are essential to the hand planter: (1) a dibble or
planting bar; (2) planting bag for carrying seedlings; and (3) wire
cutters, if seedlings are bound with steel straps. Figure 10 shows
the procedures for hand planting:

1. Insert the dibble at an angle to the depth of the blade. Push the
dibble forward to open the hole (don't compact the soil by
rocking the dibble back and forth).

2. Remove the dibble and insert a seedling deeply in the hole, then
withdraw the seedling until its root collar is at, or slightly below,
the ground level and the roots are straight.

3. To hold the seedling in place, insert the dibble part way into the
ground 2 inches behind the hole, then push and twist the dibble
forward, closing the top of the planting slit.

4. Push the dibble straight down to the depth of the blade.

5. Rock the dibble backward and forward to pack the soil firmly
against the root.

6. Fill in the last hole by firming it with your heel.

Planting Time

For conventional bare root seedlings, the most favorable time
to plant is during the dormant season. (The season can be extended
from 2 to 4 weeks by placing dormant seedlings in cold storage.)
Avoid planting when the ground is hard either frozen or dry -
or when too wet or sticky. Planting when the soil is in poor condition






times more trees per day than in limited areas. Hand planting is
more efficient on small areas, where the terrain is very rough, or
where numerous stumps, debris or large diameter hardwoods impede
the use of machines. See figure 10.

Hand Planting

Three tools are essential to the hand planter: (1) a dibble or
planting bar; (2) planting bag for carrying seedlings; and (3) wire
cutters, if seedlings are bound with steel straps. Figure 10 shows
the procedures for hand planting:

1. Insert the dibble at an angle to the depth of the blade. Push the
dibble forward to open the hole (don't compact the soil by
rocking the dibble back and forth).

2. Remove the dibble and insert a seedling deeply in the hole, then
withdraw the seedling until its root collar is at, or slightly below,
the ground level and the roots are straight.

3. To hold the seedling in place, insert the dibble part way into the
ground 2 inches behind the hole, then push and twist the dibble
forward, closing the top of the planting slit.

4. Push the dibble straight down to the depth of the blade.

5. Rock the dibble backward and forward to pack the soil firmly
against the root.

6. Fill in the last hole by firming it with your heel.

Planting Time

For conventional bare root seedlings, the most favorable time
to plant is during the dormant season. (The season can be extended
from 2 to 4 weeks by placing dormant seedlings in cold storage.)
Avoid planting when the ground is hard either frozen or dry -
or when too wet or sticky. Planting when the soil is in poor condition
















I Insert dibble at
angle shown and push
forward to upright
position.


2. Remove dibble and
place seedling at
correct depth.
I I
'I







3. Insert dibble part
way, push and twist
forward closing top
of planting slit.


4 Push dibble straight
down to depth of
blade.


5. Rock dibble back
and forth to pack
soil firmly against
root.


6. Fill in last hole by
stamping with heel.


Figure 10. Guide for planting southern pines.






results in low survival, poor planting production, misplanted seed-
lings, and poor growth.

Spacing

Before ordering seedlings, decide what spacing to use. No
standard spacing can be recommended because of differences in
site quality, local survival pattern, products desired, or other factors.
For most situations in the South, spacings of 7 by 9, 7 by 10, 8 by 8
and 8 by 9 feet (600 to 700 trees per acre) have many advantages
over closer spacings because they:

Are much cheaper (about half as many trees are needed with 8 by
9 foot spacing as with 6 by 6 foot spacing, for example).

Produce about the same volume of wood in 20 years on fewer
trees, increasing the end value.

* Enable you to delay a decision on the product objective -
pulpwood and/or sawtimber without a large financial penalty.
You can therefore hedge against market changes during the 15 or
20 years after planting.

At the same time, the advantages just described must be
balanced against those of closer spacing which:

* Produce a greater volume of wood in the first 20 years.

* Provide more insurance against poor survival caused by poor site
quality and losses from insects and diseases.

* Provide an opportunity for an early return from thinning.

* Produce a higher quality tree.

* Make better use of good sites.






One precaution: With any spacing, some rows should be spaced
10 to 12 feet apart at regular intervals to provide access for fire-
fighting and harvesting equipment.

Wider spacings may be desirable when you want to grow
larger products as fast as possible, or to grow slash or longleaf
pines for naval stores.

Machine Planting

Specific planting machines are not recommended because
conditions vary throughout the South. Fortunately, a variety of
good machines are available; one or more of them will be particularly
suited to your area. See figure 11.


' CX


Figure 11. Machine planting.






Protecting seedlings from drying out during machine planting
is just as important as it is when planting by hand. Keep the seedlings
covered and the roots moist.
As in hand planting, check frequently to assure that the
seedlings are being planted properly. Key points include: (1) proper
depth of the trench; (2) correct tracking of the packing wheels; and
(3) proper closure of the trench by the packing wheels. Check root
placement by opening one side of the trench with a shovel to expose
the seedling in place.

Planting Followup

To check survival, randomly select some planting areas to be
sampled. In March or April following planting, grid each tract
selected with ten 1/100-acre plots (a circular plot with a radius of
11.8, or a square plot 20.9 feet to the side). Mark the center of each
plot with a stake, locate the plot on a map, and flag each planted
seedling. In the fall return to the plots and count the surviving trees.
Multiply the total by 10 to find the average seedling survival per
acre.
As a rule, if 300 or more well distributed seedlings survive per
acre, it does not pay to replant. If average survival is less than 300
seedlings per acre it may be best to clear the remaining seedlings
and start over. Decisions to replant will vary, depending upon
replacement costs and estimated stumpage values.
When checking survival, periodically re-evaluate the need for
release of seedlings from competing hardwoods. Many plantations
have survived well the first year, only to fail later because of
overtopping competition.

DIRECT SEEDING

Direct seeding can be an effective practice for regenerating the
southern pines. On many sites, direct seeding is more economical
than planting nursery-grown seedlings or waiting for natural repro-
duction. Direct seeding may be the best choice on some sites where
access, terrain, or drainage conditions make planting difficult.
Discovery of effective bird, rodent, and insect repellents has made






Protecting seedlings from drying out during machine planting
is just as important as it is when planting by hand. Keep the seedlings
covered and the roots moist.
As in hand planting, check frequently to assure that the
seedlings are being planted properly. Key points include: (1) proper
depth of the trench; (2) correct tracking of the packing wheels; and
(3) proper closure of the trench by the packing wheels. Check root
placement by opening one side of the trench with a shovel to expose
the seedling in place.

Planting Followup

To check survival, randomly select some planting areas to be
sampled. In March or April following planting, grid each tract
selected with ten 1/100-acre plots (a circular plot with a radius of
11.8, or a square plot 20.9 feet to the side). Mark the center of each
plot with a stake, locate the plot on a map, and flag each planted
seedling. In the fall return to the plots and count the surviving trees.
Multiply the total by 10 to find the average seedling survival per
acre.
As a rule, if 300 or more well distributed seedlings survive per
acre, it does not pay to replant. If average survival is less than 300
seedlings per acre it may be best to clear the remaining seedlings
and start over. Decisions to replant will vary, depending upon
replacement costs and estimated stumpage values.
When checking survival, periodically re-evaluate the need for
release of seedlings from competing hardwoods. Many plantations
have survived well the first year, only to fail later because of
overtopping competition.

DIRECT SEEDING

Direct seeding can be an effective practice for regenerating the
southern pines. On many sites, direct seeding is more economical
than planting nursery-grown seedlings or waiting for natural repro-
duction. Direct seeding may be the best choice on some sites where
access, terrain, or drainage conditions make planting difficult.
Discovery of effective bird, rodent, and insect repellents has made






direct seeding possible and practical, although the process requires
a high degree of technical skill and knowledge. The key to success
lies in obtaining the advice and assistance of an experienced
direct-seeder.

Advantages and Disadvantages

The choice of a method of regeneration depends on your goals
and economic situation, as well as the capability and condition of
the site. The advantages of direct seeding include:

* Lower initial costs

* May require less site preparation

* Less labor and heavy equipment needed than for planting

* Natural root system no L, J, or W shaped roots

* Easier to apply on remote or inaccessible areas

* Flexibility may be able to regenerate quicker following fire or
other disasters.

Easier to regenerate large areas quickly

Easier to regenerate some hard-to-plant species

Disadvantages of direct seeding include:

Less control over spacing and stocking

Longer rotations needed

As a rule, lower yields

Little opportunity to use seed from disease-resistant or genetically
improved sources






* Loss of a year's growth


* May need precommercial thinning

* Irregular stands not well suited for mechanical harvesting

* More difficult access for fire equipment

* Seed washing on steep slopes results in loss of seed or uneven
distribution.

When to Use Direct Seeding

Increasing planting costs, a growing shortage of labor, the
need for prompt restocking of forestland, and the sheer magnitude
of the regeneration job facing the South make direct seeding worthy
of consideration. Direct seeding can be used to regenerate open
lands and, with site preparation, it is effective on land partly or
wholly occupied by brush or low-value hardwoods. Generally, any
plantable area is suitable for direct seeding. Exceptions include
deep sands that dry rapidly, and excessively wet soils unless they
are bedded. As a general rule, consider direct seeding if site
preparation costs are low; plant seedlings if site preparation costs
are high.

Species Selection

Choose the species that will meet your objectives; probably a
species superior in growth and yield. In general, grow loblolly in
the Piedmont and upper Coastal Plain where the terrain is rough and
hardwood competition severe. Slash pine grows best in the southern
Coastal Plain flatwoods; longleaf pine on areas where it formerly
grew; shortleaf or Virginia pine in the northern reaches of the South
that are too cold for loblolly; and sand pine on the deep sandy areas
of Florida and south Georgia.
Thorough site preparation is essential to expose the mineral
soil that pine seeds need for germination, and to control competing
vegetation that interferes with the survival and early growth of the






* Loss of a year's growth


* May need precommercial thinning

* Irregular stands not well suited for mechanical harvesting

* More difficult access for fire equipment

* Seed washing on steep slopes results in loss of seed or uneven
distribution.

When to Use Direct Seeding

Increasing planting costs, a growing shortage of labor, the
need for prompt restocking of forestland, and the sheer magnitude
of the regeneration job facing the South make direct seeding worthy
of consideration. Direct seeding can be used to regenerate open
lands and, with site preparation, it is effective on land partly or
wholly occupied by brush or low-value hardwoods. Generally, any
plantable area is suitable for direct seeding. Exceptions include
deep sands that dry rapidly, and excessively wet soils unless they
are bedded. As a general rule, consider direct seeding if site
preparation costs are low; plant seedlings if site preparation costs
are high.

Species Selection

Choose the species that will meet your objectives; probably a
species superior in growth and yield. In general, grow loblolly in
the Piedmont and upper Coastal Plain where the terrain is rough and
hardwood competition severe. Slash pine grows best in the southern
Coastal Plain flatwoods; longleaf pine on areas where it formerly
grew; shortleaf or Virginia pine in the northern reaches of the South
that are too cold for loblolly; and sand pine on the deep sandy areas
of Florida and south Georgia.
Thorough site preparation is essential to expose the mineral
soil that pine seeds need for germination, and to control competing
vegetation that interferes with the survival and early growth of the






new stands. Methods described under planting also apply to direct
seeding.

Seed Handling and Treatment

All seed should be treated by trained workers to provide a high
degree of protection from seed-eating birds, mammals and insects.
Because some chemicals are toxic, directions for safe handling
should be followed carefully.
Time of Year Sow longleaf pine seed in the fall after
natural seedfall, and when the soil moisture has been recharged by
2 to 4 inches of rain, or in the early spring. Sow loblolly, shortleaf,
and slash pine seed in the spring about the time the first blooms
appear on redbud and red maple. Normally, in the spring, prolonged
periods of freezing weather are past, soil moisture is adequate, and
daily temperatures reach levels needed for germination. Stratified
seeds sown in mid-February usually complete germination by mid-
April, though prolonged cool weather or drought can extend germ-
ination into May.

Follow-up

To be sure that adequate numbers of seedlings are present,
make a field check at the end of the first growing season. A check
early in the summer is also a good idea to determine germination
success. The difference between the two inventories reflects the
first summer mortality and will be useful information for seeding
similar areas. To sample broadcast areas for a probable accuracy of
20 percent, stake out a grid of 25 mil-acre plots (radius 3 feet,
8.7 inches). Count the number of seedlings on each plot and multiply
the average by 1,000 to get the number of seedlings per acre.
Stocking is the percent of mil-acres with at least one seedling
present. When numbers per acre are between 1,500 and 3,500 the
usual range of stocking is between 60 and 80 percent. A widely
accepted minimum criterion for success is 55 percent. Should the
stocking be less than 55 percent, wait another year and take another
inventory before regenerating by reseeding or planting. Some areas
have been seeded twice, unnecessarily. Eight out of 10 seedings are
successful.






new stands. Methods described under planting also apply to direct
seeding.

Seed Handling and Treatment

All seed should be treated by trained workers to provide a high
degree of protection from seed-eating birds, mammals and insects.
Because some chemicals are toxic, directions for safe handling
should be followed carefully.
Time of Year Sow longleaf pine seed in the fall after
natural seedfall, and when the soil moisture has been recharged by
2 to 4 inches of rain, or in the early spring. Sow loblolly, shortleaf,
and slash pine seed in the spring about the time the first blooms
appear on redbud and red maple. Normally, in the spring, prolonged
periods of freezing weather are past, soil moisture is adequate, and
daily temperatures reach levels needed for germination. Stratified
seeds sown in mid-February usually complete germination by mid-
April, though prolonged cool weather or drought can extend germ-
ination into May.

Follow-up

To be sure that adequate numbers of seedlings are present,
make a field check at the end of the first growing season. A check
early in the summer is also a good idea to determine germination
success. The difference between the two inventories reflects the
first summer mortality and will be useful information for seeding
similar areas. To sample broadcast areas for a probable accuracy of
20 percent, stake out a grid of 25 mil-acre plots (radius 3 feet,
8.7 inches). Count the number of seedlings on each plot and multiply
the average by 1,000 to get the number of seedlings per acre.
Stocking is the percent of mil-acres with at least one seedling
present. When numbers per acre are between 1,500 and 3,500 the
usual range of stocking is between 60 and 80 percent. A widely
accepted minimum criterion for success is 55 percent. Should the
stocking be less than 55 percent, wait another year and take another
inventory before regenerating by reseeding or planting. Some areas
have been seeded twice, unnecessarily. Eight out of 10 seedings are
successful.






Areas with 2,000 or more seedlings per acre at the end of the
first growing season should be reinventoried at age three. If there
are then 1,500 or more live seedlings per acre, the area should be
given a precommercial thinning promptly for yields to approach the
yields from plantations. Some seeded areas may need release from
hardwood sprouts by chemical sprayings.

REGENERATING HARDWOODS NATURALLY

Sources of Regeneration

On most hardwood sites, natural regeneration will be sufficient
to replenish the stand. Go through a stand before the harvest cut to
see if you can expect to have enough seedlings, seedling sprouts,
root sprouts, or stump sprouts of the desired species to develop into
an adequately stocked stand once the overstory is removed. Tolerance
of species to shade, and whether the species is heavy or light
seeded, will govern the steps to be taken to start a new stand.
Intolerant, light-seeded species such as yellow-poplar, ash,
and cottonwood will regenerate themselves from seed if the seedbed
conditions are favorable and sunlight is available. Seed from species
such as yellow-poplar and ash remain viable on the forest floor for
several years and are usually plentiful if these species were present
before harvest. Also, birds, animals, and wind transport seeds from
nearby stands. Logging activity is usually sufficient to scarify the
forest floor and provide the mineral seedbed needed for germination.
Removal of the overstory and brush will enable sunlight to reach
the forest floor, helping the light-seeded species to germinate and
grow fast enough to compete with other plants. Usually, seed trees
need not be left on hardwood sites.
When regenerating heavy-seeded species of intermediate shade
tolerance, such as the oaks, well established seedlings should be in
the understory at the time of harvest. These seedlings develop after
germination under the shade of the forest canopy. Many seedlings
die quickly, others die back and resprout, but some endure under
closed canopies for several years, and are called advance regenera-
tion. Their top growth may be very slow, but the root system
continues to develop.






Areas with 2,000 or more seedlings per acre at the end of the
first growing season should be reinventoried at age three. If there
are then 1,500 or more live seedlings per acre, the area should be
given a precommercial thinning promptly for yields to approach the
yields from plantations. Some seeded areas may need release from
hardwood sprouts by chemical sprayings.

REGENERATING HARDWOODS NATURALLY

Sources of Regeneration

On most hardwood sites, natural regeneration will be sufficient
to replenish the stand. Go through a stand before the harvest cut to
see if you can expect to have enough seedlings, seedling sprouts,
root sprouts, or stump sprouts of the desired species to develop into
an adequately stocked stand once the overstory is removed. Tolerance
of species to shade, and whether the species is heavy or light
seeded, will govern the steps to be taken to start a new stand.
Intolerant, light-seeded species such as yellow-poplar, ash,
and cottonwood will regenerate themselves from seed if the seedbed
conditions are favorable and sunlight is available. Seed from species
such as yellow-poplar and ash remain viable on the forest floor for
several years and are usually plentiful if these species were present
before harvest. Also, birds, animals, and wind transport seeds from
nearby stands. Logging activity is usually sufficient to scarify the
forest floor and provide the mineral seedbed needed for germination.
Removal of the overstory and brush will enable sunlight to reach
the forest floor, helping the light-seeded species to germinate and
grow fast enough to compete with other plants. Usually, seed trees
need not be left on hardwood sites.
When regenerating heavy-seeded species of intermediate shade
tolerance, such as the oaks, well established seedlings should be in
the understory at the time of harvest. These seedlings develop after
germination under the shade of the forest canopy. Many seedlings
die quickly, others die back and resprout, but some endure under
closed canopies for several years, and are called advance regenera-
tion. Their top growth may be very slow, but the root system
continues to develop.






Advance regeneration is particularly important for oaks because
new seedlings are produced sporadically, and grow too slowly to
compete successfully with other species. Oak saplings, 4 to 5 feet
in height, with well developed root systems, are most desirable as
advance regeneration. These young trees will respond quickly and
vigorously to sunlight after the harvest cut, and should grow fast
enough to compete with other species. Logging usually does not
harm advance regeneration because sprouts will grow vigorously
from the root collars of saplings and seedlings that are broken or cut
during harvest.
Young hardwood stands almost always contain some stump
sprouts, and occasionally entire stands can develop from stump
sprouts. Because of their vigorous early growth, stump sprouts
often dominate other forms of reproduction. The quality and long-
evity of trees resulting from stump sprouts are sometimes questioned,
but stems that start from small stumps below or near the ground line
are usually good risks. Stump sprouts from yellow-poplar often
produce the best trees in the stand. Most hardwoods also produce
root sprouts. Species such as black locust and sassafras produce
them prolifically and may regenerate almost entirely from root
sprouts.

Cutting Methods

The total removal of the canopy in one cut, called clearcutting,
is an effective and efficient method to naturally regenerate a
hardwood stand. Clearcutting provides the best conditions for fast-
growing, shade-intolerant species that need full sunlight to develop
rapidly. Some shade-tolerant species also do well under these
conditions. Total canopy removal results in an even-aged stand.
The commercial timber harvest will remove much of the canopy
- and the cleaner the logging job the better. In most cases, however,
culls, low quality trees, undesirable species, and some small trees
will be left. Cut or kill these remaining trees so they will not
impede regeneration. You may control this unmerchantable material
by several methods. A combination of felling and herbicide injection
could be used. Trees of desirable species that produce sprouts could
be felled, and undesirable species could be injected. Undesirable






trees may be controlled before or after the commercial logging
operation. The method and timing are less important than making
sure that unwanted trees are treated, especially stems larger than 4
inches in diameter.
In some stands, grapevines may interfere with seedling growth.
Grapevines are intolerant of shade and, if cut 3 to 4 years before the
timber harvest they should not be a problem in the new stand.
The size of the regeneration opening depends on your overall
management objectives. Areas as small as 1/2 acre can be used, but
development of such small tracts will be impeded by side competition
and over-browsing by deer. Also, such small tracts are inefficient
to manage. Openings several acres in size usually can be managed
more efficiently and with fewer residual trees affected by degrade
on the edge of the openings.
Good hardwood regeneration has developed from the shelter-
wood regeneration method. A series of treatments are involved: (1)
partly cut the overstory to leave 50 to 60 square feet of basal area
per acre, (2) cut, or inject herbicide in the unmerchantable understory
trees at the time of the first cut, (3) a few years after the first cut,
make a secondary cut which would be a final harvest cut if
regeneration is satisfactory, or cut the stand back to 40 to 50 feet of
basal area again if regeneration needs to develop further under
shelter. In the latter instance, a third, final harvest cut would be
made.
The shelterwood method also produces an even-aged stand.
The sources of regeneration can be the same as in a clearcut, but
they depend somewhat less on seed and seedlings already in place
before any cutting is done. In most cases, leaving a shelterwood has
few biological advantages, but it can be used to help develop advance
regeneration.
The shelterwood method of regeneration cutting should not be
confused with the occasional removal of the biggest and best timber
trees or high grading. When you make partial cuts to regenerate
a stand, treat unmerchantable understory trees, and remove the
remaining overstory when regeneration reaches a satisfactory stage.
High grading produces neither of these goals and badly detracts
from long-range growth potential.






Removal of single trees scattered throughout the stand, as a
regeneration method, generally has not proved to be an effective
way to regenerate the hardwoods of the South. Most desirable
southern hardwoods have little tolerance of shade. They will begin
to develop under partial shade, but they should be released from
overhead competition fairly early in life. The biggest drawbacks to
single-tree selection are that the method fails to provide for quick
and orderly removal of overhead competition and it promotes the
development of shade-tolerant species, many of which are not
desirable.

PLANTING HARDWOODS

Hardwood seedlings account for about 1 percent of the total
seedlings produced in southern nurseries. The highest species
production is for black locust, sycamore, cottonwood, eucalyptus,
sweetgum, black walnut, yellow-poplar, green ash, white ash, and
water-willow oak.
Black locust is planted primarily for erosion control. The rest
are planted most often by industry on clean tilled land where they
are cultivated two to four times during each of the first 2 years in
the field.
Black walnut and yellow-poplar are the two preferred species
for planting on small ownerships in the Piedmont, the extreme
upper Coastal Plain and farther north. Both species are quite site
specific. Fastest growth occurs on stream terraces, in coves, and on
lower north- and east-facing slopes. The soil should be deep, fertile,
and well drained. If yellow-poplar trees of seed bearing age were
present in the harvested stand, then planting is usually not necessary.
Hardwood seedlings should be large, with a root collar diameter
of at least 3/8 inch, a live terminal bud, and a well developed root
system. Black walnut and yellow-poplar can be planted with a bar
or mattock, taking care to avoid doubling or twisting the roots.
Control herbaceous plants until the tree seedlings have outgrown
the weeds. Inject woody plants with a registered herbicide. Planting
on a spacing of 10 by 10 feet permits cross cultivation where
feasible. Yellow-poplar will prune itself at such a spacing unless
many of the seedlings die. Start pruning the black walnut when it is
about 5 years old.






The three most important points to remember when planting
hardwoods are: (1) Selecting the planting site. Be sure that the
species is suited to the site. (2) Plant only large, healthy seedlings,
with an adequate root/top ratio. (3) Be prepared to control competing
plants until your tree seedlings are well established and free to
grow.

Direct Seeding

Another option for establishing oaks is direct seeding of acorns.
Research indicates that oaks can be successfully regenerated from
properly stored acorns sown any month of the year either by hand
or machine.
Good results are reported from sowing freshly collected or
properly stored untreated acorns of Nuttall, cherrybark, Shumard,
and water oaks. Nuttall consistently gives the best results.
Satisfactory results are generally expected from direct seeding
these favored bottomland oak species if the following suggestions
are heeded:

* Reduce animal predation by seeding 2-acre or larger forest
openings or old fields relatively free of competing vegetation.
* Match species to site. Sow Shumard and cherrybark on well-
drained sites. Sow Nuttall oak on heavy clay sites subject to
flooding from January through mid-May. Water oak is more
flood tolerant than cherrybark, but less than Nutall.
* Collect acorns soon after seedfall. They can be stored in 4 mil
polyethylene bags at about 35F. Red oak acorns can be stored
up to 3 years, but should be tested for moisture content every 3
or 4 months. Red oak acorns should be kept at 40- to 45-percent
moisture content.
* Acorns can be sown at any time of the year.
* A sowing depth of 2 to 3 inches is best.
* Sow acorns by hand or with modified mechanical agricultural
planters.






* Sowing rate should be about 1,500 acorns per acre at a spacing
of 10 x 3 feet to facilitate between-row weed control if needed.
Even without weed control, direct-seeded oak will continue to
grow if they have direct overhead sunlight.

INTERMEDIATE CULTURAL TREATMENTS
FOR PINE

PRECOMMERCIAL THINNING

Many acres suffer from having too many young trees. These
problem areas include sites that were direct seeded with too many
seeds and those naturally reseeded either after a wildfire or after
intensive site preparation. If the sites remain untreated, the time it
will take the trees to become merchantable may be doubled. If the
stand contains more than 1,500 seedlings of the preferred species,
you may wish to thin it precommercially at ages 2 to 5. Precom-
mercial thinning is needed particularly in dense stands of shortleaf
and slash pine, because these species do not become dominant as
quickly as loblolly and longleaf pine. Thinning is also needed on
poor sites to promote early dominance by the desired species.
Hand thinning may be the only practical method on small
tracts, but is usually too expensive or the labor is not available.
When hand thinning, leave single trees 8 to 10 feet apart. Otherwise,
use a bush-hog or brush cutter on saplings less than 5 feet tall. A
heavy-duty chopper may be used for trees 5 feet and taller, but no
more than 3 inches in diameter, cutting 8- to 10-foot lanes through
the young stand. Keep the leave strips as narrow as possible. When
successfully treated, the stand will appear to have been decimated.

THINNING

Once a planted or natural stand reaches pulpwood size, it is
time to consider thinning to: (1) increase the rate of return on the
forest investment by developing large trees that bring high stumpage
prices, (2) obtain early returns to liquidate the establishment or
cultural costs promptly, (3) provide periodic income, (4) salvage






* Sowing rate should be about 1,500 acorns per acre at a spacing
of 10 x 3 feet to facilitate between-row weed control if needed.
Even without weed control, direct-seeded oak will continue to
grow if they have direct overhead sunlight.

INTERMEDIATE CULTURAL TREATMENTS
FOR PINE

PRECOMMERCIAL THINNING

Many acres suffer from having too many young trees. These
problem areas include sites that were direct seeded with too many
seeds and those naturally reseeded either after a wildfire or after
intensive site preparation. If the sites remain untreated, the time it
will take the trees to become merchantable may be doubled. If the
stand contains more than 1,500 seedlings of the preferred species,
you may wish to thin it precommercially at ages 2 to 5. Precom-
mercial thinning is needed particularly in dense stands of shortleaf
and slash pine, because these species do not become dominant as
quickly as loblolly and longleaf pine. Thinning is also needed on
poor sites to promote early dominance by the desired species.
Hand thinning may be the only practical method on small
tracts, but is usually too expensive or the labor is not available.
When hand thinning, leave single trees 8 to 10 feet apart. Otherwise,
use a bush-hog or brush cutter on saplings less than 5 feet tall. A
heavy-duty chopper may be used for trees 5 feet and taller, but no
more than 3 inches in diameter, cutting 8- to 10-foot lanes through
the young stand. Keep the leave strips as narrow as possible. When
successfully treated, the stand will appear to have been decimated.

THINNING

Once a planted or natural stand reaches pulpwood size, it is
time to consider thinning to: (1) increase the rate of return on the
forest investment by developing large trees that bring high stumpage
prices, (2) obtain early returns to liquidate the establishment or
cultural costs promptly, (3) provide periodic income, (4) salvage






* Sowing rate should be about 1,500 acorns per acre at a spacing
of 10 x 3 feet to facilitate between-row weed control if needed.
Even without weed control, direct-seeded oak will continue to
grow if they have direct overhead sunlight.

INTERMEDIATE CULTURAL TREATMENTS
FOR PINE

PRECOMMERCIAL THINNING

Many acres suffer from having too many young trees. These
problem areas include sites that were direct seeded with too many
seeds and those naturally reseeded either after a wildfire or after
intensive site preparation. If the sites remain untreated, the time it
will take the trees to become merchantable may be doubled. If the
stand contains more than 1,500 seedlings of the preferred species,
you may wish to thin it precommercially at ages 2 to 5. Precom-
mercial thinning is needed particularly in dense stands of shortleaf
and slash pine, because these species do not become dominant as
quickly as loblolly and longleaf pine. Thinning is also needed on
poor sites to promote early dominance by the desired species.
Hand thinning may be the only practical method on small
tracts, but is usually too expensive or the labor is not available.
When hand thinning, leave single trees 8 to 10 feet apart. Otherwise,
use a bush-hog or brush cutter on saplings less than 5 feet tall. A
heavy-duty chopper may be used for trees 5 feet and taller, but no
more than 3 inches in diameter, cutting 8- to 10-foot lanes through
the young stand. Keep the leave strips as narrow as possible. When
successfully treated, the stand will appear to have been decimated.

THINNING

Once a planted or natural stand reaches pulpwood size, it is
time to consider thinning to: (1) increase the rate of return on the
forest investment by developing large trees that bring high stumpage
prices, (2) obtain early returns to liquidate the establishment or
cultural costs promptly, (3) provide periodic income, (4) salvage






trees that will soon die, (5) concentrate growth on the best trees, (6)
provide better access for fire equipment, and (7) enhance wildlife
habitat.
Factors governing selective thinning to obtain these advantages
include size, quality, rate of growth, defect, spacing and species (in
mixed stands). During the first thinning wait until the average tree
to be cut is at least 6 inches in diameter, and the smallest trees to be
cut into pulpwood have at least 101/2 feet to a 4-inch top outside
bark. If you do your own marking and your own harvesting, selective
thinning has no peer. For many, however, row thinning in plantations
or "road" thinning in natural stands is most practical because it
makes mechanical harvesting possible and facilitates trucking,
particularly for the first thinning.
Where the trees are not in rows, leave 15-foot strips of trees
between cut swaths 10 to 12 feet wide. Remove selected trees from
the leave strips. For plantations with 700 to 1,000 trees per acre,
when fusiform rust is not a major problem (less than 20 percent of
the stand infected), remove every third row. Limited selective
thinning can be done in residual rows to upgrade the stand. Removal
of every fourth row has several advantages: (1) selective thinning
of the two remaining outside rows can be quite flexible; (2) diseased
trees can be removed without diminishing the stand; and (3) row
thinning can be used on the middle row the next time around if
necessary.
For anyone familiar with basal area, a good rule of thumb is to
cut back to 85 square feet on the better sites when thinning at 5-year
intervals or when frequent thinnings are not possible; and to 70
square feet when the objective is to grow sawtimber on rotations of
less than 40 years. A guide for thinning pulpwood-size stands is
given in table 2.

PINE RELEASE CUTTING

Release, by definition, is the freeing of a tree from immediate
competition by cutting or otherwise eliminating less desirable trees
(generally, low value hardwoods) that overtop or closely surround
the desired trees. The need will vary by species, site and past
treatment. The problem is generally not as severe in the Coastal







Table 2. Guidelines for management of pulpwood-size stands1

Thin each:

Situation -



Disease severely infects X
stand
Fire severely damages X
stand
Trees grown only for
pulpwood
Owner does own mark-
ing and harvesting
Marking services read-
ily available; con-
tractors in area are X
willing to harvest
selectively-marked
stands
Slash stands of 1,000 or
more trees per acre, X
and free of disease
Plantations with 700 to
1,000 trees per acre, X
cronartium canker
not a major problem
20 to 50 percent of
stand infected with X X X
cronartium canker
Ice and glaze damage X
is a major hazard
Wildlife is a major man- X
agement objective__ _
'Intended only as a quick checklist. In many cases, more than one alternative is open to
your choice. Decisions must be made on an individual basis.






Plain as in the Piedmont and mountains. Twenty or more years ago,
many oak-pine and oak-hickory stands had an understory of young
pine. Today, because of infrequent fires, pine seedbed conditions
are poorer and competition from seedling and sapling hardwoods is
greater. Periodically following a good seed crop the floor of oak-
pine and some oak-hickory stands will be covered with pine
seedlings.
Cutting or deadening overtopping, low value hardwoods will
greatly increase the survival and growth of young pine seedlings as
a result of increased light and greater availability of soil moisture.
Although release during the seedlings' first year is preferable, release
postponed as long as 8 years has been effective with loblolly pine.
Less than complete treatment of hardwoods generally results in the
need for a repeat release about 3 years after the initial treatment
because of resuppression by hardwood sprouts, or by the spreading
crowns of hardwoods not treated initially.
Release cutting is often the cheapest way to obtain a fully
stocked pine stand. The treatment is effective with all four of the
major southern pine species. Release cutting is also effective where
stands are being managed for quality hardwoods, but the techniques
are more selective and complex.

IMPROVEMENT CUTTING

In the cutover forests of the South about one-third of the
growing space in pine-hardwood and hardwood stands is occupied
by cull or low value trees trees that, because of undesirable
form, quality, condition, growth rate or species, should be removed
to stimulate the growth of better trees. The feasibility of such a cut
is determined by the amount and quality of the material to be
removed, local market conditions, logging conditions, and the
stocking of desirable trees that will be left following the cut.
An improvement cut is practical if, following the cut and
associated deadening operation, at least 40 to 50 percent of the area
will be stocked with desirable trees. Local market and logging
situations will determine how many trees will need to be cut to
interest a buyer.






Examples of trees that should be removed include:


1. Badly suppressed trees, which are certain to go out of the stand
within the next 5 years through natural mortality.
2. Trees having crooked trunks that will never produce sawtimber.
3. Trees that show unmistakable evidence of heart rot or other
tree-destroying fungi.
4. Trees that contain fire scars or other injuries so severe that they
are susceptible to wind damage.

Improvement cuts will pay off in increased growth of higher
quality wood and reproduction of desirable species. Such cuts also
make use of a large volume of timber that would otherwise die of
natural causes or decrease in quality before the next cut.

PRUNING

Pruning is profitable only when premium prices are offered for
higher quality logs. Early pruning will restrict the knotty core. No
more than 75 crop trees per acre should be pruned. Pruning should
leave about 50 percent of the trunk in live crown; more severe
pruning may interfere with rapid growth of the crop trees. Limbs
should be pruned when they are small, without leaving a stub, to
ensure rapid overgrowth of the knot. Wounds heal faster if the
limbs are pruned close enough to the trunk of the tree to cut the
living cambium (the layers of tissue closest to the bark) at the
branch node. Confine pruning to trees on the good and better sites.
Thin repeatedly and heavily to release the pruned trees from
competition, to obtain highest profits from pruning. Before investing
in pruning, find out if an appropriate increase in stumpage prices
can be expected.


HARDWOOD CONTROL TECHNIQUES WITH HERBICIDES

Forest landowners manage their forests for many reasons:
timber, wildlife, clean water, recreation, aesthetics, and, in some






Examples of trees that should be removed include:


1. Badly suppressed trees, which are certain to go out of the stand
within the next 5 years through natural mortality.
2. Trees having crooked trunks that will never produce sawtimber.
3. Trees that show unmistakable evidence of heart rot or other
tree-destroying fungi.
4. Trees that contain fire scars or other injuries so severe that they
are susceptible to wind damage.

Improvement cuts will pay off in increased growth of higher
quality wood and reproduction of desirable species. Such cuts also
make use of a large volume of timber that would otherwise die of
natural causes or decrease in quality before the next cut.

PRUNING

Pruning is profitable only when premium prices are offered for
higher quality logs. Early pruning will restrict the knotty core. No
more than 75 crop trees per acre should be pruned. Pruning should
leave about 50 percent of the trunk in live crown; more severe
pruning may interfere with rapid growth of the crop trees. Limbs
should be pruned when they are small, without leaving a stub, to
ensure rapid overgrowth of the knot. Wounds heal faster if the
limbs are pruned close enough to the trunk of the tree to cut the
living cambium (the layers of tissue closest to the bark) at the
branch node. Confine pruning to trees on the good and better sites.
Thin repeatedly and heavily to release the pruned trees from
competition, to obtain highest profits from pruning. Before investing
in pruning, find out if an appropriate increase in stumpage prices
can be expected.


HARDWOOD CONTROL TECHNIQUES WITH HERBICIDES

Forest landowners manage their forests for many reasons:
timber, wildlife, clean water, recreation, aesthetics, and, in some






cases, protection of threatened and endangered species. On private
nonindustrial forestland and publicly owned forests, the trend is
moving from intensively managed, single-species, even-aged stands
to mixed, all-aged stands. No longer are hardwoods considered a
nuisance in all pine stands. To promote biological diversity within
the forest, fruiting crop trees are often encouraged, and hard mast
species such as oaks and soft mast species such as cherry and
dogwood are selectively favored. The judicious application of
forestry herbicides can be used to control the spacing of crop trees
and to change species composition. Success depends upon selection
of the proper herbicide, the method of application, and application at
the appropriate rate and the correct time of year. Herbicides, when
properly applied, are cost-effective and pose only minimal
environmental risk. What follows is a summary of the various
treatments, application methods, and herbicides currently used in the
South.

Cut-Surface Treatments

These methods are generally used to eliminate large
unmerchantable trees. The main advantage of these methods is that
very little equipment is required. A disadvantage, however, is that
when the overstory trees are removed, many of the small understory
hardwoods and shrubs flourish, resulting in heavy competition with
pine seedlings.
Cut surface treatments can be used any time of the year;
however, some herbicides work better than others during the
growing season.

1. Tree Injection

Tree injection works best on sites where the target species for
control are widely scattered and have stems 2 inches in d.b.h. and
larger.
The usual methods of application employ either a tubular tree
injector or hack 'n squirt. One milliliter (1 mL) of the herbicide is
usually applied to each cut with either of these methods.






Typically, the tubular tree injector is a self-contained unit using a
chisel type blade to cut through the tree bark, into the vascular
system near the base of a tree. The unit is equipped with a wire
release or handle that is pulled to deliver the herbicide into the cut.
The hack 'n squirt method involves only the use of a hatchet and
a squirt bottle. The hatchet is used to cut through the tree bark into
the sapwood, and the squirt bottle is then used to apply the herbicide
into the cut. The squirt bottle usually holds about a quart. A
household squirt bottle may be used, but it is not durable. Most
commercial applicators prefer a commercial squirt bottle available
from automotive parts suppliers or a pesticide spray bottle available
from plant nurseries, equipment suppliers, or feed and seed stores.
These bottles apply about one mL per squirt. To apply, a person
grasps the hatchet in one hand and strikes the tree at about waist
height, cutting through the bark into the sapwood. With the squirt
bottle in the other hand, the herbicide is applied to the cut after the
hatchet is removed. See figure 12.

2. Frill or Girdle Method

This method involves completely cutting into the tree sapwood
with an ax or hatchet. The cut surface is then completely wetted
with the herbicide using a squirt bottle or a small pressurized spray
unit.

3. Cut Stump Treatment

In this method, freshly cut stumps are thoroughly sprayed with
herbicide along the outer rim of the stump, to prevent sprouting. A
pressurized backpack sprayer is usually used with this treatment.
Some of the commonly used herbicides for cut surface
treatments of standing trees in the South are Garlon 3A, Tordon RTU
Forestry Herbicide, Pathway, Roundup, Accord, 2,4-D Amine, and
Arsenal AC. Herbicides used on freshly cut stumps include 2,4-D
Amine; Garlon 3A; Tordon RTU Forestry Herbicide; Pathway;
Weedone CB; and Arsenal AC.






Directed Foliar Spray Applications


This technique is primarily for release of first and second year
pine stands when the hardwood competition is less than six feet high.
Caution must be taken to direct the spray away from pine foliage.
The herbicide is usually applied with a backpack sprayer and a
hand spray gun using either a flat or an adjustable spray-tip. The
spray is directed on the target foliage including the growing tips.
Pine crop trees should not be sprayed since they might be injured or
killed. See figure 13.
Some commonly used herbicides for this method are Garlon 3A,
Garlon 4, Arsenal AC, Accord, Roundup, and Weedone 2,4-DP.

Basal Applications

1. Full Basal

Full basal treatments are usually applied to stems up to 6 inches
in diameter. The lower 12 to 20 inches of the stem are completely
wetted with spray mixture on all sides.
The herbicide mixture is usually applied with a diaphragm pump
backpack sprayer and a spray gun or spray wand with a narrow angle
flat fan spray tip or an adjustable spray tip.
Some of the herbicides that are commonly applied (mixed with
mineral oil or diesel fuel) are Garlon 4, 2,4-D Ester, Weedone 2,4-
DP, Weedone CB, and Chopper.

2. Streamline Basal

This treatment is used to control young stems 2 inches d.b.h. or
smaller. It is used primarily in mixed or uneven-aged stands and in
pure hardwood stands. It is often used in combination with injection
or hack 'n squirt. The application is usually done with a backpack
sprayer during the dormant season. The herbicide is applied to one
side of small stems in a 1 V2- to 2-inch band about 10 to 20 inches






Directed Foliar Spray Applications


This technique is primarily for release of first and second year
pine stands when the hardwood competition is less than six feet high.
Caution must be taken to direct the spray away from pine foliage.
The herbicide is usually applied with a backpack sprayer and a
hand spray gun using either a flat or an adjustable spray-tip. The
spray is directed on the target foliage including the growing tips.
Pine crop trees should not be sprayed since they might be injured or
killed. See figure 13.
Some commonly used herbicides for this method are Garlon 3A,
Garlon 4, Arsenal AC, Accord, Roundup, and Weedone 2,4-DP.

Basal Applications

1. Full Basal

Full basal treatments are usually applied to stems up to 6 inches
in diameter. The lower 12 to 20 inches of the stem are completely
wetted with spray mixture on all sides.
The herbicide mixture is usually applied with a diaphragm pump
backpack sprayer and a spray gun or spray wand with a narrow angle
flat fan spray tip or an adjustable spray tip.
Some of the herbicides that are commonly applied (mixed with
mineral oil or diesel fuel) are Garlon 4, 2,4-D Ester, Weedone 2,4-
DP, Weedone CB, and Chopper.

2. Streamline Basal

This treatment is used to control young stems 2 inches d.b.h. or
smaller. It is used primarily in mixed or uneven-aged stands and in
pure hardwood stands. It is often used in combination with injection
or hack 'n squirt. The application is usually done with a backpack
sprayer during the dormant season. The herbicide is applied to one
side of small stems in a 1 V2- to 2-inch band about 10 to 20 inches






above the base of the plant using a back-and-forth motion of the
wand. An hour or so after application, the wet area should have
spread 6 to 10 inches down and should completely, or almost
completely, encircle the stem. Stems that are beyond the juvenile
stage, heavily barked, or 2 inches or more in diameter may require
treatment on both sides of the stem.
The method employs a diaphragm pump backpack sprayer
equipped with a gunjet. The most common herbicide mixture is 20
percent Garlon 4, 10 percent Cide Kick (a penetrant/wetting agent),
and 70 percent diesel fuel, mineral oil or vegetable oil. See figure
14.

Soil Spot Applications

In these methods a soil-active herbicide is directly applied to the
soil rather than to the target plant. They can be used for single stem
treatment or they can be applied in a "spot grid." Velpar L is the
most common herbicide used.

1. Spot Grid Application

This treatment is commonly used on sites with many stems per acre.
Spots of herbicide are applied directly to the soil in a regular pattern. One
commonly used pattern is the 3-by 3-foot foot grid with 1 milliliter (mL)
undiluted Velpar L or equivalent applied per spot. The dimensions of the
grid are determined for each situation based on the kinds of vegetation to be
controlled and the soil type on the site (more on clayey or highly organic
soils, less on sandy soils).

2. Single Stem Treatment

This method is generally used on sites with fewer stems per acre. The
herbicide is applied by directing the spray nozzle at the soil in the area
where roots of the unwanted plants are growing. Typically, the equivalent of
2 to 4 mL of Velpar L concentrate per 1 inch of d.b.h. is applied in evenly
spaced soil spots around the tree.































Figure 12. Applying herbicide using the hack-and-squirt
method.


Figure 13. Applying herbicide using the directed-spray
method.


~



























Figure 14. Applying herbicide using the streamline
method.


3' 3'

Figure 15. Applying herbicide using the spot-grid method.

46






HARVEST CUTTING


The four methods of harvest cutting include: clear cutting,
seed tree or shelterwood cutting, diameter limit cutting, and selection
cutting. Harvest cutting should take place only when the stand is
mature, badly highgraded, or so understocked or diseased that it
offers no potential for continued management. Economic maturity
for pine will vary depending on local markets, establishment costs,
growth rates, landowner objectives, etc. Highest stumpage prices
for pine in many areas are attained when the trees are 16 to 18
inches in diameter at breast height (d.b.h.).
Clear cutting removes all of the merchantable timber in one
operation. This practice is highly desirable when used to regenerate
overmature or badly understocked stands, to convert less desirable
stands of off-site hardwoods (oak-hickory) to a highly desirable
stand (pine), or whenever you are ready to regenerate intolerant
species. Clearcutting has been given a bad name because some
owners fail to provide for immediate regeneration of a new stand,
and because of the temporary lack of beauty of the area. To ensure
the practicality of clearcutting, immediate planting, or reseeding in
the case of a pine stand, is required. Chopping may be used to
liquidate unwanted saplings and advance reproduction of hardwood
stands.
In seed tree cutting, the stand is clear cut, leaving a sufficient
number of trees of the desirable species to cast seed over the entire
area. The number of seed trees to be left depends upon their size,
species, seed-bearing characteristics, and site conditions. More
details are given in the Regeneration section.
The term shelterwood is often used. In the South, this term
has become synonymous with a heavy seed tree cut in which 20 or
more large trees are left. These trees may be removed in more than
one cut. Among the southern pines only'longleaf pine requires the
shelterwood method because of its poor seeding habits.
Diameter-limit cutting was widely used in the past, but is no
longer recommended. No marking was required. Instead, all trees
of a certain stump diameter and larger were specified for removal.
This system has fallen into disuse because it leads to highgrading
the stand removing the best and leaving the poorest trees.






The three previously mentioned systems produce even-aged
stands. Many landowners have uneven-aged stands better, all-
sized stands that are adapted to selection cutting. This method
of cutting entails the removal of the mature timber either as single,
scattered trees or in small groups at fairly short intervals. Successful
selection cutting depends upon the ability of reproducing trees to
become established and to survive in the openings left in the stand
by the removal of the economically mature timber. Use single tree
selection to thin the younger portions of the stand and to shape the
stand structure. Use group selection clear cutting patches of
mature areas to open up regeneration areas. The beauty of this
system is that you can harvest some trees periodically and yet
continue to have a wely stocked forest at all times.
All trees to be cut should be marked with paint at breast height
and at the ground line. Consider cutting all sizes of trees from 5
inches d.b.h. to the maximum size to be grown. Much of the
marking will be done to thin the stand and release the better trees
for further growth. The objective in marking should be to grow
quality trees for sawlogs, veneer or plywood, and poles. In well-
stocked stands on a good site, 25 to 30 percent of the volume can be
removed periodically without depleting the growing stock.

INTERMEDIATE CULTURAL TREATMENTS
FOR HARDWOODS

Hardwoods predominate on more than one half of the forests
in the South. Where there is a pine seed source, it is generally more
profitable to manage for pine. If the site is dry, convert it to pine by
planting loblolly in the coastal areas, shortleaf in the cooler interior,
and white pine in the cold, mountainous areas. Manage most of the
moist sites for hardwoods. Such areas include the small stream and
river bottoms, coves, and north- and east-facing slopes.
Intermediate cultural treatments for hardwoods include pre-
commercial thinning, commercial thinning, release cutting, and
improvement cutting. Present markets for small hardwoods are rarely
good. The goal in hardwood management should be to produce
high quality wood.
All of the intermediate cultural treatments should be aimed at
stimulating the growth and maintaining the quality of the crop trees






- the best trees of the preferred species that will make up the final
harvest cut. Favored species include the oaks, yellow-poplar, walnut,
ash, sycamore, sweetgum, and several other, less prominent species
for certain situations. These crop trees should occupy a dominant or
co-dominant position in the stand, be straight and tall with relatively
small branches, and show signs of self pruning on the butt 16 feet.
To produce quality trees, fire must be kept out of the stand; any
logging must avoid scarring of the crop trees. Thinning should not
open up the stand so much that epicormic (sprout) branching is
induced on the lower trunk. Precommercial thinning can be done to
improve the growth and development of crop trees, but this cutting
should be delayed until the crop trees can be identified as having
dominant or co-dominant crowns within the stand. The stand will
usually be 15 to 20 years old before this condition prevails.
In even-aged stands a commercial thinning for pulpwood (when
markets are available) should be made when the crop trees average
8- to 10-inches in diameter. Remove mainly 6- to 8-inch trees that
compete with the crop trees. Where pulpwood markets are lacking,
cut the less desirable trees for fuelwood. Repeat thinnings may be
made at 10-year intervals, but no cutting at all is usually better than
the premature harvest of a large number of desirable 8-, 10-, 12-,
and 14-inch trees, which would usually be replaced by less desirable
trees.
Previous cutting may have left a stand with a wide range of
diameters and with many low quality trees in it. In such instances, a
commercial improvement cut may be made to remove over-mature,
damaged, and dying trees of marketable size and quality if enough
vigorous, desirable trees are left to adequately stock the stand. If
necessary, a few high quality trees may be cut to attract buyers.
Improvement cuts ultimately will mold a hardwood stand into even-
aged groups of trees. Some species, chiefly cottonwood, willow,
sweetgum, baldcypress, yellow-poplar, and the tupelos, usually
occur in even-aged, almost pure stands.
Make the final harvest cut when the average crop tree is about
20 inches d.b.h. If there is no pressure to cut, you may wish to
grow them to be 22- or 24-inches d.b.h. Every additional inch in
such trees is extremely valuable. On poorer sites, your most
profitable option may be to harvest the crop trees when they are
only 16 inches d.b.h.






Selection of the type of harvest cut should be influenced by the
regeneration requirements of the species in favor. Consider leaving
some areas of large hardwoods for game food and shelter.
You would be wise to get professional advice on hardwood
cultural treatments.


FOREST PROTECTION
FIRE

More than 70,000 wildfires and about 1 million acres burn
each year in the South. Both nationally and in the South, incendi-
arism is the number one cause. Debris-burning fires that escape are
another major cause. These fires account for about 20 percent of the
wildfires in the South. They are one of the more preventable fire
causes. In most cases, debris-burning fires are the result of care-
lessness. Use caution when burning debris! Contact your local
forestry agency before burning.
Small surface fires kill seedlings and small trees, especially if
the soil and litter are dry. Crown fires may wipe out a productive
stand of large trees converting the area to a brush stand of inferior
species. Even though a wildfire may not kill a tree, it may leave a
fire scar where disease can enter if the intensity is hot enough to
penetrate the bark, especially on hardwoods. Fire-weakened trees
may also be attacked by insects or felled by the wind years after the
fire.
Wildfire can impair the ability of watersheds to absorb rainfall
and hold back runoff, fosters erosion, lessens the storage capability
of the soil, and can reduce the water quality in adjacent streams and
lakes because of sedimentation. Large, fast-spreading fires can kill
animals trapped in the fire and destroy the nesting areas of birds.
Wildfires consume all of the litter, and repeated annual burns
will damage the more palatable forage such as yellow indiangrass
and the big and little bluestems, favoring less desirable species such
as threeawns and lovegrasses. Uncontrolled wildfires reduce the
quality of forage production. Wildfire can drastically reduce visibility
and create locally hazardous conditions for aircraft and highway
traffic.






Selection of the type of harvest cut should be influenced by the
regeneration requirements of the species in favor. Consider leaving
some areas of large hardwoods for game food and shelter.
You would be wise to get professional advice on hardwood
cultural treatments.


FOREST PROTECTION
FIRE

More than 70,000 wildfires and about 1 million acres burn
each year in the South. Both nationally and in the South, incendi-
arism is the number one cause. Debris-burning fires that escape are
another major cause. These fires account for about 20 percent of the
wildfires in the South. They are one of the more preventable fire
causes. In most cases, debris-burning fires are the result of care-
lessness. Use caution when burning debris! Contact your local
forestry agency before burning.
Small surface fires kill seedlings and small trees, especially if
the soil and litter are dry. Crown fires may wipe out a productive
stand of large trees converting the area to a brush stand of inferior
species. Even though a wildfire may not kill a tree, it may leave a
fire scar where disease can enter if the intensity is hot enough to
penetrate the bark, especially on hardwoods. Fire-weakened trees
may also be attacked by insects or felled by the wind years after the
fire.
Wildfire can impair the ability of watersheds to absorb rainfall
and hold back runoff, fosters erosion, lessens the storage capability
of the soil, and can reduce the water quality in adjacent streams and
lakes because of sedimentation. Large, fast-spreading fires can kill
animals trapped in the fire and destroy the nesting areas of birds.
Wildfires consume all of the litter, and repeated annual burns
will damage the more palatable forage such as yellow indiangrass
and the big and little bluestems, favoring less desirable species such
as threeawns and lovegrasses. Uncontrolled wildfires reduce the
quality of forage production. Wildfire can drastically reduce visibility
and create locally hazardous conditions for aircraft and highway
traffic.






Fire is a poor master but a good servant. In pine management,
fire is a versatile and economical tool. However, fire is seldom
prescribed for use in hardwoods. Prescribed burning done by trained
specialists consumes less material, resulting in the release of less
pollutant material than that created by a wildfire. Prescribed burning
also reduces the potential damage from wildfire by controlling fuel
buildup (dead branches, leaves, and other debris on the ground).
Prescribed fire is useful in site preparation, and can control com-
peting plants without disturbing the soil and humus layers. Fire
controls brownspot and increases visibility for marking, logging,
and hunting. Prescribed burning is an important management tool
in improving wildlife habitat. When prescribed fire is used properly,
it can improve the availability, quality, and palatability of forage,
and controls undesirable species.
About 5 to 6 million acres are prescribed burned annually in
the South on all ownerships. Prescribed burning requires skill and
good judgment. Among the techniques that must be mastered to use
fire as a tool are: selecting the best method of burning, timing the
burn, selecting proper weather conditions, and managing the fire
for smoke control to prevent off-site problems. Ask for assistance
from experienced sources such as your State forestry agency.
Construct permanent firebreaks to divide pine stands into blocks
no larger than 40 acres, and to separate areas to be managed for
hardwoods from the pine type. Access roads may serve as firebreaks.
Where young pine has been planted or seeded along a public road,
you may need to maintain a plowed or disked fireline between the
road and the pines until the stand can be fireproofed by a prescribed
burn. Plowed lines should be carefully located and constructed to
avoid erosion. Where incendiarism is a problem, a cooperative
effort with one's neighbors can frequently eliminate the source.

INSECT AND DISEASE DAMAGE

Although many kinds of insects attack pines, only four groups
cause major problems: reproduction weevils (figure 16), tip moths,
sawflies, and bark beetles (southern pine beetle, pine engraver
beetles, and the black turpentine beetle; see figure 17).
The odor of fresh pine resin attracts reproduction weevils to
areas where pine is being cut. The weevils deposit their eggs in the
























Figure 16. Reproduction Figure 17. Bark beetles.
weevil.


large roots of fresh pine stumps, where the larvae develop in the
inner bark of the root. On emerging, the new adults feed on the
tender bark of pine twigs or seedlings, frequently girdling them.
Damage can be reduced by a 9-month delay in replanting pines on a
cutover area, or by use of pesticides. An alternative is to spray the
seedlings with Dursban 4E immediately after planting. Check before
planting to see if these weevils are a problem in your area.
Tip moths prefer loblolly, shortleaf, Virginia pine, and occa-
sionally attack slash pine, but do not harm longleaf or eastern white
pine. Their attacks rarely have much effect on growth, and usually
cease to be a problem after trees grow to about 10 to 15 feet,
although sometimes tip moths are found on trees as high as 30 feet.
Growth reduction is most serious on poor sites. A partial overstory
reduces the incidence of attack. In some areas, you can reduce risks
of attack by tip moths if you select a resistant tree species when
planting.
Generally, the worst damage by sawflies is caused by those
with multiple generations, which feed in the summer and fall on






both old and new needles. Attacked trees may suffer a loss in
diameter growth, but usually recover within a year or two. Severe
infestations in young plantations will stunt or malform trees, and
repeated stripping sometimes kills the trees. Usually, sawfly infes-
tations appear suddenly, continue for one or two seasons and abruptly
disappear. Shortlived outbreaks seldom warrant chemical control.
If defoliation occurs repeatedly, chemical control may be desirable
using malathion, acephate, or carbaryl.
The southern pine bark beetles may multiply rapidly and cause
widespread timber losses if conditions are favorable for their
development. The most common factor associated with beetle
outbreaks is poor tree vigor caused by drought, fire, lightning,
flooding or careless logging. Thus, the best way to avoid timber
losses from bark beetles is to maintain vigorous growth of the stand
through stocking control and avoid damage to trees while logging.
Control methods include rapid salvage and utilization, cut-and-
leave, piling and burning infested material, or employing cut-and-
spray practices using lindane, chlorpyrifos (Dursban 4E), or feni-
trothion (Pestroy 8E).
Economically, the trunk borers are the most important destruc-
tive group of insects in hardwoods. Larvae of the carpenter worm
and longhorn beetle attack the trees throughout their growth, and
construct large galleries in the wood. Bark injuries at entrance holes
become ingrown bark pockets in wood. Microorganisms stain and
decay the wood along and adjacent to the galleries. This damage
may be greatly expanded by carpenter ants that occupy vacated
borer tunnels and hollow out larger cavities. Many smaller species
of beetles add to the damage. Remove weak, cull trees that harbor
both insects and disease to reduce the level of attack in nearby
vigorous trees.
Defoliation by insects restricts tree growth and loss of seed
occurs from destruction of tree flowers. For example, forest tent
caterpillars defoliated coastal gum forests, limiting growth to about
one-fourth the potential for the year, and prevented seed production.
Ultra-low-volume spraying of gum forests and cottonwood planta-
tions with selected insecticides has demonstrated effective control
of insects without damage to associated wildlife.
Among the most effective defenses against disease are matching
species and management practices to site, to maintain healthy,






vigorous stands. For example, damage from root rot (figure 18)
caused by the fungus Heterobasidium annosum, is related to site.
Soils with 12 inches or more of sand in the top horizon are considered
high-hazard sites as are old-field sites. Avoid heavy losses on high-
hazard sites by planting more resistant species such as longleaf pine
rather than the more susceptible loblolly or slash pines. On high-
hazard sites, close spacing favors rapid spread of the disease after
the first thinning. Delay this thinning as long as possible and make
it in the summer, when few fungus spores are present. In the
summer, stump temperatures during the day are usually hot enough
to prevent spore germination. Apply powdered borax to cut surfaces
of stumps immediately after felling on high-hazard sites during
cooler season. Use Phlebia gigantia to increase stump decomposition
and reduce annosum incidence.
Fusiform rust (figure 19) is a major disease of loblolly and
slash pine, but longleaf and shortleaf pine are immune. Close spacing
induces early natural pruning, thus preventing branch galls from
reaching the trunk. (Avoid close spacing on annosus-prone sites.)
Remove infested trees in thinning operations to salvage trees that
are starting to die. You may not need to cut all diseased trees.
Allow trees heavily infested with fusiform rust to grow for up to 8
more years if less than 50 percent of the trunk circumference is
killed cankeredd). Disease-resistant strains of pine are being de-
veloped.















Figure 18. Root rot. Figure 19. Fusiform rust.






Littleleaf disease of pine, particularly of shortleaf, is caused
by a complex of factors involving the soil fungus Phytophthora
cinnamon, and other adverse factors such as poor aeration, low
fertility, and periodic moisture stress. Severe littleleaf sites have
thin topsoil (the result of past sheet erosion) underlain by heavy,
plastic, poorly drained subsoil. Littleleaf does not spread from tree
to tree, but develops where site conditions favor its growth. Select
loblolly and other more resistant pines instead of shortleaf pine on
littleleaf-prone sites.
Longleaf pine, which is quite resistant to fusiform rust and
southern pine beetle attack, is highly susceptible to brown spot
needle blight. Strains of longleaf that are highly resistant to brown
spot have been identified and are being grown in seed orchards.
Until resistant seedlings are available, judicious use of fire, or
benomyl root treatment will help to control brown spot and to
stimulate early height growth.
Fire prevention is important in reducing losses to disease in
hardwoods. Trunk rot and canker fungi can destroy much of the
valuable butt log following fire injuries. Other diseases enter through
broken tops and branch stubs. Careful logging will reduce the number
of wounds through which fungi enter standing trees.






MANAGING FOR MULTIPLE USE

WILDLIFE HABITAT IMPROVEMENT

Increasing the production of wildlife on forest land depends on
increasing the availability of food and cover. Where timber markets
exist, you can improve the habitats of some species by good
management practices. Many wildlife species thrive along the edges
of openings in the forest. They need a mixture of forest tree species
and conditions. Thinnings should be early and heavy to favor mast-
producing trees and to open up the understory. Leave den trees for
squirrels. Pine stands should be prescribed burned every 2 years for
quail, and every 3 to 5 years for deer and turkey. It is important to
identify the wildlife species you prefer, in your management plan,
so management activities can be targeted to enhance the habitat.

Squirrels

Hardwoods are a must for gray squirrels. They require partial
hardwood stands of trees old enough (25 years) to produce mast and
provide dens (40 years). The squirrels' home range is 2 to 8 acres.
Reproduction is 21/2 times more successful in tree cavities than
nests. Den entrance holes are usually 21/2 to 3 inches in diameter;
den cavities 14 inches deep. They should be waterproof and 15 feet
or more above ground level. A squirrel needs about 11/2 pounds of
hard mast per week from September through March. Preferred
foods are hickory nuts, beechnuts, white oak group and black (or
red) oak group acorns, in that order. Supportive foods are berries,
soft mast, buds, seeds, and fungi. Red maple is a particularly
important source of food in early spring and mulberry in May and
June. See table 3.

Quail

The best habitats for quail include interspersed open forests,
brush, grass and cultivated fields, but the birds survive in many
forest types. Choice nesting cover is 1-year-old-grass. They also
nest at the edges of forest clearings. Each nesting pair should have






MANAGING FOR MULTIPLE USE

WILDLIFE HABITAT IMPROVEMENT

Increasing the production of wildlife on forest land depends on
increasing the availability of food and cover. Where timber markets
exist, you can improve the habitats of some species by good
management practices. Many wildlife species thrive along the edges
of openings in the forest. They need a mixture of forest tree species
and conditions. Thinnings should be early and heavy to favor mast-
producing trees and to open up the understory. Leave den trees for
squirrels. Pine stands should be prescribed burned every 2 years for
quail, and every 3 to 5 years for deer and turkey. It is important to
identify the wildlife species you prefer, in your management plan,
so management activities can be targeted to enhance the habitat.

Squirrels

Hardwoods are a must for gray squirrels. They require partial
hardwood stands of trees old enough (25 years) to produce mast and
provide dens (40 years). The squirrels' home range is 2 to 8 acres.
Reproduction is 21/2 times more successful in tree cavities than
nests. Den entrance holes are usually 21/2 to 3 inches in diameter;
den cavities 14 inches deep. They should be waterproof and 15 feet
or more above ground level. A squirrel needs about 11/2 pounds of
hard mast per week from September through March. Preferred
foods are hickory nuts, beechnuts, white oak group and black (or
red) oak group acorns, in that order. Supportive foods are berries,
soft mast, buds, seeds, and fungi. Red maple is a particularly
important source of food in early spring and mulberry in May and
June. See table 3.

Quail

The best habitats for quail include interspersed open forests,
brush, grass and cultivated fields, but the birds survive in many
forest types. Choice nesting cover is 1-year-old-grass. They also
nest at the edges of forest clearings. Each nesting pair should have






MANAGING FOR MULTIPLE USE

WILDLIFE HABITAT IMPROVEMENT

Increasing the production of wildlife on forest land depends on
increasing the availability of food and cover. Where timber markets
exist, you can improve the habitats of some species by good
management practices. Many wildlife species thrive along the edges
of openings in the forest. They need a mixture of forest tree species
and conditions. Thinnings should be early and heavy to favor mast-
producing trees and to open up the understory. Leave den trees for
squirrels. Pine stands should be prescribed burned every 2 years for
quail, and every 3 to 5 years for deer and turkey. It is important to
identify the wildlife species you prefer, in your management plan,
so management activities can be targeted to enhance the habitat.

Squirrels

Hardwoods are a must for gray squirrels. They require partial
hardwood stands of trees old enough (25 years) to produce mast and
provide dens (40 years). The squirrels' home range is 2 to 8 acres.
Reproduction is 21/2 times more successful in tree cavities than
nests. Den entrance holes are usually 21/2 to 3 inches in diameter;
den cavities 14 inches deep. They should be waterproof and 15 feet
or more above ground level. A squirrel needs about 11/2 pounds of
hard mast per week from September through March. Preferred
foods are hickory nuts, beechnuts, white oak group and black (or
red) oak group acorns, in that order. Supportive foods are berries,
soft mast, buds, seeds, and fungi. Red maple is a particularly
important source of food in early spring and mulberry in May and
June. See table 3.

Quail

The best habitats for quail include interspersed open forests,
brush, grass and cultivated fields, but the birds survive in many
forest types. Choice nesting cover is 1-year-old-grass. They also
nest at the edges of forest clearings. Each nesting pair should have






MANAGING FOR MULTIPLE USE

WILDLIFE HABITAT IMPROVEMENT

Increasing the production of wildlife on forest land depends on
increasing the availability of food and cover. Where timber markets
exist, you can improve the habitats of some species by good
management practices. Many wildlife species thrive along the edges
of openings in the forest. They need a mixture of forest tree species
and conditions. Thinnings should be early and heavy to favor mast-
producing trees and to open up the understory. Leave den trees for
squirrels. Pine stands should be prescribed burned every 2 years for
quail, and every 3 to 5 years for deer and turkey. It is important to
identify the wildlife species you prefer, in your management plan,
so management activities can be targeted to enhance the habitat.

Squirrels

Hardwoods are a must for gray squirrels. They require partial
hardwood stands of trees old enough (25 years) to produce mast and
provide dens (40 years). The squirrels' home range is 2 to 8 acres.
Reproduction is 21/2 times more successful in tree cavities than
nests. Den entrance holes are usually 21/2 to 3 inches in diameter;
den cavities 14 inches deep. They should be waterproof and 15 feet
or more above ground level. A squirrel needs about 11/2 pounds of
hard mast per week from September through March. Preferred
foods are hickory nuts, beechnuts, white oak group and black (or
red) oak group acorns, in that order. Supportive foods are berries,
soft mast, buds, seeds, and fungi. Red maple is a particularly
important source of food in early spring and mulberry in May and
June. See table 3.

Quail

The best habitats for quail include interspersed open forests,
brush, grass and cultivated fields, but the birds survive in many
forest types. Choice nesting cover is 1-year-old-grass. They also
nest at the edges of forest clearings. Each nesting pair should have








seasonable foods of gray squirrels.


August-October November-January February-April May-July
Hickory and pecan Hickory Acorns Buds and flowers
Beech Beech (black oak group)' Berries
Blackgum Walnut Hickory Mulberry
Acorns Acorns Beech Mushrooms
(white oak group)' (white oak group)' Buds and flowers Blackberry
Acorns Acorns of maple, elm, Yellow-poplar
(black oak group)1 (black oak group)' oak, etc.
Sugar maple seeds Blackgum Mushrooms
Pine seeds Yellow-poplar Red maple seeds
Walnut Magnolia
Mushrooms Cucumber
Dogwood
Hawthorn
Hornbeam
Chinquapin
Yellow-poplar
Black cherry
Grape
'The black (or red) oaks are characterized by bristles on the tips of leaf lobes; acorns mature at end of the second season. White oak acorns mature
at the end of the first growing season; leaf lobes are not bristle-tipped.


Table 3. Typical






access to clearings 1/5 acre or larger. Normal range is 40 acres.
Quails nest from April to September. Seeds make up 85 percent of
the quail diet. Legume, grass, and weed seeds are the most important
foods, in that order. See table 4.

Deer

Deer live in most forest and non-forest conditions and types.
Their home range seldom exceeds 300 acres where food, cover and
water are interspersed. Prescribed burning and fertilization attract
deer because of the improved nutrition and palatability of food
plants. The early stages of timber rotation and intermediate cuts
produce abundant deer browse and fruits. During the fall and winter,
deer prefer hard mast (acorns, pecans, beechnuts) and evergreen
forage. Rapid-growing green browse and herbage are principal spring
and summer foods. Deer require about 6 to 8 pounds in green
weight of food daily for each 100 pounds of animal weight. See
table 5.

Table 4. Important quail foods of the Piedmont and Coastal
Plains forests, together with plant part utilized.


Herbaceous Plants
Ragweed Seed
Beggarticks Seed
Partridge pea Seed
Goatweed Seed
Chufa, nutgrass Tubers
Tick trefoil beggarweedd) Seed
Wild millet Seed
Lespedeza Seed
Grasses Seed
Pokeweed Berry
Smartweed Seed
Vetch Seed
Panicum Seed
Milk peas Seed
Butterfly peas Seed


Maple
Hackberry
Flowering dogwood
Persimmon
Bayberry
Blackgum
Pines, longleaf,
loblolly (preferred)
Cherry
Oaks
Sumacs
Blackberry
Grapes
Magnolia, bay
Sweetgum


Trees, Shrubs, and Vines


Seed
Seed
Seed
Seed
Seed
Seed

Seed
Seed
Seed
Seed
Berry
Berry
Seed
Seed






Table 5. Major sources offood for deer, in order of preference,
in each of three areas.


Mountains
Greenbriar
Azalea
Blueberry
Chestnut
Dogwood
Blackgum
Oak
Sourwood
Mountain laurel
Huckleberry
Strawberry-bush
Buffalo nut
Japanese honeysuckle
Blackberry
Sumac
Hydrangea
Aralia
Grape
Rhododendron


Piedmont
Japanese honeysuckle
Greenbriar
Yellow-poplar
Azalea
Viburnums
Sourwood
Blackgum
Dogwood
Soft maple
Blueberry
Cherry
Persimmon
Blackberry
Strawberry-bush


Coastal Plain
Black titi
Tall gallberry
Greenbriar
Honeysuckle
Blackberry
Yellow jessamine
Myrtle holly
Wild rose
Deer's tongue
Mushrooms
Sumac
Prickly pear
Yaupon
Sassafras
Viburnums
Strawberry-bush


Turkeys

Good turkey habitats contain mature stands of mixed hard-
woods, groups of conifers, relatively open understories, and scattered
clearings, well distributed over the area. Openings are essential for
raising young turkeys. A home range is about 1 square mile. Turkey
diets consist mainly of grass and weed seeds in the fall, mast and
forage in winter and spring, and forage and insects in the summer.
Acorns, dogwood berries, clover and pine seed are the foremost
foods. Soybeans, corn, and pasture are the farm crops most often
used. See table 6.






Table 6. Food of wild turkeys.


Grass and weed seeds
Paspalums (bullgrasses)
Panicums
Native legumes

Hard mast
Acorns
Beechnuts
Pecans

Forage
Clovers
Grasses
Sedges

Soft mast
Dogwood
Grapes
Cherries


Other tree seeds
Sweetgum
Pine

Insects and snails
Grasshoppers
Millipedes
Insect larvae

Berries
Blackberries and
dewberries
Huckleberries
Strawberries

Grain
Oats
Corn


Nongame Birds

Just as diversity is the spice of life so are diversity of tree
species, age of stand, and stand density the key elements in providing
woodland habitats favorable to nongame birds. Some birds are
found mainly in the forest interior, some in forest edges and areas
with scattered trees, and some are found in both of these areas.
Some forest management practices decrease the complexity of the
forest while others increase it. Practices that can destroy the
understory appear to be harmful to some nongame birds. Examples
include intensive site preparation, annual burning, removal of dead
trees and snags, as well as measures to promote monoculture (such
as intensive hardwood control in pine stands.)






Several strategies can be used to increase nongame bird numbers
and species. The following examples of some of these strategies are
not intended to be used all together on the same tract:

* Manage for a mixture of pine and hardwood (not necessarily in
the same stand but in adjacent stands).

* Maintain some stands of 80 years or more in age to provide
suitable cavities for nesting and the production of high energy
fruits and mast.

* Make long, narrow clearcuts with undulating edges.

* Foster low thickets of brush and vines, and piles of brush or tree
tops for nest sites.

* Plant pine at wide spacings, with subsequent heavy thinning.

* Regenerate forest stands by natural methods.

* Practice uneven-aged management, with group selection.

* Use prescribed burns infrequently.

* Leave snags and hardwoods with cavities.

CATTLE GRAZING

Some forest conditions provide opportunities for livestock
grazing. Young or mature age classes of southern pine forests usually
contain the best opportunities. Forest forage conditions are important,
along with associated conditions of pasture, fencing, clean water
supply, livestock handling facilities and soil moisture/temperature
conditions. Coordinated management of timber and livestock prac-
tices is a must for a successful operation. Shading by hardwoods
under pine stands should be controlled to allow maximum sunlight
on the forest floor for best forage production. Forest forage declines
in nutrient and energy values in the fall through winter. Pasture






management systems are important to capture spring growth before
seed ripens or after one of these peaks, not both. Timber stands
designated for multipurpose use should have trees at least 10 feet
tall to avoid poor stocking and excessive damage.
Prescribed fire is a useful tool to improve the availability,
desirability and short term nutrient quality of native forage for
livestock in pine stands. Fire will reduce needle and leaf accumula-
tions and competition from hardwood brush. However, this exposes
more ground to the serious problem of soil compaction, which
reduces timber volume growth by about 50 percent. Native grasses
of southern pine forests usually tolerate cool, prescribed burs.

WATERSHED MANAGEMENT IN THE FOREST

The key to maintaining good forest watershed conditions lies
in proper management of the forest floor. Even when disturbed,
accumulating forest litter effectively reduces soil movement and
excessive surface runoff within 3 to 5 years on most sites. With
time, more water will soak into the soil as organic matter blends
into the surface soil. Of course, the forest floor must be protected
from additional disturbances to accomplish these improvements.
Timber harvesting at periodic intervals, using systems com-
patible with site-special soil, slope and stream characteristics, permits
timber production and watershed protection to continue in harmony.
Logging truck roads and skid trails are among the leading contribu-
tors to watershed deterioration. Skidding can seriously compact the
soils when skid trails are not designated and "loggers choice"
skidding system is allowed.
Advance planning of the logging operation can prevent much
of this erosion by confining the roads to the ridge tops. Roads
should be located just to one side of the ridge line to improve
drainage. When roads traverse the hillside, they follow the contour,
roll with the grade to avoid excessive cut and fill slopes. Road
grades of 3 to 5 percent are desirable; however, sustained grades of
6 to 8 percent are acceptable when following Best Management
Practices. An occasional short pitch of up to 15 percent can be
tolerated if proper road drainage is built into the road, to avoid
unacceptable erosion. Use dips frequently to break long grades and






construct cross-drains as needed and outslope road beds. See figure
20 and table 7. Locate the roads far enough from water courses to
provide an effective forested filter strip. Keep trucks, tractors,
skidders, and logs away from drainage channels. When logging is
over, "put roads to sleep," i.e., smooth out ruts and holes to
prevent channeling runoff, install cross drains and clean culverts (if
used), cultivate or rip and seed the abandoned roads with a grass/
legume seed mixture, including some preferred by wildlife species.
Skidding should be uphill on designated skid trails. Winching
logs to this trail will minimize the number of skid trails, lower
restoration costs and restrict land area that will be subject to reduced
growth potential. Along intermittent drainage and stream channels,
maintain undisturbed strips of forest floor 25 feet wide, plus an
additional 2 feet for each 1-percent increase in slope. These strips
will filter out sediment, preventing it from entering the channel.
Runoff water from the public road system is often a major
contributor of sediment and stormflow from forested watersheds.
Inside road ditch maintenance should be done carefully so as not to
dig out rooted vegetation or dispose of it improperly.
Roadway and culvert drainage should be dispersed and slowed
to retard runoff and encourage vegetation/forest floor filtering.
Stabilize the streambank or channel by planting trees and fostering
a vigorous, healthy timber stand. Follow forestry Best Management
Practices. It saves time, money and energy.




-'5<

Depth 8" 12" i Original road
surface
6' to 12' surface

3% Outslope

Source: Loggers' Guide to Forestry, Tennessee Division of Forestry.

Figure 20. Water bar installed at angle to divert runoff
into vegetated areas that filter sediment.






Table 7. Recommended distance between water bars on skid
roads and truck roads which have been "put to sleep".1

Grade Distance between
of road water bars
percent feet
2 250
5 135
10 80
15 60
20 45
25 40
30 35
40 30
'With the skid roads protected and "put to sleep," little attention will need to be given
to them during the ensuing years. And, when the time comes to remove another crop of
timber from the area, the protected logging road will result in lower operating costs and
correspondingly higher timber prices to the landowner. (This table is reproduced from
table 3 in Permanent Logging Roads for Better Woodlot Management, by Richard F.
Haussman and Emerson W. Pruett.)



RECREATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

The family forest provides space, shade, clean air, cool nights,
probably a stream or a pond, fishing, hunting in season, but most of
all an opportunity to get away from the pressures and tensions of
daily life. The forest provides a place to pick berries, gather nuts,
observe wildflowers and wildlife, study nature and become involved
in wholesome outdoor projects such as woodcutting. The natural
beauty of a family forest is enhanced to the owner by the care taken
to preverve and improve favorite scenic areas.
Forest management practices such as timber harvests often provide
a means to help owners enjoy their forests. Logging roads and skid
trails often require little additional effort to maintain for walking
trails or wildlife observation paths. Timber harvests can also open
vistas so attractive forest or rural settings can be seen. Wildflowers,
rare in the dense forests, often flourish in openings prepared for tree
planting.






Hiking, horseback riding, and trailbike riding can be done over a
network of rough forest roads developed for logging access or fire
breaks. Such roads should be at least 10, but preferably 15, feet
wide, with leadoff ditches and water bars where erosion hazards
exist. To be effective as a firebreak, seed the road to grasses or
legumes that remain green and relatively nonflammable during the
winter forest fire months (October 15 to May 15). Kentucky fescue,
a perennial grass, provides good winter cover and can be grown in
combination with white clover or winter peas. Rye grass, an annual,
will quickly protect the soil. Common bermuda grass is widely used
in some areas. These forest roads should be fertilized and limed
every 3 or 4 years to maintain a good cover.
Aesthetics will govern how many owners manage their land.
Species such as blackgum, dogwood, fringetree, magnolia, mountain
laurel, redbud, some red maple, rhododendron, sourwood, sweetgum,
and yellow-poplar can be reserved along the roads and trails for their
flowering habit or colorful foliage. Some owners may even wish to
release these species from the competition of other trees.

ECONOMICS

FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Because timber production requires a long-term investment,
many people may not be able to readily evaluate the financial
opportunity from timber or compare it to other investments. Time
and interest rates play an important part in an evaluation of the
financial alternatives.
What interest rate should one use to evaluate a forestry
investment? The interest rate should reflect the risk factors incurred
in forestry investments. The rate of return should be comparable to
alternative investments with similar risks. Past research has shown
that timber investment has similar risks and returns to those of
common stock. Timber, however, is a risk-reducing factor in an
investor's overall portfolio because timber stumpage prices tend to
change at different times when compared to other financial assets.






Hiking, horseback riding, and trailbike riding can be done over a
network of rough forest roads developed for logging access or fire
breaks. Such roads should be at least 10, but preferably 15, feet
wide, with leadoff ditches and water bars where erosion hazards
exist. To be effective as a firebreak, seed the road to grasses or
legumes that remain green and relatively nonflammable during the
winter forest fire months (October 15 to May 15). Kentucky fescue,
a perennial grass, provides good winter cover and can be grown in
combination with white clover or winter peas. Rye grass, an annual,
will quickly protect the soil. Common bermuda grass is widely used
in some areas. These forest roads should be fertilized and limed
every 3 or 4 years to maintain a good cover.
Aesthetics will govern how many owners manage their land.
Species such as blackgum, dogwood, fringetree, magnolia, mountain
laurel, redbud, some red maple, rhododendron, sourwood, sweetgum,
and yellow-poplar can be reserved along the roads and trails for their
flowering habit or colorful foliage. Some owners may even wish to
release these species from the competition of other trees.

ECONOMICS

FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Because timber production requires a long-term investment,
many people may not be able to readily evaluate the financial
opportunity from timber or compare it to other investments. Time
and interest rates play an important part in an evaluation of the
financial alternatives.
What interest rate should one use to evaluate a forestry
investment? The interest rate should reflect the risk factors incurred
in forestry investments. The rate of return should be comparable to
alternative investments with similar risks. Past research has shown
that timber investment has similar risks and returns to those of
common stock. Timber, however, is a risk-reducing factor in an
investor's overall portfolio because timber stumpage prices tend to
change at different times when compared to other financial assets.






Four investment terms are often used in evaluating return on
investments for timber production. A brief description of these
terms follows:
Present Net Worth (PNW) is the difference between the present
value of all costs (present and future) and income at a given interest
rate. A positive PNW indicates that the investment furnishes a
higher return than the selected interest rate. A PNW of zero
indicates an investment that equals the selected rate. The selected
interest rate usually indicates the investor's minimum objective or
alternative investment opportunity. The PNW is the correct financial
measurement to use to compare two or more mutually exclusive
choices (i.e., when only one investment choice is possible).
Benefit Cost Ratio is the present value of revenues divided by
the present value of costs. A ratio of greater than 1 indicates the
investment should be undertaken. This investment criterion is used
for a group of investments that are not mutually exclusive (i.e., more
than one investment may be chosen).
Annual Equivalent Value is the PNW of an investment at a
given interest rate that has been annualized. Annualizing the PNW
of an investment is useful in investment analysis to compare
investments of different lengths.
Rate of Return is sometimes called the internal rate of return.
The rate of return is the compound interest rate used where the PNW
is zero. In other words, the rate of return is the compound interest
rate that equates the present value of all future incomes with the
present value of all future costs. All incomes are assumed to be
reinvested at the same rate of return.






TAX CONSIDERATIONS


Family forest managers should be aware of a number of tax
benefits. Considerable financial returns can be realized by forest
managers who take full advantage of the tax provisions for forestry
investments. Remember, proper tax planning is every bit as
important as the silvicultural techniques employed to grow a timber
crop. Hence, plan well ahead on how you are going to handle your
taxes. Forest taxation is too complex a subject to be fully discussed
here, but the following summary of tax considerations should help
guide your plan.

Recordkeeping

Keep accurate records of all transactions. Bookkeeping need not
be complicated. What is needed is an orderly list of original costs
and expenditures as they are made, backed up by appropriate
documents, such as a management plan, a diary of landowner
meetings attended, copies of meeting agendas, etc. When significant
sums of money are involved, such as timber sales and reforestation
activities, it is good business to hire a competent tax preparer such as
a certified public accountant or consultant forester who specializes in
forest taxation. Remember, plan ahead!

Capital Gains

When you harvest your timber, you can get a significant tax
advantage if you report your gain as a capital gain. If you report
your gain as ordinary income, it may likely be subject to the
additional, and substantial, self-employment tax. Be sure to consult
a tax specialist before you sell your timber so you can dispose of
your property under the appropriate contract method to get the best
tax advantage.






TAX CONSIDERATIONS


Family forest managers should be aware of a number of tax
benefits. Considerable financial returns can be realized by forest
managers who take full advantage of the tax provisions for forestry
investments. Remember, proper tax planning is every bit as
important as the silvicultural techniques employed to grow a timber
crop. Hence, plan well ahead on how you are going to handle your
taxes. Forest taxation is too complex a subject to be fully discussed
here, but the following summary of tax considerations should help
guide your plan.

Recordkeeping

Keep accurate records of all transactions. Bookkeeping need not
be complicated. What is needed is an orderly list of original costs
and expenditures as they are made, backed up by appropriate
documents, such as a management plan, a diary of landowner
meetings attended, copies of meeting agendas, etc. When significant
sums of money are involved, such as timber sales and reforestation
activities, it is good business to hire a competent tax preparer such as
a certified public accountant or consultant forester who specializes in
forest taxation. Remember, plan ahead!

Capital Gains

When you harvest your timber, you can get a significant tax
advantage if you report your gain as a capital gain. If you report
your gain as ordinary income, it may likely be subject to the
additional, and substantial, self-employment tax. Be sure to consult
a tax specialist before you sell your timber so you can dispose of
your property under the appropriate contract method to get the best
tax advantage.






Reforestation Tax Incentives


Reforestation activities qualify for special tax considerations.
These activities serve as an incentive for family forest managers to
reinvest revenue from timber sales back into reforesting their cutover
lands. This reforestation incentive provides a 10 percent
reforestation tax credit plus 7-year amortization of the first $10,000
of reforestation expenses each year. What this means is that your
deductible reforestation costs, up to $10,000 a year, can be recovered
in 7 years instead of having to wait until you have a timber sale to
recover your expenses.

Casualty Loses

Casualty losses sometimes occur on the family forest. A casualty
loss is defined as the complete or partial destruction of property
resulting from an identifiable event of sudden, and unexpected or
unusual nature. Some examples are hail and ice storms, hurricanes,
forest fires, and floods. Death of trees from insect or disease attacks
generally do not qualify as a casualty loss on business property, but
may qualify on residential property. To deduct a casualty loss, proof
of the casualty is necessary as well as proof that your loss occurred
directly as a result of the casualty. Take photos and save newspaper
clippings as proof of casualty. Keep sales receipts, contracts,
appraisal documents, and other verification on your property's value.
A claim for casualty losses can be no more than the owner's
adjusted basis in the timber. This is the total investment minus
those revenues previously recovered through timber sales or other
casualty deductions.

Cost-Share Programs

Nonindustrial private landowners who qualify can participate in
and timber stand improvement practices. Check with your local field






Reforestation Tax Incentives


Reforestation activities qualify for special tax considerations.
These activities serve as an incentive for family forest managers to
reinvest revenue from timber sales back into reforesting their cutover
lands. This reforestation incentive provides a 10 percent
reforestation tax credit plus 7-year amortization of the first $10,000
of reforestation expenses each year. What this means is that your
deductible reforestation costs, up to $10,000 a year, can be recovered
in 7 years instead of having to wait until you have a timber sale to
recover your expenses.

Casualty Loses

Casualty losses sometimes occur on the family forest. A casualty
loss is defined as the complete or partial destruction of property
resulting from an identifiable event of sudden, and unexpected or
unusual nature. Some examples are hail and ice storms, hurricanes,
forest fires, and floods. Death of trees from insect or disease attacks
generally do not qualify as a casualty loss on business property, but
may qualify on residential property. To deduct a casualty loss, proof
of the casualty is necessary as well as proof that your loss occurred
directly as a result of the casualty. Take photos and save newspaper
clippings as proof of casualty. Keep sales receipts, contracts,
appraisal documents, and other verification on your property's value.
A claim for casualty losses can be no more than the owner's
adjusted basis in the timber. This is the total investment minus
those revenues previously recovered through timber sales or other
casualty deductions.

Cost-Share Programs

Nonindustrial private landowners who qualify can participate in
and timber stand improvement practices. Check with your local field






Reforestation Tax Incentives


Reforestation activities qualify for special tax considerations.
These activities serve as an incentive for family forest managers to
reinvest revenue from timber sales back into reforesting their cutover
lands. This reforestation incentive provides a 10 percent
reforestation tax credit plus 7-year amortization of the first $10,000
of reforestation expenses each year. What this means is that your
deductible reforestation costs, up to $10,000 a year, can be recovered
in 7 years instead of having to wait until you have a timber sale to
recover your expenses.

Casualty Loses

Casualty losses sometimes occur on the family forest. A casualty
loss is defined as the complete or partial destruction of property
resulting from an identifiable event of sudden, and unexpected or
unusual nature. Some examples are hail and ice storms, hurricanes,
forest fires, and floods. Death of trees from insect or disease attacks
generally do not qualify as a casualty loss on business property, but
may qualify on residential property. To deduct a casualty loss, proof
of the casualty is necessary as well as proof that your loss occurred
directly as a result of the casualty. Take photos and save newspaper
clippings as proof of casualty. Keep sales receipts, contracts,
appraisal documents, and other verification on your property's value.
A claim for casualty losses can be no more than the owner's
adjusted basis in the timber. This is the total investment minus
those revenues previously recovered through timber sales or other
casualty deductions.

Cost-Share Programs

Nonindustrial private landowners who qualify can participate in
and timber stand improvement practices. Check with your local field






forester representing your State forestry agency for information on
available programs.
Finally, remember that tax laws change frequently. Be sure to
check with a tax expert for the latest developments.




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