• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Officers
 List of members
 Minutes
 Celery culture with sub-irriga...
 Citrus fruits from a commercial...
 Lettuce culture under cover
 Pineapples and other tropical...
 Culture of early peaches
 Some fungous diseases of citrus...
 Blight of the pineapple
 Ornamentals
 Civilization increases bird...
 A grape experiment station
 Official business
 Officers' reports
 Grafting and budding
 Economic entomology
 The study of forestry
 Fertilizers, spurious ashes
 Fertilizing and irrigation
 Tomato growing in Dade County
 Potato culture in the flatwood...
 Dwarf orange culture
 Good roads in Florida
 Some productive pomelos
 Report of committee on president's...
 Final resolutions
 Necrology
 Back Cover














Title: Proceedings of the ... annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society.
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053736/00005
 Material Information
Title: Proceedings of the ... annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society.
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida State Horticultural Society. Meeting.
Publisher: The Society,
Publication Date: 1901
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053736
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: 18435967 - OCLC

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Officers
        Page 4
        Page 5
    List of members
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Minutes
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Celery culture with sub-irrigation
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Citrus fruits from a commercial standpoint
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Lettuce culture under cover
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Pineapples and other tropical fruits
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Culture of early peaches
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Some fungous diseases of citrus and other fruits
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Blight of the pineapple
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Ornamentals
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Civilization increases bird life
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    A grape experiment station
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Official business
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Officers' reports
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Grafting and budding
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Economic entomology
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    The study of forestry
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Fertilizers, spurious ashes
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Fertilizing and irrigation
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Tomato growing in Dade County
        Page 118
        Page 118a
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Potato culture in the flatwoods
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Dwarf orange culture
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 128a
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Good roads in Florida
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Some productive pomelos
        Page 136
        Page 137a
        Page 137
    Report of committee on president's address
        Page 138
    Final resolutions
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Necrology
        Page 141
    Back Cover
        Page 142
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PROCEEDINGS


OF THE


FOURTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING


OF THE


lorida State Horticultural SocietD


HELD AT


ST. AUGUSTINE, FLA., MAY 21, 22 and 23, 19o0.


Compiled by the Secretary.


PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY.


DILAxD, FLA.:
E. O. PAINTER & COMPANY
1901.


,: :' ,












CONTENTS.


Officers ............. ............... .......... ............... 4
List of Members, Honorary, Life and Annual ......................... 6
Minutes (giving all the events and transactions of the meeting in the order
of their occurrence, but omitting papers, reports, discussions, etc.,
which appear on subsequent pages under topical heads).......... II
M em bers Present ...................... .... ....... ... .......... 15
Opening Address .............................. ............... 17
The Society's Response .............. .................. ......... 17
President's Annual Address ................ .... ...... .... ........ 18
Celery Culture, with Sub-Irrigation.......... .... ................. 25
Citrus Fruits from a Commercial Standpoint ......................... 29
The Florida Orange- a Discussion ........... ..... ................ 33
Lettuce Culture Under Cover ................ ...... ...... ........ 45
Pineapples and Other Tropical Fruits................. ........... 47
Protection, Cold Weather Cycles, etc.-a Discussion ................... 52
Culture of Early Peaches .................. ...... .... ............ 60
Some Fungous Diseases of Citrus and Other Fruits .............. .... 64
Blight of the Pineapple ................. ....... ... ...... ..... 71
O rnam entals .... ...... ... .............. .. ... .. ............. 73
Civilization Increases Bird Life ............... ....... . .......... 76
P ecan Culture .......... .... .............. .. ........ ........... 78
A Grape Experiment Station ...................................... 82
Grapes, Figs, K aki ....................... .... .... .... .......... 83
Official Business-
Election of Officers ........................ .... ............ 86
Selection of Place of Next Meeting .......................... 86
Officers' Reports-
Report of Secretary ................. ...... .... .............. 89
Treasurer's Report for 90o. ........... ........ ...... ........ 90
Report of Executive Committee ................... ........ 9 90
Report of Special Committee on Library ..................... 90


............ .............:: .







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY

Grafting and Budding Considered from the Standpoint of an Orange


Grow er ...... .......... .. ...
Economic Entomology ..............
The Study of Forestry ...............
Fertilizers-Spurious Ashes ...........
Fertilizing and Irrigation .............
Tomato Growing in Dade County .....
Potato Culture in the Flatwoods ......
Dwarf Orange Culture ...............
Good Roads in Florida ...............
Some Productive Pomelos ...........


............. ..... ..... ... 9 1
.... ...... ........ ......... 1oo
... ... ..... ................ 107
...... ...... .. ............ IIO
.. ... ... .... ......... ... 115
...... .... .. .. ............. 118
. . . ......... .. ......... 121
.. ...... .... .. ............ 126
.... .... ...... ... .. ...... 132
...... .. .. ................ 135


Report of Committee on President's Address ...................
Final Resolutions ..................... ... ..... ..........
Necrology ................... .. ... .. .................


.... 138
.... 139
.... 141












FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


OFFICERS-ELECT FOR 19o1.



PRESIDENT:
George L. Taber, Glen St. Mary.


Dr. George


VICE-PRESIDENTS:
Kerr, Pierson; G. W. Wilson, Jacksonville;
W. A. Cooper, Orlando.


SECRETARY:
S. Powers, Jacksonville.


TREASURER:
W. S. Hart, Hawks Park.


EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE:
Lyman Phelps, Chairman, Sanford; E. S. Hubbard, Federal Point;
E. O. Painter, DeLand.


President, Secretary and Treasurer, ex-officio.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


STANDING COMMITTEES.


Citrus Fruits-F. D. Waite, Palmetto;
H. L. DeForest, Sanford; John J.
Beers, Emporia.
Diseases and Insects of Citrus-W. S.
Hart, Hawks Park; Geo. W. Adams,
Thonotosassa; J. C. Carter, Dade
City.
Peaches, Plums and Pears-W. B.
Healy, Jaffery; R. W. Storrs, De-
Funiak Springs; Walter Cooper, Sor-
rento.
Grapes, Figs and Kaki-C. A. Bacon,
Ormond; A. B. Harrington, Winter
Haven; A. G. Goodbody, Bradford-
ville.
Pineapples-E. F. Sperry, Orlando; F.
W. Lyman, Georgiana; A. D. Alder-
man, Bartow.
Tropical Fruits Other than Pineapples-
E. N. Reasoner, Oneco; A. A. Boggs,
Cocoanut Grove; Dr. E. E. Pratt,
Limona.
Ornamentals-Mrs. E. S. Hubbard,
Federal Point; Mrs. F. W. Inman,
Winter Haven; Mrs. Mary A. Bige-
low, Tarpon Springs.
Damage from Cold and Best Methods
of Prevention-Geo. R. Fairbanks,
Fernandina; C. C. Shooter, Earleton;
T. P. Drake, Yalaha.
Fertilizers and Irrigation-C. T. Mc-
Carty, Ankona; W. E. Parmenter,
Jr., Orange Park; Cyrus Jones, Bowl-
ing Green.
Nut Culture-Prof. H. Harold Hume,
Lake City; D. L. Pierson, Monti-
cello; H. Fleming, Kissimmee.
Transportation-J. E. Ingraham, St.
Augustine; W. L. Glessner, Macon,
Ga.; M. E. Gillett, Tampa.


Strawberries and Miscellaneous Fruits
Other than Tropical-C. M. Griffing,
Jacksonville; H. S. Graves, Gaines-
ville; W. H. Jones, Orange Bend.
Entomology-Prof. H. A. Gossard,
Lake City; L. Montgomery, M. D.,
Micanopy; W. J. Ellsworth, Jessa-
mine.
Vegetables-Prof. H. E. Stockbridge,
Lake City; S. H. Gaitskill, McIntosh;
M. F. Robinson, Sanford.
Marketing and Good Roads-G. P.
Healy, Jaffery; Gardner S. Hardee,
Rockledge; A. J. Pettigrew, Man-
atee.
Forestry-Geo. W. Wilson, Jackson-
ville; Chas. H. Baker, Grasmere;
Prof. O. P. Steves, St. Augustine.
New Fruits-Rev. Lyman Phelps, San-
ford; E. S. Hubbard, Federal Point;
W. E. Baker, Melrose.


SPECIAL COMMITTEES.

To Confer with Board of Trustees of
State Agricultural College-S. H.
Gaitskill, McIntosh; E. O. Painter,
Jacksonville; Benj. N. Bradt, Hunt-
ington.
Delegates to American Pomological
Society Meeting-G. L. Taber, Glen
St. Mary; Rev. Lyman Phelps, San-
ford; C. T. McCarty, Ankona; Mrs.
Florence P. Haden, Cocoanut Grove;
E. S. Hubbard, Federal Point; E. O.
Painter, Jacksonville; Dr. Geo. Kerr,
Pierson; W. S. Hart, Hawks Park.













LIST OF MEMBERS.


HONORARY.


Berckmans, P. J., Augusta, Ga.


Redmond, D., St. Nicholas.


LIFE.


Alderman, A. D. Bartow.
Allen, Wm., 90 White St., New York
City.
Andrews, Clement W., John Crerar Li-
brary, Chicago, Ill.
Armstrong, L. H., St. Nicholas.
Francisco, Beltran, Monterey, N. L.,
Mexico.
Chidester, D. D., 2321 Madison Square,
Philadelphia, Pa.
Conner, W. E., 532 Madison Ave., New
York City.
Cunliff, L. H., Garden City, N. Y.
Ellsworth, W. J., Jessamine.
Francis, Jr., Chas., Interlachen.
Frink, Aubrey, Glen St. Mary.
Gaitskill, S. H., McIntosh.
Haden, Capt. Jno. J., Cocoanut Grove.
Haden, Mrs. Florence P., Cocoanut
- Grove.
Haldeman, W. N., Naples.
Harris, E. K., East Palatka.
Hart, W. S., Hawks Park.
Hastings, H. G., Atlanta, Ga.
Harvey, S. S., Havana, Cuba.
Healy, G. P., Jaffery.
Hentz, W. B., D. D. S., City Point.
Hempel, H. A., Gotha.
Herf. B. von, 93-99 Nassau St., New
York City.


Hopper, Isaac A., Orlando.
Kerr, Dr. Geo., Pierson.
Leonard, Geo. W., Hastings.
Lewis, Dr. Fred D., 188 Franklin St.,
Buffalo, N. Y.
Loehr, F. C., Fort Ogden.
Merritt, Dr. Jos. C., Orlando.
Milligan, John W,, Apopka.
Painter, E. O. Jacksonville.
Painter, Mrs. E. O., Jacksonville.
Price, F. N., Orlando.
Racey, Chas. H., Waveland.
Richards, Thos. E., Eden.
Robinson, M. F., Sanford.
Rolfs, Prof. P. H. Clemson College,
S.C.
Sneden, W. C. Waveland.
Smith, Chas. E., Bogwalk, Jamaica.
Strauss, J. E., Lealman.
Stuart, Leon N., Montemorelos, N. L.,
Mexico.
Taber Geo. L., Glen St. Mary.
Temple, Wm. C., ogo9 Shady Ave.,
Pittsburg, Pa.
Temple, Mrs. Wm. C., Winter Park.
Wilson, Lorenzo A., Jacksonville.
Woodroffe, Alfred, Auckland, New
Zealand.
Worcester, C. H., Pomona.
Wyeth, J. H., Winter Park.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


ANNUAL.


Adams, Geo. W., Thonotosassa.
Adams, Mrs. Geo. W., Thonotosassa.
Ainslie, W. L., St. Petersburg.
Alden, B. H., Stetson.
Allen, Hugh C., Maitland.
Ames, M. E., Pomona.
Amsden, E. W., Ormond.
Amsden, Mrs. E. W., Ormond.
Ankeney, Mrs. J. A., Ankona.
Arnold, R. A., Orlando.
Armistead, J. A., St. Petersburg.
Austin, D. E., White City.
Axline, C. C., Island Grove.
Bacon, C. A., Ormond.
Bacon, Mrs. C. A., Ormond.
Baker, Chas. H., Grasmere.
Baker, Mrs F. E., Earleton.
Baker, W. E., Melrose.
Balcolm, Mrs. Luke, Paola.
Baldwin, D. S., New York City, N. Y.,
435 Fifth Ave.
Barber, C. F., Macclenny.
Bartlett, A. F., St. Petersburg.
Bell, J. D., St. Petersburg.
Beed, John, Bulow.
Beers, John J., Emporia.
Benedict, A., Daytona.
Benedict, Henry, Orlando.
Bennett, A. C., Tangerine.
Bentley, Miss M. E, St. Augustine.
Bernd, Peter, Bowling Green.
Bigelow, Hayes, Tarpon Springs.
Bigelow, Mrs. Mary A., Tarpon Springs
Bieley, H. C., Lake City.
Blackman, Rev. E. V., Miami.
Blanchard, E. B., Altamonte Springs.
Boggs, A. A., Cocoanut Grove.
Bovee, E. H., Bartow.
Borden, Mrs. Mattie C., Sorrento.
Bradt, Benj. N., Huntington.
Bradt, Mrs. Benj. N., Huntington.
Brown, C. H., Altamonte Springs.


Brown, E. N., Punta Gorda.
Bumby, Joseph, Orlando.
Bunce, Chas. H., Belleair.
Burr, Lafayette, Boston, Mass., 19 Cen-
tral St.
Brue, Rev. L., St. Petersburg.
Caldwell, D. J., Higley.
Cameron, L., Jacksonville.
Campbell, A. E., Roseland.
Campbell, W. B., Crescent City.
Cannon, E. E., Gainesville.
Carter, J. C., Dade City.
Carter, Mrs. J. C., Dade City.
Cary-Elwes, D. G., Conway.
Chamberlain, E. W., Tangerine.
Chapman, J. T., Plymouth.
Chappel, Jay, Palmetto.
Chenowith, H. P., Orlando.
Chilton, B. F., New Smyrna.
Chisholm, A. W., Orange City.
Clare, W. B., Crescent City.
Clarkson, H. C., Palmetto.
Cliff, Walter, Crescent City.
Cochrane, F. C., Palatka.
Cole, F. E., St. Petersburg.
Conant, Dr. Edward C., Bartow.
Cooke, R. F. E., Leesburg.
Cooper, Walter, Sorrento.
Cooper, W. A., Orlando.
Corbett, C. C., Macclenny.
Corrigan, J. F., M. D., St. Leo.
Crane, A. H., Nashua.
Craver, J. C., Sutherland.
Cresson, Wm. H., City Point.
Crosby, J. A., San Mateo.
Curtis, John B., M. D., Orange Heights.
Day, Rev. S. D., Sanford.
Dayton, Mrs. Geo. W., Dade City.
DeForest, H. L., Sanford.
Dewey, Fred S., West Palm Beach.
Dickinson, Melissa, Orange City.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


Dommerich, L. F., New York City,
N. Y.
Dorr, Mrs. Wm. L., Federal Point.
Dorr, Wm. L., Federal Point.
Drake, T. P., Yalaha.
Dubois, Harry, Jupiter.
Edwards, S. A., Bartow.
Edwards, Wm., Plymouth.
Embry, W. E., Dade City.
Erwin, W. W., Hastings.
Ewerton, Chas., Avon Park.
Fabyan, John, Conant.
Fairbanks, Geo. R., Fernandina
Felt, J. P., Emporia.
Ferrand, Mrs. F. C., St. Petersburg.
Fleming, H., Kissimmee.
Frank, J. W., Emporia.
Fries, Albert, St. Nicholas.
Gaitskill, Mrs. S. H., McIntosh.
Gillett, M. E., Tampa.
Glessner, W. L., Macon, Ga.
Goodbody, A. G., Bradfordville.
Gore, Mahlon, Orlando.
Goodwin, R. L., Fort Pierce.
Gossard, Prof. H. A., Lake City.
Graham, G. E., Jessamine.
Grant, A. J., Dunedin.
Graves, H. C., Alachua.
Graves, H. S., Gainesville.
Greene, S. W., East Greenwich, R. I.
Griffing, C. M., Jacksonville.
Griffing, W. D., Jacksonville.
Hakanson, A., M. D., Chicago, Ill., 153
Ninety-Second St.
Hammond, W. B., Zellwood.
Hampton, B. M., Lakemon't.
Hampton, Mrs. B. M., Lakemont.
Hansen, R. Edward, Chicago, Ill., 154
E. Washington St
Hardee, Gardner S., Rockledge.
Hardee, M. C., Eden.
Hargreaves, George, Dunnellon.
Hargreaves, Nancy A., Dunnellon.
Harrington, A. B., Winter Haven.


Harrington, Mrs. A. B., Winter Haven.
Harvey, Hazen H., Seffner.
Hatler, B. F., Lake Maitland.
Hawks, Dr. J. M., Hawks Park.
Hayward, E. H., DeLand.
Healy, W. B., Jaffery.
Heard, J. C., St. Petersburg.
Henry, Bert W., New Orleans, La., 918
Hennin Bldg.
Henry, James, St. Petersburg.
Hepburn, H. L., Davenport, Ia.
Hill, O. J., DeLand.
Hills, T. Morton, M. D., Willimantic,
Conn., 17 North St.
Hilbourn, P. O., Norwalk.
Hine, D. N., Nashua.
Hobart, Clarence, Clearwater Harbor.
Hodges, F. S., Green Cove Springs.
Holdridge, W. H. H., Grove Park.
Holt, John, Providence, R. I., 31 Zone
St.
Howard, Dr. Emory Eleazar, Sorrento.
Hoxie, A. E., St. Petersburg.
Hubbard, R. F., Cazenovia, N. Y.
Hubbard, Collins B., Detroit, Mich.
Hubbard, E. S., Federal Point.
Hubbard, Mrs. E. S., Federal Point.
Hubbard, R. J., Cazenovia, N. Y.
Hume, Prof. H. Harold, Lake City.
Hume, Mrs. H. Harold, Lake City.
Hutchinson, J. T., New Augustine.
Ingraham, J. E., St. Augustine.
Inman, Dr. F. W., Winter Haven.
Inman, Mrs. F. W., Winter Haven.
Irwin, Allen, Riverview.
Jackson, W. T., Gainesville.
Jameson, D. T., Largo.
Jenness, L. Y., St. Petersburg.
Johnson, Edwin W., Jacksonville.
Johnson, T. H., Apopka.
Johnson, Mrs. T. H., Apopka.
Jones, Cyrus, Bowling Green.
Jones, Rev. C. J. K., Los Angeles, Cal.
Jones, E. L., Waveland.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


Jones, W. H., Orange Bend.
Kempe, Dr. J. J., Rochester, N. Y., 14
Grove St.
Kerr, Mrs. Carrie L., Pierson.
Kirkhuff, W. I., Braidentown.
Knox, L. B., Bulow.
Kraemer, John F., Niagara Falls, N. Y.,
Station A.
Krespach, Pierce A., Sorrento.
Lang, Arthur F., Cocoanut Grove.
Lees, J. W., Leesburg.
Leffler, C. H., Miami.
Leovy, Henry J., New Orleans, La.,
Box 1294.
Lewis, W. J., Limona.
Lewis, C. H., St. Petersburg, Fla.
Limbaugh, H. T., Tampa.
Lindsay, J. E., Davenport, Iowa.
Lubrecht, H., Island Grove.
Luttichau, H. von, Earleton.
Lyman, F. W., Georgiana.
Lyman, J. R., Melbourne.
McCarty, C. T., Ankona.
McCarty, Mrs. C. T., Ankona.
McClung, J. M., Dunedin.
McPherson, Marcia J., Stuart.
McPherson, Nettie, Stuart.
McPherson, Robert, Stuart.
Mace, J. P., Lake Helen.
Mallary, E. Y., Macon, Ga.
Mann, S. B., Glenwood.
Mann, W. H., Mannville.
Martin, George, Sebastian.
Matheny, C. Woodburn, Sarasota.
Matheny, Geo. H., Sarasota.
Mattison, W. W., Ridgeway, Pa.
Mattingly, G. W., St. Petersburg.
Mead, Miss M. E., Pierson.
Mears, Geo. W., St. Petersburg.
Meislahn, H., Clarcona.
Merrill, J. V., Messina.
Metcalf, W. I., West Palm Beach.
Minor, Mrs. M., Waveland.
Mitchell, Prof. A. J., Jacksonville.


Moffett, David, St. Petersburg.
Montgomery, H. T., Palmetto.
Montgomery, L., M. D., Micanopy.
Mote, E. H., Leesburg.
Munson, F. W., Georgiana.
Murphy, W. H., St. Petersburg.
Newton, C. M., Orlando.
Nordmann, Ferd, New Smyrna.
Palen, Peter E., Haines City.
Parks, Geo. W., Stuart.
Parks, W. Gordon, Stuart.
Parks, Mrs. W;. Gordon, Stuart.
Parmenter, Jr., W. E., Orange Park.
Perry D. W., Pomona.
Pettigrew, A. J., Manatee.
Phelps, Rev. Lyman, Sanford.
Phelps, Mrs. Mary A., Sanford.
Phillips, J. H., Melbourne.
Phillips, Mrs. J. H., Melbourne.
Pierson, D. L., Monticello.
Porcher, E. P., Cocoa.
Porcher, Mrs. E. P., Cocoa.
Powers, S., Jacksonville.
Pratt, Dr. E. E., Limona.
Prevatt, A. B., Seville.
Putney, E. D., Englewood.
Racey, Mrs. C. H., Waveland.
Reasoner, E. N., Oneco.
Richards, J. T., Bartow.
Richardson, Wm. C., M. D., St. Louis,
Mo., 411 Olive St.
Roberts, Frank S., Penuelas, Porto
Rico.
Russell, Geo. I., Orlando.
Russell, Mrs. Geo. I., Orlando.
Sartorius, H. G., Seminole.
Sartorius, Mrs. L. A., Seminole.
Sartorius, L. G., Seminole.
Sayers, Chas., Brooklyn, N. Y., 1155
Manhattan Ave.
Schmelz, Victor, Sylvan Lake.
Schneider, Chas. F., Ocala.
Schneider, Mrs. C. F., Ocala.
Sellmer, Chas., Zellwood.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


Shooter, C. C., Earleton.
Shooter, H., Earleton.
Shurtz, O. C., Gilbert, Ohio.
Simmons, W. R., Glen St. Mary.
Sjostrom, L. H. O., Hallendale.
Smeltz, Henry A., Tarpon Springs.
Sneden, Mrs. W. C., Waveland.
Sorensen, John, Jensen.
Sperry, E. F., Orlando.
Steves, Prof. O. P., St. Augustine.
Steinmetz, J. B., Clay Springs.
Stevens, H. B., Stetson.
Stevens, Mrs. H. B., Stetson.
Stewart, A. K., St. Louis, Mo., 5570
Etzel Ave.
Stockbridge, Prof. H. E., Lake City.
Storrs, R. W., DeFuniak Springs.
Street, A. W., Ormond.
Straub, W. L., St. Petersburg.
Strunk, Wm. P., Roodhouse, Ill.
Stryker, Thos. H., Rome, N. Y.
Suttie, D. A., Belfast, Ireland, Albert
Square.
Sulzner, Chris., Miami.
Taber, Mrs. G. L., Glen St. Mary.
Tatem, Miss Muriel, Stetson.
Teall, Geo. C., Eau Claire, Wis.
Tenney, J. F., Federal Point.
Thomson, John, Clearwater Harbor.
Thornton, C. B., Orlando.
Thomas, Robert, St. Petersburg.
Tilden, W. L., Oakland.
Tischler, P., Jacksonville.
Townley, John, Miami.
Townley, J. L., Miami.
Trowbridge, S., Green Cove Springs.


Van Houten, C. S., Orlando.
Van Wyck, Miss Mary, New Hamburg,
N. Y.
Waite, F. D., (2) Palmetto.
Wakelin Amos, Bullitt Building, Phila-
ielphia, Pa.
Wakelin, Grace V.
Wtakelin, Guilford M.
Warner, S. C., New York Mills, N. Y.
Weeks, Geo. M., Glen St. Mary.
Weihman, Chas., St. Petersburg.
Weidman, Jacob, Pittsburg, Pa., 319
Lexington Ave.
Williams, J. C., St. Petersburg.
Westphal, A. M., Island Grove.
White, C. G., Hastings.
White, J. M., Orange City.
White, Kirk M., Crescent City.
White, Miss L. M., Hastings.
Whitman, Albert M., West Palm Beach.
Whitten, Wm. M., South Bend, Ind.
Whittle, Mrs. Annie, Seminole.
Whittle, J. C., Seminole.
Williams, H. E., Miami.
Wilson, Geo. W., Jacksonville.
Witherington, H. H., Apopka.
Wolf, C. F., Jensen.
Wood, Geo. H. Tangerine.
Wood, E. R., Miami.
Wood, N. G., Miami.
Woods, Mrs. M. L., Bowling Green.
Woods, Dr. S. R., Bowling Green.
Worcester, Mrs. C. H., Pomona.
Wyckoff, John S., Citra.
Wylie, J. H., Interlachen.












PROCEEDINGS


OF THE


FOURTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING

OF THE



Florida 5tate Horticultural 5ocietU.


The fourteenth annual meeting of the
Florida State Horticultural Society was
held at St. Augustine upon the invita-
tion of the council of that city. The
Society convened in the armory at the
city building on Tuesday, May 21, 19oI,
at 8:00 p. m., in accordance with the
published program, and adjourned sine
die on the following Thursday at io:oo


p. m. About 140 members were pres-
ent, and it was the generally expressed
feeling that the interest of the meeting
itself had never been surpassed, while
the hearty, thoughtful hospitality of the
people of St. Augustine rendered it also
perhaps the most enjoyable in our his-
tory.


Minutes.


FIRST DAY.
OPENING SESSION.
Tuesday, 8:oo p. m.
I. Call to order by President Taber.
2. Prayer by Rev. L. S. Rader, pastor
of Grace M. E. Church.


3. Address of welcome by Mayor E.
E. Boyce, of St. Augustine. (See page
I7.)
4. Response on behalf of the Society
by Mr. C. T. McCarty. (See page 17.)
5. President's annual address. (See
page 18.)







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


6. Mr. J. E. Ingraham announced that
the ladies would give the Society a re-
ception at Fort Marion, to which all the
members were cordially invited.
7. Paper on Celery Culture, by Fred-
eric H. Rand, of Sanford, read by the
Secretary, in the absence of Mr. Rand.
(See page 25.)


SECOND DAY.
MORNING SESSION.

Wednesday, 9:oo a. m.
8. Report of Standing Committee on
Citrus Fruits, by Chairman E. S. Hub-
bard. (See page 28.)
9. Report by B. M. Hampton, also of
the Committee. (See page 31.)
io. Discussion of the above. (See
page 33.)
Ii. A box of very fine pomelos was
presented to the Society by Potter
Brothers, of "Devil's Den Orange
Grove," Cocoanut Grove, Dade county.
Grown on rocky pine land.
12. Report of Standing Committee
on Diseases and Insects of Citrus Fruits,
by Prof. H. A. Gossard, was not pre-
sented, but a discussion took place on
the subject. (See page 37.)
13. Statement as to local program of
entertainment.
14. President Taber stated that he
had authentic information from Wash-
ington that a new and ample appropria-
tion had been made by the Department
of Agriculture, to resume the study of
citrus fruits in Florida, interrupted some
years ago.
15. Motion made by Rev. Lyman
Phelps that, in recognition of the many
courtesies received by this Society from


Jacksonville, a collection be taken up in
relief of the sufferers. Adopted.
16. Paper on Lettuce Culture Under
Cover, by W. H. Draeger, read by the
Secretary. (See page 43.)
17. Discussion of the same. (See
page 46.)

AFTERNOON SESSION.

Wednesday, 2:oo p. m.
18. Letter read from W. A. Taylor,
Secretary of the American Pomological
Society, extending a cordial invitation to
the members of this Society to attend
their meeting in Buffalo, September 12
and 13.
19. President Taber read a letter from
Prof. H. J. Webber, expressing his ap-
preciation of the Society's work, and re-
gretting his inability to attend or send in
a contribution.
20. The President appointed as a
Committee on Final Resolutions, E. O.
Painter, G. W. Adams and E. V. Black-
man.
21. Rev. Lyman Phelps, E. S. Hub-
bard and S. H. Gaitskill were appointed
a committee to consider certain parts of
the President's Message.
22. Letter read from Mr. J. E. Ingra-
ham, placing at the disposal of the So-
ciety a large number of free tickets to
South Beach, given by courtesy of the
St. Augustine & South Beach Railway.
23. Standing Committee on Pine-
apples made no report; in lieu of it a
general discussion took place. (See
page 47.)
24. Standing Committee on Damage
from Cold made no report. An inter-
esting discussion arose, participated in
by several members. (See page 52.)
25. Mr. J. E. Ingraham, voicing the







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


unstinted hospitality of St. Augustine,
asked if there was any other way what-
ever in which the people could serve the
Society.
26. It was announced that the veteran
members, D. Redmond and C. A. Bacon,
were ill and could not attend the meet-
ing. A vote of condolence was passed,
and E. O. Painter was appointed to con-
vey it to Dr. Redmond and E. W. Ams-
den to do the same in the case of C. A.
Bacon.
27. Report of Standing Committee on
Pears, Peaches and Plums reported
through the chairman, J. P. Mace, his
paper being read by the Secretary. Also
the paper sent in by C. C. Shooter. (See
page 60.)
28. Discussion on Peach Culture. (See
page 62.)
29. Paper read by Prof. H. Harold
Hume on Fungous Diseases of Citrus
and Other Fruits, with samples of the
diseases. (See page 64.)
30. Discussion of above. (See page
70.)
EVENING SESSION.
Wednesday, 7:oo p. m.
31. Standing Committee on Orna-
mentals presented a report through the
chairman, Rev. Lyman Phelps. Also a
paper by Mrs. Florence P. Haden, of the
committee. (See page 73.)
32. Discussion of above. (See page
75.)
33. E. S. Hubbard called attention to
the magnificent palms with which the
ladies had embellished the hall.
34. Paper, Civilization 'Increases Bird
Life, by S. Powers. (See page 76.)
35. Discussion. (See page 78.)
36. Standing Committee on Nut Cul-
ture made no report. A general discus-


sion on Pecan Culture ensued, led by
Professor Hume. (See page 78.)
37. Report of Standing Committee on
Grapes, Figs and Kaki, reported through
the chairman, H. von Luttichau. Also
a paper by W. D. Griffing, of the com-
mittee. Both on Grape Culture. (See
page 82.)
38. Discussion of the subject. (See
page 84.)


THIRD DAY.

MORNING SESSION.
Thursday, 9:oo a. m.
39. Tickets for South Beach excur-
sion handed in by Mr. Ingraham.
40. Committee on New Fruits ap-
pointed: Rev. Lyman Phelps, E. S. Hub-
bard, W. E. Baker.
41. Delegates to attend the meeting
of the American Pomological Sqciety in
Buffalo appointed: Rev. Lyman Phelps,
C. T. McCarty, Mrs. F. P. Haden, E. O.
Painter. A motion was made by W. S.
Hart, and the Secretary put it before
the house, that President Taber be the
chairman of these delegates, with au-
thority to fill all vacancies in Buffalo.

AFTERNOON SESSION.
Wednesday, 2:00 p. nt.
42. The Nominating Committee pre-
sented their report, recommending that
the entire present board of officers be re-
elected; which was accordingly done by
one motion.
43. Speeches by the newly-elect. (See
page 86.)
44. For the next place of meeting all
the speeches were made in favor of
Tampa. (See page 86.)






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


45. Tampa was unanimously chosen
as the next meeting place.
46. Secretary's report read. (See
page 89.)
47. Treasurer's report read. (See
page go.)
48. Executive Committee's report
presented. (See page 90.)
49. President Taber made a statement
as to the terms and conditions under
which the reduced transportation rate
was obtained this year. The Jackson-
ville fire compelled the officers to change
the meeting-place to St. Augustine on
short notice, and this caused a little con-
fusion.
50. C. W. Butler stated that the rate
of one cent a mile had already been
promised for next year for the Tampa
meeting.
51. Treasurer W. S. Hart stated that
he had received the sum of $42.25 from
the members for the Jacksonville fire
sufferers.
52. Paper on Grafting and Budding,
by W. S. Hart. (See page 91.)
53. Discussion of the same. (See
page 97.)
54. Resolution presented in favor of
protection of forests.

AFTERNOON SESSION.

Thursday, 2:oo p. m.
55. Report of Standing Committee on
Entomology was presented by the chair-
man, Prof. H. A. Gossard, with illustra-
tions of fumigating tents. (See page
1oo.)
56. Discussion of above. (See page
105.)
57. Committee on Forestry reported
through Major G. R. Fairbanks. (See
page 107.)


58. Discussion of above. (See page
1o9.)
59. Standing Committee on Fertiliz-
ers made no report.
60. Prof. H. E. Stockbridge made
some remarks on the bogus character
of "Canada hardwood ashes." (See
page I1o.)
61. Major Fairbanks had previously
offered a resolution appealing to the
Legislature to protect Florida forests.
This was now amended to include pro-
tection against the turpentine men, and
adopted.
62. Paper on Fertilizers sent in by E.
D. Putney, but too late to be read.
63. No report from the Committee on
Transportation.

EVENING SESSION.

Thursday, 7:oo p. m.
64. Motion made and carried that this
session wind up the business.
65. C. T. McCarty offered a resolu-
tion requesting the Legislature to make
an appropriation of $2,500 for the State
Fair. Adopted.
66. Report of Standing Committee
on Vegetables was presented by Rev. E.
V. Blackman, in an individual paper on
Tomato Culture. (See page 118.)
67. C. G. White also read an individ-
ual report, a paper on Potato Culture.
(See page 121.)
68. Discussion on above papers.
69. S. Powers read a paper on Dwarf
Orange Culture. (See page 126.)
70. Discussion of same.
71. Committee on Strawberries and
Miscellaneous Fruits made no report.
72. Committee on Marketing and













Celery Culture With Sub-Irrigation.



BY FREDERIC H. RAND, SANFORD.


Replying to your request for informa-
tion as to the plan I have pursued in
the irrigation and drainage of the lands
devoted to the raising of celery by the
Florida Land & Colonization Company,
it affords me pleasure to give you the
following information:
The plot of land selected by me for
this purpose was a lot of twenty acres,
common flat-woods land, selected with-
out regard to its special fertility, but as
nearly level as could be found. The
land measured 1,128 feet east and west
and 800 feet north and south, having a
very slight dip toward the north, the lev-
els when taken showing only about three
inches fall in 800 feet. On the south line
of this lot I sunk four artesian wells, 280
feet apart. These wells each emptied
into a receptacle made of brick and lined
with cement, so as to be water-tight,
sunk seventeen inches below the surface
of the ground. These receptacles here
are usually called "pockets" and will be
referred to hereafter by that name. Ex-
tending north from the first pocket at
each well is a line of these pockets, twen-
ty feet apart and connected by water-
tight four-inch pipes, the outlet and in-
let from each pocket being one length
of iron pipe and the rest earthen pipe.
Extending east and west from each
pocket is a line of earthen drain pipe, not
water-tight, the ends simply being laid


together, placed in a bed of charcoal two
inches deep and covered with two inches
more of charcoal. From the last line of
pockets on the north the four-inch water-
tight pipes end in an open ditch. You
will thus see that there is a line of water-
tight pipes running from north to south,
and a line of pipes not water-tight run-
ning from east to west, each centering
and emptying into each and every
pocket, by means of which the flow of
water is controlled and diverted into any
part of the field where it may be required
by simply placing a wooden plug in the
outlet from one of the pockets in the
north and south pipes.
For example: We will say that the
water is wanted in the middle of the
field and not at any other point. We
would then take water from either the
first or second well; the water from the
well empties into the first pocket and
runs through the four-inch water-tight
pipe, until it meets some obstacle to pre-
vent its flowing. The part we wish to
irrigate being in the center of the field,
and there being twenty pockets, the
water would flow into and out of ten
pockets, but in the eleventh pocket I
place a wooden plug to prevent a further
flow. Now, to prevent a waste of water
and to prevent its flowing into the
ground before it reached the eleventh
pocket, all the irrigation pipes which run








FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL 80CIRTT


from east to west are also closed by a
wooden plug in the first ten pockets;
consequently the whole volume of water
comes to the eleventh pocket through
the water-tight pipe. The wooden plug
there prevents its further flow to the
north, and the two irrigation pipes run-
ning from east to west on each side of
the pocket not having wooden plugs in-
serted in them, carry off the water, and
it passes through every joint of the pipe,
and by capillary attraction is drawn to
the surface and thoroughly moistens the
soil from twelve to fifteen feet on each
side of the pipe. While I have here
named the process of only one pipe, a
dozen or more pipes can be used at the
same time, only depending upon the
amount of water delivered by the arte-
sian well. So much for irrigation.

DRAINAGE.

Now, the same system is used for
drainage. In case of a heavy rain or
continued storm, when on undrained
land the water would lie upon the sur-
face of the ground, I keep my land per-
fectly dry by simply removing all the
plugs from all the water-tight pipes or
mains and also from the irrigation pipes.
The surface water sinks into the ground
and into the irrigation pipes through the
cracks at the joints and then runs into
the pockets, and from there it is taken
by the water-tight pipes or mains and
conducted to the open ditch outside the
field. The result of an experiment made
by me soon after I completed this sys-
tem showed the following results on
about an acre of land where I was plant-
ing some seed beds, the beds being
raised about two inches above the gen-
eral level: At 7 o'clock in the morning


the water was turned on; at 1 o'clock it
had risen so it was standing in the little
paths between the seed beds; all plugs
were then removed and the water allow-
ed to escape. At 3 o'clock in the after-
noon the ground was so dry that it was
easily worked with hoe and rake. The
irrigation pipes should be placed four-
teen inches below the surface. It is well
to have the water-tight pipes or mains an
inch or so lower. The pockets in my
field are made of brick and cement which
is lasting but expensive. The same ob-
ject can be accomplished by boxes made
of wood, but these will not always be
water-tight, and, as they decay, would
necessarily have to be replaced. It is
absolutely necessary to have all pipes en-
tering the pockets made of iron, as, if
earthen pipes were carried to the pock-
ets, they would probably be broken by
the swelling of a wooden plug which
might be dry when inserted and conse-
quently expand when the water touched
it.

THIRD SYSTEM OF PIPES-EXTRA PRECAU-
TIONS.

As water lying on the surface of the
ground is very injurious to both celery
and lettuce, our principal crops, I have
taken extra precaution to prevent over-
flow from sudden and violent rains, and
below the whole of the system that I
have above described I have laid six-
inch water-tight mains at two different
points in the field, running from north to
south; and connection with these is
made at eight different points from the
pocket; at the outlet of these pipes is an
iron valve. They are seldom used-
only in case of violent storms; then the
valves are opened and the plugs in the







FLORIDA STATH HORTICULTURAL SOCIBTY


pockets taken out, and these pipes carry
off all overplus of water that the regular
four-inch mains may be unable to dis-
pose of.
To guard against accident which
might occur in case of a violent rain com-
ing on in the night when there was no
one to attend to the outlet of the water
by removing the plugs, I have placed in
the pocket, about one-third from the end
(the pocket in measurement being I2xI6
inches), a brick, water-tight partition ris-
ing to within four inches of the surface.
This partition is in the lower end of the
pocket and has in it two holes, one near
the bottom and the other near the top,
four inches in diameter, lined with iron
thimbles or pieces of four-inch pipe; and
in these holes the plugs are placed in-
stead of the actual outlet when I wish to
raise the water. You will thus see that
the water, after these holes are plugged,
can only rise to within four inches of the
surface, as it then comes to the top of the
partition and flows over and passes
through the outlet pipe. If, however, I
wish to raise the water up to the surface,
I plug the outlet pipe itself; if I wish to
raise it only part way to the surface,
considerably below the level of the top of
the partition, I leave the plug in the low-
er hole of the partition and remove it
from the upper hole.
I think the above description answers
your question as to the method of irriga-
tion pursued by me. I have described
what is on my place and under my own
charge; the same system is used by all
the other growers in this neighborhood,
some with slight variations but as a gen-
eral thing the same; and, therefore, in
describing one, I have described all. The
present year is the first marketable crop
that I have raised of celery, and as the


crop is not yet marketed I cannot give
you the results as to that. But I can
say that on Irish potatoes, the present
year, on this irrigated and drained land,
I have raised an average of 140 barrels
per acre, and off of 14-I6ths of an acre I
have already marketed 251 barrels of
cabbage, and have more to ship.

PROPAGATION, BLEACHING, MARKETING,
ETC.

Relative to methods pursued by me as
to propagation, bleaching, marketing,
etc., I can only say that thus far the
growing of celery in this part of Flor-
ida is in an experimental stage, and I
do not think that any two growers treat
the crop exactly alike, and therefore I
give you only my own methods. I plant
the seed about the last of September, in
beds about three feet wide and in drills
four inches apart, sowing thickly. After
the plant is about two inches high, I
transplant it to a "prick bed" same size
as seed bed, and set the plants I 1-2
inches apart and rows four inches apart.
It requires about sixty days for the plant
to acquire the proper size to be placed
in the field; no exact time can be stated,
as the size of the plant depends largely
upon the fancy of the individual grower,
some preferring larger plants than oth-
ers. After being set in the field, which
should have been well fertilized before
the plants are taken up, it is simply a
matter of time and constant cultivation
and frequent light applications of ferti-
lizer until ready for bleaching, which
point must be judged entirely by the size
of the plant. The bleaching usually re-
quires about ten days.
One-inch cypress boards 12 inches
wide are used for this purpose, placed







FLORIDA STATE HORTICOLTURAL 801JETY


close up to the side of the plant and
drawn together at the top to about four
inches, and held in that position by wires.
In planting in the field some planters
prefer the double rows, some the single.
In the single row the plants are simply
set six inches apart, rows three feet
apart. In the double row two rows are
set six inches apart and the plants set in
the rows six inches apart, alternately.
When ready for market the root is cut
with a knife, superfluous leaves are taken
off in the field, and almost all the roots
are taken off, a few fibrous roots being
left. The plants are placed in boxes and
carried to the packinghouse, where they
are assorted according to size and pack-
ed in boxes 8x2ox27 inches, each box
being marked the exact number of doz-
ens and fractional parts of dozens it con-
tains. The best marketable sizes are
from three and one-half to six dozens,
inclusive; the larger and smaller sizes
usually sell for somewhat smaller price
than the rest. The size of the crate that
I have given is the size used here in San-


ford, and is known as the Sanford Stand-
ard. There are two or three other sizes
used in the State, generally larger, and
the California crate is larger still; but the
experience of the past few years has
shown that the Sanford crate is the one
that meets the popular demand and gives
the best satisfaction, and I believe it
would be advisable for all growers to de-
cide on that size of crate.
Experiments made the past year seem
to show that with care plants can be set
out in the field direct from the seed bed
and thus save the expense and labor of
transferring and putting out in prick
beds, but I am not yet satisfied on this
subject and would not like to recom-
mend it; another season, however, will
probably decide the matter. I do not
see that I can say anything further in
relation to the growing of plants, save
that an abundant supply of water is ab-
solutely necessary for success; therefore
I would not advise anyone to undertake
to grow celery save at points where a
flow from artesian wells can be secured.


REMARKS.

Mr. White-The remark on charcoal Mr. Phelps-Charcoal has been used
is erroneous. What we use is cinders, largely because there is not enough cin-
Charcoal is rather an expensive product, ders furnished.
but cinders are given to us.












Citrus Fruits from a Commercial Standpoint.



REPORT OF STANDING COMMITTEE BY E. S. HUBBARD,
CHAIRMAN.


Mr. President and Members of the Flor-
ida State Horticultural Society-La-
dies and Gentlemen:
As the Society's committees on Dis-
eases and Insects, Cold Prevention, Fer-
tilizers, Marketing, etc., cover special
fields affecting citrus fruits, and it has
been impracticable for this committee to
submit a combined report, it has proved
necessary for the members, so far as pos-
sible, to report separately. Therefore,
under the changing fruit market condi-
tions, I have thought it well to take a
general view of the field and to consider
as far as possible the future prospects of
citrus growing in Florida.
Our country is in a prosperous condi-
tion, and the demand for fruits, both as
necessary, healthful components of diet,
and as luxuries, is increasing faster than
the population, but the supply is also
making colossal strides, and careful con-
sideration should be given by every in-
telligent fruit grower to the general con-
ditions in determining the special vari-
eties it will pay him best to cultivate.
First in present production of citrus
fruits stands California, with a crop of
oranges that was estimated for this year
at approximately eight millions of boxes.
But unusual wet weather and frosts that
damaged the keeping and carrying qual-


ities of the fruit, lack of transportation,
and the low prices resulting from these
conditions, have produced a state of af-
fairs resembling what prevailed in Flor-
ida just before the '95 freeze, and there
is no doubt California is suffering from
overproduction of comparatively inferior
fruit. The tariff has practically shut out
Mediterranean oranges under these cir-
cumstances, but foreign lemons still ar-
rive in quantity, and with climatic condi-
tions similar to those countries it would
seem California should give more atten-
tion to lemon culture, and I think she is
doing so. The California oranges are
marketed mainly in winter and spring,
but there are others that are in market
earlier. There is a small section suited
for orange culture in Arizona that pro-
duces early fruit of good quality resem-
bling Florida's; and this fruit will always
find a ready market in the mountain
cities.
The Mexican fruit is also early and its
culture in that country is increasing, al-
though the orange worm is also spread-
ing and may require prohibitory legisla-
tion to keep it out of this country.
Then we have the West Indian fruit
for early competition. Jamaica has a
varied climate and produces fruit that
averages well with Florida seedlings,






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


though light colored and usually insipid
in midwinter. We may look for increas-
ing imports from that island. Porto Rico
is also spoken of as a competitor. I am
informed, however, that the territory on
the north side of the island that has suf-
ficient rainfall and lies flat enough for
cultivation and convenient to transporta-
tion is limited; and although they would
have an advantage over Jamaica in the
tariff, it is unlikely they will compete in
any quantity for some time to come. And
lastly, Cuba is an unknown future quan-
tity. The reports as to near competition
from this quarter are conflicting. It is
true oranges are found growing all over
the island, but as yet there are no regu-
larly set bearing orange groves, and ow-
ing to the general clayey nature of the
soil, which is mud if worked in the rainy
season and bakes during the dry season,
it is doubtful if oranges can be grown
successfully convenient to transportation
except in limited areas that are suscepti-
ble to irrigation.
The banana is the great competitor
of the apple and also of the orange, and
as reciprocity treaties with low tariffs are
likely to be the programme, we will
probably suffer as much from competi-
tion with cheap bananas from Cuba as
from oranges. And then there are the
West Indian limes.

FLORIDA ORANGES GO WRONG.

But with all this present and future
competition to contend with, Florida the
past season proved to be her own worst
enemy. The bulk of the crop this year
was in South Florida, and some people
say South Florida fruit never did carry
well; but probably this season's losses
were largely due to the unusually wet


weather, which often produces soft,
creased fruit, and to the rough handling
in packing. Something at least is wrong
when regularly packed fruit, not culls,
is repacked in Jacksonville with loss, and
then shrinks ten to twenty per cent. in
three or four days while the retailer is
disposing of it; or when a neighbor who
bought a box for his own use complained
that they specked so fast he and his wife
were kept busy eating rotten oranges till
the box was finished.
Not all Floridas were like this, how-
ever. An east coast packer who is noted
for using chemical fertilizers in growing
and extreme care in handling his fruit
had a half box of a consignment that
reached Jacksonville the 3rd of Decem-
ber overlooked in the salesroom, and the
gentleman who bought it the Ist of
March found only two spoiled oranges.
Orange growers must be careful not
to get conceited. Many of us live among
our trees all the year round, and we cul-
tivate and fertilize, pet and nourish them
till we almost worship them; and when
the fruit matures we sample it with
gusto and declare it cannot be equalled
in the State of Florida. Then we may
gather it carefully, cutting all the stems
tight to the calyx, handle it like eggs,
grade it according to our own ideas of
appearance, put it up in neat boxes with
fancy wraps, and though it may go in
good order the buyer at the other end
of the line may think some other fellow's
fruit looks better and tastes finer and
give him a higher price for it.
I am sure we all feel thankful for the
comparative immunity from cold the
past winter. Trees in my neighborhood
that were boxed or tented came through
all right and now look almost as well






FLORIDA STATE IORTIOULTURAL SOCIETY


as the unprotected ones, while trees un-
der large sheds began growing as a rule
earlier than those outside.
The question therefore arises whether
with seasons averaging like the past fifty
years shedding in the long run for all va-
rieties will pay. It is true that late or-
anges can be carried through cold snaps
in sheds without being frosted, and it
would seem to be only desirabe for va-
rieties like Hart's Late Brazilian, Valen-
cia Late, Kings and pomelos.
With early varieties whose fruit is
taken from the trees before Christmas
good banking will keep the buds from
being lost with frosts later than the first
of February, while before that time the
danger of damage to tops is small, and
even if the tops get frozen back they will
begin bearing in a year again, and the
risk will average no greater than in
peach growing at the North.

THE QUESTION OF FUTURE PRODUCTION.

The question of future production
therefore seems to be along lines similar
to those of the past.
With present and prospective compe-
tition in both early and late oranges, the


old plan followed by many growers
seems desirable yet-to grow half or
two-thirds of early oranges to be shipped
before Christmas, and the remainder
later varieties either in sheltered loca-
tions where open fires can be used, or
under sheds, if the grower can afford it.
Some seasons early oranges may pay
best and again the late varieties.
In any case, choice varieties only
should be grown, and cultivation, ferti-
lizing and packing should aim at quality
rather than quantity.
And don't forget the old standard va-
rieties of round oranges. There is a ten-
dency to go to extremes in planting Sat-
sumas, Tangerines, Kings and pomelos.
There may be seasons when you wish
your whole grove was budded to one of
these fancy specialties, but I have never
seen a season yet when round oranges,
judiciously handled, did not bring profit-
able returns.
And remember that refrigerator trans-
portation and cold storage are going to
be the great perishable provision and
fruit trade equalizers of the future, and
that Hawaii, Japan, the Orient and even
the southern hemisphere will send kid-
glove oranges and pomelos to supply our
markets.


REPORT BY B. M. HAMPTON OF THE COMMITTEE.


While I do not claim to be an expert
on citrus fruits, I have had some expe-
rience in this line both in California and
in Florida. For the last ten years I
have been growing them in Florida, and
I think I may say with success. But the
cultivation of the citrus fruits extends
over such a wide area-they are grown
under such varied circumstances and


conditions of soil and climate-that to
attempt to tell you all I don't know of
this industry would simply be out of the
question, in the short time the session of
this meeting will be held.
It is needless to say that the culture
of the citrus fruits is fast assuming its
old time importance and on a more ad-
vanced scale of knowledge and enlight-






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


enment, so that one who thought he
knew about all there was to it before the
freeze of '95 now may find himself in a
quandary as to just what to do for the
best interest of himself and his trees, un-
der the changed circumstances.
And with the increase of the industry
comes the increase of the insect pests.
So we have the scale, the white fly, etc.,
to contend with. Then we have mal de
goma, foot rot, die back and so on, until
it makes one dizzy to think about them
and their cause and cure.
Oh, now we are coming to the gist of
the subject-the cause and cure-and so
we have the resin wash, the kerosene
emulsion, etc. I don't think you can ac-
cuse me of egotism when I say he is a
wise man that don't feel too sure of his
ground on this subject.
There was a time when I thought that
to spray with some of the many insecti-
cides was the proper thing to do. But
now-well, in the light of increasing
knowledge I feel like saying-Don't!
And I believe it is becoming the idea of
the advanced growers of the State to use
less and less of these sprays and to search
more and more for, and to encourage
our friends, both insect and fungus
growth. Here, I believe, is the line of
thought that it behooves us to investi-
gate more fully. Now, if I leave this ad-
vice on record, to use less of these sprays
and to search for and to utilize more and
more your insect and fungus friends, I
don't believe the future generations will
altogether condemn me. And in connec-
tion with our insect pests and the va-
rious ailments the citrus trees are subject
to, comes the fertilizer question. And
here I may well pause before I go on rec-
or,o. But it is my firm belief that with


proper fertilizing and the proper utilizing
of our many friends, there will be but lit-
tle use for the questionable practice of
spraying.
My especial experience in this line is
that until I took more care of my friends
and studied and experimented more with
the fertilizing of my trees, I made but
little headway against my enemies. Now
I trust I have put my spray pump aside
for good. Foot rot I have never had in
my grove, and dieback but little. But I
can get them whenever I want them, by
simply giving my trees plenty of some
organic fertilizer.
I know of nothing that will cause you
to have a full crop of the various ills that
the citrus trees are heir to, more surely
than to stuff them with an organic ferti-
lizer; that is, fertilizer composed mostly
from material from organic sources.
This can go on record, and time will
prove I am right.
Now, as to the best mode of produc-
tion, I will just say I have had but little
experience so far as protecting citrus
trees; yet so far as I can learn, I was
about the first to use a tent with a lamp
inside to keep off the cold.
Years ago I used various devices for
covering plants and trees to protect them
from the cold, but in December, 1894,
my wife and I made tents out of sheets
from the beds in the house. These I put
over some tropical or melon pawpaw
trees, then I lit a lamp and set it in the
tent under the tree. I found I could pro-
duce almost any desired degree of heat
in a few minutes; so, after experiment-
ing with them for a time, I set them to
burn for the night. This was a grand
success; not a leaf was touched, and I
believe those were the only trees of the
kind left alive in the county.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


But as to the matter of protection, as I
have had but little practical experience, I
will leave that for Mr. Hubbard and Mr.
Painter to say what they think best for
North Florida. So far as South Florida
is concerned, numerous small wood fires
will be found the cheapest and best. I
have seen acres of groves fired of a night
when the trees were in bud and bloom,
with entire success, not a bud or a twig


being injured, and I was told they kept
the temperature at 34 degrees in the
groves, whilst it was 25 degrees outside;
there was quite a breeze going, too.
And so it seems small wood fires and
plenty of them as a rule is all that will be
needed in this section on the north line
of South Florida, to save either bud,
bloom or fruit from cold.


The Florida Orange.


A DISCUSSION.


Mr. Butler-I notice that the speaker
seems to be under the impression that
the South Florida orange would not
keep as well as the North Florida
orange. I think the South Florida
orange will keep as well as the North
Florida orange when grown under the
same conditions. The fault was not with
the South Florida orange, but with the
South Florida man. For years we have
been getting high prices for oranges.
The shipper would sometimes get $2 on
the tree. The trees were fertilized high-
ly. Last spring we had excessive rain.
With excess of fertilizer, the nitrogen
had a tendency to make the orange grow
softer than usual. Many were packed
green and a large portion were packed
very carelessly. I have seen oranges
picked from the trees wet, dealers buy-
ing and packing as cheaply as possible.
Those who took care in packing have
had no complaint of the condition. I
know of growers who never heard of a
complaint from their oranges.


Mr. Carter-I am from South Florida
and I was made sad by the first article
on the subject that condemned South
Florida oranges as not keeping well;
and the comparison between South Flor-
ida oranges and East Coast oranges was
very much in favor of the East Coast.
We are envious of the East Coast down
there, but when the gentleman told us
that in Jacksonville, where they have all
kinds of oranges, people would persist
in eating South Florida oranges, even
rotten I felt that South Florida was not
so far behind after all. I wonder if the
proposition would not take, that we get
some of these men of brains to go to
South Florida to raise oranges on scien-
tific principles; and on behalf of South
Florida, I extend an invitation.
Mr. Porcher-Mr. Hubbard stated, I
think, that some thought that South
Florida oranges would not carry well.;
he did not compare them with North
Florida or East Coast oranges, and it
was only spoken of as last season. And







PLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


as a matter of fact, I think, from Mr.
Butler's remarks as to bad packing and
early shipping, that that was the cause;
and that it was not the fault of the fruit.
Mr. S. B. Mann-During a late visit
to Manatee county I learned for the first
time something of the white fly, some-
thing that has never occurred to me in
Volusia county; and I feel quite interest-
ed to know more about it, and I rise to
ask any one from that part of the State
to give us their best remedy and the
probabilities of its spread; whether it is
likely to come this way. If so, what is
best to do for it?
F. D. Waite-In regard to the carry-
ing and keeping qualities of the Florida
oranges in South Florida, I would say
that last winter in the Manatee section,
with rains coming every two or three
days, we had a chance to test the keep-
ing and carrying qualities of our fruit
with a system of under-ground drainage,
and we found that the fruit picked early
in the season (October and November)
from the grove under-drained during the
summer carried well. As the fruit in an-
other grove seemed to be more advanced
in ripening, we left that in the under-
drained grove and commenced shipping
the fruit from grove number two, leav-
ing about three hundred boxes of or-
anges on the trees of the under-drained
portion. On the I5th of January we
commenced shipping from this grove
again, and Mr. Preston, of Providence,
R. I., wrote us that not I per cent. had
decayed. The fruit in grove number two
commenced creasing badly by the 25th
of November, and fully 15 per cent. de-
cayed in transit, showing that excess of
moisture and lack of proper drainage has
a great deal to do with the carrying qual-
ities of the Florida fruit.


Mr. Adams-My grove is on high pine
land. I began shipping oranges for my-
self in small lots about the middle of No-
vember. I finished last Thursday, hav-
ing shipped every week. I sold to a Cin-
cinnati house about 2500 boxes. That
house wrote back after they were all
shipped that there was not one rotten
one in a carload that came from my
grove. Now, there was another grove,
one mile south of mine, with everything
equal to mine, but the same house wrote
me that 50 per cent. of that car was rot-
ten. Their own man picked them and
packed them in each grove; but they
never had packed a box of oranges be-
fore they came to my grove in their lives
and they learned something before they
went to the other fellow's. I kicked from
morning to night and when they asked
me if I wanted my name on the boxes I
said no, I would not allow a box of or-
anges the way you pack them to have
my name on them. I have yet to hear-
of one single orange that went from my
place rotting. A house in Providence,
the next to the last shipment, stated that
they were the finest they had seen
through the winter. Now, I believe
there is not an orange in the world that
will carry or ship better than the South
Florida orange, but you can't handle
them like rocks.
Dr. Kerr-I had a letter from a com-
mission house in Philadelphia some time
since stating that they had handled very
few oranges from Florida this winter;
those that they had received gave Flor-
ida rather a black eye in regard to qual-
ity. I did not like to hear that, so I
wrote back and stated that probably they
were Jamaica oranges brought on a boat
to Jacksonville and shipped from there as
Florida oranges. I believe they have







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


good oranges in South Florida. Indeed
I have been there and seen them, but
there is no doubt that we must make an
effort to put our fruit in the market in
the best possible manner which will at-
tract the buyers and not bring disgrace
upon our state. As far as. I am concern-
ed myself, I shipped some oranges this
year, and the reports came back that
they were all first-class in every respect.
But I gave them all away. Now, in re-
gard to the paper just read, there is much
that I believe to be truth. Still, a little
spraying seems to me is good medicine
when the insects have the leaves, but
there is a tendency in Florida about
these insects to let them go: something
is going to clear them off. When I
first came here myself I found the fleas
were intolerable, but I have gotten ac-
customed to them and I use nothing
against them to-day.

WEST COAST VS. EAST COAST ORANGES.

Mr. Hart-I don't think any one ques-
tions the ability of some South Florida
or West Florida growers to grow good
oranges, and grow them so they will
stand shipping, but we have had fearful
reports from the North on fruit this
year, and the quality of the Florida or-
ange has been reported so bad that I
saw by the papers that Chicago refused
for two or three weeks to receive any
Florida oranges or to handle them. That
is an awful black eye for our fruit. I
inquired into the matter as much as I
could, through sources from which the
Northern markets got their supply, and
so far as I could learn the East Coast
stood up in transit and in market as well
as ever, so the fruit that decayed must
have come from other parts of the state.


Before the freeze, and perhaps at pres-
ent the freight rates are very high from
way down on the West Coast, and the
people there had not given very much
attention, as a rule, to orange growing;
few there had studied into the matter as
thoroughly as they had on the East
Coast, where many had got it down to a
pretty fine point. Twenty-five years ago
Indian river fruit had the reputation of
keeping very poorly, but we have learn-
ed how to grow it to stand shipping
now. After the freeze the prices were
such that orange culture developed very
much on the West Coast, and I under-
stand there are a good many down there
who went right to cow-penning their
groves and supplying them with nitro-
gen through other organic sources in
quantities that softened the fruit, made
oranges of poor quality, and such as
would not stand to be shipped. We all
know that such result will surely follow
an excess of such food supply.
Now those who are the most intelli-
gently interested in orange culture from
that section come here to our meetings,
and I have no doubt in my mind at all
but that they have shipped successfully
and their fruit has arrived in good condi-
tion. That is simply because they were in-
terested enough to study into the matter
and get down to the fine points, as have
the older growers in the old Orange Belt
-and one of the fine points is fertilizing
properly, and another is handling prop-
erly. Many down that way have
handled their fruit carelessly. The
East Coast don't claim to have all the
brains. They simply claim that some of
them have had more experience than the
general run of those down on the West
Coast, but there are, I am told, many
there who have never given fruit grow-







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


ing careful study, and it is only the high
prices since the freeze that caused them
to ship largely. Most fruit that has
been properly handled has shipped well
this year. My fruit has shipped well,
and there has been no complaint what-
ever, and much of it was wet when I
picked it. Many do not dare to pick
fruit when wet, so they have their pick-
ers wait until it has dried on the trees.
The way I handle my fruit I can put it
in my packing-house and get it dried off
in one-quarter of the time that it would
take if left on the trees. It goes into
large trays with slatted bottoms and
hung in the middle, so as to tip one way,
then the other (illustrating); then open
the windows and doors and in a very few
minutes the oranges are dry on one side,
then tip the trays the other way and the
oranges roll over and dry the other side.
The grading takes me about three days
and in that time they cure thoroughly.
I can take an orange, run a knife blade
around it so as to cut through the outer
cuticle, leaving it in these trays, and in
three days it is ready to pack, an air-
tight coating having formed over the
cut that heals the wound and puts the
orange in perfect shape to ship. If this
was done and the orange was packed at
once for shipment, it would decay and
spoil others around it. If there is any
orange so badly injured that it cannot
be repaired by a free circulation of air,
decay proceeds, and the injury is discov-
ered before packing, as it has time to get
so bad that I cannot miss it. Therefore
only sound fruit goes into the box.
Here I show you one of my oranges
somewhat dried up and yet round until
now I think there is a soft place on one
side that shows it will soon decay.
(Hands it up.) That orange was picked


in December, nearly or quite five months
ago. Here are others not dried at all
and as fresh, firm and plump as if just
picked from the tree. This fruit was also
picked in December. I had intended to
lay aside a lot of them, but owing to my
friends' appreciation of their fine quali-
ties I failed to do so. These here shown
are culls left over from last year's pick-
ing.
Oranges will keep if you fertilize them
right and handle them right, if you don't
give them too much organic matter to
supply their nitrogen. I have not had
any preparation put on these or anything
of that kind, but here is a point, those
have been wet nearly all the time with
pure water. They were probably wet
when they were picked, and they have
been ever since. Oranges kept a long
time lose their brilliancy of flavor, so that
you could not keep them five months
and still have a first-class marketable
fruit, although they are fine in appear-
ance. You can keep them perhaps a
month or six weeks, possibly longer, and
still have fine marketable fruit. (Orange
is cut and found to be full and heavy.)
Question-How did you keep it wet?
Mr. Hart-I have received letters
from parties in Florida saying, "If you
will agree to pay me $25 or $1oo, as the
case may be, I will give you a recipe by
which you can keep fruit in fine market-
able shape for months." But I have
never given them the $25 or the $Ioo. I
am not going to try that on you with
my process. I will give it to you free
next year because I am interested in the
prosperity of this Society and its mem-
bers, but I wish to experiment more on
it. It is so simple and inexpensive that,
should I give it to you now, you would
not appreciate its real value. I am not







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


making any money out of it-don't want
to, except by holding fruit for high
prices-and I will give you the same
chance I have of doing this after this
year. But wet oranges can be kept. I
feel assured that the bad keeping
qualities of fruit that went down last win-
ter must be from some other cause; or
wet fruit is not allowed to dry properly
before it is shipped to market. I have
many times taken injured fruit, laid it
up on a shelf in my packing-house, and
had it keep perfectly until dried up,
showing that it should go to market in
good shape if properly cured.
Dr. Kerr-Next year you are going to
impart to us this information, and do you
intend to send around samples of the
boxes of oranges that we may test them
as I did, or not? And another thing I
wish to know, is it possible that there
was ever a cloud upon the East Coast
oranges?
Mr. Hart-The Turnbull hammock
oranges shipped very poorly twenty-five
years ago, so much so that it was consid-
ered about an even question whether
they could be got into market in sound
condition or not; but it is not so now.

BLEMISHES CAUSED BY THE THRIPS.
I
Mr. Butler-In the last remarks the
gentleman forgot that a large proportion
of the South Florida growers were form-
erly North Florida growers and went
down there. I don't know if this disease
(blemish or scar) attacks us much, and
I would like Mr. Hart to give the cause
of that disease.
Mr. Hart-I always concluded that
that was caused by the thrips in the
bloom.
Mr. Butler-I thought so, although


sometimes it almost took on the form of
a scar.
Mr. Hart-That would occur when
there was a dieback tendency in the tree.
It always seemed to me that was caused
by the thrips.
Dr. Inman-I think probably between
the oranges on the East and on the West
Coast there is very little difference. I
have shipped quite a lot of fruit this sea-
son, and of my oranges I have not lost a
box by decay. In March I shipped or-
anges to Columbus, Ohio. Last season
I shipped oranges in April which were
used in August, and not three oranges
in the box were decayed.
Mr. Porcher-This gives me an op-
portunity of speaking as to the thrips.
Thrips can be controled by spraying to
some extent, at least. On pine land
they will get away from you, but on ham-
mock land the use of caustic potash and
whale oil soap will destroy them without
danger, and no marks will be upon the
fruit. In addition to this, when the blos-
soms fall and the little oranges are as
small as a pea, you can detect the work
done by the thrips at once. In the same
way that you destroy these thrips you
kill the young of the common scale, you
destroy the purple mite, you prevent
danger from the red spider or hairy mite,
and you give your trees a health and
vigor that usually nothing else can give.
In other words, no insect, enemy or
friend, working in conjunction, can pos-
sibly live. And I, therefore, say that
with spraying, if done intelligently, the
thrips can be done away with. When
we come to spray and you ask a man
what he has done, he will say two or
three times in a year, when fifteen would
be best at start in some cases, and I may
say six to ten times a year. At this






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


statement the question will be raised as
to expense. When you consider that the
market will give you a fine price for
large fruit, bright fruit; that an orange
affected by scale is injured in its quality,
and sum the whole matter up, you will
find about 200 per cent. against you, for
any grove that will produce from five
hundred boxes up; and you will see that
you are in pocket a profit of 700 per cent.
on the most costly spraying you can use.
In my experience of past seasons I was
troubled for years with scale. Now, in
about 2,600 trees I doubt if you could
find many scale from end to end.
Mr. Hart's position is a very strong
one. I have seen the results he has ob-
tained, and they are good. I argue, Mr.
Hart's location is unique. I can show
groves in my section that have never
been sprayed and that have had the scale
for fifteen years (ever since I have been
in the State.) I have seen trees abso-
lutely killed with the scale, and I have
seen them thus not in one case but in a
number. In Mr. Hart's location, were I
putting out a grove next to his, I would
follow his methods, but I do say that
spraying should be looked upon as a
fixed charge upon the growing of fine
fruit, and that with it you can obtain de-
sired results all over the State without
reference to location.

SPRAYING IN THE BLOOM.

Mr. Waite-What effect does this
spraying have on bees and the setting of
fruit?
Mr. Porcher-No bad effect on bees.
Even the spraying of water would have
bad results generally on bloom. The
trees sprayed during bloom are heavily
laden, however. The proportion of


caustic potash to whale oil soap is one to
four, that is, a quarter of a pound to a
gallon of water. That proportion was
sprayed upon the bloom without refer-
ence to them. It went right into the
bloom. We were spraying for the pur-
ple mite and the trees were heavily laden
with bloom. A bee will be attracted
very often by the disagreeable smell.
The thrips is destroyed, and I am quite
sure it would be very difficult to find
thrips upon the bloom in my grove, and
as far as I have been able to examine the
fruit, there is not an orange that has a
thrips upon it, or is thrips marked.
Mr. Phelps-This orange that Mr.
Hart has handed up to the paltform as
being wet so long, I find by actual test
of it that there is at least 50 per cent. of
water in the juice, and a large amount of
acid has gone to the rind. Otherwise
the orange seems to be well preserved.
The juice is very thin indeed and the
acid that gives the flavor has ben ab-
sorbed largely in the rind.
Mr. Hart-Do you think the flavor is
less than it would have been if dry?
Mr. Phelps-It is probably better pre-
served than if left to evaporate.
Mr. Porcher-I am agent of the In-
dian river orange growers. As said
agent it is my duty to do or to have done
the work of inspection. We have found
a variety of conditions as to carrying
quality of fruit. We have not all perfect
fruit. We have not all perfect carrying
fruit, and I must emphasize the fact that
we do not claim to have all the brains of
the State on the East Coast. We have
found, however, that to refuse any form
of organic matter in fertilizing has been
absolutely our safeguard. Use chemical
fertilizer and mulching. Take pine
needles if you can't get anything better,







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


and use that in the groves around trees.
We have found that groves whose fruit
formerly would not carry can now be
shipped across the water. The past
season I sold twelve boxes of fruit out
of a grove that was noted for having
bad carrying fruit. It was put on a
tramp steamer, along with cotton, and
took twenty days to get to its destination
in France. But we went further and in-
quired particularly that we might learn
as to the condition, and there was no de-
cayed fruit. That fruit I packed for a
neighbor and sold for him; it was not
quite like Mr. Hart's, but somewhat on
the same plan as to fertilizing, and in
that case in the fertilizing there was sim-
ply a change from the use of cotton seed
meal to the use of nitrate of soda and a
small percentage of sulphate of ammo-
nia with bone black and high grade sul-
phate of potash. The consequences
show clearly with us that this fertilizer
corrected those conditions and made the
fruit carry.
Walter Cooper-We have not been
called upon to go into this subject on
high pine lands in Lake county. I have
inquired diligently around in the neigh-
borhood in regard to anything of inter-
est in this matter, and we have never
thought of the scale or insects that have
been successfully combatted elsewhere.
So we did not need to go into the subject
very extensively and I will let the matter
close at this point, and feel satisfied that
we shall have a much more complete re-
port from some of the members on this
subject.

BORDEAUX MIXTURE FOR DIEBACK.

Mr. Butler-Those of us attending the
meeting last year heard the subject of


treating dieback with Bordeaux mixture
discussed. A number of our members
have tried that since, and would it not be
well for them to give their experience
pro and con after applying it?
Mr. Hart-I will say that the whole
idea of cure by spraying the tree tops is
entirely contrary to my theory of the dis-
ease of dieback. Through the advice of
Mr. Porcher, I tried it. I regret to say
that the result in my case was what I
expected it to be, so far as dieback was
concerned. But it has been more than
that and has done more harm than I did
expect, a good deal. I expected no ben-
eficial results from the Bordeaux mix-
ture when I applied it and got none, so
far as I can see, but there are after ef-
fects which have been quite serious.
That is, the purple mite has come on to
those sprayed trees and they are very
bad on them. Wherever I used Bor-
deaux they are much worse than else-
where. Wherever I used that spray is
the place where you will find what scale
insects I have. If there is anything which
will encourage the scale, it is spraying
with the Bordeaux mixture. But I have
talked with a number of intelligent or-
ange growers who have reported it quite
successful in curing dieback in their
hands.
Mr. Porcher-I don't know whether
the horticulturists are aware of the
origin of that idea or not. With us it
came from a German, a Mr. Froscher.
His experiments were not entirely suc-
cessful with others, because he sold the
Bordeaux mixture, and it would remain
two weeks before it was used and there-
fore was useless. As soon as the mix-
ture was properly made and applied
promptly, there was no question as to its
results. But if we will use potash anq






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


mulch the trees and cease cultivating,
the Bordeaux proves a complete cura-
tive of the red rust. An application of
it, and then repeat it in ten days, would
cause the scaliness to be cleared off and
the fruit made shipable; but at the same
time where we spray with the Bordeaux
mixture we should follow it in a short
time with something to destroy scale. If
it were followed by a spray as an insecti-
cide we should not have the scale. It
was not of my origination at all; it was
simply my following out of another's
ideas.
Mr. Hardee-I have used the Bor-
deaux mixture. Mr. Froscher wanted
me to use it to introduce it. I had such
little confidence in any application of the
kind that I declined to use it, believing
that it was a root disease entirely. I
mulched some of my trees, others I could
cultivate, but the dieback seemed to get
worse. Mr. Porcher, who had used the
Bordeaux mixture as prepared by Mr.
Froscher, after he had tried it, told me
how to use it. I prepared it and used it
and I must confess this: I did not have
much confidence in it, but after the first
application I put on the trees, when the
fruit was about half grown, it instantly
stopped the cracking, and I was so well
pleased with the application that I gave
it a second time, and many of the trees
that were inclined to crack were cured.
I would say that the Bordeaux mixture
is a very good cure for dieback. But it
must be followed by an insecticide to kill
scale. I have a number of neighbors
around me that have also used the mix-
ture, and there is not one of them that I
have talked with but who was well
pleased with the result, but they all agree
that it must be followed up with some in-
secticide. I made only two applications


to my trees, I think twenty or probably
twenty-five days apart. I used the rosin
wash afterwards.
Mr. Porcher Bordeaux mixture
should not be used too often; three ap-
plications in twelve months would be
sufficient. Four pounds copper sulphate
to six of lime, so as to give plenty of
lime. The mixture wants to be used as
quickly as possible after being made.
Mr. Hubbard-Has the Bordeaux
mixture any effect on the flavor of the
fruit ?
Mr. Porcher-None at all.
Mr. Butler-Of course, when we all
heard what Mr. Froscher's mixture was,
we believed it to be contrary to our
ideas, but the word of an honest man is
sacred, therefore I used it. I sprayed
ten acres that was beginning to have a
little dieback and it helped them. I also
believe that it has a tendency to cure
rust.
Mr. Porcher-When this question of
Bordeaux mixture came up I wrote to
the Department at Washington and they
replied that their investigation showed
that our trouble was unquestionably a
sap trouble; in other words that it came
from the root. You can take a tree up,
remove it to another location and it does
not have the red rust. I state that it is
a fungous trouble which is corrected by
this mixture. The Department will tell
you that it is not a fungous trouble. They
will also tell you the Bordeaux mixture
is a fungicide. I don't know what more
to say, save that I have had good results
with Bordeaux mixture.
I have corresponded with many and
I can find in no case a man who will give
any explanation beyond the fact that
possibly there were ulterior'things that
have helped us out.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


Mr. Hart-I will meet two of the
points that have been brought up. My
Bordeaux mixture was made fresh for
each barrel full and applied within an
hour after it was made. It was made
right or else the Government experts
are wrong, for I tried all their tests, and
therefore I cannot admit that it was
wrong in any way; and yet it did not
bring the results that some seem to have
obtained. This was done early in June.
The dieback continued right through for
the rest of the year and for the next
growth; so much so that on the trees
that were affected the summer growths
were reduced to almost nothing. They
are cured now. I cured them by the old
methods. I am sure we can cure die-
back without the Bordeaux mixture, but
it may take a year to do it. In one cor-
ner of one of my oldest groves there
were about forty trees that were badly
affected with dieback. I used the Bor-
deaux mixture on part of two rows of
them, and I treated these and all the
rest but three trees by leaving off culti-
vation and giving them potash and phos-
phoric acid only. They immediately got
well and are now almost equal to the
rest of the grove. The difference be-
tween the trees that I continued to cul-
tivate and the others that were treated
by non-cultivation, potash and phos-
phoric acid, now is that the latter are
two-thirds larger than those three. But
last fall I treated those the same and
they are now healthy. The only way
that I can see that Bordeaux mixture
can do any good is to go into the root
and there limit the action of the soil fer-
ments, the excessive activity of which
causes the disease. There are three sets
of them that work over organic matter
before they get it in shape for the tree


to take up the nitric acid, and \varmth
and moisture increase in their action.
They cannot work in cold weather and
they cannot work without moisture.
Both conditions are just right for them
in Mr. Porcher's shedded grove. Bor-
deaux was applied, went into the ground
and checked the disease. A fungicide
would check that development and in
that way, it seems to me, it must bring
about the change, if it does any good
at all.
Mr. Waite-Had you used nitrate of
soda, do you think you would have had
any bad results?
Mr. Hart-I don't think I would, but
I can't waste money or even run the risk
of harm by using more nitrogen on these
trees until its need is indicated by the
color of the foliage and character of the
growth.
The point was brought up about
spraying the bloom. That matter has
been so thoroughly tested that there is
no question but that it does harm. In
New York State the horticulturists were
so sure that spraying should be done dur-
ing blooming time that they finally got
a law through the legislature allowing
spraying at that time for experimental
purposes, expecting to prove their side
so as to allow anyone to spray then if
they chose. Scientists of Cornell and
others took hold of the matter, expect-
ing to get results favoring this, but when
they finally brought in their report it
was such as to satisfy every one that it
was imprudent to spray at the time of
bloom and that the spray just before or
just after would answer all purposes.
They proved conclusively that spraying
fruit blossoms destroyed the potency of
much of the pollen and thereby greatly
reduced the crop. Hundreds of tests






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


were made and all showed injury to the
interest of the fruit grower as well as
the bee-keeper.
Mr. Porcher-I am not in favor of
spraying the bloom. I only cited an in-
stance because it was unusual. I was
forced to spray on account of the purple
mite.
Mr. Hart-Scientists now agree upon
that matter. You can spray one side of
a tree when in bloom and leave the other
side unsprayed, and the side which is
sprayed will produce no crop and the
other side will produce fruit.
The dieback was immediately follow-
ing the freeze of 1895, and these trees
were set in 1885, budded trees on sour
stock. Mr. Porcher stated that if he
were in my locality he would probably
do as I do in regard to the matter of
scale. He may have the idea in his head
that I have not had experience anywhere
else, but I think I may safely say that I
have studied this matter on all classes of
orange lands and I may as safely say that
my environments or my particular land
have very little to do with it.
Mr. Butler-There is one important
point never brought out in regard to sul-
phate. I have produced dieback; can do
it any time on my soil. Even where we
have none I have produced dieback by
sulphate of ammonia.
Mr. Porcher-Mine are old trees and
they are on shell hammock land. It is
what we term dangerous land. You
have to be always watchful about shell
hammock. I don't think I recall seeing
any red rust on Mr. Hart's trees recently
and I wish to emphasize the fact that we
have in Mr. Hart one of our most care-
ful and observant men.
Mr. Gaitskill--I have shell hammock
land and there was a time when I did


have dieback. Young trees died down
to the ground and I quit cultivating and
using organic fertilizer and I cured the
dieback. Chickens roosted in the trees
and caused the dieback, and I believe
the cure of dieback is in stopping the use
of organic substances. I cured that tree
with sulphate of potash and nothing else.
Mr. Phelps-I believe that if we use
sulphate of ammonia alone, a small per
cent. would do no harm, but I don't be-
lieve nitrate of soda is anything but a
forcer. I don't believe in its use. I
have tested it this year on celery. I
have put on five pounds every ten days
until I reached sixty pounds. Along-
side of it I have put a fertilizer composed
of phosphoric acid from bone, sulphate
of ammonia and potash, and I cannot
see at the end of a few months any effect
from the nitrate of soda except that it
tastes very salt. I believe that you can
produce disease with sulphate of ammo-
nia if you use it alone. But, where my
poultry house had been I have always
used sulphate of ammonia to counteract
the effect of nitrogen.
Dr. Kerr-Mr. Hart, as my friend on
the left justly states, has a grove that is
unique. I have never been at the place,
but I have been along the shore, and he
speaks about his oranges being damp
for so long a time. I have been along
the coast when I thought everything
was wet, and I presume that has a great
deal to do with the keeping of his or-
anges. Now, on high pine land we don't
require to have boards under the feet of
our horses when we plow.
Mr. Hart-You would have to dig
down twelve feet to get to water in my
grove, Doctor.
I want to call attention to the disease
of blight. Years ago at Orlando I think






PLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL 800IETY


perhaps I was the cause of this Standing
Committee on Insects and Diseases be-
ing originated, largely for the purpose
of studying blight, and we got the Gov-
ernment to send down experts here to
study it, and they, up to the freezes of
'94-'95, had studied every part of the
tree, leaf, bark, etc., and they had not
yet got any light as to the cause of it or
any possible cure, but they had many
experiments on foot to test the diseased
trees and learn its nature, and if it had
not been for the freeze I think that we
should have found whether the disease
was in the root or branches, bark or sap,
and possibly found out what was the
cause. The blight is with us yet, and it
is the most serious disease we have to
contend with. The Government then
took their experts North, expecting to
carry on the work from there, but from
lack of appropriations the work has been
mostly dropped. We must make an ef-
fort to have it taken up again.
The President-An appropriation has
been made which becomes effective the
first of July and the work will be re-
sumed.
Mr. Porcher-I would like to know
if anyone has ever found blight on low
hammock land?
Mr. Waite-We have found in laying
our under-drains a layer of rock about
three or four inches thick, which covers
over an area of about forty acres. Last
year we picked twenty-five boxes from
those trees.
Mr. Porcher-As a matter of fact, I
think the "blight" is found on all soils
except very low hammock. We are
growing trees that are old enough to
have blight, but I have yet to recall a
case of low hammock with blight.


THE WHITE FLY.

Mr. Reasoner-The white fly in our
neighborhood seems to have been about
caught up with by the different fungi,
and we no longer fear it, and the best
proof of that is that there are one hun-
dred acres near us being planted with
citrus trees. In most of the groves
near us we immediately caught up with
the spread of the white fly. There is
practically very little of it there. In
fact, it is about gone. The longest time
that any of our planters has had the
white fly has been about two years, and
there is not one of the groves but what
has been cleared of white fly. I can say
that the Foster groves are where the
white fly first came from, and the Foster
groves have turned out from eight to
ten thousand dollars worth of fruit.
There has been no spraying there what-
ever. We sprayed for several years
without success.
Mr. Waite-Speaking of spraying, we
had about sixty acres that we found last
year was covered with white fly, small
trees about six feet high, and I was talk-
ing with quite a number of gentlemen
who had sprayed, and we came to the
conclusion that we would try spraying.
We did so in November and December,
using the rosin wash. In January we
gave it another application and in the
spring the white fly was on the wing, and
we examined the trees and found no
white fly excepting on large trees.
Question-What was the extent of the
damage done during the two years that
the white fly was present?
Mr. Waite-There was only partial
loss of fruit. Where the white fly was
worst the trees dropped part of the crop.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL 8OCIBET


The trees were decidedly damaged.
Most of those trees had never been
pruned in the center, and had they been
pruned out properly, I don't think the
white fly would have effected any dam-
age. The very thickness of the tree
kept out the air, but the tree in general
was not damaged.
Mr. Porcher-We have years when
the scale is more prevalent than others.
It has to go through a certain period.
I argue that there are periods when you
have to submit to scale and white fly
before you get the assistance of the
fungi. In a period of say twenty-five
years we have to pass through certain
conditions of disaster before our friends
come to relieve us I argue for spraying
as a thing to be done every year. I be-
lieve that while you may destroy your
friends, you are at the same time de-
stroying your enemies. I submit that
they cannot grow grapes in any portion
of the United States without spraying.
In addition to that, here is the very
point I brought forward to emphasize-
that while your friends are helping you,
your enemies are attacking you and leav-
ing you in a very helpless condition. In
every section of our State, if we had
sprayed ever single month in the
twelve, there would not be a white fly
in the State of Florida. If there was a
law which made it obligatory upon all to
spray, there would not be an insect that
would trouble us in the whole State.
Mr. Hart-The loss of fruit is very
small under the plan that I advocate.
There will be in a grove of a thousand
trees two or three that will be bad with
scale, and those two or three are the
only ones that will be injured, and that
only for perhaps one season. With the


white fly, Mr. Porcher thinks that if they
had sprayed from the beginning they
would have kept it down. Suppose
they had sprayed from the beginning.
They would be spraying now. They
would have gone to immense expense
and cost with white fly.
The largest grove near us where they
have made a careful study of spraying is
about twenty acres, and that has been
sprayed regularly for white fly for several
years, and the cost of spraying has been
so heavy that the owners get but very
little out of the fruit, although they get
very good crops. The cost of this con-
tinual spraying is very great. You have
to spray three or four times a year. Cost
is several hundred dollars and the profit
is reduced to little.
Mr. Porcher-The cost of my spray-
ing last year was $I80, including every-
thing.
Mr. Stevens-I would like to hear
something as to the mealy bug.
Mr. Porcher-I can say that I entirely
conquered it. It was only on two trees
and it would get down between the at-
tachment of the leaf and stem and was
very persistent, but we have finally con-
quered it.
Mr. Adams-I cured it entirely with
hard wood ashes, putting dry ashes on.
Mr. W. H. Mann-I have had some
little experience with them. I could not
kill them without killing the tree, and
finally I cut the trees to the ground.
Mr. Adams-I had the mealy bug on
one tree in my grove and nowhere else.
I dug it out and tried the dry ashes and
I never had any trouble with them.
Sometimes I had to try the second time,
but they did the work.













Lettuce Culture Under Cover.


BY W. H. DRAEGER, OF GAINESVILLE.


To grow lettuce under cover (cotton
cloth), a person must have suitable soil.
Lettuce likes rich, loamy, damp soil,
well drained, not subject to being water-
sogged after rains. To prepare for
planting, have your soil well tilled, fer-
tilizer thoroughly mixed with the soil;
use a high-grade fertilizer with an
analysis about as follows: Moisture, 7 to
9 per cent.; available phos. acid, 5 to 6
per cent.; insoluble phos. acid, 2 to 3 per
cent.; ammonia, 6 to 8 per cent.; potash,
K20, 6 to 8 per cent.
Well-rotted compost is especially suit-
able for lettuce, with commercial ferti-
lizer added; I,ooo pounds to the acre
should be sufficient, but great care must
be taken to have it thoroughly mixed
with the soil, especially if a liberal
amount is used. Have it in the soil
some days before setting the plants, say
four or five days.
Care should be taken that the plants
are young and strong, say from five to
six weeks old, as older plants are more
liable to run to seed or not head well.
In preparing the land for the beds, they
should be on a slight slope the narrow
way. Make the lands some wider than
the bed proper; say allow a foot on each
side. List up ridges across the beds
with a hand-plow about fifteen inches
apart, smooth the lists down to about
one and a half to two inches high.


Plant twelve inches apart on the ridges.
Lettuce should be set before the cover
frames are put down. A very desirable
sized frame would be as follows: Have
the frame twenty feet wide across the
bed; have the cloth sewed in eight-yard
widths. For a twenty-foot bed have
the center ridge stake about three feet
high; the outside stakes about ten or
twelve inches high; the ridge strip 1-2
2x21 feet long. Put the ridge strip over
the ridge stakes, bow down and nail to
the ten-inch stake a board to fit the short
stake, nail on around the entire bed, so
the cloth can be fastened on to the
boards. A good stout string should be
attached to the cloth at every stake,
which can be put say five or six feet
apart. The cloth must lap over the
boards enough to keep the winds from
getting under the cover; this is import-
ant.
The bed the long way can be made as
long as the person wishes it; but it is not
practical to have beds too long, as the
cloth is hard to handle, especially if there
is much wind to contend with. The
ridge stakes should be at least 2x2
inches; in fact, all stakes should be 2x2
inches. The cloth can be tacked down
or tied to the center stake, as the person
chooses.
The cloth should never be down only
when there is danger of frosts or freez-







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


ing or before heavy rains. The cloth
will shed off a good deal of rain, as well
as protect the lettuce from a beating
rain.
Lettuce should be kept until well
headed and matured to insure good
prices.
Frame lettuce should be planted to
come off in December, January and Feb-
ruary, as it usually sells best during
those months. Earlier or later than the
above dates it generally does not bring
as good prices.
Big Boston variety is the favorite.

DISCUSSION.

Mr. Phelps-It is unfortunate that the
man who wrote the paper is not here
to be questioned somewhat. We cannot
ask questions on a paper that is simply
read. One question I would ask him
is, what is the necessity, in this climate,
of raising lettuce under cover? And I
would like to ask him, as it is contrary
to what we have heard here, why organ-
ic fertilizer should be used on lettuce.
I have raised a considerable amount of
lettuce in this climate myself, but I have
always raised it outdoors. Last year I
put out thirty-eight rods and I shipped
in January a first-class lettuce. Some of
the heads were sent to Jacksonville. I
shipped five tons from that quarter of
an acre. I don't think I could have done
any better under the great expense of
cloth covering. This was raised entire-
ly in the open, on land well drained, but
with tile underneath so that it could be
wet or drained at my choice. Lettuce
does not require much moisture. It is
always best on the highest points in the
field. I differ with him on the point
of Big Boston being the best. I am ex-


perimenting with lettuce to know which
will do the best in this climate. It is a
plant that I think will yield as much ben-
efit to Florida, if properly cultivated, as
the celery is doing. The past season has
been one that has been most affected by
insects in any of the twenty-six that I
have spent in Florida, on trees, orna-
mentals and on vegetables. Usually I
have grown with perfect impunity col-
lards, but during this year I have been
unable to grow collards. They have
been entirely consumed by insects. But-
terflies lay an egg that is very bad on
lettuce and the cutworm is simply terri-
ble, and the enemy that we have most
to combat in raising lettuce is the cut-
worm. I saw last year where the lettuce
was left on the land. This year I saw
that land where the lettuce had been left
over, not shipped, and I turned over a
lot of it, and I could scrape up the cut-
worms by the quart. If that debris had
been burned it would have been differ-
ent.
Mr. Waite-I think perhaps I can ex-
plain why the people of Gainesville grow
lettuce under cover. It is to protect it
from frost. I have seen lettuce fields in-
jured by frost to such an extent that at
times it became unsaleable. At other
times, after remaining in the field per-
haps a week longer, one could brush
away the leaves affected by the frost and
ship it as second-grade. We have grown
lettuce on Manatee plantations and sold
it at $14 a crate.
Mr. Embry-How much expense at-
tends the culture of an acre of lettuce to
put it on the market? How are the
seed beds put in? Is it by turning or
other methods; and how soon are the
plants ready ? Do they have to be trans-
planted, or are they put direct from the







FLORIDA BTATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


seed bed, and how often is it cultivated?
Mr. Phelps-There are no two people
that cultivate lettuce alike. The major-
ity of people make a seed bed and raise
it about two inches high; put on the seed
and brush over very lightly, and in about
three weeks time from the time it is
sowed it is ready to prick out. Some
work it daily, others work it but once;
and my experience is that those who
have well fertilized with chemical ferti-
lizer make as good lettuce from working
it once as from working it many times.
And my experience is, to work it with a
wheel hoe, run it through once and then


stop. I think it is the best method.
However, where the land has been under
cultivation a couple of years, I would
sow it in the check, and not have the
trouble of transplanting. Last year we
realized about $1,ooo to an acre. The
early lettuce did not bring as large a
price. The midseason lettuce brought
from four to five dollars a basket. In the
first shipment, perhaps of twenty crates,
I got $3 per crate. I think $I,ooo gross
per crate was what was generally real-
ized, but it was an extraordinary season
as to prices.


Pineapples and Other Tropical Fruits.


BY CYRUS W. BUTLER, OF ST. PETERSBURG.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
As our gathering here naturally con-
stitutes an experience meeting, and my
experience with pineapples is confined
to the Pinellas peninsula, I will try to
give a short synopsis of the industry as
it exists there, without making any pre-
tentions of adding to the knowledge of
informed growers, and with apologies to
them for repeating that which they al-
ready know, which, however, is not the
case with the majority of those who read
the Report of our Proceedings.
Until 1890 no pineapples were grown
upon the Pinellas peninsula, excepting a
few small patches of Red Spanish, which
were grown in open fields.
About that time a few small sheds
were erected over Abbakas, Porto Ricos,


and the various Queens, but without fi-
nancial success.
In 1895, S. N. Perkins & Company
erected a two-acre shed and planted it
out to Smooth Cayenne and a few Ab-
bakas. At that time it cost $2500 per
acre to put out Cayennes under shed,
but the first crop of fruit and suckers
paid for the pinery and left a good profit
besides. The financial success, aided
by an appeal to the eye of great beds of
"living green," each plant topped -with its
beautiful fruit, was an example that
needed only to be set, and during the
last four years about fifty acres of sheds
have been erected within two miles of St.
Petersburg, and the industry is rapidly
increasing.
The sheds are those known to most







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


growers and are made by placing 8 1-2
foot lightwood posts eight feet apart
north and south by fourteen feet east
and west, upon which, running east and
west are 2x6xI5 feet stringers, or
some use I I-2x8xI5. On top of
these stringers rest the Ix3xi6-foot
slats, though some growers use Ix4
slats. Still others use lath for top, but
the woven wire and lath top is not pop-
ular.
The land chosen varies all the way
from low pine, through pine and willow
oak, to rosemary and sprucepine scrub.
Probably the growing tendency is to-
ward the lower land.
The preparation of the land is as thor-
ough as if intended for an onion bed.
When practical to do so, stable manure,
cow manure, tobacco stems or even oak
leaves are plowed under and allowed to
rot before planting. Cowpenning is
also a good preparation, but in the ma-
jority of cases from one to three tons of
blood and bone is harrowed in after
plowing.
While planting may be done at any
time of the year, it is seldom advisable
to do so between September and March,
and probably seventy-five per cent. of
the sheds are planted during the rainy
season.
After being stripped of their small
basal leaves, the plants are set out
eighteen inches east and west by twenty-
five or thirty inches north and south, in
beds nine feet in width, leaving a five-
foot walk between the beds. The usual
distance of 18x3O, with walks, will give
8295 plants per acre, while 18x25 inches
gives nearly Io,ooo plants per acre. Be-
fore the roots get near the surface of the
earth, wheel hand hoes and rakes can be
used to an advantage, but after the


shoots get up the scuffle hoe only is
used. With young plants, the more cul-
tivation, the more growth; but by the
time the plants have got their growth,
cultivation is almost if not entirely
stopped, both because it is difficult and
of doubtful utility.

FERTILIZERS.

After mixing and using twenty-four
different formulas, I now use blood and
bone and potash, with an occasional ap-
plication of hardwood ashes. On new
ground we usually apply blood and bone
only for the first application and increase
the potash with each application until by
the time that the plant is about grown,
when equal parts of low-grade potash
and blood and bone are used (1-2 potash,
1-2 blood and bone). One successful
grower uses high-grade potash and
thereby gets twenty-five per cent. of ac-
tual potash.
Nitrogenous fertilizers should be used
with caution, if at all, during the growth
of the fruit; for at last when the fruit is
well advanced, it has a tendency to cause
it to crack open at the base. An aver-
age application would be four ounces per
plant, with three or four applications per
year.

DISEASES.

Blight is perhaps the only disease af-
fecting our pineapples, but it seems to
visit almost every pinery. In some cases
the percentage is as low as one plant out
of 2,000, but again as high as fifty out of
I,ooo plants. So far, we have discovered
no cure for a plain case of blight, though
if taken up, stripped and planted in a new
place, the plants usually throw out a new







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


root system, and, after fruiting, nice-
looking suckers. But I think that such
suckers should not be used, for although
they may not inherit the disease, they
may inherit the tendency to contract it.
Unless some blighted plants are wanted
to experiment with, it is best to pull
them up and throw them away. Plants
on low ground are less subject to blight
than those upon higher ground.
This year five of our pineries have
been affected by what is known as curl,
which is a condition of the plant in which
the bud turns over until it has assumed
a horizontal instead of an upright posi-
tion. During the winter it looked quite
serious, as from five to fifteen per cent.
of the plants of those pineries were af-
fected, but now they seem to be out-
growing the conditions.
A committee from our local Pineapple
Growers' Association was appointed to
examine into the cause of this defect.
While we came to no conclusions as to
the cause, it was found that pineries fer-
tilized with blood and bone and potash
only were free from this trouble, while it
did occur in pineries where nitrate of
soda or nitrate of soda and sulphate of
ammonia were used. I would suggest
that possibly it was caused by those
strong forms of ammonia getting into
the plant.

INSECTS.

Under this heading, only the mealy
bug and pineapple scale come to trouble
us, and they are seldom sufficiently nu-
merous to justify a combat; and when
they are they die easily when fought
with any good insecticide, at one-half of
the usual strength used for citrus scale.
Ground tobacco used freely upon the
4


plants has a strong tendency to keep
them down, and it is worth from fifty to
seventy-five per cent of its cost as a fer-
tilizer. But few growers have paid any
attention to either of these pests.
As to the different kinds of plants, I
can see no difference between the results
from rattoons, suckers, slips, stool plants
and crowns; provided that they are all
equally good of their kind. Am inclined
to think that crowns produce a slightly.
larger apple than the other plants, but
they are somewhat subject to rot when
planted.

EFFECTS OF COLD.

While it would perhaps not be desira-
ble to have the temperature go below
35 or 40 degrees Fahrenheit, the
plants, even when blooming, have
stood a temperature of 28 degrees Fahr.
for some hours with a loss of the tips of
the taller leaves only. I have never
known of pineapple plants being killed
in the neighborhood of St. Petersburg,
when under a walled shed, but since 1895
I do not go to bed on cold nights.
As to varieties with us the Smooth
Cayenne has taken the place of all oth-
ers.

COSTS AND PROFITS.

At present prices, it costs about $16oo
to plant out an acre shed of Cayennes,
and nearly $2,000 to bring the same to
bearing, but regardless of this high cost,
all pineries of one-quarter acre or more
that I know of have paid all expenses
with the first crop of fruit and suckers,
and usually a good profit besides. The
best returns that I have heard of for a
single crop of fruit only was $700 from






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


$3oo plants, which was little more than
one-quarter of an acre. The best returns
for both fruit and suckers that I have met
with was from a pinery I 1-15 acres in
extent, four-fifths of which was in
-Smooth Cayenne and the remainder in
Abbakas. This pinery was planted
three years ago last August, and
up to this date $7,602 has been received
from the sale of fruit and suckers, and
these figures will easily reach $8,ooo
during the next three months. This is
an exceptionally profitable pinery, but I
hear of another said to be more so.
More money has been realized from
the sale of plants than for fruit, and
while it would be natural to expect the
price of suckers to decline, they sell for
more to-day than they did three years
ago.
Winter fruit sells higher than summer
fruit, and early spring higher than win-
ter, but the fruit grown during the dry
spring months is best in quality.
Taken as a whole, the pineapple busi-
ness ranks with orange growing, the two
being the most profitable industries of
our locality.

OTHER TROPICAL FRUITS OF THE SUB-
PENINSULA.
Prior to 1895, mangoes, avocado
pears and guava trees shaded almost
every door yard, while an occasional
tamarind, sugar apple, soursop, sapodilla
or papaya was thrown in for variety
sake. The three first named were the
most important, and of these the mango
and avocado pear were highly profitable
until our mango crop overstocked our
local market, when we found that the
only cities where this fruit could be sold


were those containing people from the
tropics.
The palate of the North has not learn-
ed to understand the language of Miss
Mango and therefore were dumb to her
sweet accents, but to most of our local
residents either the mango, avocado
pear or guava was considered of more
value for local use, during their season,
than the citrus fruits at any season.
I would say that mangoes and avocado
pears were greatly superior to the same
species as brought from Cuba. The
Cuban fruit being picked green may pos-
sibly account for the difference in part.
The freeze of 1894 destroyed not only
our tropical trees, but also our courage
to care for them, so that to-day we have
only an occasional small mango tree and
about enough avocado pear trees and
guava bushes to furnish fruit for our
local use. Not that we could not have
had them in abundance by this time, had
we planted during the spring of 1895,
but we lacked faith, and without faith
man eats but the fruit of neglect.

DISCUSSION.

Mr. Porcher-I have no report to
make. I am not a pineapple grower nor
a grower of tropical fruits. I don't think
I could add anything to Mr. Butler's ex-
cellent paper. One or two have sug-
gested that I should be on the committee
because I am the agent of the pineapple
growers; but that is entirely a question
of marketing, and one I don't think
should be considered here. The point
is that this is the season when it may be
a little inopportune for me to speak on
the subject of marketing, as we have in
our section quite a little opposition on






FLORIDA STATR BORTIOULTURAL BOCIJTY


that very question this year. In fact,
the new movement there claims a large
percentage of the fruit, and while the old
Association is going on with its busi-
ness there has been quite a little com-
ment by the press on this subject. In
our plan of marketing the design was
simply to have an agent at the most ef-
fective point for receiving and forwarding
the shipments to the proper markets,
with a system of local agents in the mar-
kets we would need who would be our
agents. That is to say, that they should
handle no other pineapples during our
season. On those lines we appointed
agents in sixty-one markets which have
been reduced to thirty-nine. Starting in
with the crop of 1896, we have gradually
increased the net result, until last season,
with 132,000 crates of pineapples in the
territory in which we operate, we mar-
keted 51,248 crates, and our net result,
including culls, ripes, etc., was $1.73 a
crate. We have stated in print that we
are proud of that net result; that it is the
highest that has been made. In addi-
tion to that, there were f.o.b. sales of
about 35,000 crates; the prices ranged
for a few as low as $1.50, for most of
them $1.75, and as high as $2.25. Now,
when you consider that the Red Span-
ish pine yielded as high as 600 crates to
the acre, with that net result, it is one
that is worthy of the attention of anyone,
and in fact our growers to-day are as-
sured that despite the conditions against
them, we have made conditions that in-
sure a good net result for good Red
Spanish pines.
The conditions have been such from
our section that this season a large part
of the fruit will be sold, and with the two
organizations working, there is practi-
cally no fruit that will not go through an


organization. The new party has so far
endorsed our plan, with the exception
that they contemplate selling more fruit
on orders.
I would state that when we first took
hold of this system we used the lIrge
barrel crate. We now use the standard
crate. With that crate we can wiap and
pack the Red Spanish pines and we can
have those pines transported to the most
distant markets, with practical none of
the fruit spoiled. In addition to that, we
organized a close intercourse with the
markets and with the transportation
men. We watched those cars in Jack-
sonville on the transit. We could send
a car to Cincinnati and have fruit cut out
and sent on to Columbus and delivered,
and we even put fruit in less than carload
lots through on car-lot time. The West
was always opened to us for car-lot ship-
ments, and we were in position to make
those lots. With a simple system of
marketing any of the products that go
out of this State, be they what they may,
with a local agent and a system of agents
appointed and understood to be solely
representing that Association, success
can be assured in any direction, whether
it be pineapples or oranges. Any other
system will certainly meet with failure.
Where auction is the system, there is.
bound to be loss between the buyer and
the man who grows the fruit, whereas we'
have withdrawn from markets where our
fruit would be lowered through competi-
tion against itself. Under our condi-
tions and with this watchfulness, the
proper markets can be found, all fruit
can be used, and those who had never
heard of pines on the plant rushed in to
see fruit on plants we exhibited until the
policemen had to separate the crowd..
This was in Cleveland, Ohio. In' Buf-







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOOIETY


falo we started off with five carloads and
we have gotten up to thirty. Therefore
for the Red Spanish pine the field is open
and is increasing. Our only necessity is
to grow a marketable fruit. Of course,
if we will grow 48 to the crate, instead of
24, the one selling at $1.50 gross and the
other at $3, the one taking 48 pines, the
other 24 to the crate, the man who
grows the 24s and 30s is the man who
will win.
The use of ice is deadly to any pine.
It will cause it, if green, not to ripen; if
ripe, to decay. We load those cars with
crates well spaced, well ventilated, so
that if you place small pieces of paper at
one end they will be carried right
through the car to the other end by the
draft; there is a strong current of air,
and the fruit is kept in perfect condition.
The only time we have any difficulty is
after July; from this on toward the end


of the season we have our trouble. Up
to that date we can strike an average,
and it is surprising to know how it
stands. Late in season local fruits are
coming in plentifully. Peaches will sell
12 1-2 cents to 25 cents per basket.
People have been eating pines since the
first of April. The canning has been
done and even the men to make the juice
for medicinal purposes and soda fount-
ains have stopped, and at that date we
have the most difficult time. We have
to urge our agents and this is the time
we have to fight hardest for the success
of our work. This is when returns will
come in sometimes very poor and unjust
growers will be dissatisfied. We cannot
fail to have these difficulties every sea-
son and we cannot do more than do our
best. But all we aim for and ask is to
make the net result on the whole for the
good of the grower.


Protection, Cold Weather Cycles, Etc.


A DISCUSSION.


Mr. Porcher-I think we all recall
cases where the reading of the thermom-
eter has been given in various sections.
I have always thought that many times
a man was right where he was accused
of being wrong; that there are big dips
of cold that there is no accounting for.
I have known on the East Coast on one
occasion where the fruit was injured by
a southwest cold wind. On another,
West Palm Beach and Lemon City were
struck, and no harm done elsewhere.


Dr. J. W. Plummer had his pines abso-
lutely frozen and ruined and those at the
north and south of him were uninjured.
Last winter when the lowest reading of
the thermometer in Rockledge was 30
degrees, we recorded 18 degrees at my
grove on Merritt's Island for a short
time. Some young trees were killed;
we have not a guava this year. Two
miles south of us there was no injury
done. The same north. It did not
cross the river. When we made fires







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL BOCIBTY


under my shedded grove to protect the
bloom, the wind drifted the smoke out
on the river, showing that the wind was
from the east. We had it for several
hours at 24 degrees, and some fruit near
the ground we cut into and it was full of
ice. We have been unable to find any
explanation of these conditions, but the
foregoing are the facts.
Mr. Taber-I have had some expe-
rience, and we have found that after the
wind has blown for twenty-four or thirty-
six hours from the northwest, and finally
goes around and blows from the south,
that we have it just as cold from the
south as it was from the northwest, and
we have actually lighted fires at 4 o'clock
in the morning to protect the trees from
the south wind.
Mr. S. B. Mann-In regard to the
north end of a south wind, it is as cold
as the south end of a north wind. In
our county there has been a great deal
of money expended in tents, in sheds and
in open fires, and those who have made
no attempt at protection, except the
banking-up of the sand as high as you
could make it stand, are just as well off
to-day, so far as I know, and I have come
to this conclusion-perhaps you would
not all agree with me-that if I cannot
grow oranges where I live without sheds
or artificial protection, then I must quit
it and do something else; and that, I
think, is about the wisest thing we can
any of us do.
Mr. Stevens-We have about fifty
five acres under sheds, and we are very
well pleased with the results. We find
the trees grow better under the sheds,
they take less fertilizer, they have more
moisture. We found the moisture
warmed the surface and I will say this,
that the trees under the sheds so far


take up ammonia so fast that it is very
difficult to give them any regular ferti-
lizer. They take up too much ammonia.
We gave less of it and in some cases
none whatever, and still results showed
they had too much. Whether it is the
ammonia has been taken out, I cannot
say. Those trees showing sappy growth
have no fruit. I think they will. One
thing about the shed is that we have not
got to hurry the fruit off for fear it will
freeze.
Mr. Mann-I did make an exception
of those sheds where there was fire kept
up, and I think it is commendable in
Mr. Stetson, who has the millions to do
it with. We have not.
Mr. Russell-If it is true, as Mr. Ste-
vens informs us, that we don't have to
fertilize with nitrogenous fertilizers
those orange trees which are under
sheds, is that not a big item? That is
the great thing we claim in the pineapple
business, and so it is in growing oranges.
If we can escape that big expense, if we
can feed that orange tree with bone and
potash, and get good fruit, I think we
are ahead of the game. The nitrogen is
the greatest expense.
Mr. Fairbanks-I can only give infor-
mation from the result of some fifteen
years of experience in Florida, and I
think it will be encouraging. I came to
the state about seven years after the
freeze of 1835, and from that time on the
trees were growing well until the scale
insects attacked them and nearly de-
stroyed all the groves. That seemed to
be a destructive plague that would ren-
der groves impossible, but in a few years
that passed away, and with care the or-
ange trees were brought forward and
grew.
From 1835 to 1895, sixty years, there







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


was no weather cold enough to kill a
grown orange tree. Then it came, and
it came in a double way. There came a
freeze on the 30th of December, 1894.
In the course of two weeks those trees
all started up again and promised to have
a crop that year, until, on the 8th of Feb-
ruary, there came another freeze as se-
vere as the other; but the difference was
that the trees had then begun to grow
again and had thrown out sprouts, the
sap was up, and that freeze, with the sap
up, killed the trees.
During all this period that I speak of
there never was five years that there was
not cold weather. There never was five
years that the thermometer did not go
down in the region of 20 degrees. Some
of you recollect that in 1884 and 1885,
when the thermometer went down so
low that it took off the ends of the limbs.
We will grow orange trees and they will
withstand any ordinary freeze. It is
only these extraordinary freezes which
kill.
Now, whether we have or have not en-
tered upon a new period of sixty years,
Providence only knows, but what has
been will be, and I believe that there will
come a time, not very far hence, when
these severe freezes will merge into the
ordinary winter climate of Florida.
What we want to do is to carry these
young trees up to a hardy stage, and
when you reach that hardy stage you are
fixed for the future. I don't think there
is any reason for us to be discouraged.
I think that those who have cared for
and banked them will reap a reward. I
don't think that the climate is changed.
We simply know that within a certain
period there will come, some time or
other, these very severe blizzards or
freezes, and if it should happen to take


place in 1834 and 1894, we may look for
them now. The question is, of course,
open.
It is questioned by Mr. Stevens wheth-
er we shall protect these trees with
sheds. A large number of orange grow-
ers may not be able to go to that ex-
pense, but there is a mode of preserving
the young tree by banking, by means of
which we have brought forward that por-
tion of the trees which has been covered
by the banks, and enabling us to bring
our trees up to the stage where they
will be able to resist the cold. The tent
that I have been using for the past win-
ter was a very simple device, consisting
of three poles, with a tent that fastened
around the top, gathered together at -he
botom, and a good-sized lamp put inside.
It is a cheap tent of twelve feet in height,
costing not over $1.50.
Mr. Barber-I ask for information on
this subject. Is it not a fact that in past
years the winter was as cold as it is of
later years, but it was in the first part of
the winter, and that these freezes that
have done the damage are freezes that
have come later in the spring It seems
to me, while I am a young man, that
twenty years ago the winters were equal-
ly as cold as they are now, but I think
that it was in the first part of the winter,
and the seasons are changing and the
cold is coming in the last part of the sea-
son, and is catching these trees after the
sap is up and they are growing. If that
be the fact, with the experience that the
orange men have had in this State, could
not these trees be cultivated and ferti-
lized in a way that would hold back the
starting of the growth to a certain ex-
tent later in the spring?
Mr. Fairbanks-It is undoubtedly true
that the cold weather used to come at an







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCOITY


earlier season. In fact, we generally con-
sidered that there was danger any time
after Christmas. The first two weeks
of January were the point of danger.
The great freeze came on the 8th and the
second the 12th, and the last came as late
as the 19th of February, which is the
latest cold. Mr. Gaitskill has a theory
that there is an evolution from the stars
by which the cold weather is being re-
moved on, and that when it is absorbed
in the warmth of April we will have no
cold weather. But, like everything
else, this period in which the cold will
come is a matter of controversy. Now,
the Chinese have a system of keeping
back their peaches and other fruit by re-
moving the earth from the roots. If we
can manage to keep the sap back to the
20th of February we will probably have
no danger whatsoever.
Mr. Hubbard-There is a way for
keeping back the growth of small trees,
but the effect is bad. This last winter
we had several rather cold snaps. On
the 24th of February, on the surface of
the ground, the thermometer was 35 de-
grees. Some of my neighbors covered
trees with veneer boxes. Some of the
trees were not covered. Inside those
boxes where they had been kept tight
and dark no growth had been made
at all. It was as cold inside the
boxes as it was outside. No damage
was done to the trees because they had
made no growth. But keeping them
shut up retarded them, and after the
cover had been removed some of them
were a month later making growth than
those that were outside, and the trees
which had been boxed up tight had prac-
tically no fruit. As far as my observa-
tion went, it would seem that keeping


trees shut up close and dark has a bad
effect.
Dr. Kerr-With six years passed and
the next hard freeze to come in fifty-four
years, although a comparatively young
man, I am not afraid of that freeze. But,
what little experience I have had in the
covering of trees in the past winter, I
have had just the opposite experience of
that which Mr. Hubbard has spoken of.
The trees that I had enclosed were not
affected at all. I had them banked two
and a half feet high. Then I had a
strong string drawn around the trees,
and drew them together and built a box
over them. I had a loose cover top,
and when the weather was pleasant I re-
moved it. The boxes were only three
feet square. All the trees that I had
treated in this way, the first of March,
when I removed the boxes entirely and
took down the banks, the growth was
six inches, and they are the only trees
to-day that bloomed and have fruit upon
them. Other trees looked well, but
they were a month'later catching up to
these trees. They looked better, were
greener, and showed it in every respect.
One night I was a little frightened and I
had all lamps ready, but concluded that
it was not necessary. Only one night
did I place lamps in these boxes, and
then I believe that it was unnecessary.
Mr. Russell-I believe Dr. Kerr has
said that he took the top of the cover
off at times to air those trees, and Mr.
Hubbard told about boxing his trees.
Mr. Hubbard-The trees that I spoke
of where the growth was retarded were
kept covered up tight. Trees, of course,
that had the covers removed, except on
cold nights, made more growth than
those outside. Where cloth covers







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


were used instead of wooden covers, the
trees made as much growth in these
boxes as where the wooden top covers
were removed.
Mr. Butler-Last winter I covered a
quarter of my grove so that there was
almost no sunlight at all, just to see what
the result would be; and the only result
I know so far was that it was three weeks
behind the other part. I suppose, be-
cause I kept the sunlight off.
Mr. Hart-I would like to cite Mr.
Shooter's case. He covered a grove of
seven acres tight during the winter and
he found he could keep his trees dormant
for three weeks later. My shed is cov-
ered so that it gives a half shade, and
those trees start earlier than they do out-
side. It is largely a matter of shutting
off the light or admitting it.
What Mr. Stevens said in regard to
dieback is one point that I spoke of last
year, and cautioned those in regard to
working their trees too much. I saw an
indication of dieback at that time. It
was one of the things that we had to
learn under the new conditions. I learn-
ed that it would do that and the reason is
because there is so much more moisture
and warmth in there, which makes the
soil ferments more active. And if you
work your soil a little too much or ferti-
lize with an excess of nitrogen, you have
a case of dieback. I just quit working
in the shed, and don't intend to work my
trees until they show some sign of need
of nitrogen again. This has cured the
trouble and the trees have put on a fine
growth.
Where the covering laths are an inch
or more thick, they shut off the light
very much more than laths three-eighths
of an inch thick. If the laths are thick,
the sun's rays cannot get down between


them until it gets high in the heavens,
and they are soon shut off in the after-
noon. More than that, the thick lath
does not last as long, for the moisture
cannot dry out before fermentation be-
gins and causes rot, while thin laths dry
out, keep sound and only wear out. The
result of having thin laths and having
more light is that my shedded grove put
on a full bloom this year, and, as stated,
a good even crop right through the
grove, so I have no reason to complain.
Anyone who would grumble and want
more would be a little selfish. The mer-
cury went down outside to 24 degrees at
my place. That is lower than it went up
this way. At that time the growth under
the shed was perhaps two to six inches
long and carrying blossom buds in
plenty. I had about one fire to five or
six trees under my shed and kept the
temperature above the danger point.
Out in the open grove I had small fires.
I had a small pile of wood at each tree.
I fired every other pile, every other row.
It seemed to be a perfect success, pro-
tecting those large trees covered also
with fruit buds with small fires in the
open ground. I don't think we could
have done as well with small trees.
Only one fire to four trees kept the
mercury six degrees and more above
outside temperature, while I was pre-
pared to fire at every tree, but had no
need to do so.
Another point that I want to discuss
is that we have freezes every four or five
years that will destroy the crop if it is on
the tree at the time. With the shed,
you can save your crop; the shed is an
added safety. Mr. Fairbanks thinks and
I think that if the trees could get large,
as they were before, they would be less
liable to injury by freeze. With the







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


trees we have that we have not set out
since the big freeze, there are more cal-
louses near the ground, so that if our
present old trees got back to the old size
they will not be as safe as before, but
trees planted now would be just as safe
as they were before the freeze.
Question-How much did your shed
cost?
Mr. Hart-My shed cost me $450 an
acre. It will cost a little more than that
now, because material is a little higher
priced.
Question-What would it cost per
acre if lumber could be had at $6 a
thousand?
Mr. Hart-That is exactly what I paid
for mine; it is thin pecky cypress; that
is the lumber which covers the sides and
the laths for the roof cost $1.25. The
only thick stuff which I used, costing
$10, was ix6 run across the top of each
line of posts one way. The top is fifteen
to sixteen feet.
Mr. Painter-I would like to ask if
Major Fairbanks remembers, in his ex-
perience in Florida, any year in which
we had frost as late as this year.
Mr. Fairbanks-I think not. I have
known on one or two occasions a late
frost that would take the bloom, but it
never got down as late as this year.
Mr. Waite-In 1890, the 17th of
March, we lost 1280 trees in Marion
county that were eight to ten feet high.
Mr. Hubbard-A few days ago I was
talking with a native of Florida whose
father lived here at the time of the freeze
of 1835 and who hunted the Seminole
Indians. He told me that his father al-
ways told him that the first freeze in
1835, although it did a great deal of
damage to the trees, did not kill them
all out. Then they had a frost the xoth


of April that killed them to the ground.
Major Fairbanks-I should doubt
very much that statement. We have
authentic information on the, subject in
Williams' History of Florida which gives
a somewhat detailed account of that
freeze, and I think we can assume that
this history of Mr. Williams, which was
written in 1837, is authentic. I have
also seen it stated that it occurred on
different dates. I think that my recol-
lection is fixed that the freeze of 1837
occurred on the I7th of February.
Mr. Hubbard-This gentleman said
there were two freezes that year.
Miss : I would like to tell of
a cover that my father has tried at Dade
City. It is made of slats and lined with
palm leaves, two layers, about four inch-
es thick, and inside the palm leaves is
moss. One of them he tried this year
was round, the other two were square
and fastened with hinges, and during the
winter weather he would take the cover
off the top so as to have ventilation,
and he found them very successful. I
have not heard anything of that kind
mentioned. The other trees around
were damaged badly.
Mr. Potter-We have four acres of
grove and will have two or three hun-
dred boxes of oranges. There were I17
tents and where we put these up the
trees were a month later in putting out.
One was a grapefruit, but it has no fruit
on it and no bloom, while of the other
trees, one-half have fruit on them, and
the tangerines have one-third less fruit
than those which were outside. I would
like someone to explain whether it was
the fault of the tent or what?
Dr. Kerr-I believe it was because
they were not sufficiently ventilated.
Mr. Potter-They were put up the







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL 80CIBTY


middle of November and taken down the
middle of March, opened on all pleasant
days. They were only closed up five times
during the season.
Mr. Mann-Can anyone explain to us
why it is, as seems to be a fact, that the
temperature inside of a tent with the
lamp is lower than it is outside at the
same time?
Mr. Butler-I don't know about the
tent business, but the first year we had
sheds up I never found a single night in
which the thermometer was not 30 de-
grees in it, or lower. In many instances
I found that the thermometer was as low
inside as outside, and one night I found
that it was a little lower. That is the
way we stand with the thermometer.
Those variations occur to a less or great-
er extent.
Mr. Mann-The tents were put on
every alternate tree, and of course they
could not test all of the grove; they
could only test part of it. The trees
outside of the tents were not injured;
those inside of the tents were almost
ruined.
(Note by Secretary-The following re-
marks were made later in the day, but
are placed here in order to preserve con-
tinuity of the discussion.)
Mr. Hubbard-This afternoon I re-
ceived corroboration of the statement
that I made in regard to the Ioth of
April frost in 1835. It seems that one
of the oldest inhabitants of St. Augustine
-Mr. John Masters, who lived here all
his life-was here at the time of the Sem-
inole war, and died about a year ago
over 90 years of age. He had a grove
right north of the town and he told my
informant a number of times that there
was a second frost in 1835, in April,
which did most damage to the orange


trees which were full of sap and growing.
Of course, with everything lush and
growing, a heavy white frost, say 28 de-
grees or even 30 degrees, would kill the
sprouts and young trees. I thought it
would be of interest to the Society to
know that there were two freezes in
1835.
Mr. Mann-I would like to ask Mr.
Hubbard if he learned in any of his in-
quiries whether the winters following
1835 were cold winters as we have had
for the last four or five years? I have
been told that the freeze was followed
by a series of cold winters.
Mr. Hubbard-Well, I don't remem-
ber. There are several gaps in the rec-
ords. Mr. Mitchell, the weather bureau
director in Jacksonville, has compiled
records-rom all the information he could
get as to frosts, and I don't remember
now just how that was. By reference
to the 1899 report of the Society, which
contains the weather map of the historic
freezes, and those records of Mr. Mitch-
ell's, one could follow it up pretty well.
But there have been cold winters at in-
tervals of five or six years since records
have been kept. In a recent article in
the Florida Agriculturist I showed the
connection between cold winters and
sun spots which have periods of five to
six years.
(Note-The article referred to by Mr.
Hubbard is as follows:)

SUN SPOTS AND FREEZES.

Sir Norman Lockyer, the eminent as-
tronomer, in a recent article, quotes the
following table that has been prepared
by meteorologists who have been study-
ing the effects of the eleven-year periods








PLORIDA STAtf HORTICULTURAL OCITTY


of sun spots on the rainfall of India and
other countries:


Rain from-pulse...........

No rain pulse..............


Rain from X pulse ........


No rain pulse...........


Rain from-pulse...........


1897.
1898.
1879 (part.)
S1879 (part.)
1880 central year.
1881 (part.)
S1881 (part.)
1882.
1883.
1881 (part.)
1884 (part.)
1885 central y'r.
1887 (part.)
1887 (part.)
1888.
1889.


It is often asserted as a fact by old res-
idents of Florida that wet summers are
usually followed by mild winters. In
studying rainfall it was found to be the
greatest at the maximum and minimum
of sun spot activity. In other words, it
would appear that there is greatest heat
activity in the sun during the years of
these periods about five and one-half
years apart, more moisture being evap-
orated into and precipitated from the
atmosphere. It follows, therefore, that
during the dryer intermediate years
there is greater liability to cold winters.
I have therefore prepared a table of these
years, and it is interesting to note how
closely the historic freezes in Florida
come to these periods:
DEG.
1836 .........................Feb. 7, 1835 8
1842 No record.
1847 .................................1845 20
1853 ...............................1852 20
1858 ................................1857 16
1863 No records. February 20, 1864, snow;
1864 orange trees killed at Brooksville.
Dec. 1868 20
1869 ......................... p 180 19
1874) (1873 24
1875 ............................... j 1876 24


1880 ................ .... Dec. 28, 1880 19
1885 1884 21
18886 ...................... Jan. 12. 1886 15
1891 ........................ arch, 1890 27
1896? Dec. 30, 1894 14
1897 Feb. 8,1895 14
1902 ...................... Feb. 12, 1899 10
Feb. 12, 1899 10
1902 .................... Feb. 18, 1900 19
1907 (
1908 t
1913
1918
1919
NOTB-Bracketed years follow maximum and
single years minimum sun spots.

In looking over this table it is most
natural to suppose that variations in ex-
tremes from the years indicated as far as
Florida is concerned have been equal-
ized by severe cold in other parts of this
or the Eastern continents, or perhaps in
the Southern hemisphere.
It would appear also that the cold ex-
tremes have been coming ahead of the
culmination of the cycles for the past
two periods.
There has been a gradual tapering off
in the intensity of the extremes for the
past three years.
It does not appear from this short pe-
riod whether intensity of extremes is
greatest after a maximum or minimum
of sun spots yet there is an approximate
regularity that would lead to the ex-
pectation of three or four years of com-
paratively mild winters before extremes
are encountered again.
The uncertainty as to whether the
mountain billows of cold air will break
from the polar regions with greatest
force on the Eastern or Western conti-
nents, the small knowledge that has been
gained of the light warm upper air cur-
rents that flow North to replace the
heavy cold air waves, the short periods,
comparatively, for which data have been
gathered of magnetic and meteorological







FLORIDA STATB HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


changes, and the uncertainty as to
whether extremes of heat, cold or pre-
cipitation will be equalized gradually
over wide areas or suddenly within nar-
row limits, will make general predictions
of weather changes for years or even
months ahead, of comparatively small
local value. Yet, as we look back at the


vast advances that have been made in all
sciences in the past century, it is reason-
able to hope that equations of the almost
unknown forces can be prepared in the
future that will give more definite an-
swers to the problems of abnormal local
conditions.


Culture of Early Peaches.



BY J. P. MACE, OF THE COMMITTEE.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Anyone who has listened to or read
the reports of your Committee on
Peaches, Pears and Plums, with the dis-
cussions following these papers, for the
past four or five years, I am sure must
feel that if anything is said we will have
to thrash over old straw.
The growing of early peaches in Flor-
ida has not been an unbroken success
the past five or six years. The freeze of
'95, killing trees back to the stump,
again in '99, with perhaps twenty-five
per cent. killed below the bud-in this
'99 freeze my Angel and Waldo trees
were killed back to large branches-crop
of all early varieties lost by cold in 1900
-a good crop of Angels and Waldos in
go1901-all this, with the San Jose scale to
contend with, must convince every one
that the South Florida peach grower's
bed is not one of flowery ease.
But with all these drawbacks, we be-
lieve there is money to be made in
growing peaches in Florida. I still pin
my faith to the early varieties, Bidwell's


Early, Suber, Maggie, Jewel, etc.; and
to prove my faith by my works, I am
preparing land now on which to set a
new orchard this coming winter. Sev-
enty-five to eighty per cent. will be of
these early varieties.
The trees I have at present were set in
my orange groves, about 300 in Novem-
ber, '86, about 900 in December, '95.
The older 300 have been killed to the
stump the second time; the others, ex-
cept the latter kinds, once. High winds
play havoc with the new limbs, splitting
them off the stump because of this
weakness; and I have strong hopes that
the orange trees are to be spared to
spread and grow and fill all the space
with their incomparable beauty. And
for reasons given before in this Society,
I believe that the peach and orange trees
should be in different plots of ground on
account of different modes of cultiva-
tion. For these reasons, I have decided
to set a new orchard. Will hold on to
the old trees until new ones fruit, or for
two more crops after the present one.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL 80MIRTY


The present crop was saved by open
fires-only lighting every other row.
Fired five times during the winter, but
.know now that three times would have
been enough. At the time was afraid to
take chances. Orchards in our section
not fired will have some fruit, but a very
light crop of the early varieties. For all
ordinary cold snaps, down possibly to 22
or 23, I believe it entirely practical to
save young peaches with open wood fires
placed northwest of each tree. But with
such a freeze as we had that Monday
morning in February, '99, if you could
rest contented, my advice would be, stay
in bed, sleep on, take thy rest; believing
that it may be years before we will again
be visited by such a blizzard. We have
faith to push on.
Given a first-class piece of virgin high
pine land, well cleared and plowed, set
with first-class four to six feet trees as
our worthy President knows how to
grow, not closer than 20x25 feet, with a
little good fertilizer, thorough cultiva-
tion, dig out the borers, fight the San
Jose scale with kerosene or kerowater,
thin the fruit, don't pick until well col-
ored (not ripe enough to be soft), handle
like eggs, grade and pack carefully, full
measure pressed down, ship to good
houses only-and await returns with an
assurance and satisfaction that is sure
to come with experience.
At one time in my life I was the happy
possessor of forty Leconte pear trees,
but as demands arose for more profitable
uses of the land, they have slowly but
surely disappeared, until only a beggarly
half dozen is left. These are kept so
that when my friends say, "Do you have
pear trees?" I can truly say, "Sure. Why
not?"
Led on by the glowing accounts of


fortunes to be made growing Kelsey or
Satsuma or Blood plums, by our agricul-
tural writers and nurserymen, not wish-
ing to be left behind in any good thing,
I set out 300 of these trees, fertilized,
pruned and digged about them for three
or four years, without results. They
were uprooted and used for a glorious
Fourth of July bonfire, to the delight of
the small boys of the neighborhood. We
now boast of only one plum tree, an Ex-
celsior, set in '94, bearing a light crop in
'97, better in '98, in '99 sold plums to the
amount of $i i and had all we wanted for
home use; in 1900, shipped seven crates,
which sold for from $2 to $3.50 per crate.
Had some home sales and uses. Tree
bending under present crop. Two or
three of the newer Japan plums, Botan
and Wickson, set three years ago, but no
fruit to show yet.
As between peaches, pears and plums,
give me peaches every time; three times
a day if you please, sliced, with sugar
and good Jersey cream, with an occa-
sional cobbler thrown in for variety.

PEACH TREES UNDER PROTECTION.

Report by C. C. Shooter, of the Com-
mittee.
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
The last few winters have emphasized
the fact that if we wish to grow very ear-
ly peaches some kind of protection is
necessary. The old Peento, which is
one of the earliest peaches to ripen, and
also one of the best in quality, is going
out of cultivation because it is so seldom
that we can get a crop from it. In the
few mild winters previous to 1895 it was
the best paying peach we had.
That peaches will grow, thrive, and







FLORIDA BTATE HORTICULTURAL HOCIBTY


fruit, and that the bloom and fruit can
be saved, even in case of heavy freezes,
I have proved in my two-acre grove,
under cover, where for the last three
winters we have never failed to get a
crop, when all the peaches of the same
varieties outside were frozen.
The most curious fact that I have ob-
served is that the peaches will bloom in
almost darkness not more than a week
or a fortnight later than the same varie-
ties outside, and that they will set and
mature well colored fruit of fine quality
with one-quarter shade and three-quar-
ters light.
The main object, however, is to get
the earliest peaches, and this can be
done-
Ist. By arranging the cover to give
sufficient light, but so that it can be
closed up quickly in case of frost.
2nd. By entirely changing the method
of cultivation.
In outside culture it is our object to
fertilize and cultivate late in the year,
so as to retard the early blooming. In
a shed, however, we want this early
bloom, and must therefore cease cultiva-
tion in August or September, so that the
trees can harden up the growths. They
will bloom all winter. If the firing is
properly attended to this bloom can be
saved and a very early crop secured.
The shed must be built high enough so
that the tres will not require any prun-
ing.

DISCUSSION.

Dr. Inman-I am engaged in growing
peaches probably as far south as it has
been attempted on any important scale;
and I may say that I cannot report uni-


form success. Last year the trees did
not do well. I do not think it was the
fault of the trees for I obtained them
of reputable nurserymen. I gave them
good care, but both these and some of
my neighbors' trees did not do as well as
those which I have planted this year.
Some of my old trees had the appear-
ance of dying. I headed them back se-
verely, they sprouted out from the stubs
and have grown and made magnificent
trees. They seem to be in better condi-
tion than even the young trees. It was
only a small per cent. that had the ap-
pearance of dying. Most of my trees
had a good crop. We have had peaches
ever since January. This was from a
scattering bloom that came on in the fall,
and after the birds took in their share
there was not much left. I think that
there is no place in the State or South
where peach growing can be engaged in
as profitably as in South Florida. I
don't think there would be any hazard in
planting a peach orchard in Polk county
on new land. I think there would be a
great advantage in taking the virgin soil
in planting a peach orchard. I have
some very fine trees that are seedlings.
Major Fairbanks-Have you planted
them in hammock or high land?
Dr. Inman-All in high pine land,
land that has been cultivated in tomato
crops for several years.
Major Fairbanks-I have had some
experience in planting hammock land
and the trees would flourish for a year
and then die off.
A Member-My experience has made
me believe that that is true, that they
will die back sooner or later, and quicker
than they will on high land. They
must not be planted with oranges. To
go into the peach business, my expe-






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


rience is that you must go into the peach
business.
Dr. Inman-I would say in regard to
planting them with orange trees, they
seem to do equally as well; I have them
growing where the peach trees are al-
most interlocking over the orange trees,
and the orange trees are doing finely.
I have five thousand orange trees and
five thousand peach trees planted in the
same forty acres of land. There will be
two or three poor trees and two or three
which I may not fertilize alike or may
not care for alike, all right otherwise.
Mr. Porcher-Are those the trees that
have had their tops cut off and have re-
covered?
Dr. Inman-Yes, sir; and those new
tops on old trunks stand there now
twelve or fifteen feet high.
Walter Cooper-The gentleman re-
ferred to the peaches on the hammock
land. Now, we know it is a fact that in
the muck land of Kissimmee the early
peaches have done remarkably well. I
have never been in the orchards; I have
seen photographs of the orchard and of
the fruit, but a neighbor of mine has
been over the grove, which was eight or
ten years of age at that time, and the
trees were enormous and bearing well.
There may be some conditions or some
questions of hammock land that I know
nothing about. My efforts have all been
on high pine lands.
In regard to growing peaches gener-
ally speaking, I say that to do this to-day


the peach grower has got to tackle the
business in a systematic manner. That
he has got to adopt spraying as a part.
I am certain of it and I did not learn it
until this winter. I learned it too late
to profit by it. I am troubled with a
scale. This is the case where I would
advise spraying. Of course, I would not
make a general rule of it, but I believe
that this work, as far as the peach is con-
cerned, had better be prepared before
the buds are out. There is a work that
has been issued by the Department that
is most comprehensive as applying to
peaches in cultivation. But since they
have adopted spraying as a part of their
business, the result is so satisfactory that
one cannot help but believe in it. Even
spray one-half of a tree and it will have
hundreds of full grown fruit on that half
and hardly a single sign on the other half.
I have some trees that I would like to
spray, but I am afraid to do it. This
year I lost them on the Ioth of February.
For sick peach trees, Dr. Inman's rem-
edy, that is, cutting back, is one of the
best remedies I ever knew of. After the
freeze of 1899 we had 300 late peaches
that were injured very badly. The mat-
ter was put in my hands. What would
you do? I would go in there and saw
their heads off. I saw one of the hand-
somest groves I ever looked at, about
400 unproductive trees. I said if they
were mine I would saw their heads off
and next spring I would have buds on
every single tree.













Some Fungous Diseases of Citrus and Other Fruits.


BY PROFESSOR H. HAROLD HUME, OF THE STATE AGRICULTU-
RAL COLLEGE.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
In the paper which I have prepared for
this occasion I have decided to touch but
briefly upon a few of the common dis-
eases which affect the fruits of the State.
To go into a thorough discussion of each
and every disease would be entirely out
of place. Such a paper would be much
too lengthy and you would be thorough-
ly tired of the matter before I had fin-
ished. In the course of my remarks I
shall touch upon a new disease of the or-
ange, the scab of the Satsuma, pecan leaf
blight, strawberry leaf blight, the crown
gall of the peach and the pear blight.
A NEW DISEASE OF THE ORANGE.
In March Mr. A. E. Stebbins forward-
ed to the Department a number of dis-
eased orange twigs affected with a trou-
ble new to him. In some respects it re-
sembles dieback, but must be considered
entirely distinct from that disorder.
The twigs appear in many respects to be
quite healthy, but scattered here and
there over the surface are rather circu-
lar, elevated, light brown patches. In
some cases the elevated patches have a
second elevation in the center. In diam-
eter they vary from one-eighth to one-
half an inch. In some cases they are
confluent, forming patches of consider-
able area, frequently surrounding small


portions of apparently normal bark. In
the early stages the spots show in the
form of a number of small, dark, elevated
dots, arranged in a somewhat circular
group, and surrounded by a light yellow-
ish band. This light band appears to
mark the size of the spots when matured.
In the later stages the elevated portions
of the pustules cover nearly the whole
surface of the twig, becoming somewhat
grayish in color and giving, to the bark
a very rough and uneven appearance.
I have sought diligently for the cause
of this trouble, but a microscopical ex-
amination has revealed nothing. It is
possible that in some later stage of the
disease something will be found which
will point to a specific cause. Upon in-
vestigation of the literature of orange
diseases I have not been able to find any-
thing relating to it.
It is not common and has as yet done
but little damage, though in one case a
.ree was found badly affected and nearly
killed. I advised Mr. Stebbins to make
an application of a fungicide, but have
not yet heard whether it had any benefi-
cial effects.
SCAB ON THE SATSUMA.
During the past year a considerable
number of Satsuma fruits and leaves af-
fected by scab have been forwarded to







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


the Department, and in spite of the fact
that this disease is so commonly present
in the State, it would appear that there
are a considerable number who are un-
acquainted with its cause, nature and the
means by which it may be controlled.
For the reason just indicated I shall give
a short description of this well marked
disease. The fruit, when affected, is
covered with wart-like corky elevations.
Beneath these the tissue of the kind will
be found to be somewhat thickened.
The warts are at first yellow, translucent,
then grayish, later becoming dusky in
color, still later quite dark, and the tops
of the excrescences break open. These
warty elevations are frequently confluent
and of considerable extent and irregular
in shape, but when they occur singly
they are cone-shaped. The disease is
caused by a fungus, a species of Clados-
porium. It affected the sour orange,
lemon and bitter sweet.

METHODS OF CONTROL.

So far as I am aware, there is no
other means by which this disease
can be controlled except by apply-
ing a fungicide to the trees. The
trees should be sprayed at least three
times, giving the first application just
after the fruit has set and the other two
within the next six weeks. Use either
ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate
or Bordeaux mixture.

CROWN GALL.

The disease now generally known un-
der the above name is widely distributed
throughout the United States, and it is
responsible for the death of many peach
trees in the peach districts of the coun-


try. It annually costs the peach grow-
ers in the neighborhood of $500,000. In
Florida it is quite common and seems to
confine its work to no one locality or
class of soils, and it is without doubt a
disease to be dreaded and guarded
against.
How long it has been at work in the
peach orchards of the State it is difficult
to say. Its history goes back many
years; presumably it has been present in
Florida almost since the beginning of the
industry.
The disease is characterized by the
formation of galls of different sizes upon
the crowns and roots of the trees. It is
not to be confused with the galls formed
by the Nematode, as they are character-
istically different. Neither is it to be
confused with the gummy, often rather
hard, enlargements formed by borers at
the crown of the tree. Usually the
grower first notes its presence upon
the tree just at or near the surface of the
ground. Upon examination, galls will
general be found upon the roots as well
and frequently diseased trees may be
found, upon which the galls are
formed entirely beneath the ground.
The galls are excrescences composed of
hypertrophied tissue. In the early
stages they are small, usually somewhat
rounded in form and attached to the root
or stem by a somewhat constricted neck.
They are quite smooth in the early
stages, but as they become older and in-
crease in size, they become rough, cor-
rugated and wrinkled. They are at
first light in color and the tissue is quite
soft. Later they become brown, firmer
and still later hard and brittle, which
stage is characteristic of the dead gall.
The life of the gall is about one sea-
son. It then dies, but about the old dead







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


one a gall in the form of a solid ring or
a broken ring of galls will in all probabil-
ity develop the next season. The dis-
ease frequently extends to the roots.
The word "extends" is used advisedly,
for it seems that in nearly all cases the
trouble originates at or near the crown.
Beneath the gall the wood in due time
dies. The tree is weakened and, if not
broken off by the wind, eventually suc-
cumbs. If the trees become affected
while young it is quite safe to conclude
that they will never reach bearing age.
The disease according to the excellent
investigations of Toumey, is caused by a
slime mould, Dendrophagus globosus.
Tou. It belong to the lowest form of
plant life, that group over which botan-
ists and zoologists generally disagree,
each claiming that they belong respect-
ively to the plant and animal kingdom.
These low organisms are known as myx-
omycetes.
The vegetative stage is known as the
plasmodium. During this stage it con-
sists of free protoplasm capable of am-
oeboid movements. It lives within and
feeds upon the contents of the cells.
While it is developing in the tissues of
the host the cells grow at an exceedingly
rapid rate, and the gall in consequence
becomes greatly enlarged. This rapid
cell multiplication and enlargement in
the host is caused by the stimulating ef-
fect produced by the dendrophagus and
the effort on the part of the plant to
overcome its enemy. The mold passes
from cell to cell and produces in each
new cell the same effects as in the one
from which it has just made its way.
After a period of growth the plasmo-
dium works to the outside of the gall and
fruit is produced upon the outer surface.
The fruiting bodies are almost spherical,


of a dark orange color, and contain large
number of spores. These spores, under
favorable conditions, give rise, once
more, to the active plasmodium.

HOW THE DISEASE SPREADS.

If a few infested trees stand in the
orchard, it may be carried from tree to
tree while cultivating. A gall or por-
tion of a gall is broken from a diseased
tree by the passing cultivator and carried
on to the next. Perhaps the trunk of
this may be slightly injured in some way
and the disease gains an entrance. It
may possibly in some cases spread from
contact of affected roots, and we must
not forget that the spores can be readily
blown about by the wind.
It is doubtless true, however, that the
disease is most generally introduced into
a grove by planting affected trees or
trees which have upon them infectious
material. One gentleman with whom I
had some conversation regarding this
disease told me that he purchased from
a nurseryman a number of peach trees
and found galls upon some of them. He
destroyed the affected ones and planted
the remainder. To-day there is plenty
of crown gall among his trees. This is,
I believe, the way in which the disease is
only too frequently introduced, and an
infested nursery from which trees are
sold can be considered nothing less than
a menace to the peach industry of the
country.

OTHER TREES AFFECTED.

The disease affects the plum, prune,
cherry, apricot, almond, apple, pear,
raspberry, and probably other trees and
shrubs. My attention was called to a







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL 80CIETY


diseased rose bush not long since. Some
distance above the ground there were
excrescences which appeared very much
like the crown gall and I was, I think,
correct in pronouncing it that disease.


METHODS OF CONTROL.

These have in part already been sug-
gested. Do not plant infested trees or
knowingly plant those which have been
in contact with infested ones. Nursery-
men who have the best interest of the
State at heart will not sell diseased or
doubtfully healthy trees. Trees should
not be sold from an affected lot and cer-
tainly no honorable man will place upon
the market trees showing the disease,
and certainly no wise fruit grower will
plant them.
Such trees should be burned; old dis-
eased trees should be dealt with in a
like manner. They are general unprof-
itable and must simply be regarded as a
menace to their healthy neighbors. I
do not deem it advisable to plant dis-
eased ground again. If it is desired to
treat the trees, and it may be a good pol-
icy, if they are still vigorous and but
slightly affected, they may in some cases
be made to serve some seasons of useful-
ness if treated in the following manner:
Carefully cut out the galls down to clean
healthy wood. Cover the wound with a
paste made as follows: Take four
pounds bluestone (sulphate of copper),
2 pounds sulphate of iron, 9 pounds of
unslaked lime, or bluestone and lime, in
equal parts, will likely answer as well.
Slake the lime, mix with it the bluestone
and sulphate of iron in a finely pulverized
state. To the mixture thus formed add
sufficient water to reduce it to a paste.


PECAN LEAF BLIGHT.

It has always been stated that the pe-
can has no fungous enemies. During the
last year, however, I have observed that
the leaves of young pecan trees were af-
fected by a disease to which I have given
the above name. Several correspondents
have also written me regarding it, and
have enclosed specimens. I have not
observed that it is injurious in any mark-
ed degree to old trees, but it has done
considerable damage to nursery stock
and to young trees recently set out. So
far as I am aware, this disease has not
before been reported.
The disease is characterized by the
browning and withering of the leaves.
At first small brown areas are noted.
These become larger and eventually em-
brace the whole leaf. Trees affected by
the disease make no progress.
The disease is caused by a species of
cercospora, which I believe to be Cer-
cospora Halstedii, E. & E. At least, it
corresponds in nearly all particulars with
that species. The spores of the fungus
are borne upon conidiophores on the dis-
eased spots. When examined under the
microscope they are seen to be hyaline
in color or somewhat smoky and are club
shaped. They are divided into three or
four cells, each cell being capable of ger-
mination. The conidiophores upon
which the spores grow are darker in col-
or than the spores, being quite brown.
The spores when ripe are blown about
by the wind, and, falling upon the leaves,
produce again the disease.

METHODS OF CONTROL.

If the trees are small, they can be con-
veniently sprayed with Bordeaux mix-







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


ture, which will keep the disease in
check. They should be sprayed just
when the young leaves are coming out,
and at least twice afterward at intervals
of two weeks. The fallen leaves should
be gathered and burned. By carefully
following out this line of prevention,
there will be no difficulty in holding the
disease in check, as it is not of a serious
nature, though, when left to itself it
causes a very considerable amount of
damage.

STRAWBERRY LEAF SPOT.

The leaf spot disease of the strawberry
must be regarded as the most serious fun-
gous diseases of that crop in our State.
In fact, it is the only fungous disease at
present known to the writer which
causes any amount of damage to the
plant.
The disease affects the foliage and the
first marks of its presence is the appear-
ance of minute, purplish spots upon the
leaves. These spots gradually enlarge
and change in color, becoming a light
gray in the center, but the periphery re-
mains purple in color or with the inner
edge shaded into brown. The spots are
-of different sizes, some are as much as
three-quarters of an inch in diameter,
though frequently a number of them co-
alesce, forming blotches of irregular sha
and of considerable extent. In the nat-
ural process of the disease the substance
of the leaf is destroyed. It becomes
withered, brown and at length dry and
dead throughout. If the season is in
any wise unfavorable for the develop-
ment of the plants, they are usually killed
outright. If, however, this is not the
case, the vitality of the plant is sapped,
and the same quantity and quality of


fruit need not be expected from affected
plants.
The disease is caused by a fungous
parasite, Sphaerella fragariae (Tul) Sacc.
Two kinds of spores are produced; those
commonly known as summer spores are
born upon conidiophores, which are pro-
duced in tufts. These are to be found
upon the discolored areas. The other
spores are commonly called winter
spores and are produced in small spore
cases called perithecia. Both kinds of
spores serve to spread the disease, and
the latter (those produced in the peri-
thecia) are useful in carrying the disease
through unfavorable periods. The dis-
ease exists upon the strawberry plant
throughout the whole year in Florida, so
that winter spores can scarcely be con-
sidered as necessary to its continued ex-
istence in the State.

METHODS OF CONTROL.

Two or three different methods have
been recommended for the control of
this disease. For old plantations, some
writers have recommended the burning
over of the crop. This, however, is not
feasible, after the plants commence to
bloom or are making growth previous to
the blooming period. In small beds the
diseased leaves should be cut off when
first noticed, and if a little attention be
given in this way it is not likely to give
much trouble. In larger plantings,
however, this is not feasible, and these
should be sprayed. The results of my
experiments at the Experiment Station
this past season have been very satisfac-
tory. In October forty-five different va-
rieties of strawberries were planted. The
leaf spot disease soon made its appear-
ance and was allowed to run its course







PLORIDA BTATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


in order to determine, if possible, the
comparative resistance of different va-
rieties of the disease. After having ob-
tained results from that portion of the
experiment, the beds were sprayed with
Bordeaux, four pounds of copper sul-
phate, four pounds of lime to forty gal-
lons of water. The first application
was made on February 26, the second on
March 8 and a third on March 18. By
the time the last spraying had done its
work the disease was completely checked
and it was a difficult matter to find a leaf
at all diseased in the whole patch. By
May 14, however, it was noticed that the
disease was making some slight head-
way, and the plants were again sprayed.
It may be thought by some that Bor-
deaux mixture would be objectionable to
the crop while fruiting, as the berries
might be stained by its use; but on ac-
count of the habit of growth of the
strawberry I do not think the objection
has much weight. The ripened or part-
ly ripened fruit is quite well protected
by the leaves above, and as the spray is
directed down upon the top of the plant,
but little of it has a chance to reach the
fruit and I have never been able to detect
any staining when the crop was gath-
ered. It is best, however, to make the
application just after the ripe fruit has
been picked. It may be of interest to
make a few notes upon the relative re-
sistance of different varieties to this dis-
ease.
Cobden Queen, Lady Thompson, Mc-
Kinley, Improved Newnan, West Lawn,
Aroma and Jesse were almost entirely
free from the disease. Cloud, Pride of
Cumberland, Howell's Seedling, Haver-
land and Earliest were slightly affected,
while Murray's Extra Early, Mary Stu-


art, Seaford, Sample, Warfield, Parker
Earle and Tennessee Prolific were very
badly diseased. In fact, some of them
were almost killed out.

PEAR BLIGHT.

The pear blight has been quite as
common this year as formerly, although
at Lake City the disease appeared to
produce but little effect on the leaves
and twigs. No fruit was, however, set
on the trees, due to the destruction of
the flowers by the blight. The pear
blight is unfortunately very common in
Florida. Hence it needs little or no de-
scription. Shortly after the flowers
have opened it will be noticed that the
ovaries and pedicels have become black
and this blackening extends to the fruit
spur, the young leaves, and eventually
down into the older branches. It usual-
ly takes, under average weather condi-
tions, about one week and a half to reach
the branch. Throughout the whole sea-
son the affected or diseased branches
can easily be picked out. They are dead
and the black dry leaves still remain at-
tached to them.
The cause of this well known disease
is a bacterium known as Bacillus amylo-
vorus, Burrill. It is a minute, rod-
shaped organism, which develops within
the tissues of the host. It is carried from
flower to flower by honey-seeking in-
sects. These gather honey from dis-
eased and healthy flowers and as a cer-
tain number of the germs remain attach-
ed to their probosces they are carried
from one place to another. On the oth-
er hand it is doubtless probable that cer-
tain of the biting insects assist in some
measure in disseminating the disease.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


METHODS OF CONTROL.

It has been noticed time and again
that a sappy condition of the trees ac-
companied by a vigorous, succulent
growth is a condition extremely favor-
able for the development of blight. This
condition should not be favored. Nitro-
genous fertilizers should not be applied
at all or only in limited quantities. Pot-
ash and phosphoric acid should be given
in normal amounts. Cultivation should
cease and it is best to plant the ground
about the trees with Bermuda grass,
leaving a circle of four or five feet in
diameter about the tree from which the
grass should be cleared away from time
to time. The method of treatment out-
lined above, together with careful prun-
ing, constitute the means of control. As
soon as the blight has shown in spring,
the twigs should be cut, and again in fall
diseased branches should be taken out.
They should be cut three or four inches
below the line between the dead and liv-
ing tissues, carefully removed and burn-
ed. This treatment has been given to
one of the trees on the Station grounds.
It was very severely pruned, but will, I
believe, mature about one bushel of fruit.
Others not treated have no fruit what-
ever.
If pear blight is ever to be brought
well under control it will call for a united
effort on the part of all those who have


pear trees in a community. One man
may give the disease careful attention,
but unless his neighbor does likewise the
insects will carry the germs from the dis-
eased to the healthy trees, thus render-
ing his efforts in a large measure futile.

DISCUSSION.

Prof. Hume-I have touched but
briefly upon a few of the common dis-
eases which affect the fruit trees of the
State. To go into the matter at length
would be entirely too much. I would
say in relation to this new disease of the
orange, that it may be a new phase of an
old enemy, and I would like some of the
orange growers to take this twig and see
if you ever saw it before.
Mr. Porcher-I would like to get
Prof. Hume to give us, if possible, some
information as to the foliage affected by
this new trouble?
Prof. Hume-I am sorry to say, Mr.
Porcher, that I have not seen the foliage
-nothing but those twigs. I have a
suspicion that it is allied to the red rust.
This came from Manatee county and was
forwarded to me by Mr. Stebbins.
Mr. Baker-How far back does your
investigation of this disease of the peach
tree date?
Prof. Hume- I only started on it this
present year, and have been working on
it four months perhaps.












Blight of the Pineapple.


BY E. N. BROWN, OF PUNTA GORDA.


Mr. President and Members of the Flor-
ida State Horticultural Society:
As I am a young man in the pineapple
business, I feel somewhat timid in pre-
senting to this intelligent body a few of
my thoughts on the pineapple disease
called blight, especially since so many
learned professors have been racking
their brains to find the cause and remedy
for this devastating malady.
But then, we should all be willing to
be laid on the altar of criticism until this
mysterious disease is fathomed.
In presenting our thoughts let us look
into the anatomical or physiological
structure of the plant, in a small way, be-
fore entering upon the disease proper.
We notice at the base of the plant, after
removing a few of the basal leaves, there
are eyes for root sprouts something sim-
ilar to the petals. The roots always start
from these eyes and nowhere else, as
there are no other places for them to
start from. These roots grow long and
slender like a shoe-lace, without any
branches, absolutely, but are covered all
along with fibrous feeders. These feed-
ers are attached to the main lateral in a
way peculiar to the pineapple plant,
much like the slips and suckers growing
on the main stalk of the plant, both of
which have their origin in potato-like
eyes. These feeders are as easy to de-
tach from the lateral as the slips and


suckers are from the main stalk. In
making this comparison, size considered
thrown in.
I believe we all agree that the disease
we call blight is a root trouble; that is,
improper conditions of the roots. As
these roots are not in condition to give
the plant the proper food to sustain life,
the plant turns yellow and dies. Now,
I claim that anything causing the death
of these roots will necessarily also cause
this improper condition, and so they are
unable to impart the life fluid to the
plant, which causes this so-called blight,
which merely means starvation, in my
humble opinion.
And the causes for the death of the
roots, you will readily see, might be
many, such as worms or insects, moles,
scuffle hoe, too much caustic fertilizer,
too much or not enough of air around
the roots, and the last I'll name, but not
least by any means, stagnant water,
which is more far-reaching than all the
rest combined.
But this brings us to the proper soil
condition for a pinery, which belongs to
the subject of pineapple growing; but I
shall not touch upon that here, but con-
fine my paper to this so-called blight.
Cut a root off at the body of the plant;
that root never starts again. Cut it off
a piece from the plant; the remaining
root may feed the plant to the extent of







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL rSOIETY


its feeders left between the stalk and the
point where the root is cut. But said
root will never branch out and form new
laterals to extend such root or lateral,
like the orange, apple, or vegetable
kingdom in general.
I have seen the feeders extend them-
selves several inches in length at the ter-
minus of the roots, where roots have
been severed, trying, as it were, to form
new laterals, very much like Aesop's
fabled jackdaw which swooped down
and tried to carry off a sheep, to emulate
the strength and flight of the eagle, and
so became entangled in the wool. The
farmer came along, clipped his wings,
and taking him home, his children asked
what kind of a bird it was. He replied,
"To my certain knowledge, he is a daw,
but he will have it that he is an eagle."
So with the pineapple roots, it is impos-
sible to make laterals from feeders, no
difference how much they try-enforced
by heavy feeding-to emulate the lat-
eral. They will, to my certain knowl-
edge, be feeders still, and nothing else.
This is a significant fact in studying
the pineapple, and especially this disease
called blight. For if many of these
roots are cut the feeding capacity of the
plant is injured, and if all the roots are
damaged or cut off close to plant, that
plant will die as sure as roots become
damaged or cut, unless there are more
eyes further up on the stalk to furnish
new roots. And if the plant is of good
size, the chances are mighty slim for
enough roots to form to insure the plant
proper nourishment to maintain growth
already started, for new roots do not
start only from these root eyes, and a
large plant needs many roots for healthy


growth. And if a sufficient number do
start out, the plant will be nearly, if not
altogether, dead before enough feeding
capacity is furnished to sustain life and a
sufficient growth of the plant.
Then again, if there are more root
eyes, the chances are the basal leaves
have not been pulled off high enough to
permit the growth of these roots; so
they form what is called or commonly
known as tangle root, and so are not per-
mitted to give the plant any help. Hence
deep setting may cause this so-called
blight, for these lateral roots don't take
kindly to deep setting. Deep setting
will put these deep in the soil, while the
natural place is very close to the surface
where they can obtain plenty of air and
warmth, which are absolutely necessary
for good growth for this luscious fruit of
the tropics.
Some may ask what is the remedy for
this. In answer, I would say, for a me-
dium to large plant, there is practically
no remedy. Better pull up and replace.
But a small one may revive if the soil is
removed, so that one can pull off basal
leaves, which would permit these root
eyes to put out new roots wherewith to
feed the plant. But never by any
means should the plant be pulled up to
remove roots and to trim, which destroys
all roots already started and feeding the
plant, as these are absolutely needed to
carry on the good work.
Now, I have presented my views. To
me they seem reasonable, but to you
maybe otherwise. If I have made any
statements you don't agree with, give
them a good breezing, which will be a
benefit to all of us, by helping to unravel
this mystery.













Ornanentals.


REPORT BY REV. LYMAN PHELPS, CHAIRMAN OF COMMITTEE.


The orange tree leads on the list of
ornamentals. It is not only the queen
of fruits, but it stands royally at the head
of our ornamentals, as we closely exam-
ine its cell formation, so highly and beau-
tifully developed, or when we breathe its
exquisite fragrance.
Citrus Aurantium is naturally a low-
branching tree, always graceful, with
greenish brown bark,elliptical, ovate, co-
riaceous leaves of intense green, often
with winged petioles and fragrant white
flowers. The tree also is very long-
lived. It is also most prolific in fruit,
bears a large globose berry of eight or
ten membranous cells, which are packed
with pulp of fusiform cells, distended
with an acid refreshing juice.
I single out no one variety in this de-
scription, but include the whole family
of citrus. There are as many differing
tastes as people in this respect. I in-
clude the heavily laden kumquat, espec-
ially when worked on the bitter sweet as
a stock, as well as the pomelo when
doubly worked on the bitter sweet, first
to the Messina lemon and then to the
pomelo. This last combination was
pronounced the most beautiful tree Prof.
Van Deman saw during a protracted
stay in Florida.
As in architecture, all ornamentation,
to be truly beautiful, must be useful, so
our most ornamental trees are our most


useful ones. I have met a score of tour-
ists who literally went wild over a row
of kumquat trees worked on a bitter
sweet stock. I did not oppose their
tastes. I once on a December day gave
a dinner to a party of Ohio editors and
their wives, in an orange grove under the
shade of the trees; they plucked pine-
apples, cut roses, pulled oranges, drank
orangeade and lemonade, but most ad-
mired the well laden kumquat trees.
I need not speak of the rose as the or-
namental before which all other flowers
pale. You know it. You all have your
favorites. It is the flower that befits the
christening, adorns the marriage feast
and is in good taste at the burial obse-
quies. It should be in every garden as an
ornamental.

THE PALM.

The Oreodoxa granate stands at the
head. The tree is characterized by the
petals being united at the base in the
pistillate flowers. There are six species
of tropical America, all handsome, with
tall, smooth, robust trunk. Some of the
species are very tall, reaching one hun-
dred and thirty to one hundred and fifty
feet in height, with small white flowers,
and small violet to deep garnet fruit on
the slender drooping branches of a large
spadix.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOGIBTY


Oreodoxa regia, the royal palm,
grows ninety to one hundred and thirty
feet, and is found sparingly as far north
as Florida.
The sabal palmetto we all know. We
are pleased that the committee who dec-
orated this hall so beautifully for us rec-
ognized it as ornamental. The cab-
bage tree, from its commonness, is not
always appreciated.
Melanodendron integrifolium, the
black cabbage, is a very grand tree,
eighty or ninety feet in height, with sym-
metrical trunk crowned with strong
composite leaves very much recurved.
The Oreodoxa granate has withstood


the cold, save in the Alaska-destroying
blizzard of '99. It is by far the hand-
somest of its species, and the name freely
translated means crimson glory of the
mountain.
The needle palm is one of great beau-
ty and symmetry for decoration. It is
worthy of a place on all lawns.
Bigonia vanusta is a rampant grow-
ing tropical vine, with glossy dark-green
foliage. It is the best of our tropicals
in leaf and flower. It is a flame of flow-
ers for fully two months, in its season.
Its common name, flame urn, well de-
scribes it.


REPORT OF MRS. FLORENCE P. HADEN.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
The conditions in the extreme south-
ern part of Florida are very different
from the rest of the State. We have a
great many trees and plants that have
not been successfully grown in the open
elsewhere. The committees on orna-
mentals of late years have confined
themselves to trees and plants that stand
frost. But as it has been shown that
many tropical plants adapt themselves to
moderate changes of climate, I will men-
tion a few that are very ornamental and
that would well repay the effort if they
can be grown.
Several of our best fruit trees are as
ornamental as most trees grown only for
their beauty. The mango is a beautiful
shade tree, remaining green all the year,
as do the roseapple, canistelle, avocado,
loquat, seagrape, tamarind, olive and
others.
Among the purely ornamental trees,


the royal poinciana perhaps ranks first,
especially when it is one gorgeous mass
of scarlet flowers in a bed of fern-like
leaves. Another handsome flowering
tree is the geiger, but I do not believe it
would stand much frost. Of course, the
oleanders, hybiscus, the numerous fo-
liage plants and crotons which grow so
well in our section deserve mention and
should be utilized, even where they re-
quire a little protection. The many
stone fences in our rocky country would
be beautiful if covered with vines, and
there are a great variety that grow well.
The Cherokee rose and other climbing
roses, the sweet scented honeysuckles,
the alamanda that always attracts atten-
tion from strangers, the star or wild jes-
samine and many others.
Mr. Davis, in Cape Florida, has made
a specialty of palms, and his beautiful
grounds show that he has chosen wisely.
Of course, the most handsome of these







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOGIBTY


is the royal palm. On account of its use-
fulness, we plant more of the cocoanut
palm, and are beginning to grow the
date.
DISCUSSION.
Mr. Hubbard-It may be of interest
to the Society to know of those palms
which withstand our freezes. What ap-
pears to be the best of all is the Cocos
australis. The foliage is similar to that
of the cocoanut. During the 1894 and
1895 freezes it was not injured at all. The
Sabal palmetto would show frozen spots
on the leaves, which was also the case
with the Phoenix sylvestris and the
Phoenix canariensis. It is also interest-
ing to note the California palms. A
Washingtonia robusta on Mr. E. H.
Hart's place, the trunk of which was
twenty or thirty feet high, was killed out
entirely in the 1899 freeze, and the Fili-
fera filamentosa escaped. The fan
palm I was speaking of is a Latonia
borbonica, a Chinese fan palm. This
was not killed out in the freeze, but the
leaves were all killed back. The needle
palm, Chamaerops hystrix seen on the
stairs, is said to be the only one of the
Chamaerops, the European fan palms,
found in America. Botanists first dis-
covered it near Savannah. You will no-
tice the needles about the base are six
or eight inches long.
Mr. Phelps-It is the most brilliant
green of all the palms, and its stem
sometimes grows up four feet before it
spreads out in the dark green leaves.
Question-What fertilizers are gener-
ally used to make such a success of big-
nonias?


Mr. Phelps-I used a fertilizer very
much the same as I used on my orange
trees, only I don't want one that has too
much ammonia. The one that I use has
5 per cent of ammonia and 7 per cent.
of phosphoric acid. This vine stands
the sun very readily and does not re-
quire as much water as others. I do not
use on any of these things any fertilizer
that has organic substances; I use only
chemicals. I do not put it into the soil;
I put it on top of the soil, so that the rain
will wash it in. I don't think I have
stirred the soil at all during the past ten
years among my bignonias.
Mr. Parmenter-I want to say a few
words in a general way as to the great
advisability of having in ornamentals as
many as you can. From time to time I
have studied Mr. P. J. Berckmans' cata-
logue, with the idea that what will grow
in his vicinity will grow here, and I have
noted down a few that have grown very
nicely. One is the sycamore, and of all
shade trees I think the sycamore is the
best. I carried one home in my hand
from San Mateo several years ago. I
think it must be now sixty feet high.
I have a Texas cottonwood which is ten
years old, and it must be thirty feet high.
It is recommended for a quick shade and
for a quick shade it certainly fills the bill.
I have a Japanese varnish tree. It is
perhaps twenty feet high and has with-
stood all the cold and is perfectly hardy.
The Carolina poplar is another very fine
tree. These I speak of in particular;
those that have succeeded and been very
satisfactory. The Australian linden, I
think, would succeed very well in Flor-
ida.













Civilization Increases Bird Life.


BY S. POWERS, OF JACKSONVI LLE.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Farmers sometimes grow a little weary
of the oft-repeated lament over the de-
struction of the birds. There is no
doubt that there has been a ruthless
slaughter of plume birds, but some intel-
ligent agriculturists who have given
thought to the subject believe that man
feeds more birds than he kills.
Let us take the continent as it was in
its primeval condition. In the "starving
time" of Jamestown Captain John Smith
found no birds that he could use for food
for his perishing colonists except a few
water-fowl and wild turkeys obtained
from the Indians. In the history of my
native state, Ohio, I have read the writ-
ings of over fifty men describing pioneer
life, and not one of them mentions any
birds except wild turkeys and passenger
pigeons. In Fremont's narrative he
mentions no birds until he gets beyond
the forests and emerges upon the plains,
when he speaks of "millions of water-
fowl," "flocks of screaming plover," "a
supper of sea-gulls," etc. Arrived in
California, he found "some pretty birds
in the timber, and partridges, ducks and
geese innumerable." Again, "Flocks of
blackbirds announced our approach to
water" (the San Joaquin river).
Every farmer has observed the lone-
someness of a great forest-only a
mournful chirp at long intervals from


some solitary vireo or similar frequenter
of the deep woods. Only birds with
strong bills like the passenger pigeon can
feed upon the oak and beech mast;
hence these birds practically monopo-
lized the mighty forests; while turkeys
and water-fowls occupied the streams
and grouse the prairies. 'Therewere
very few of those smaller, more obscure,
but more useful birds, of which untold
millions now wait on the footsteps of
man. The showy, spectacular birds-
what may be called the stage properties
of "the great sloven continent" as it
stretched out waste and silent before the
discoverers-have been extirpated; but
the little friends of man, the insect de-
stroyers, have been multiplied beyond
computation.
For instance, take the bird called in
the South the rice-bird, and in the North
the bobolink. In the early history of
the Carolinas and Georgia, before rice
culture was introduced, they were com-
paratively scarce. Nowadays, on the
rich feeding grounds of the rice fields,
they have propagated like locusts. They
become so fat on rice that when one falls
a distance to the ground it bursts asun-
der; if a match is touched to the body,
it will burn. The rice-bird is not a friend
of man in the South, but in the North it
is; and in both sections it is uncommonly
good eating. Man raises this bird al-







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL .OGIETY


most as directly as he does the Leghorn.
Again, take the quail. In the vast
piney woods and wiregrass belt along the
South Atlantic and Gulf there is noth-
ing for the quail. The mast is scarce
and precarious, and needs a stouter bill
than the quail's, and the wiregrass makes
no seed. There is not a more hopeless
region on the continent for birds. But
man clears away the forest and plants
corn, and after the corn there comes up
a jungle of beggarweed, a rich legume
(Desmodium tortuosum), densely cover-
ing the field, hiding the cattle out of
sight and even the cornstalks. It cov-
ers the ground with millions of tiny
beans which nourish flocks of quail and
make Old Florida the sportsman's para-
dise in winter. These countless quail
and many other birds all feed on the
bounty of man.
Take the mockingbird, or the mocker,
as Floridians affectionately call it.
Primeval Florida had millions of parra-
keets and other gay-plumaged, harsh-
voiced birds, fit companions for the stoic
savage; but the sweet singer in its hum-
ble dress, appointed to cheer the lone-
some orange grower, remote in the
piney woods, awaited his coming. When
the orange groves were planted they
took possession of them; they were sat-
isfied and increased greatly. Many a
night in May and June I have listened
to their midnight serenade, especially on
moonlight nights, one answering an-
other in some distant grove, in a wide-
circling chorus, a polyglot antiphone.
Then came the disaster of 1895. The
mocker had seen the orange trees de-
foliated before, but it built its nest with
cheerful confidence, thinking that the
leaves would come and cover it from the
:sun. But that spring, the saddest of


Florida's history, gloomy alike to man
and bird, the leaves came no more. I
had cut down my dismantled trees and
one morning I stood on my veranda and
watched the bewildered mockers, search-
ing in a solitary palmetto, in the ivy at
the chimney top, in the brush piles, for a
place where they might build. They
put a nest in a brush heap and laid their
eggs, but the sun beat down hot on it,
and they quitted it in disgust. That
was a lonesome, silent summer in Flor-
ida; but now the groves are growing up
and the mockers are heard again.
The same with the shrike or butcher-
bird. Both he and the mocker delight
in an orange grove. I believe that their
number actually diminished that sum-
mer; that many of them raised no young
because they had no homes, no orange
groves.
In the wise economy of nature, man
has destroyed the birds he did not need,
but propagated those that were useful to
him as consumers of the weed seeds and
the insects that pillage his crops. The
pigeons were excellent food, but they re-
quired the beech mast, and beeches grew
on the richest land which man needed
for his farms. The pigeons of England
were once as numerous as in America,
proportionately, but when the beech-
nuts were gone, as Gilbert White relates,
they fell to eating turnips, which ruined
the flavor of their flesh.
The grouse on the prairies were val-
uable for food, but few in number, for
prairie grass produced no seeds.
The spectacular plume-birds of Flor-
ida are gone or rapidly going. Is it not
just as legitimate to kill one bird for its
plume as to kill another for its flesh?
Their beauty pleases man and honors the
Creator far more when displayed on the







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL BOCOIBT


bonnet of a comely woman in the city
than it does when wasting and rotting in
the unpeopled swamps of Florida.
More than that, these plume birds con-
sume the fish that Florida needs for food
and for fertilizer on her thin, sandy soils.
Whatever the Anglo-Saxon race does
is right, for it is the nearest represent-
ative of the Creator on earth.

DISCUSSION.

Mr. Butler-I would like to ask Mr.
Powers why he don't stick to the text.
He began with the influence of man
upon bird life, and ended up with the in-
fluence of birds upon man.
Dr. Kerr-I generally have a great


deal of respect for what our Secretary
says; and I thought he was an advocate
for the protection of birds. His sub-
ject was the influence of man upon bird
life. Not its protection; I believe he
has not advocated that. The closing of
his remarks would show that he was any-
thing else but an advocate, and I quote
what he says about the plumes looking
so nice upon the ladies' bonnets. Now,
I wish to say that the ladies of America
are beautiful enough without the stolen
embellishment of these beautiful birds.
They don't require to be decked up with
these things. Away with them! Leave
the birds to float in the air, filling our
hearts with the songs of'heaven for ever
and ever.


Pecan Culture.


A DISCUSSION.


Prof. Hume-I hoped to avoid the
question because I have prepared noth-
ing especially for the occasion. I start-
ed out nearly two years ago to give this
subject some attention, and I still con-
tinue to work on it. In fact, I am mak-
ing it one of the special lines of my in-
vestigation. I am very sorry that Dr.
Curtis is not here, and would not like to
say too much, because I might be tres-
passing on his ground. But the line of
investigation that I am pursuing at pres-
ent is that of top-working pecan trees. I
am becoming more and more disgusted.
with the seedling pecan. I have no use
for it and I have but little faith in the


statement regarding the pecan coming
true from seed. I have not been able to
get hold of any nut from a pecan tree
that is just like the nut that was planted.
I have gone through a number of the
groves when they were in fruit and when
I find a tree giving nuts no larger than
the tip of my finger, I am pretty nearly
in a state of mind to ask the owner to
cut it down immediately, and there are
hundreds of trees that bear nuts of that
description. They are little larger than
chinquapins. All sorts of opinions are
brought forward against budded or
grafted pecans, but to my mind they
have no superior. Why a pecan should







FLORIDA BTATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


not bear as well as any other tree when
they are budded is a question I cannot
understand. Some bring forward the
statement that the grafted orange is not
long-lived, and so they say it will be with
the pecan. Men who make that state-
ment don't know what they are talking
about. Then again if you bud the tree
and then transplant it, it will not grow
well. Top-working can be done as well
on the pecan as on a plum, peach or
any other tree. The methods by which
it is accomplished are three in number.
The cleft graft is probably the most
successful for top-working. The work
has to be done in Florida between the
middle of February and the first week in
March. I would run down as closely as
possible to the commencement of
growth. Of course, if you have a large
number to work over, you cannot leave
it off until the last three or four days.
The budding is principally of two forms,
or one with a modification of it. The
common form is the annular method.
The budding should be done between
July and August, and I believe by giving
this matter attention they can be very
successfully worked over to a new va-
riety, and I believe it would be very prof-
itable.

PECAN ON HICKORY STOCK.

Mr. Fairbanks-I would ask what is
your experience with grafting the pecan
to the hickory?
Prof. Hume-I have in mind a large
grove of hickory trees where it is being
carried out, but I cannot speak of the re-
sult.
Mr. Fairbanks-I have had expe-
rience of grafting the pecan into the
hickory. So far as the graft itself is


concerned, and not the growth of the
pecan on the hickory, there is no ques-
tion of success. There seems to be a
natural adaptation between the two. If
we can successfully graft the pecan into
our young hickories, we have a source of
income which is well worth looking into.
So far as the actual fact is concerned,
there is no question on that point. If
the graft grows on the hickory, I do not
see why the fruit should not be as good
as any other tree which is grafted. Al-
though I don't know the result, still I
see no reason.
Prof. Hume-I did not refer particu-
larly to the quality of the nut, but to
adaptation of that stock. I don't see
why it can't be successfully done.
The pecan and the hickory are as closely
related as the sour and the sweet orange.
We have the different varieties of hick-
ories which belong to the same genus
and are very closely related. While we
can graft and work the pecan upon the
hickory successfully, I believe it will
never come into favor with the nursery-
men, for it is easier for them to get pe-
cans for stock.
Mr. Porcher-I would like to ask Mr.
Fairbanks what is known as to the re-
sults of grafting the hickory, such as is
grafted to the pecan. As I understand,
it is usually scrub hickory, which very
seldom attains beyond a certain size, and
in a few instances they grow for a time
and then stop.
Mr. Fairbanks-The hickories are in
character equal and otherwise the same.
Mr. Cooper-I grafted some hickories
this spring, got a specially fine variety
from Orlando, and there was a row of
young seedling hickories on that place.
I got only four grafts and we had a very
dry spring, but I spared no care and the







FLORIDA STATE HORTIOULTURAL SOCIETY


nuts were very fine. Of the four grafts
that I inserted into the roots, they are
not very large, but they were some of
them three or four feet apart, and there
was only one of those grafts that tried to
live. A little later, about the first of
March, I had a seedling pecan that is
only four or five years of age, and I took
off grafts just previous to the budding
out and tried four more of those hickory
seedlings, and I have not got one to live.
I would like to ask Professor Hume in
regard to this budding. It would be dif-
ficult to get limbs low enough. Would
you saw the tree off or would you head
the branches back?
Prof. Hume-I would prefer to leave
the stubs of branches and let them come
out.

GRAFTING AND BUDDING.

Mr. Griffing-When we started in the
pecan business we tried grafting and we
got very few to live. After a good deal
of experimenting we gave up the graft-
ing. In July and August we have found
out that budding is most successful.
Year before last I had fully 50 per cent.
of our buds to grow, and we are very
much in favor of budding. All the way
through we find the percentage is very
much higher.
Mr. Gaitskill-I have had some expe-
rience with the hickory and had fine suc-
cess with grafting. It was as easily
done as anything I have ever done. I
had no trouble at all.
Mr. Hart-Mr. Adams, the former
President of this Society, years ago had
a good many sprouts come up in his
grove, so he put grafts into them. I
don't know whether he did any budding
or not. The trees are scattered over his


grove, the result of that grafting. The
trees when I saw them a few years after
were full of nuts, and those nuts, accord-
ing to his taste-and he was a very tasty
man-he considered better than almost
any he had ever eaten. They seemed to
be exceedingly fine. They were not very
large, but twigs were as large as the or-
dinary pecan scions then, and as soon as
I was allowed to go home from the court
I took some with me and cleft-grafted
them into the hickory with great success.
A year ago in February I took a scion
from one of them and cleft-grafted it a
little below the ground. They made a
growth one of about seven and one
about eight feet, and had several
branches from two to four feet long;
made a most remarkable growth. It
seems to me that one of the best ways is
to cleft-graft below ground. There are
a number of trees on the Halifax river
that were grafted on the hickory. They
grew very successfully.
Mr. Wiley-I have had some little ex-
perience this spring in grafting both the
pecan and hickory, and I found that
wherever I grafted under ground, the
success is very much better. Very un-
fortunately, this spring I have lost over
50 per cent. of my grafts on account of
dry weather. Between the first and
middle of March they had started to
grow beautifully, but when this dry
weather set in I think I have lost over 50
per cent. of them. I have done very lit-
tle grafting until this year. I would like
to know if there is any member of the
Society that has had any experience this
season in grafting.
Mr. Gaitskill-My grafting this year
was usually under ground, and my suc-
cess was very poor. I don't claim that
this result is conclusive. I have laid a







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


portion of the blame to the dry spring.
Heretofore I have always taken the pre-
caution to mix up a clay putty, and after
inserting the graft I applied clay, and if
the season was dry I applied Spanish
moss, and this year I did not take that
precaution. So I have no reason to
blame the weather. At the same time
I took such trouble with the insertion I
expected better results. I had much
better results in the same soil with the
persimmon.
Mr. Taber-Success or failure in
grafting the pecan depends very largely
upon the weather that ensues. If the
ground is moist there is very little dan-
ger of any natural loss; at least, success
is practically insured. But if the weather
turns very dry and the cions dry out,
which they will do, the loss will be heavy.
A gentleman who had grafted some pe-
can seedlings had a method that was
quite interesting to me. He cut off the
limbs anywhere from an inch to an inch
and a half in diameter and inserted cions
well waxed over, and the next thing he
did was to fill a bottle of water and tie
it on the stub of the tree. Wrap the
cion with one end of a cloth and keep
the other end in the bottle of water. Ca-
pillary attraction keeps the cion wet and
prevents drying out.
Mr. Butler-I grafted a citrus tree and
found by putting a jelly glass over it
it did much better.
Mr. Mann-I have about forty seed-
ling pecan trees. I planted the nuts


some six or seven years ago and they
now range from four to twelve feet high.
Last fall I was very much surprised to
find the limbs all cut off. Looked as if
someone had taken the clipper and clip-
ped off the ends. I picked up the limbs
and on close examination I saw that
there had been an insect at work. I
remember that I had heard that that was
one of the ways which insects have of
propagating themselves, by cutting off
the limbs, and I did not know of any
other way than to gather up all those
twigs and burn them.
Prof. Hume-I would simply state
that what Mr. Mann did was the best
and the only thing to do. The egg is
laid toward the top (?) of the twig
and then the insect walks down a short
distance and cuts off the twig.
Mr. Mann-Is there any way to pre-
vent his work before we find the limb
cut?
Mr. Cooper-I would just say for the
benefit of this gentleman that five years
ago I put out about a hundred very fine
pecan trees. They were seedlings and
bore fine fruit, but that little insect would
cut off the twigs. I got my foreman,
got a cane rod, wrapped moss around it,
sent out a man very early in the morning
and burned them off. We have headed
them off in that way, so they don't cut
them at all. Take this moss with oil on
it, not too much of a fire, and you will
stop that work.













A Grape Experiment Station.


BY H. VON LUTTICHAU, OF EAR LETON.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
This report will be confined to the ex-
periment vineyard I have in charge for
the Department of Agriculture, Division
of Pomology.
I leave to the other members of your
committee to report on grapes in gen-
eral.
The object of the Department is to
find, if possible, some varieties of Vitis
vinifera that can be recommended for
general planting and that may prove a
benefit to the State.
We cannot say that the grapes we are
growing now in Florida, American or
hybrids, are satisfactory. If we want a
grape for market outside the State we
must have one that comes as near as
possible to the hothouse grape; for that
we have to go to Vitis vinifera. Two
years ago the Department invited me to
take charge of an experiment vineyard
or grafted Vinifera varieties to be estab-
lished on my place at Earleton. Should
I accept, the possible benefit to the State
was apparent, and personally it could not
fail to be of interest to me, as I have
always been interested in the culture of
the grape.
Early in March two years ago I re-
ceived about 500 vines of about 125 va-
rieties, all grafted on Vitis riparia and
Vitis rupestris. To attempt to grow
Viniferas on their own roots is useless;


they will invariably die in a year or two.
Vitis riparia and Vitis rupestris are the
only suitable stock for Florida. Our
own native wild bunchgrape, a Southern
Aestivalis, is also not suitable. The very
close trimming necessary to produce the
best fruit of Vitis vinifera does not agree
with any aestivalis roots; it strengthens
Riparia and Rupestris, but weakens all
Aestivalis.
The vines arrived in poor order, poor-
ly rooted; naturally there were losses,
twenty per cent. perhaps, which were re-
placed by the Department the following
year. They were set out in proper vine-
yard form, a stake of fence-rail size and
two pounds of blood and bone to each
vine. Clean culture, in fact, extra good
culture, was given all the time, and by
fall the vines completely covered the
five-foot stakes and hung down to the
ground. No disease whatever.
During the following winter a trellis
of three wires was built, the vines were
cut back to one or two good eyes and
again fertilized with about two pounds
of blood and bone. I had the most lux-
uriant growth on these vines I ever saw;
they covered not only the trellis, but the
ground as well.
They were sprayed with Bordeaux
mixture about every ten days; the leaves
remained perfect until fall, the wood
ripened to the end. January last a







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


fourth wire was added, and all vines of
the first planting were trimmed to fruit-
ing spurs, the best and only principle for
Florida. All my vines begin their spurs
ten inches from the ground; to get them
depends on the management of the
spring growth the year before, which
naturally is all-important, in fact, the
foundation of the vine.
Each vine received about April I two
and one-half pounds of blood and bone
and potash, and at this writing they have
again covered the four wire trellis, and
with very few exceptions are full of most


promising fruit. Spraying is done every
ten or twelve days, depending much on
the weather, and will be kept up until
fruit shall begin to ripen. By the end
of June I shall be able to present to any-
one the finest collection of ripe Vinifera
grapes ever seen in Florida.
Still, no variety could yet be safely
recommended; but at your next meeting
I shall be able to name some varieties'
that can be planted with a fair chance
of success-if grafted on Vitis riparia or
rupestris only.


GRAPES, FIGS, KAKI.

By W. D. Griffing, of the Committee.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Very little interest is manifested in
any kind of fruit growing for commer-
cial purposes, outside of the citrus fam-
ily, by this Society; and for this reason
many of the meetings have been of very
little value to some of the members in
the northern and western part of the
State.
The subject of grapes, figs and kaki
will, no doubt, be of interest to some of
the members of the Society, as fruits for
home uses at least. We try to have a
few of all the varieties we grow in fruit-
ing, which amounts to the same thing as
the average grower having a few for
home use. In grapes we have quite suc-
cessfully fruited all varieties of the Mus-
cadine class, and believe them perfectly
at home in any part of Florida. The
Thomas is the earliest with us by about
ten days, and is about the best for eating
out of hand. This is closely followed by


the Scuppernong, which by many is con-
sidered best of all. Tenderpulp is val-
uable for canning. The James is com-
paratively new and is a very large, fine-
looking fruit that sells well in local mar-
kets; is also of fair quality, but in my
estimation not up to either Thomas or
Scuppernong. It ripens later and lasts.
longer. We have had James until frost
We have also succeeded in getting'
very fine specimen bunches of most of
the trellis varieties that we have tested,
but find they must be on thoroughly
well drained land of good quality. Ives,
Concord, Niagara and Moore's Early are
the most easily raised, but with special
care we have raised as fine DeTawares
as I ever saw.

FIGS.

My experience with figs has been
mostly with the native varieties, of which






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


Celestial, Brown Turkey, Lemon, Green
Ischia and Brunswick are leading sorts.
These all do well in our part of the State,
but I consider Celestial the most valua-
ble, as the tree seems to be hardier, and
it is the most prolific and regular bearer.
The fruit though small is very sweet and
excellent for preserves. Old fig trees
will stand much more cold than young
ones. I have noticed in Jacksonville
that very few trees that were five to six
inches or more in diameter were killed
by the '99 freeze, while all smaller ones
were killed to the ground. I think it
will pay to bank all fig trees, at least in
North Florida, quite high in winter, as
it is possible to save enough of the tree
to make fruit the following season, even
if the top does freeze.
We are experimenting with about
thirty varieties of figs, mostly from Cali-
fornia, some of which promise fruit this
year, and we are in hopes to be able to
increase our list by finding something of
larger size and more hardy. In my
opinion, the dampness in Florida would
make it as impossible to dry figs, as we
are used to seeing them on the market,
as it would be to cure raisins; but if we
can succeed in producing an abundance
of fine fruit I believe there will be great
possibilities in canning, also in fresh fruit
in near-by markets.

KAKI.

The kaki or Japan persimmon is a
grand fruit for home use, and also has
considerable market value, as they are
found in all our large fruit markets in
their season, and practically all of these
are raised in Florida. A friend of mine
has shipped them to England, and re-
ports that they were received in fairly


good condition and sold well. On the
strength of this he has planted an
orchard of about 2500 trees, using Hya-
kume, Hachiya and Tanne Nashi. He
does not expect to market them all in
England, but will give that market a
thorough trial. He has had good success
in our Northern markets.
The right soil for persimmons is quite
an important factor, for while the native
persimmon seems to thrive in almost
any kind of place, I have noticed that
the Japanese varieties on it do not last
long on wet or heavy soils, while on
well drained, sandy soil they last much
better. it is my opinion that the best
soil for them is the high, sandy land of
which there is an abundance in Florida,
and there is no objection to planting in
old fields.
For home use there is no variety of
more value than the Zengi. The most
of its fruit is good while hard, and im-
proves as it gets soft, until it is as de-
licious as a persimmon can get. It
makes the best tree, and is the most pro-
lific and regular bearer. The Hyakume.
Hachiya, Tanne-Nashi, Yemon and
Okame are the favorite market sorts.
The Costata, Tsuru and Triumph are
good late varieties, but must be thor-
oughly ripe, in fact so soft that they will
hardly hold together, before they are
good to eat.

DISCUSSION.

Mr. Bradt-I would like to ask what
success, if any, there has been derived
from shipping persimmons?
Mr. Embry-Mr. Stevens told me that
he had applications for many more than
he could supply, at advanced prices.
Mr. Bradt-I have made an effort to







FLORIDA BTATE HORTICULTURAL SOOJETY


cultivate them, and succeeded, but they
did not keep any time at all, and unless
I find some way to cure them I should
consider it a total failure.
Mr. Pierson-Did the trees hold the
fruit well?
Mr. Bradt-They have hot fruited
heavily as yet. They don't mature all
at once. Last year they bloomed for an
extended time. This year they seem
to be blooming all at once. I had sev-
eral trees that I was watching very care-
fully, and they promised a very nice
crop, but during the rainy season their
fruit dropped and I was wondering if it
was usual, or if others had better suc-
cess. i4
Mr. Parmenter-I would like to know
what experience anyone has had in ship-
ping Niagara grapes ?
W. A. Cooper-It is so long ago I al-
most forgot, and I wish I had. I don't
ship them; don't stand shipping at all.
They fall off the stem. When they get
to Cincinnati or New York, you lift
them up, and the grape stays in the ves-
sel while the stem comes up in your
hand. The only thing I can say is,
don't.
Mr. Embry-I have had some exper-
ience in the shipping of grapes, and it
was a success. Sold them at $2 a crate,
and have also shipped to St. Petersburg
and made a success.
Mr. Cooper-We shipped a carload of
very fine ones to Chicago to the World's
Fair; sent a gentleman on to represent
us, and he was to sell them. We were


going to ship him a car every day or
two. He got there, thought the mar-
ket was very favorable indeed to handle
grapes, and he was a little stiff about it
with the commission men; was going to
handle those grapes himself. 'I had a
hundred pounds that I shipped and got
back twenty-two cents in stamps for my
share. Five of us went on a note in the
bank to pay the freight on those grapes
and to ice them and we had that note to
pay. That was my experience with Niag-
ara grapes.
Mr. Porcher-The trouble with the
Niagara grape is that it is too early. It
comes into the market when the market
is full of all other kinds of fruit. The
consequence is that it is practically im-
possible to sell them. I have been
North and seen them arrive, and they
literally could not bring the freight
charges, and yet that grape, coming in
later, if it could be induced to hold on
to the stem, it would be sold at very
good prices.
Mr. Embry-I would like to say that
Salem is a very desirable grape to grow.
Question-What of the Delaware and
the Catawba?
Mr. Embry-It will take a Delaware
vine four years to get up to the size of
almost any other vine of two years.
The Delaware grape is a good grape,
but I would hardly recommend it, and
for any near-by market I would say that
the Ives was preferable. In quality the
Delaware cannot be beat.













Official Business.


ELECTION OF OFFICERS.


* The Nominating Committee, consist-
ing of F. D. Waite, Dr. George Kerr
and Cyrus W. Butler, presented a ticket
to the Society, re-electing all the old of-
ficers.
C. T. McCarty moved that a formal
ballot be dispensed with and that all the
old officers be declared re-elected. Car-
ried.
(See list in front pages of the book.)
SDr. Kerr said the situation was truly
appalling to him, as he was one of the
committee, and the others dragooned
him into nominating himself for re-elec-
tion.
President Taber made a graceful ac-
knowledgement, and the Secretary said
he would simply say "Ditto."
Treasurer Hart returned thanks for
this renewed evidence of confidence.
Vice-President Cooper said he was


surprised last year, and now he was more
surprised than ever.
Chairman Phelps said he felt it a high
honor to be elected to the same position
fifteen years consecutively.
Mr. Hubbard said the Society had
done a great work, and he had felt it an
honor to serve on the committee so many
years. The Society still has a great
work of education to do, and he illus-
trated this point by a story of an igno-
rant old man who pointed out the lady-
bug feeding on the scales and said to
him, "Mr. Hubbard, you ought to kill
them there lady-bugs. They breeds the
scale. You ought to kill every one of
'em."
Mr. Painter made a humorous speech,
punning on the names of the other of-
ficers.


SELECTION OF NEXT PLACE OF MEETING.


C. W. Butler-A citizen of Tampa ex-
pected to be here and extend to you a
cordial invitation to hold your next
meeting there, but the party did not ar-
rive. This morning and last night so
many members and especially those from
the East Coast expressed a desire to go


to the West Coast that we concluded to
put forward the invitation from Tampa
for the next meeting. Looking over the
situation as a whole, Jacksonville has
done nobly by us, and St. Augustine is
to me the most delightful place I have
ever visited. But in the language of a







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


member whose words bore weight, this
question is a business one and should be
settled upon a business basis. The ob-
ject of the Society should not be forgot-
ten and the greatest good of the greatest
number should be considered; and there
seems no place that so much needs your
aid as the part around Tampa. The
seeds of good you could sow there would
be very great, and with the encourage-
ment that comes from the presence of
the Society I doubt not we should get
new members. I would be willing to
guarantee seventy-five. I am more
than sorry Mr. Gillett was not here, be-
cause in my feeble way I am not able to
present the situation, but I ask each
member to think of this matter and to
accept his better impulses.
Mr. F. D. Waite and Mr. J. C. Carter
supported Mr. Butler in his invitation.
SMr. Painter-I move that we meet at
Tampa.
Mr. McCarty-I believe the question
is before the house now. Mr. Chair-
man, there is probably no necessity to
say much, but there are some phases of
this matter that ought to be placed be-
fore the members of this Society in or-
der that we may all understand each oth-
er, in order that harmony may prevail
now and in the future.
Standing in a hall so beautifully deco-
rated as this has been by the hands of
the hospitable people of St. Augustine,
and taking this vote, it might be enough
to give them the impression that we do
not appreciate their hospitality. There
never was a meeting where we have en-
joyed ourselves more, where there has
been more cordiality and hospitality ex-
tended to us, and in parting with them
this year we wish to assure them that


they have a warm place in our hearts.
No other place in the State was better
able to entertain us in an emergency
like this. They had everything neces-
sary. They have done so nobly we wish
to extend to them the token of our re-
gard and appreciation.
Last year I, in conversation with many
members of this Society, reached the
conclusion that the time had arrived
when this Society should have a perma-
nent home. When we should not be a
jumping Association from year to year
running around the State. We believe
that we should have a permanent home
where we could have a hall and a library
and many other things that this Society
needs. Events have transpired that
have swept these things away, that have
dashed that for the present from the
lips of Jacksonville. I wish to say this
in favor of our meeting in Tampa, that
we appreciate that magnanimity with
which they submitted to defeat last year.
There is no nobler trait in the human
race than to take disappointment grace-
fully. We pay them that tribute now
and if they ever had a sore spot in their
hearts, we hope that we are forgiven.
Further than that, I wish to say this
with reference to our future, and when I
say this I speak not only for a large num,-
ber of the individual members of this
Society, but for some of its ablest mem-
bers, we do not relinquish, in going to
Tampa this year, the position that we
took last year, that Jacksonville offers
the proper place for the permanent
home of this Association.
With these few statements, I take
pleasure in seconding the motion that
the meeting be held at Tampa next
year.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


Mr. Amsdem-This year we had only
one day in which to purchase our tickets
and we had to start on that day.
Mr. Taber-In regard to the rate it-
self, the one-cent-a-mile rate is not only
a special rate, but a very special rate. I
don't know of any other society in the
State that has secured that rate. It is a
rate that the railroads are very chary
about giving to any society. One fare
and a quarter for the round trip is as
good a rate as any other society gets.
Some years ago Mr. Healy, through his
influence, obtained the special rate, and
we have had that rate every year since.
The railroads have very kindly recog-
nized our position and accorded us that
rate ever since. This year they accord-
ed the cent-a-mile rate asked to Jackson-
ville, and it was announced just the day
before the Jacksonville fire that notice
had been received from Mr. Richardson,
by the Secretary stating the rate had
been accorded. Of course, that fire
changed altogether our place of meet-
ing, and we then had to go to them and
ask them to put into effect for St. Au-
gustine the rate that they had made us
to Jacksonville and they did so. Now,
in relation to the time of getting to our
destination, I would say that when Jack-
sonville was decided upon as the place
of meeting, the representatives thought


that the date set was sufficient to get the
people into Jacksonville before the eve-
ning meeting, and it was for almost ev-
ery one in the State. And when we got
them to change our place of meeting to
St. Augustine we did not ask them to
give us more time. Perhaps we should
have gotten it in that way, but at that
time in Jacksonville the railroad officials
and all other officials were all up in arms.
There was that terrible calamity upon
them and we did not ask them any more
than we could help.
The vote for Tampa was unanimous.
Mr. Butler-If you derive one-half the
benefit that I do or one-half the pleas-
ure from the entertainment the next
year, I believe you will be well satisfied.
I should have stated that, in regard to
the railroad fare, one cent a mile has
been promised already.
Mr. Taber-I think I am safe in say-
ing that we can obtain a longer time
during which the rate will be applica-
ble.
Dr. Inman-In behalf of Polk county,
I extend you our thanks. I think it is
a wise move; I think it will conduce to
the growth and the health of the Society
and I think that we can give you one
hundred new members from Polk, De-
Soto, Manatee and Hillsborough coun-
ties during the next year.













Officers' Reports.


REPORT OF SECRETARY.


If the members of this Society will
come with me I will conduct them
through the streets of Jacksonville to
the ruins of a certain house. In the
middle there is a little heap of yellow
ashes, and in places you can still trace
the outlines of books and decipher some
letters. Take up a handful of them and
they have a very soft and velvety feeling.
There is a large amount of good brain
matter in those ashes, but our enterpris-
ing fellow members who manufacture
fertilizers would not pay twenty-five
cents a hundred for them for use in their
goods. That little heap of yellow ashes
is all that remains of the voluminous
records and reports of this Society.
I happened to have a few copies of the
reports in my office. Mr. W. S. Hart,
Mr. E. S. Hubbard and Dr. J. M. Hawks
have kindly supplied some missing num-
bers, and with a little further assistance
I can reconstruct the file.
On behalf of the Society, I wish to
return thanks to several gentlemen for
their zeal in securing new members by a
personal canvass. Prominent among
these are Messrs. F. D. Waite, James
Henry, E. S. Hubbard, E. V. Blackman
and Rev. Lyman Phelps. Several years
ago the Executive Committee author-
ized the Secretary to appoint such depu-
ties to conduct personal canvasses, and


experience has certainly demonstrated
the value of the practice.
Up to date I have received 280 fees
from annual members, and our list of life
members has been increased this year
by nine recruits, making 240 annuals,
49 life members, and 2 honorary.
RECEIPTS FOR THE YEAR.
Back numbers sold ..........$ 86 25
Membership fees ............ 280 oo
Life members ............... 90 oo
Donation by Amos Wakelin ... 2 oo

Total receipts ........... $458 25
EXPENSES.
Postage and stationery ........$ 24 oo
Printing ................... 28 60
Addressing envelopes ........ oo0
Telegrams ............... I 25
21o badges ................. Io oo
Drayage and freight ......... I oo

Total expenses ..........$ 65 85
Balance paid on Secretary's sal-
ary ....................$44 25
Retained for immediate use. ... 18 5

$128 25
Turned over to Treasurer Hart $330 oo
STEPHEN POWERS,
Secretary.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


P. S. I have the pleasure of stating
that, since the adjournment, President
Taber has donated to the Society over
sixty volumes of the back Reports, and
other members have contributed a few.
The Secretary will now be able not only
to restore a complete file, but also to
present to life members who may sub-
scribe in the future nearly complete sets
of our Reports. Of the first three years
and the last two there is still a scant sup-
ply, however, and donations of these to
the Society will be acceptable.



TREASURER'S REPORT FOR 1901.

1900oo. Dr.
May 3rd, to balance from last
Report ................ $277 30
Sept. 12, to Sec. Powers, Cr. on
salary acct. ............... 44 25
1901.
May 22, to Sec. Powers, cash.. 330 oo

$651 55
Cr.
Aug. 2, 19oo, by Sec. Powers,
draft No. 19 .............. $244 11
Sept. 2, by Sec. Powers, draft
No. 20 ................... 75 oo
May 22, 19o0, by balance in
treasury ............... 332 44

$651 55
The Treasurer takes pleasure in stat-
ing further that he now has in hand the
further sum of $42.25 contributed by the
members at this meeting for the relief of
the sufferers from the great fire in Jack-
sonville.
W. S. HART,
Treasurer.


REPORT OF EXECUTIVE COM-

MITTEE.

The members of the Committee not
present, by letter to President Taber at
the time of the Jacksonville fire, author-
ized him to change the place of meeting
at his discretion, under the extraordi-
nary circumstances, and this action is
now fully approved, and the Secretary
is instructed to embody it in this re-
port.
The Committee has held no other
meeting since the last annual meeting in
Jacksonville, and the members by letter
authorized the Secretary to publish the
proceedings, and approved the bills pre-
sented by him for this printing.
The Executive Committee held a full
meeting at 8 a. m., May 23, 1901, passed
upon and approved the annual reports
of the Secretary and Treasurer.
LYMAN PHELPS,
E. S. HUBBARD,
E. O. PAINTER,
Executive Commiittee.



REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMIT-

TEE ON LIBRARY.

Your Committee would report that
they have received a cash donation of
$20 from President Geo. L. Taber for
the purpose of starting a library for the
Society, and three donations of books.
One of the donations was from Mr. W.
S. Hart, and consisted of files of valuable
horticultural and apiarian periodicals.
The other contribution, deserving
special mention, was made by Mrs.







FLORIDA STATB HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


Frances E. Manville, widow of A. H.
Manville, who was for years an active
member and officer of this Society, and
was always foremost in good works for
the benefit of the horticulturists of Flor-
ida. These books had been carefully
preserved and labelled by Mr. Manville,
and consisted of several standard works
on orange culture, files of Insect Life
and various horticultural magazines and
last, but by no means least, an almost
complete file of the Reports of the De-
partment of Agriculture.
With the funds donated the Secretary
purchased a small sectional book case


and had bound and placed in it a set of
the bulletins of the Florida Experiment
Station (presented by himself), two vol-
umes of Semi-Tropical Florida and six
volumes of Insect Life.
The outlay was as follows:
Book case ................. .$ 2 oo
Binding o1 volumes ........... Io oo
Putting lock on book case ..... 85

Total .. .. ..............$22 85
G. L. TABER,
S. POWERS,
W. S. HART,
Committee.


Grafting and Budding.


Considered from the Standpoint of an Orange Grower.


BY W. S. HART, OF HAWKS PARK.


Having been appointed chairman of
the Citrus Committee to prepare the first
report it ever presented to this Society,
I asked my co-workers to assist in so
framing that report as to constitute an
enduring basis on which to build
through future reports and resulting dis-
cussions, as comprehensive and up-to-
date a treatise on citrus culture as this
Society proved itself capable of con-
structing. That the cumulative results
of all the past work of that standing
committee and other members, through
discussing this branch of horticulture,
have, in a measure, come up to my early


conception of what they should be, was
lately impressed on my mind by the sug-
gestion, from a non-resident orange
grower, that a digest of the back reports
of this Society would result in a much-
needed work on citrus culture, and one
of far more value than could be hoped
for from the pen of a single writer. A
desire to assist in filling in the gaps that
would necessarily occur should such a
digest be made at this time is one of
my excuses for presenting this paper.
In discussing the subjects of grafting
and budding, I will do so from the stand-
point of an orange grower in the hopes






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL O8CIETY


of saving time thereby, while yet meet-
ing the needs of the greater portion of
those of this State who require assist-
ance in these matters.
In all this class of work the first thing
to consider, after you have the stock to
work on, is the variety or varieties you
wish to propagate. If a nurseryman,
you need more or less of all valuable va-
rieties, but such men know their busi-
ness, and need no instruction from me.
To the novice in the business and to
those just entering it let me say, don't
mix many varieties in one grove for
market uses. Two or three at most are
enough and put these in solid blocks.
This would not be good advice to the
pear tree planter, but with citrus fruits
long practice shows it to be so. If many
varieties are desired for novelty's sake,
or for exhibition, etc., put them, a tree
or two of a kind, in a block by them-
selves. Having decided, say in the
fall, what varieties to propagate, cut
your scions in fall or winter before the
active movement of sap begins, in late
January or in February. At this time
the finest of scions can be cut in plenty.
In March, April or May much nice
growth must be sacrificed to secure a
few poor buds, as nearly every well-de-
veloped bud has put out a sprout that is
still too tender to use.

BEST BUDS TO USE.

In an emergency, however, as where
it is the only chance of securing a much
desired variety, almost any kind of bud,
if rightly handled and the proper stock is
found, can be made to grow. In such a
case, buds that have already put out one
or even two shoots, small buds from tiny
growth, immature wood freshly cut, or


buds from the very tips of a scion, will
give the skilled hand a hope of adding to
his list of fruits. My choice for fall cut-
ting is fairly matured wood of late sum-
mer or fall growth, showing well devel-
oped buds and thornless. Angular
wood is not objectionable, but rank
watersprouts, so-called, from the body
of the tree should be avoided. Wood
from a bearing limb is preferred by
many, but I have little choice between
that and wood from a thrifty tree of
younger growth. Either one will give
fruit as soon as it ought to, rightly han-
dled. Cut the scion with a sharp knife,
trim off the leaves immediately to pre-
vent evaporation, then lay them on the
ground in a shady place and cover with
sphagnum moss, or put them in a box of
old, partly rotted sawdust. In either
case, place them where they will be ex-
posed to the weather, and they will cal-
lus at the ends and keep in good shape
for months.
From the apparent dormancy of win-
ter until the blossom buds reach the size
of turkey shot, cleft-grafting may be
done. Here, from January to early
March, is usually the best season for the
orange.

WAX AND KIT.

For the work one needs a ball of graft-
ing wax made of three parts rosin, two
of beeswax and one of tallow, melted to-
gether thoroughly and then turned into
cold water. When cool enough to han-
dle it should be pulled like molasses
candy until a light yellow color. A
small lump of tallow to prevent the wax
from sticking to the hands should be
in the kit. A sharp saw, a thin-edged,
strong knife, three or four hardwood







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL 8~OOITY


wedges six or eight inches long and of
varying widths, a light hammer or mallet
and, if working near the ground, a stiff
brush. Of course, a pair of hand prun-
ing-shears should always be in such a kit
as well as a small whetstone.

CLEFT-GRAFTING.

Cleft-grafting is especially useful in
working over trees or sprouts from the
root or trunk of injured trees of larger
size, that range from three-quarters of
an inch to three inches in diameter. It
is also a good means of working over
large tops by grafting limbs, as is done
with apple trees. Where sprouts or
limbs are grafted a part only should be
worked, and the rest left until the grafts
have made a fair leaf surface. It may
be necessary to lop them by cutting
partly off and laying down, but don't
cut them away until the sweet top can
take care of the root.
The stock or limb to be cleft-grafted
is sawed off at a right angle to the course
of the stock, shave the top smooth, then
split it by driving the knife down into it
through the middle, unless the stock is
too large for this, in which case it can
be split near one side or a saw cut can
be made to receive the scion. The grain
of many orange trees being quite
crooked, it is sometimes well to drive the
knife in at the side a little way before
splitting the stock. This gives straight
surface to hold the scion. Remove the
knife and open the cleft with the wedge
best suited to the size of the stock, al-
lowing plenty of room on one or both
sides for the sprig of buds. Now cut the
scions to a wedge-shape that will fit the
cleft, leaving the outer side a trifle the
thickest, and with two buds above the


cuts. Slip these firmly into place, so
that the cambium layer (the soft layers
just under the bark) of stock and scion
may come in contact as much as possi-
ble. If the scions are set at a slight
angle with the stock, this contact is pret-
ty sure to be obtained. Now withdraw
the wedge, coat airtight with wax all cut
surfaces, not forgetting the top of each
scion, and the process is complete. This
kind of grafting is especially successful
in working kaki, pecans, grape and many
other trees and vines at or below the
surface of the ground. If well below,
as is best with grape vines, no wax is
needed. Banked with moist earth nearly
to the top bud, after being tied with cot-
ton twine to hold the parts firmly to-
gether, they can be left without further
attention, as the twine will rot off at the
proper time.

CROWN-GRAFTING.

Crown-grafting is usually practiced
with large stocks after the sap has be-
come active in the spring, so the bark
will slip easily. The tree is best cut off
some inches under ground, the scion
wedged by a long, slanting cut on one
side, leaving two or three buds above,
then pushed down under the bark at a
point where its outline is concave.
Were swelling or convex surfaces chosen
the bark would crack and not hold the
scion firmly. If the trunk is large, sev-
eral of these grafts may be inserted so
the top will spread from the ground.
Moist earth is then packed to the scions,
leaving only the top bud exposed. This
method puts the junction of stock and
graft, the weakest part, below the reach
of cold, in trees too large to cleft-graft,
so that if frozen to the ground they will







PLORIDA FATE HORTICULTURAL 80CITY


start growth from grafted wood. It also
gives a surprising growth of wood and
a quick return of the tree to a profitable
bearing condition. In hot weather
shade should be used to prevent the
roasting of the grafts. A notable in-
stance of the successful use of this kind
of grafting was that of our late lamented
President Dudley W. Adams, imme-
diately after the freeze of 1895. The
only drawback in its use for restoring
groves of citrus fruits on sour stock is
that it carried the sweet wood down
where it is liable to attacks from foot rot
on lands subject to that disease. It puts
the tree about on a par with sweet seed-
lings in this respect. Foot rot (mal de
goma) will often jump up a foot from
the ground to reach sweet wood, that is,
on resistant stock.
Crown-grafting can, however, be done
at any height in sound stock.

SIDE-GRAFTING.

Side-grafting is the simplest of all the
methods and is applicable to large wood
at any time when the bark will slip suf-
ficiently to allow of fairly successful bud-
ding. It is also often successful when
budding is not. In the case of large
seedlings or other trees to be worked
over, side-grafts put in in the fall, left
dormant until the spring and then
started out by lopping the tops, will al-
low of a fine crop of fruit from the old
top while the new one is being grown.
There is quite a knack in properly
laying down the old tops, so as not to
throw off the bark at the bud. To do
this successfully, saw pretty nearly
through the old trunk a little way above
the graft, put a firm bearing against it
a few inches above the cut, then pull the


top over in a way to make a long split
upward. It is surprising what a crop
of fruit can be made, even on a shy bear-
er like the navel, through a wide, thin
sliver connecting the top with the root.
After cutting, as above, cover the
wound with liquid wax. I have given
the recipe for this wax before, but it is
good enough to bear repeating here:
Melt one pound of rosin with two ounces
of tallow, remove from fire and when
slightly cooled add six ounces of alcohol
and, last, one ounce of turpentine. Keep
well corked in large-mouthed bottle with
brush thrust through the cork.
The mode of side-grafting is to take
well matured twigs, cut to a taper from
one side, as in crown-grafting, except
that I cut a little deeper at first, and then
run out the rest of the way in a thin
tapering tongue that will easily bend to
the curvature of the trunk.
Small wood for grafts may not make
as vigorous a first growth as larger
wood, but it is easier to use and will soon
make up in growth. A vertical cut is
made in the bark of the stock about
three-quarters of an inch long and slant-
ing in the direction the graft is to take.
With a slight twist of the knife the bark
is started from the wood and the
wedged part of the scion slipped under
at an angle of twenty to fifty degrees
from the course of the stock. If well
done, there is little need of wrapping.
If poorly done, wrap and then stick an
orange thorn under the wrapping at
each side of the scion to hold the bark
close. After a good-sized top is made
from the grafts the old top can be cut
away.
Tongue, shoulder, lip, saddle and that
class of grafting are in little use among
orange growers. They are mostly






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL 80CIITY


adapted to small stock where we use the
shield bud, so I will not stop to describe
them.

SHIELD BUDDING.

Shield budding is a process that allows
of the rapid working of nursery or other
small stock, and has in years past been
the one in almost universal use in Flor-
ida for that class of work.
A very few are now grafting nursery
stock to some extent and charging more
for the trees so worked under the claim
that they make more rapid growth.
Much of this budding being done close
to the ground, it is an excellent plan to
have a box arranged to serve as a seat
and a tool-carrier combined. Mine is
made of three-eighths inch white pine
except the top, which is seven-eighths
and covers a little over half of it. It is
10x14x7 inches with two compartments
and several sockets for scions, knife,
pencil, etc., on inside, and for pruning
saw and record book outside. The
front end is tapered down to four inches
high. My kit of tools include scions in
a damp shot bag, budding knife, hand
pruning shears, a ball of twine, a roll of
waxed cloth, a small whetstone, a stiff
brush, a pruning-saw, pencil and record
book. I also usually have a small ham-
mer and tin box of slim, wire nails, of
assorted sizes, from half-inch to inch, to
use in inarching whenever I see need of
it. A person can bud with only a knife
and ball of twine, but I have done a good
deal of hard, steady work in badly
cramped positions, and I have learned
to make it as easy and convenient as pos-
sible.
It is important that the knife should
be sharp. If flat on the upper side and


rounded a little on the under, it works
all the better.
Annular or ring budding is seldom
practical on the citrus, but is found use-
ful in working the pecan and some other
difficult stocks.
It is done by simply removing a short
ring of bark from a sprout and replacing
it with one of like size having a bud upon
it, from the scion. This should fit the
wound nicely and be well wrapped.

PREPARING THE BUD.

Take the scion in your left hand, butt
from you, holding it between forefinger
and thumb, so that the bud to be cut is
about over the middle of the palm.
Holding knife blade at an acute angle
with the scion, make a drawing cut from
a little below the bud to about the same
distance above. So holding and cut-
ting prevents the knife from running
with the grain of the wood, a smooth
under-surface to the shield being very
important. If the wood is full and
round, an even shield shape with the bud
near its center is cut. English horticul-
turists and some Americans take the
wood out of the shield. This is not at
all necessary.
A cross-cut is made through the bark
of the stock and a perpendicular one,
from the middle of that, running up or
down as desired, the corners of the bark
raised and the shield slipped under its
full length. If the scion is angular or
flat, the shield is cut with the bud at one
side and it is slipped under the bark at
one side of the perpendicular cut only.
There are many odd notions as to slip-
ping buds up or down from the cross-
cut, taking out the wood, burning the
bud upside down to make low-topped







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOGCITY


trees, etc., but equal success can be at-
tained by any one of them, if one is
trained so that it is the handiest to use.
The best buds are in the upper half
of the stick, but these are often discarded
because of being flat. If properly cut,
they can be successfully used even to the
terminal buds.
For wraps, bast, raffia, woolen yarn
and many other things are used, but
nothing is better for rapid work than
cheap bleached cotton cloth torn into
strips four inches wide and some yards
long and wrapped about a straight stick
a half-inch square and seven inches long,
until a diameter of one and three-quar-
ters to two inches is reached. Prepare
several of these, then put them into hot
grafting wax such as heretofore de-
scribed, and let them soak until bubbles
cease to form; they will then be satu-
rated. Don't get the wax so hot as to
burn the cloth. When budding unwrap
six to twelve inches, according to size of
stock to be worked, and tear it off, then
strip it lengthwise as you need it, a wide
strip for large wood, a narrow one for
slim stocks.
Start wrapping at the bottom, drawing
fairly tight. Just below and just above
the bud make a half turn in the wrap,
that it may bind more closely, give
the end a final rub with the thumb to
make it tight and stick closely. Some
wrap directly over the bud, thinking to
keep out rain. I have not found this
necessary.

WRAPPING AND UNWRAPPING.

In dry weather cotton twine makes
fair wrapping material, but takes a little
more time to fasten the end unless it is
drawn into a downward cut in the bark.


One of the members of this Society sug-
gested that the ball of twine be soaked in
wax. This I did and have found it to
work well through the past two seasons.
In ten days to three weeks, according
to the condition of the trees, the buds
will have "taken" and the wraps can be
removed. If a non-elastic wrap like
twine is used, this should not be neg-
lected too long or strangulation will en-
sue. The top should now be cut partly
off, cutting from the side the bud is on
and a little above it, and bent down.
The new bud now being the highest will
be one of the first to push. All others
about it should be kept rubbed off. This
kind of shield budding can be done at
any time when the bark of the stock slips
easily. In working the orange, it is
best done between March I and July I,
or left until fall for dormant budding.
If done in July or August there is great
danger of causing a flow of sap that will
drown out the bud and make a running
sore for a time. Commencing in late
September buds and side-grafts can be
inserted to be left until spring before
forcing out. This is a most excellent
way of working citrus stock, as the dor-
mant buds can be safely covered in with
banking until time to force them to
growth in February or March. A part
of the banking can be removed for this
purpose, but so left that it can be quickly
used to cover the buds if cold threatens.
In preparing scions for cleft-grafting,
usually one good bud is cut away. This
can be utilized in what is called "winter
budding." The shield is cut as for a sum-
mer bud, a smooth downward cut is
made in a small stock in a way to leave
a tongue of thin wood and bark, a little
longer than the shield carrying the bud,
the thickest part of the tongue being at







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


the bottom. This tongue is cut off at
a point that will come just below the bud
when the shield is slipped down under it.
The shield should have as much of its
cambium layer in its upper two-thirds,
in contact with that of the stock, as pos-
sible. Wrap the bud well and leave so
until well healed in.

INARCHING.

Inarching is the process of grafting
by approach. It is sometimes done to
bridge a girdled place on a tree trunk
and bring about a new connection be-
tween the cambium of the top and root.
Since the cold of February, 1895, it has
been practiced largely by orange
growers in using the several sprouts
that put up from the roots of
frozen trees to brace and furnish
an increased sap supply to the buds by
inarching the former into the latter.
Much is undoubtedly gained by this,
provided the work is done low enough
to allow of covering in the callusses with
banking of earth in the winter. Where
this was not done, it has often proved a
source of weakness through the bark
being loosened by cold at the junction.
There are several ways in use in in-
arching, the simpler ones being to make
a cut in the bark of the bud, or surface
that is to receive the sprout, as if to re-
ceive a shield bud, having the perpendic-
ular cut above the horizontal one. Now
cut off the sprout on a slant at a height
that allows of its being slipped under the
bark by entering at the cross-cut.
When adjusted so that all the cut surface
comes in contact with the peeled part
of the trunk, nail it in place with a slim
wire nail. This prevents its working
loose on windy days, as it is apt to do


when wrapped only. They will usually
heal in without wrapping, but it is often
best to wrap them and stick an orange
thorn under the wrapping at each side
of the sprout. With a larger sprout the
top can be bevelled from both sides, a
cut made into the wood of the stock and
this end fitted to it so that a lip comes
down over and matches the outer bend,
then nail in place and wrap.

DISCUSSION.

Mr. Porcher-As to wax Mr Hart
gave me a recipe which is of the highest
value. It makes the finest wax I ever
used; so pliable that it can be applied
with a brush. The wax that is ordi-
narily used is composed of three pounds
of rosin, two pounds of beeswax and one
of tallow. Then take one pound of this,
heat it hot, take it away from the fire
and add three gills of alcohol; this makes
a most perfect wax; so that the same
wax that you use for other purposes can
be used for the finest work with the addi-
tion of three gills of alcohol to the pound
-a wax as smooth and fine as varnish.
Major Fairbanks-I would ask Mr.
Hart whether he has found the spring or
fall grafting the most successful in the
long run?
Mr. Hart-I will say that I have never
found spring budding unsuccessful until
this year, but it has this year been un-
successful in a great many cases. I
don't think I see any difference as to the
success of the two. Skilful budders will
succeed in the spring and the fall too.
But I like dormant buds in the fall, and
I think you gain by it, as you do it at a
time in the year when you are more at
leisure. In the spring you are busy
packing oranges, working the groves,







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


etc. The dormant buds are started with
the first growth in spring, and time is
gained in getting ahead of grasshoppers
and black ants.
Major Fairbanks-Is there not a lit-
tle danger of late cold taking the dor-
mant buds, starting a little early in the
fall?
Mr. Hart-The bud is banked, of
course, and the banking does not need
to go much above the bud. I expose it
to the sunlight and lop the top as soon
as growth starts in the tree, and it will
push. If there is danger of cold, all you
have to do is to press the dirt together,
where it has been parted for the bud,
and it will be protected even if it has
grown.
Question--Do you cut the stock in the
fall or leave it until spring?
Mr. Hart-Until spring. You don't
want to lop the top until growth starts
in the tree. In other words, by leaving
the top on the tree until danger of cold
is over you would get rid of that risk
that you incur by forcing the bud out,
but whenever growth starts in the tree
I want the bud to grow. One of my
points in budding in the fall is to have
them push as soon as the other buds of
that tree do in the spring. If you don't
top it the growth goes to the top of the
tree and I find in my practice that it is
a gain to force the bud at once. A nur-
seryman, having thousands of buds in,
could not safely do this.
Mr. Taber-From a nurseryman's
standpoint you don't want to force a
growth from anything in the citrus line
in the spring. I would say that in dor-
mant budding the bud should be in-
serted as late as possible and prevented
from starting out. I have inserted dor-
mant buds in the latter part of Septem-


ber and in the spring we would find one
hundred of them from six inches to
sometimes a foot in length.

SHOVE UP OR SHOVE DOWN.

Mr. Painter-Mr. Hart made the re-
mark in his article that it does not make
any difference whether the bud is shoved
up or shoved down. I would like to
know whether this is really the expe-
rience of budders. We all know that
the sap goes up the wood and returns
within the bark, and the first thing after
the wound is made this sap heals the
wound. If the bud is shoved down, the
shoving prevents this, while if it is
shoved up it heals the new wound. I
am fully aware that the buds will take
if shoved down and sometimes a bud
will take put in almost any way. Some-
times with the most careful budding they
refuse to take, but it seems to me if
shoved up they will stand a better chance
than if shoved down.
Mr. Griffing-In my experience in
budding the orange tree we always shove
the bud up, so as to shut the water out
from the bud, but in pears, peaches,
plums we always shove the bud down.
We see no difference in the buds shoved
up or down, but in the orange we see a
marked difference, the bud shoved up
taking better. The oranges we wrap
with a wax cloth, and sometimes that
don't keep the rain out. Others we do
not wrap with anything except twine.
Mr. Reasoner-In budding we have
the buds all shoved up, and we never use
anything to wrap with.
Mr. Carter-I shove buds upward
just because I learned that way. I use
wax cloth and wrap it so that when I







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


finish up I have the two ends together,
and just twist them.
Mr. Pierson-My experience has been
to shove the bud down, possibly because
I learned that way, and they seem to
take very readily with me. I use al-
together raffia to tie with and when
starting out I used waxed cloth, but I
found that the buds would scald.
Mr. McCarty-There are two points
not touched on. One is in reference to
the way you hold your knife in making
your cross-cut. The man whom I put
in to bud took the knife and cut right
square across. I have seen no differ-
ence in shoving up or down, but shoving
up is probably the best way. Another
point which has not been covered, which
is important with me, is whether you bud
on the south side or north side of the
tree, with reference to the sun striking
it. We usually do it on the north side so
as to have it shady. We believe we have
better results on the north side. I just
merely ask for information on that point.
Mr. Phelps-On the north or south
side, either one, if there is an excessive
sap or rainy season, the buds will fer-
ment. They will not ferment as quickly
on the north side as on the south. With
me it has been a very good way, if I am
using wax cloth, not to bring the two
edges together, so as to allow air. They
will not heat as quickly. This is another
reason why I have budded on the north-
east side.


Mr. Reasoner-As far as buds on one
side or the other is concerned, in either
the fall or the spring when most budding
is done, there is very little difference as
to the heat. The sun rises so far in the
north and sets so far in the north in the
late spring, that the north side is as
warm as the others.
Mr. Taber-I do believe there is a
little something in that. Late in the
summer putting the bud on the north-
east side of the tree; it will keep better
during a hot time than anywhere else on
the tree. The sun strikes them, but it
is the morning sun. Then the sun goes
round to the south and does not strike
them.
Mr. Carter-You say you do not use
water sprouts for budding. What is
your objection to them, please?
Mr. Hart-My objection to water
sprouts is that if you practice using them
you will get wood that is immature, for
one thing, but I have always been under
the impression that it makes a tall, thin
tree. Right after the freeze I had some
buds sent me that were apparently from
water sprouts, and those trees shot right
up. I choose a thornless bud.
Mr. Reasoner-It is, of course, neces-
sary that buds should be cut from the
best part of the tree. Water sprouts
are always thorny, and I think it would
be best to save the budwood from the
best wood on the tree. The best is none
too good.













Economic Entomology.


REPORT OF STANDING COMMITTEE, BY PROF. H. A. GOSSARD,
CHAIRMAN.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
This year's report from your Commit-
tee on Entomology must be in some re-
spects one of encouragement, and in
others of not such cheerful character.

COTTONY CUSHION SCALE.

The citrus growers will be glad to
know that cottony cushion scale need
no longer be considered a serious eco-
nomic factor in orange growing, even
where it is now established. We have
kept the insect and its enemies under
observation for more than two years be-
fore making such a positive announce-
ment, and make it now because we are
sure the statement will stand. Those
of you who are upon the Experiment
Station mailing list will receive full de-
tails of observations and conclusions in
bulletin form in a few days. Last sum-
mer's work and observations with the
insect may be summarized as follows:
As predicted in the last report on En-
tomology, made to this body, the scale
became very numerous and threatening
in June and July, at which time it was
attacked by fungous disease, as it had
been the preceding summer, and by the
middle of July from fifty to seventy-five
per cent. of the scales had succumbed.
It was evident, however, that a grove


could not live through more than four
or five summers of undisturbed attack
and that the crop would practically fail
after the first two years.
About the first of June three colonies
of Australian lady-bugs were received
at Clearwater from Mr. Alexander Craw,
of the California State Board of Horti-
culture, one being sent to Mr. John
Thomson at the request of the Entomol-
ogist, the other two going to Mr. H. C.
Markley by request of his brother re-
siding in California. Mr. Thomson was
advised to have an infested tree tented
with cheese cloth for the reception of the
insects upon their arrival, as previous
experience in putting bugs upon open
trees had failed to give satisfactory re-
sults. Mr. Markley followed the same
plan, using canvas instead of cheese
cloth. One of his colonies was liber-
ated upon a tree standing in his yard in
Clearwater, and the other, by advice of
Mr. Thomson, was sent to the grove of
Mr. Wm. McMullen, about seven miles
from town. Instructions were given to
remove the tents in about ten days after
the insects were received,, so they might
scatter to other trees, and also that the
conditions for fungus attack upon the
scales might be made as unfavorable as
possible. An examination made about
one month after the lady-bugs were







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


loosed showed that they were scattered
over perhaps twenty different trees ad-
jacent to the one upon which they were
liberated; and while they were not so
widely scattered at Mr. Markley's place,
they were much more readily found in
numbers. During July and August colo-
nies were started in various places by
Mr. J. H. Brown, who had been placed
in immediate charge of the insects, and
the scales were practically cleaned up by
the lady-bugs and disease together by
the first of October. A few scales were
present this spring in March and April,
but were accompanied by the lady-bugs.
We feel satisfied that this insect will not
again command very great attention, or
excite any special fear.

EXPERIMENTAL WORK WITH WHITE FLY.

The Experiment Station regards the
white fly problem as the largest single
insect question in the State at present,
and indeed one of the largest in the
country. We have, therefore, decided
to either solve the question or prove that
further advance cannot be made with.or-
dinary means of insect warfare, before
devoting a great deal of attention to
other questions.
Perhaps seventy-five per cent. of the
groves in Manatee county are infested.
Infested orchards usually give a good
crop one year, with a very short crop the
following year, the flavor, quality and
shipping powers of both crops being
much reduced. Supposing 250,000oo
boxes of oranges to be a representative
crop for this county, worth $3 per box,
and that the loss in yield and quality,
with consequent lowering of reputation
and price of all Florida oranges, whether
having suffered from white fly or not, is


one-half of what it would normally be,
we easily have an average annual loss
of $250,000 for this county alone. Per-
haps almost anyone personally ac-
quainted with the conditions in the coun-
ty referred to will agree that we are
well within the bounds of fact in making
this estimate. We believe that our State
is losing a half million dollars every year
from the ravages of this insect and that
with the present rate of extension of
citrus growing and of fly dissemination
our loss will reach a million dollars per
year before a half-dozen years have
passed. Were it not for the enemies of
the fly, it would be impossible to produce
even half-crops, and we doubt if the fun-
gus will thrive in the dryer and interior
parts of the State.
Our present recommendation is the
one first given by Prof. H. J. Webber,
to spray with rosin wash two or three
times per year. Examinations made
within twenty-four hours after the thor-
ough application of such a spray have
shown about seventy-five per cent. of the
insects killed, and since it is reasonable
to suppose that some died later it is seen
that two good sprayings, properly di-
rected, in winter, will give the trees a
good clean start for the summer. Ad-
ditional applications may be made in
spring and summer, but not while the
trees are in full bloom or the fruit is
small, unless the bloom is exceptionally
heavy, when a spray given at about the
close of the blooming period may be an
advantage rather than the contrary.
Experiences in this regard have been va-
riable.
FUMIGATION.
Our chief experimental work has been
to determine the value of hydrocyanic







FLORIDA BTATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


acid gas under tents against the insects
and the conditions under which it may
be applied. Since Prof. C. W. Wood-
worth, of the California Experiment
Station, has made a study of fumigation
questions with special reference to citrus
trees, and had a year's leave of absence
from California to study in the East, we
succeeded in securing his services for a
month to help introduce the process into
Florida.
We experimented with various pat-
terns of tents, hoop tents, sheet tents
and box tents, for small and medium
trees, and bell tents for very large trees.
We developed a new form of derrick for
handling the bell tents that has some
good points, and may prove to be su-
perior to the California patterns.
Besides carrying on investigations re-
lating to the life history and physiology
of the white fly, our chief aim was to de-
termine the susceptibility of the insect
to poisoning with hydrocyanic acid gas,
and the effect of the gas upon trees fu-
migated under different conditions.
Without going into details, we found
that the fly yielded very readily to the
gas, much more readily than the com-
mon scales, and that they were practi-
cally exterminated with lighter charges
than are used in common California
practice. In looking over thousands of
leaves upon many different trees that
had been fumigated two or three weeks
previously, we were able to find but a
single insect living. Many of these sin-
gle leaves had hundreds of living insects
on them when they were fumigated. We
feel sure that an infested grove, if thor-
oughly fumigated once, would need no
further attention for two or three years
unless insects came in from the outside.


The fumigating was done at night, in
cloudy weather, in bright sunshine, and
at varying periods of the day. The be-
havior of the gas seems to be somewhat
capricious, but no great permanent in-
jury was done under any circumstances.
Sometimes all the foliage would drop
from the trees, sometimes part of it, and
sometimes almost none of it. Fumigat-
ing done with the sun at high merid-
ian seemed most dangerous to foliage
and crop, but results were sometimes
contradictory. All trees are reported
to be in good condition at the present
time, but some with extra full crop and
some with light crops, some with mark-
ed difference in crop in different quar-
ters of the same tree. The general
bearings of the experiments seem-
ed to indicate that the dropping of
the foliage from trees in Florida did not
injure them as in California; that fumi-
gation with the winter brood of insects
can begin in the winter and continue un-
til the middle of February; that it can
be carried on safely and effectively from
4 o'clock p. m. until 9 o'clock a. m. the
following morning, or throughout the
day, if cloudy and not windy or wet. The
variation in crop on different sides of the
same tree is possibly explained by sup-
posing the wind to cause variation in the
density of gas in different parts of the
tent.
It is not wise for one to undertake fu-
migating work on a large scale without
the assistance of some one who has had
practical work in the field. It will be
sometime before such work can be gen-
erally practiced in Florida, but we ex-
pect to see thousands of tents in use in-
side of three of four years. In short we
expect to see a large part of our great
annual loss eventually saved.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


PEACH AND PEAR GROWING MENACED.

We fear the peach and pear growers
over large districts of the State are facing
conditions hardly less serious than the
citrus growers in white fly districts. The
last Annual Report of the Experiment
Station states that San Jose scale has
been received from thirteen different
counties of the State, some of the coun-
ties having more than one case of infes-
tation. More new cases have come to
our notice during the past six months
than in any equal period of the Station's
previous history, and it seems there can
be but little doubt that the entire peach-
growing section is honey-combed with
it. Any notion that San Jose scale, left
to itself, will not kill about nine out of
every ten orchards that it finds in Flor-
ida may as well be abandoned. Those
of you with whom it has taken up quar-
ters, and who contemplate letting it take
its own course, should make your bank
accounts last as long as you can, because
you are not apt to have others soon
again, unless you have other sources of
revenue than your own peach crops.
Those who feel disposed to fight it
procure a good kero-water sprayer,
and use a twenty-five per cent.
mixture of crude petroleum, specific
gravity of 43 degrees to 45 degrees for
winter treatment, and a fifteen per cent.
mixture of kerosene and water, or some
good whale oil soap compound, such as
that of Leggett Bros., for summer treat-
ment.
The value of crude petroleum and the
limits of its usefulness as an insecticide
are now fairly well known, and its super-
iority over kerosene as a scale destroyer,
during the winter months, upon decid-
uous trees, is generally conceded. The


same precautions that are observed in
using kerosene should be observed with
petroleum, at least until wider knowl-
edge enables us to say whether any of
them may be modified or omitted.
The distribution of the scale has been
chiefly due to careless nursery ship-
ments, a good deal or all of which could
have been avoided by careful fumigation
of the stock before shipment. I have
pretty good evidence that there are nur-
series in Florida, upon whose grounds
the Entomologist has never been, that
now are or recently were infested with
the scale and were distributing it. The
proprietors may have discovered their
conditions themselves, for anything we
know to the contrary, and may be using
proper measures to insure the safety of
their stock. On the other hand, they
may be selling scaly trees by the carload
without hindrance from anybody.
Contrary to general belief, San Jose
scale will attack the trifoliate orange, and
this variety of citrus stock should always
be fumigated before shipment from any
suspicious quarter.
Parasites are beginning to attack the
scale in all quarters of the country.
Some of our lady-bugs seem to be ac-
quiring a taste for it, and we believe that
in ten years from now it may not be
worse than many of our other scales, but
until that time it is our belief that it must
be fought with energy.

OTHER PEACH AND PEAR INSECTS.

The West Indian or Jamaica scale,
Diaspis amygdali, is said to be decreas-
ing some in West Florida, owing to an
onslaught of lady-bugs. This insect is
also established at Nesbitt, Duval Coun-
ty. We believe it to be almost, if not







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


quite, as serious as San Jose scale. Pe-
troleum, kerosene or whale oil soaps are
the proper remedies.
Two severe cases of infestation with
gopher scale, Aspidiotus juglans-regiae,
have come to our notice during the past
year; one at Lake City, the other at
Lady Lake. The latter example was re-
markably well parasitized. This is the
largest of the Aspidiotus scales and at
times ngeds the same !treatment that
has been suggested for the species pre-
ceding, though it is very subject to par-
asitic attack.

MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS.

The pineapple scale, Diaspis brome-
liae, is of frequent occurrence and
seems to be widely distributed. It is at
times a scourge. We usually recom-
mend tobacco extract or Rose Leaf in-
secticide for it, as these substances do
not injure the plants like kerosene emul-
sions or resin wash by destroying the
crown. One correspondent reported
that he had poor success with resin
wash, but almost exterminated the scale
by using strong kerosene emulsion.
Care must be used with both the latter
insecticides that they do.not reach the
crown of the plants.
The mealy bug is the commonest
pineappple pest, and like the scale, is
best reached by tobacco preparations.
We feel sure that tobacco dust used free-
ly as a fertilizer upon pineapple planta-
tions will act as a preventive against
mealy bug infestation. Its value when
so applied against the woolly aphis or
root louse of the appple, Schizoneura,
has been experimentally proven and the
mealy bug will hardly prove more diffi-
cult to reach in the same way. When the


insects are noticed on ground that has
been so treated, an application of tobac-
co extract or tobacco dust sifted into
their hiding places is recommended.
More than one dusting may be neces-
sary.
We found the cabbage Plutella, Plu-
tella maculicollis, quite destructive in
South Florida in February and March.
The larva is a small greenish caterpillar
easily controlled by arsenical prepara-
tions.
Several different species of pecan cat-
erpillars have been received. Most of
them were case-bearers belonging in the
family Tineidae; others were leaf-roll-
ers belonging in the family Tortricidae.
Others probably the large larvae of the
Catocolas or under-winged moths.
For all of these leaf-eating insects
there is no more satisfactory application
than arsenate of lead. This insecticide
can now be procured upon the market
already prepared or it may be made as
follows:
Take eleven ounces of acetate of lead
and four ounces of arsenate of soda, or in
this relative proportion for a greater or
smaller quantity, and dissolve together
in one gallon of water to be kept as a
stock preparation, or in Ioo gallons for
immediate use. This spray is more
adhesive than Paris green, costs rather
less, and will not scald or burn the ten-
derest foliage as most of the arsenicals
do. It can be used at ten times the
strength given upon the tenderest foli-
age, such as that of the peach, without
injury. In a few years it will probably
supplant all other arsenical sprays at
present used.
The strawberry flea beetle, Haltica ig-
nita, was reported from Daytona re-
cently. Arsenate of lead or Paris green







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


will kill the beetles, but should be ap-
plied before or after the fruiting season.
It might be risky to use -it without an
interval of at least three weeks between
the application and picking time, with
one or two good rains during the inter-
val.
Mr. Phelps.-I would like to ask how
many men it would take to handle that
bell tent?
Prof. Gossard.-About four. It can
be handled by a smaller number, hut I
don't think anything is saved by it. I
think about four men, including the fu-
migator; three men who have nothing
but the mechanical part to look after.
Dr. Inman.-How long would it take
after the tent was up to generate the
gas and fumigate the tree?
Prof. Gossard.-About forty minutes.
We ranged our time from thirty minutes
up to considerably more than that. If
you use a light dose increase the time.
With a large dose shorten the time.
About four tents would keep a crew of
four men just about busy. It requires
about ten minutes to shift each tent.
Mr. Porcher.-I would like to ask
Prof. Gossard a few questions. First, If
it is not necessary to have an expert
capable of computing the area that each
tent has each time it is placed on the
tree? Is it not impossible to use the
tent in bright sunlight? Is it not also
true that in high winds few applications
are found to be effective? And is it not
true that the scales have not been killed
while under a protecting coat while in
the form of an egg?
Prof. Gossard-Measuring will cause
a little difficulty at first. We marked off
ounce doses on a tape line and used it to
measure both over the tent and around.
Thus having a mathematically correct


reading of amount of dose until we could
make a safe estimate from observation.
The exact dose is not a matter of such
great importance as you might infer.
That is, an orange tree will stand a good
deal more, for instance, than a June
peach would do. So that a little over
or a little under the dose would not
make so much difference as you might
think.
Second, in relation to the use of the
tent in high wind, it would be a little
hard to use those large bell tents in a
very high wind; and in using the single-
sheet tent, if you were to go on the
windward side of the tree it would prob-
ably help you instead of hindering. I
think the great objection to wind is
likely to be from the effect upon the
density of the gas. That is, the wind is
apt to drive the gas from one side of the
tent over to the other, and make it more
dense on that side.
In relation to the egg of the white fly,
I cannot tell you positively from experi-
ment what will happen to it. During
the winter season when we did our ex-
perimenting, you cannot find an egg un-
hatched. Every white fly egg is hatch-
ed at this season, and no other eggs are
laid until spring, so there are only larvae
and pupae. I will say there is hardly
one chance in a thousand that the eggs
would escape. There are very few
insect eggs that are not killed by the gas.
The red spider's eggs, I believe, are un-
affected by it.
Mr. Porcher-The reports from Cali-
fornia have shown that they have not
killed the eggs of the red scale.
Prof. Gossard-That is, you mean
they have not been exterminated abso-
lutely?
Mr. Porcher-No, sir; that they.were







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOOGITY


not killed, only a very small per cent.
Prof. Gossard-When were those re-
ports issued?
Mr. Porcher-I got them from Prof.
Hilgard; their experience was that the
eggs were not killed.
Prof. Gossard-The object of the
Horticultural Commissioners of Califor-
nia as set forth at present is to use
stronger doses of gas than formerly.
They have increased their dose to one-
half more than they used a few years
ago, and the purpose for which they do
it is, they state, to kill the eggs of red
scale, and other insects of like character;
so I think they must have pretty good
evidence that they are killed. Of course,
with an open tent we cannot expect the
thorough work that we would get in a
perfectly air-tight fumigatorium, but I
think we can kill most of the eggs.
Mr. Gillett-I would like to ask if, in
the treatment with the gas, it killed the
red, brown and purple scales?
Prof. Gossard-I did not make any in-
vestigation with special reference to
these.
Mr. Gillett-Did it kill the lady-bug?
Prof. Gossard-Yes, sir, about ninety
per cent. of them. There are published
statements saying that they are not
readily killed, so I made special investi-
gations with them, collecting two or
three hundred ladybugs that had
dropped, and maybe about ten per cent.


of them recovered and crawled away,
but the others were dead and staid dead.
Question-Does it hurt the fungi?
Prof. Gossard-Not the gas; it does
not destroy plant life at all.
Mr. Hart-How about mites?
Prof. Gossard-I cannot say positively
as to that. The trees that we were work-
ing on had no mites that I noticed. I
noticed that some of the case-bearing
tineids came through all right. They
seem to have been sheltered enough by
their cases to come through without
harm. The little case over them seems
to be gas-tight enough to shelter them
perfectly.
Mr. Waite-Were not the trees in
bloom in those Manatee county experi-
ments ?
Prof. Gossard-The trees were com-
mencing to blossom; a few of the blos-
some were fully open, and a great many
of the buds were open far enough so you
could see the white of the bloom.
Prof. Gossard here read a letter from
Mr. C. P. Fuller, indicating that while
results were variable, the fumigated
trees were carrying good crops on the
average.
Mr. Porcher-Did I understand you
to say the Australian lady-bug, Novius
cardinalis, has been introduced into this
State?
Prof. Gossard-Yes, sir, at Clearwater
Harbor.













The Study of Forestry.


BY GEO. R. FAIRBANKS, CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMITTEE.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
The subject of forestry has attracted
much attention in the last few years. It
has been the practice, and regarded as a
most practical course to pursue, from
the settlement of this continent, to clear
away its forest growth in every direc-
tion. Log heaps and forest fires have
been looked upon as the necessary ad-
juncts of progressive civilization.
We have at last reached a point where
we have been forced to look forward to
the eventual results of this destructive
policy. Fields, first denuded of all tim-
ber, have been cultivated to the point
where nature has revenged itself by bar-
renness, and, scarred and seamed, they
have presented a waste of unsightly bald-
ness. The fields taken in have under-
gone the same process of being reduced
to worthlessness, and profitable culture
of staple crops has only been attained by
a large expenditure for artificial fertiliz-
ers, needing annually to be renewed.
The water supply has diminished,
streams and wells have gone dry for long
periods, to be succeeded by destructive
torrents, sweeping down the barren hill-
sides, engorging the streams and carry-
ing death and destruction along their
borders.
The Southern States were originally
clothed with magnificent forests of pine,
of a species combining all the best qual-


ities of beauty and durability, superior
in every respect to any other known tim-
ber for all the uses to which timber is ap-
plied. We have vied with each other
in destroying these monarchs of the
woods, to be manufactured for others'
profit, at a price to us insignificant and
profitless. We now begin to realize our
folly and to look with anxiety to the
future, when the remainder of our once
splendid forests shall have disappeared.
Few of us realize how rapidly our pine
forests are being destroyed. There was
shipped during the year 19oo over one
hundred million feet each from the ports
of Fernandina and Jacksonville. To
make two hundred million feet of sawed
lumber, counting four trees to a thous-
and feet, would require 4,000 trees to
each million feet, and 400,000 trees to
furnish the lumber shipped from these
two ports alone; and, taking an average
of four trees to the acre, it would take
the mill-logs off from Ioo,ooo acres of
land. If we add to this the millions of
crossties, we shall to some degree realize
how fast the destruction of our forest
growth is proceeding. But we have
been counting the lumber destruction
alone. After going over the pine lands
of North Carolina, South Carolina and
Georgia in part, the turpentine or naval
stores operators have come into Florida
and spread like locusts over all the lands




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