Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Florida state horticultural...
 List of members
 Catalogue of fruits, 1900
 Back Cover

Title: Proceedings of the ... annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053736/00004
 Material Information
Title: Proceedings of the ... annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society.
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida State Horticultural Society. Meeting.
Publisher: The Society,
Publication Date: 1900
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053736
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: 18435967 - OCLC

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Florida state horticultural society
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of members
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
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        Page 33
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        Page 36
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        Page 41
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        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 44a
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        Page 49
        Page 50
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        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 120a
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
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        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Catalogue of fruits, 1900
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
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        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Back Cover
        Page 169
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Florida State Horticultural SocietU


JACKSONVILLE, FLA., MAY 1, 2, 3 and 4, 1900oo.

Compiled by the Secretary.


DeLand, Fla.

:..: ::. ....-. -


Officers......... ... ..... ... ...... ... ... ... ... ............ 4
List of Members-Honorary, Life and Annual........ ... ...... .... 6
Minutes (Giving all the events and transctions of the meeting in the order of
their occurrence, but omitting papers, reports, discussions, etc., which
appear on subsequent pages under topical heads.)................ 13
Addresses of Welcome... ................... ............. ....... 16
Response to Addresses of Welcome .................... .. ......... 18
President's Annual Address. ................... ................. 20
Report of Committee on Local Arrangements..... ... .............. 25
Practical Protection of Orange Trees-All known devices tested by a scien-
tific but practical grower-With artificial heat and without-Dormancy,
hybridizing, whitewashing, spraying, banking-Open fires fail utterly or
only partially protect-Shields, Sheds and tents do the work-Sheds
best of all-Orange culture placed on a business basis .............. 26
We Do Not Give Up the Orange-Words of hope and encouragement-
Prophetic utterances......... ............. ...... .......... 39
Fascination of Orange Culture-It will never die-Dormancy the one great
requisite ...... ... .. ............. .... ... ... .. ... ........ 40
Damage from Cold and Best Methods of Prevention-Shed covers with coke
burning salamanders-A success ...... ... .... .. ...... ..... 41
Sheds of Split Cypress Lath-Rationale of protection-A plea for better
weather forecasts ............................... .......... 42
Personal Experience of a Practical Man-Tenting and Shedding-Rapid
covering-A lamp that can be depended on.......... ............ 44
Irrigation U nder Sheds ... ... ............ .... .... .... .... ....... 51
Insects U nder Sheds ...... ..... .......... ......... ............ 53
Protection with Boxes-Detailed descri tion-Protection perfect-Cost will
be about $4.00 per tree in five years............................. 55
Maintaining Permanent Orchard Fertility-Deep plowing-Good ventila-
tion-Use of lime-Cropping with field crops to use up nitrogen-Ap-
plication of mineral-Wide planting recommended ................ 57
The Production of a Hardy Orange ................. ..... ......... 60
Diseases and Insects of the Citrus-The white fly-Common long scale-
The brown fungus as a friend of the tree ........................ 63
Practical Peach Culture-Requisites of success stated by an experienced
grower-Rich land for peaches, poor land for pears-Never prune with-
out good reason-Errors as to pear blight..... .... ............. 68
Oral Report-Profit in peach culture-Avoid pruning-The Oviedo variety 72

.':- i "..'
.:: -..:


Notes on Current Entomology-Joint report of the committee-A hopeful
and encouraging statement-Cottony cushion scale not to be feared-
Crude petroleum as an insecticide. ................. .. ....... 75
Pineapples and Other Tropical Fruits-Beginnings on Indian river-Histor-
ical statements-Some discussions of varieties-Irrigation not neces-
sary on the East Coast-Few diseases encountered ................ 83
Tropical Fruit Growing in Southwest Florida-Not available for commercial
purposes-Plant only for home use. .................. ........ 90
Protection of Pineapples from Frost-At Orlando, the interior pineapple cen-
ter-Minute, practical description of some devices used ............ 91
The Strawberry-Considered historically and commercially-Best varieties
up to date-Excellent advice as to packing ............... ... ... 94
Report on Ornamentals-The hardy shade and ornamental trees of Florida-
Native or adopted shrubs and vines. ................... ......... 96
Discussion on Vegetable Blights.................... ................. 97
Election of Officers ................... ........................ 98
Selection of Next Place of Meeting ................. . ...... .. 98
Report of Secretary .... .......................... ............ Ioo
Report of Treasurer.. .... .... ........... .... .... .... ..... ..... I10
Report of Executive Committee........... ...... ...... ...... ...... o
Grapes, Figs and Kaki-High praise of the scuppernong-Caprifigs intro-
duced from Smyrna into California-A hopeful event-Japanese methods
needed with the kaki. .................. .......... ... ...... 102
Streaks of Sand Called Roads-Linked sandiness long "drawn out-Death
to ambition and farm profits-Road funds wasted and diverted-"Ab-
normally developed acquisitiveness"of road officials-Wretched patch-
work system-Here a little work, there a little and nothing done-Good
roads could easily be built-What they would do for the State ........ Io9
The Rationale of Marketing-High rates and hard treatment-Gluts and
dearths the shipper's great enemy-The general shipper makes the mar-
ket, hence the merchant is powerless-The shipper also is powerless-
Strong and wide organization the only hope-An able and philosophi-
cal paper... ... .. : .... .......... ..... .. ..... ... ..... 116
A Year's Experience in Practical Protection-The McFarland tent-Every
defect cured-Proof against water, insects and mildew-Can be closed
in a few seconds-With artificial heat inside it affords perfect protection. 120
Florida vs. Porto Rico-For the fruit grower contemplating migration .... 124
Cassava Culture-Fall planting not recommended-Bank the seed canes in
an upright position-Cutting and planting .................... .128
Destruction of Florida's Forests-For lumber and turpentine-Comparison
with Indiana forests-Useful products that might be obtained-Paper-
making from pine ................... ..... ..... ........ 133
The Pecan as a Grove Tree for North Florida-Carefully studied and excel-
lent directions for planting, culture, pruning, etc. ............... 135
Report on Fertilizers and Irrigation-Recent rise in fertilizer explained-
Lasting nature of fertilizers-Importance of irrigation-A very ingeni-
ous system at Sanford ............... ... ... ... ...... ... ...... 140


Use of the W ord Pomelo ................ ... ......... .... ....... 146
Final Resolutions ..................... .. ..... .. .............. 146
Co-operation with the Agricultural College. ................... .. .... 147
A Society Library ............. ........ ...... .. .............. 147
Necrology .................. .............................. 148
Catalogue of Fruits.................... ........ .. ... ... .... I-XXII




GEORGE L. TABER, Glen St. Mary.

DR. GEORGE KERR, Pierson; G. W. WILSON, Jacksonville; W. A. COOPER, Orlando.

STEPHEN POWERS, Jacksonville.

W. S. HART, Hawks Park.

LYMAN PHELPS, Chairman, Sanford; E. S. HUBBARD, Federal Point; E. O. PAIN PER, DeLand.

CITRUS FRUITS.-E. S. Hubbard, Federal Point; W. A. Cooper, Orlando; B M. Hampton, Lake
DISEASES AND INSECTS OF CITRUs.-Prof. H A. Gossard, Lake City; M. E. Gillett, Tampa; Wal-
ter Cooper, Sorrento.
PEACHES, PLUMS AND PEARS.-J. P Mace, Lake Helen; F. W. Inman, Winter Haven; C. C.
Shooter, Waldo.
GRAPES, FIGS AND KAKI--H. Von Luttichau, Earleton; W. D. Griffiing, Jacksonville; G. A.
Danley, Chipley.
PINEAPPLES AND OTHER TROPICAL FRUITS.-Cyrus W. Butler, St. Petersburg; E. P. Porcher,
Cocoa; C B. Thornton, Orlando.
ORNAMENTALs.-Rev. Lyman Phelps, Sanford; Mrs. Florence P. Hayden, Cocoanut Grove; Mrs.
F. D. Waite, Palmetto.
W. Adams, Thonotosassa; F. G. Sampson, Boardman
FERTILIZERS AND IRRIGATION.-Prof H. E. Stockbridge, Lake City; E. D. Putney, Avon Park;
Geo. H. Wright, Orlando
NUT CULTURE.-Dr. John B. Curtis, Orange Heights; C. H. Ashmead, Jacksonville; Victor
Schmelz, Zellwood.
TRANSPORTATION.-G P. Healy, Jaffrev; E. O. Painter, Jacksonville; Dr. George Kerr, Pierson.


STRAWBERRIES AND MISCELLANEOUS.-H. Price Williams, Miami; Henry A. Schmelz, Tarpon
Springs; P. L. Gould, Eustis.
ENTOMOLOGY.-Prof. H. Harold Hume, Lake City; Dr. L. Montgomery, Micanopy; F. W. Ly-
man, Georgiana.
VEGETABLES.-E. V. Blackman, Miami; W. B. Healy, Jaffery; C. G. White, Hastings.
MARKETING AND GOOD ROADs.-J. A. Crosby, San Mateo; John S. Wyckoff, Citra; Chas. Henry
Baker, Grasmere.
FORESTRY.-Geo. R. Fairbanks, Fernandina; Dr. J. F. Corrigan, St. Leo; Dr. E. E. Pratt,

LIBRARY.-G. L. Taber, Glen St. Mary; S. Powers, Jacksonville; W. S. Hart, Hawks Park.
COMMITTEE OF THREE to co-operate with Committee of Two from State Agricultural Society in
conferring with Board of Trustees of State Agricultural College.-S. H. Gaitskill, McIntosh; E. O.
Painter, Jacksonville; Benj. N. Bradt, Huntington.


Berckmans, P. J., Augusta, Ga.

Redmond, D., St. Nicholas.


Allen, Wm., 90 White St., New York
Andrews, Clement W., John Crerar Li-
brary, Chicago, Ill.
Armstrong, L. H., St. Nicholas.
Francisco, Beltran, Monterey, N. L.
Conner, W. E., 532 Madison Ave., New
York City.
Cunliff, L. H., Garden City, N. Y.
Ellsworth, W. J., Jessamine, Fla.
Francis, Jr., Chas., Interlachen, Fla.
Frink, A., Glen St. Mary, Fla.
Gaitskill, S. H., McIntosh.
Haden, Capt. John J., Cocoanut Grove.
Haldeman, W. N., Naples, Fla., and
Louisville, Ky.
Harris, E. K., East Palatka.
Hart, W. S., Hawks Park.
Hastings, H. G., Atlanta, Ga.
Harvey, S. S., Quintette.
Healy, G. P., Jaffery.
Hempel, H. A., Gotha.
Herf, B. von, 93-99 Nassau St., New
York City.
Kerr, Dr. Geo., Pierson, Fla.
Leonard, Geo. W., Hastings.

Lewis, Dr. Fred. D., 188 Franklin St.,
Buffalo, N. Y.
Merritt, Dr. Jos. C., Orlando.
Milligan, Jno. W., Apopka, Fla., and
Swissdale, Pa.
Painter, E. O., DeLand.
Painter, Mrs. E. O., DeLand.
Phelps, Rev. Lyman, Sanford.
Price, F. N., Orlando.
Richards, Thos. E., Eden.
Robinson, M. F., Sanford.
Rolfs, Prof. P. H., Clemson College, S.
Sneden, W. C., Waveland, Fla.
Smith, Chas. E., Bog Walk, Jamaica, W.
Stuart, Leon N., Montemorelos, N. L.,
Taber, Geo. L., Glen St. Mary.
Temple, Wm. C., o190 Shady Ave., Pitts-
burg, Pa.
Wilson, Lorenzo A., Jacksonville.
Woodroffe, Alfred, Auckland, New Zea-
Worcester, C. H., Pomona, Fla.
Wyeth, J. H., Winter Park.


Adams, Geo. W., Thonotosassa, Fla.
Adams, Mrs. Geo. W., Thonotosassa, Fla.
Albaugh, Dr. A. P., Tarpon Springs,

Alden, B. H., Stetson, Fla.
Alden, Mrs. B. H., Stetson, .Fla.
Alderman, A. D., Bartow, Fla.
Allen, Hugh C., Lake Maitland, Fla.


Alsop, R. G., Prospect, Fla.
Ames, Mrs. Mary Ellen, Pomona, Fla.
Amsden, E. W., Ormond, Fla.
Andrews, J. D., Glen St. Mary, Fla.
Ashmead, C. H., Jacksonville, Fla.
Bacon, C. A., Ormond, Fla.
Baker, Chas. Henry, Grasmere, Fla.
Baker, Mrs. F. E., Earleton, Fla.
Baker, R. D., Buffalo Bluff, Fla.
Baker, W. E., Melrose, Fla.
Balcom, Mrs. Luke, Paola, Fla.
Baldwin, F. C., Winter Park, Fla.
Bass, M. M., Glen St. Mary, Fla.
Battey, Capt. W. C., Myers, Fla.
Beed, H. O., Bulow, Fla.
Beed, John, Bulow, Fla.
Beers, John J., Emporia, Fla.
Beers, Mrs. J. J., Emporia, Fla.
Bell, Mrs. Mary A., St. Petersburg, Fla.
Benedict, A., Daytona, Fla.
Bennett, W. M., Okahumpka, Fla.
Bernd, Peter, Bowling Green, Fla.
Bernd, Mrs. Peter, Bowling Green, Fla.
Bessey, Willis A., Stuart, Fla.
Bigelow, Hayes, Tarpon Springs, Fla.
Bigelow, Mrs. Mary A., Tarpon Springs,
Bigelow, Jr., W. H., Tarpon Springs,
Blackman, E. V., Miami, Fla.
Blakely, Wm. P., Ocoee, Fla.
Blanchard, E. B., Lake Maitland, Fla.
Bradt, Benj. N., Huntington, Fla.
Bradt, Mrs. B. N., Huntington, Fla.
Brecht, M. D., J. E., Myers, Fla.
Brewer, E. H., Winter Park, Fla.
Brewer, C. H., Altamonte Springs, Fla.
Brown, C. S., 53 Main St., Utica, N. Y.
Bunce, Chas. H., Belleair, Fla.
Burr, Lafayette, Box 2235, Boston,
Butler, C. W., St. Petersburg, Fla.
Caldwell, D. J., Higley, Fla.
Calver, Dr. J. V., Orlando, Fla.
Calver, N. R., Orlando, Fla.
Cameron, L., Jacksonville, Fla.

Campbell, W. B., Crescent City, Fla.
Carter, A. T., Cocoanut Grove, Fla.
Carter, Mrs. A. T., Cocoanut Grove, Fla.
Carter, J. C., Dade City, Fla.
Cary-Elwes, D. G., Conway, Fla.
Chamberlain, E. W., Tangerine, Fla.
Chapman, J. T., Plymouth, Fla.
Chilton, B. F., New Smyrna, Fla.
Cliff, Walter, Crescent City, Fla.
Cochran, F. C., Palatka, Fla.
Coe, Burton E., Tampa, Fla.
Condry, P. W., Citra, Fla.
Coon, G. E., Jensen, Fla.
Cooper, Walter, Sorrento, Fla.
Cooper, W. A., Orlando, Fla.
Corbett, C. C., Macclenny, Fla.
Corrigan, Dr. J. F., St. Leo, Fla.
Corry, W. M., Quincy, Fla.
Cox, L. C., Orlando, Fla.
Crane, A. H., Nashua, Fla.
Crosby, J. A., San Mateo, Fla.
Curtis, Dr. John B., Orange Heights,
Dewey, Fred. S., West Palm Beach, Fla.
Dickerson, J., Waveland, Fla.
Dickinson, Melissa, Orange City, Fla.
Dommerich, L. F., Lake Maitland, Fla.
Danley, G. A., Chipley, Fla.
Drake, T. P., Yalaha, Fla.
Duncan, A. N., Belleair, Fla.
Dunton, A. M., Tangerine, Fla.
Dyer, Harry, Stuart, Fla.
Dyer, W. J., Stuart, Fla.
Earle, Wm. H., Tangerine, Fla.
Eldridge, Mrs. J. J., Belleair, Fla.
English, Wm. H., Medina, Fla.
Ewerton, Chas., Avon Park, Fla.
Fairbanks, Geo. R., Fernandina, Fla.
Fairchild, H. C., 319 W. Duval St., Jack-
sonville, Fla.
Farley, J. F., Malabar, Fla.
Farmer, Chas. E., Lake Mary, Fla.
Felt, J. P., Emporia, Fla.
Fisher, George A., Florahome, Fla.
Fleming, H., Kissimmee, Fla.
Fletcher, H. G., Gainesville, Fla.


Fletcher, Mrs. H. G., Gainesville, Fla.
Friedlander, H., Interlachen, Fla.
Fries, Albert, St. Nicholas, Fla.
Furen, J. W., Sylvan Lake, Fla.
Galloway, B. A., Lake Maitland, Fla.
Garrett, B., Lake Maitland, Fla.
Gillett, E. B., Narcoossee, Fla.
Gillett, Geo. E., Interlachen, Fla.
Gillett, M. E., Tampa, Fla.
Gilmore, W. G., Jensen, Fla.
Glessner, W. L., Macon, Ga.
Gooding, George, Malabar, Fla.
Gore, Mahlon, Orlando, Fla.
Gossard, Prof. H. A., Lake City, Fla.
Gould, P. L., Eustis, Fla.
Grant, A. J., Dunedin, Fla.
Graves, H. C., Alachua, Fla.
Graves, H. S., Gainesville, Fla.
Griffing, A. M., Macclenny, Fla.
Griffing, C. M., Jacksonville, Fla.
Griffing, W. D., Jacksonville, Fla.
Haden, Mrs. Florence P., Cocoanut
Grove, Fla.
Hampton, B. M., Lakemont, Fla.
Hampton, Henry J., El Dorado, Fla.
Harrington, A. B., Winter Haven, Fla.-
Harrington, Mrs. A. B., Winter Haven,
Hayward, E. H., DeLand, Fla.
Healy, W. B., Jaffery, Fla.
Heller, Max, 70 E. 92d St., New York
Henry, James, St. Petersburg, Fla.
Hepburn, H. S. Davenport, Iowa.
Hilbourne, P. O., Norwalk, Fla.
Hill, O. J., DeLand, Fla.
Hills, M. D., T. Morton, Willimantic,
Hine, D. N., Nashua, Fla.
Hodges, F. S., Federal Point, Fla.
Howard, Frank, Ludlow, Vt.
Hubbard, E. S., Federal Point, Fla.
Hume, Prof. H. Harold, Lake City, Fla.
Hunter, H., Pierson, Fla.
Huntington, Mrs. K. B., Huntington,

Inman, F. W., Winter Haven, Fla.
Irwin, Allen, Riverview, Fla.
Ives, H. L., Cocoa, Fla., and Potsdam,
N. Y.
Jackson, W. T., Gainesville, Fla.
Jefferies, John H., Lake City, Fla.
Jennings, Mrs. Harvey, Ankona, Fla.
Johnson, E. W., East Palatka, Fla.
Johnson, M. A., Palatka, Fla.
Johnson, T. H., Apopka, Fla.
Jones, Cyrus, Bowling Green, Fla.
Jones, Rev. C. J. K., Los Angeles, Cal.
Jones, David, Pierson, Fla.
Jones, E. Lee, Waveland, Fla.
Jones, W. H., Orange Bend, Fla.
Jouett, Rear Admiral James E., Orlando,
Kerr, Mrs. Carrie Lincoln, Pierson, Fla.
Kitching, Walter, Stuart, Fla.
Klemm, Richard, Winter Haven, Fla.
Knox, L. B., Bulow, Fla.
Kraemer, John F., Station A, Niagara
Falls, N. Y.
Lees, J. W., Leesburg, Fla.
Leovy, Henry J., Box 1294, New Or-
leans, La.
Lewis, W. J., Limona, Fla.
Lindsey, J. E., Davenport, Iowa.
Lockwood, Stephen, Zelienople, Pa.
Lowery, J. M., Bartow, Fla.
Lubrecht, Hermann, Island Grove, Fla.
Luthge, H. D. G., New Smyrna, Fla.
Luttichau, H. von, Earleton, Fla.
Luttichau, Miss Pauline von, Earleton,
Lyle, Wm., Bartow, Fla.
Lyman, A. E., Melbourne, Fla.
Lyman, F. W., Georgiana, Fla.
McCarty, C. T., Ankona, Fla.
McCarty, Mrs. C. T., Ankona, Fla.
McClung, Moffett, Dunedin, Fla.
Mace, J. P., Lake Helen, Fla.
McFarland, W. H., Titusville, Fla.
McKinney, J. Y., Candler, Fla.
McNary, Norman, Ormond, Fla.


Mann, W. H., Mannville, Fla.
Markley, H. C., Clearwater, Fla.
Marrs, Kingsmill, Lake Maitland, Fla.
Matheny, Geo. H., Sarasota, Fla.
Mead, Miss Mary E., Pierson, Fla.
Mead, Ray, Pierson, Fla.
Meares, Mrs. W. F., Tarpon Springs,
Meislahn, H., Clarcona, Fla.
Merritt, M. G., Pierson, Fla.
Merritt, Mrs. M. G., Pierson, Fla.
Miller, R. E., Winter Garden, Fla.
Mitchell, Prof. A. J., Jacksonville, Fla.
Montgomery, M. D., L., Micanopy, Fla.
Montgomery, Mrs. L., Micanopy, Fla.
Moremen, M. S., Switzerland, Fla.
Morrison, J. R., Pomona, Fla.
Mote, E. H., Leesburg, Fla.
Mullen, Mrs. John, Micanopy, Fla.
Newton, A. B., Winter Garden, Fla.
Newton, C. M., Orlando, Fla.
Nordmann, Ferd., New Smyrna, Fla.
Paine, E. T., Tocoi, Fla.
Palen, Peter E., Haines City, Fla.
Perkins, Mrs. E. M., Limona, Fla.
Perry, D. W., Pomona, Fla.
Pettigrew, A. J., Manatee, Fla.
Phelps, Mrs. Mary L., Sanford, Fla.
Phillips, J. H., Melbourne, Fla.
Phillips, Mrs. J. H., Melbourne, Fla.
Pierce, H. W., Tangerine, Fla.
Pierson, N. L., Pierson, Fla.
Pierpont, W. J., Crescent City, Fla.
Pierpont, Mrs. W. J., Crescent City; Fla.
Pinkerton, Dr. L. L., Ormond, Fla.
Porcher, E. P., Cocoa, Fla.
Powers, Stephen, Jacksonville, Fla.
Pratt, C. E., Miami, Fla.
Pratt, Dr. E. E., Limona, Fla.
Pugsley, Chas., Mannville, Fla.
Putney, E. D., Avon Park, Fla.
Reasoner, E. N., Oneco, Fla.
Reynolds, M. L., Narcoossee, Fla.
Rice, M. A., Citra, Fla.
Rice, R. F., Miami, Fla.
Rich, Mrs. M. E., Limona, Fla.

Richards, Harry W., Eden, Fla.
Richards, J. T., Bartow, Fla.
Richards, Mrs. M. S. W., Eden, Fla.
Richardson, M. D., Wmi. C., 411 Olive
St., St. Louis, Mo.
Sampson, F. G., Boardman, Fla.
Sartorius, H. G., Seminole, Fla.
Saylor, Mrs. E. M., Ankona, Fla.
Schmelz, Victor, Sylvan Lake, Fla.
Sellmer, Chas., Zellwood, Fla.
Seymour, Ed. J., Titusville, Fla.
Shimer, Mrs. F. A. W., DeLand, Fla.
Shooter, C. C., Earleton, Fla.
Shooter, H., Earleton, Fla.
Simmons, W. E., Lake Maitland, Fla.
Simpson, J. F., Weirsdale, Fla.
Sistrunk, Sr., W. P., Roodhouse, Ill.
Sjostrom, L. H. O., Hallandale, Fla.
Smeltz, Henry A., Tarpon Springs, Fla.
Smith, E. M., Winter Garden, Fla.
Smith, Julius, Eustis, Fla.
Sneden, Mrs. W. C., Waveland, Fla.
Sperry, E. F., Orlando, Fla.
Stark L. D., Evinston, Fla.
Strauss, Joseph E., Lealman, Fla.
Steinman, John B., Villa City, Fla.
Stevens, H. B., Stetson, Fla.
Stivender, P. M., Orange Bend, Fla.
Stockbridge, Prof. H. E., Lake City, Fla.
Strickler, D., York, Pa.
Taber, Mrs. G. L., Glen St. Mary, Fla.
Talton, E. H., DeLand, Fla.
Taylor, John, Stuart, Fla.
Taylor, W. D., Ocala, Fla.
Thomson, John, Clearwater Harbor, Fla.
Thornton, C. B., Orlando, Fla.
Tischler, P., Jacksonville, Fla.
Tysen, C. R., Jacksonville, Fla.
Tysen, J. R., Jacksonville, Fla.
Van Houten, C. S., Orlando, Fla.
Vinson, L. D., Tarpon Springs, Fla.
Waite, F. D., Palmetto, Fla.
Waite, Mrs. F. D., Palmetto, Fla.
Wakelin, Amos, Bullitt Building, Phila-
delphia, Pa.
Walker, Dr. Geo. E., Huntington, Fla.
Walker, Mrs. G. E., Huntington, Fla.



Walter, E. W., 9 E. Intendencia St., Pen-
sacola, *Fla.
Warner, S. C., Palatka, Fla.
Wartmann, E. L., Citra, Fla.
Weiland, Chas., 2319 Indiana Ave., St.
Louis, Mo.
Welch, R. S., Ocala, Fla.
White, C. G., Hastings, Fla.
White, J. M., Orange City, Fla.
White, K. M., Crescent City, Fla.
Whitman, Rev. H. S., Deering, Me.
Whitten, W. M., Punta Gorda, Fla.
Whittle, J. C., Largo, Fla.
Willes, F. W., Jensen, Fla.
Williams, H. Price, Miami, Fla.

Williams, R. L., Miami, Fla.
Wilson, Geo. W., Jacksonville, Fla.
Wilson, Wm., Ocoee, Fla.
Winter, Frank, New Smyrna, Fla.
Witham, H. S., Stuart, Fla.
Witham, Katie M., Stuart, Fla.
Wood, Geo. H., Tangerine, Fla.
Woodward, F. W., Eau Claire, Wis.
Worcester, Mrs. C. H., Pomona, Fla.
Wright, Geo. H., Orlando, Fla.
Wyckoff, John S., Citra, Fla.
Wylie, J. H., Interlachen, Fla.
Yancy, T. A., Orlando, Fla.
Yocum, Miss G. L., Lake City, Fla.
Yocum, Dr. W. F., Lake City, Fla.





Florita State Horticultural Societz,

The thirteenth annual meeting of the
Florida State Horticultural Society was
held at Jacksonville upon the invitation
of the Board of Trade of that city. The
Society convened in the rooms of the

Board of Trade on Tuesday, May Ist, at
7:30 o'clock p. m., in accordance with the
programme, as published, and adjourned
sine die on Friday following at 12 o'clock


In the minutes, which follow, all the
events and transactions of the meeting
are given, in condensed form, in the or-
der of their occurrence; the addresses,
papers, discussions, reports and other
matters of general interest or special im-
portance, are simply noted and appear in
full under appropriate heads in the body
of the volume, and may be readily re-
ferred to by turning to the page given in
connection with each below.


Evening-Opening Session,
Tuesday, 7:30 o'clock p. m.
I. Call to order by President Taber.
2. Prayer, Rev. R. V. Atkisson, of the
McTyeire Methodist church.
3. Address of Welcome, Hon. J. E. T.
Bowden, Mayor of Jacksonville; also by
Capt. C. E. Garner, President of the
Board of Trade. (See page 16.)


4. Response to Address of Welcome,
Dr. Geo. Kerr. (See page 17.)
5. On motion, E. O. Painter and C.
M. Griffing were authorized to act as as-
sistants to the Secretary.
6. President Taber's Annual Address.
(See page 20.)
7. Report of Special Committee on
Local Arrangements was made by Hon.
Geo. W. Wilson, chairman. (See page
8. Paper on Protection of Orange
Groves, by Prof. J. Y. McKinney. (See
page 26.)


Morning Session.
9. Standing Committee on Citrus
Fruits made a verbal report through Rev.
Lyman Phelps, chairman.
o1. Standing Committee on Damage
from Cold and Best Methods of Preven-
tion presented reports from H. B. Stev-
ens, chairman, E. S. Hubbard and E. 0.
Painter, each one separate. (See page
I I. Discussion of above reports.
12. A Committee on Final Resolu-
tions was appointed, consisting of W. M.
Bennett, G. P. Healy and S. C. Warner.
13. Paper, Maintaining Permanent
Orchard Fertility, by C. K. McQuarrie,
was read by the Secretary. (See page
14. Contribution on Protection, by J.
C. Icenhour, was read by the President.
(See page 55.)

Afternoon Session.
15. A committee, consisting of Dr.
Geo. Kerr, Rev. Lyman Phelps and E.
O. Painter, was appointed to consider
that part of the President's address relat-
ing to a Society Library.

16. Paper on Hardy Oranges, by Prof.
H. J. Webber, read by the President.
(See page 6o.)
17. Standing Committee on Diseases
and Insects. A. J. Pettigrew, of the
Committee, read his individual report.
(See page 63.)
18. Discussion of above.
19. Standing Committee on Pears,
Peaches and Plums reported through W.
E. Baker. (See page 68.)
20. Discussion of same.
21. Standing Committee on Entomol-
ogy made a report through the chair-
man, Prof. H. A. Gossard. (See page
22. Discussion of the above.

Evening Session.

23. The President called attention to
the beautiful bouquet presented the So-
ciety by Mills & Wachter; also to the
fine Red Spanish pineapple grown under
cover by George McPherson, of Stuart.
24. Standing Committee on Pineap-
ples and Other Tropical Fruits made a
verbal report through the chairman, C.
T. McCarty. (See page 83.)
25. Discussion of same.
26. Paper on Protection of Pineries,
by Dr. J. V. Calver. (See page 91.)
27. Discussion of same.
28. Standing Committee on Strawber-
ries and Miscellaneous Fruits. Individ-
ual report by L. Cameron, of the Com-
mittee. (See page 94.)
29. Standing Committee on Orna-
mentals. Secretary read a paper by W.
J. Ellsworth, of the Committee. (See
page 96.)
30. Standing Committee on Vegeta-
bles. No report.
31. Discussion on various vegetable
blights. (See page 97.)



Morning Session.
32. Nominating Committee, consist-
ing of S. H. Gaitskill, B. T. Bradt and F.
D. Waite, presented a ticket which was
elected, each officer being voted for sep-
arately. (See page 98.)
33. Secretary presented a communica-
tion from the United Fruit Company, of
Jamaica, touching some diseased pineap-
ple leaves which were displayed.
34. A Standing Committee on Trans-
portation was appointed, consisting of
Maj. G. P. Healy, E. O. Painter and Dr.
Geo. Kerr.
35. Jacksonville was selected as the
next place of meeting by a vote of 58 for
Jacksonville against 41 for St. Peters-
burg. Tellers were W. M. Bennett, Prof.
J. Y. McKinney and B. N. Bradt. (See
page 98.)

Afternoon Session.
36. Society did not convene, but took
an excursion on the river at the invita-
tion of the Board of Trade. Others ac-
cepted the invitation of the East Coast
Railroad Company and went on an ex-
cursion to Pablo Beach. The remainder
of the afternoon the hall was turned over
to the State Agricultural Society.

Evening Session.
37. Secretary's report read. (See page
38. Treasurer's report read. (See page
39. Report of Executive Committee
read by the Secretary and accepted. (See
page Io1.)
40. Standing Committee on Grapes,
Figs and Kaki. A report was made by
W. S. Hart, chairman of the Committee,
and A. B. Harrington. ( See page 102.)
41. Prof. H. E. Stockbridge and oth-

ers discussed these topics orally. (See
page io6.)
42. Report of Special Committee on a
Society Library read by Dr. Geo. Kerr,
43. On motion the President, Secre-
tary and Treasurer were appointed a
committee to take steps to create a Li-
44. Standing Committee on Market-
ing and Good Roads made a report
through the chairman, W. M. Bennett.
(See.page 107.)
45. Standing Committee on Nomen-
clature. A report from Prof. H. J. Web-
ber was read by the President. (See page
46. Paper read by E. J. Seymour on
One Year's Experience in Practical Pro-
tection. (See page I20.)
47. Address by W. H. McFarland on
this subject.
48. The President read a communica-
tion from Hon. Geo. W. Wilson, chair-
man of the Board of Trustees of the State
Agricultural College and Experiment
Station inviting the co-operation of the
49. On motion S. H. Gaitskill and E.
O. Painter were appointed as a commit-
tee on co-operation with the State Col-
lege and Experiment Station, in unison
with a like committee from the State Ag-
ricultural Society.
50. Paper, Florida vs. Porto Rico,
read by C. M. Griffing. (See page 124.)


riorning Session.
51. The'Secretary read a communica-
tion from Samuel B. Woods, President
of the Virginia State Horticultural Soci-
ety, urging the Florida Society to take
official action favoring the Brosius Pure
Food Bill.


52. A resolution to this effect was of-
fered, seconded and passed.
53. Paper on Cassava Culture, by Mr.
Chas. E. Farmer, in his absence, was read
by the Secretary. (See page 128.)
54. Discussion on same.
55. Standing Committee on Forestry,
through the chairman, Dr. Kerr, stated
that their report was not completed, but
would be handed to the Secretary to be'
published in the annual. (See page 133.)
56. Paper on Pecan Culture, by Prof.
H. Harold Hume. (See page 135.)
57. Discussion of the above.
58. On motion, it was voted to add a
Committee on Nut Trees to the other
Standing Committees.
59. Standing Committee on Fertilizers
and Irrigation, through the chairman,
M. F. Robinson, presented a report. (See
page 140.)
60. Discussion on Irrigation.
61. Frederick Pfeifer, of Ocala, State
Commissioner of the Pan-American Ex-
position, to be held in Buffalo, 1901,

asked and obtained permission to ad-
dress the Society. He urged the mem-
bers to contribute something in the line
of productions to advertise Florida.
62. J. C. Colvin, Vice-President of the
Southern States Exposition, at Chatta-
nooga, to open May 15, addressed the
Society, urging a participation in its ex-
hibits in the interest of Florida.
63. The Committee on Final Resolu-
tions, through W. M. Bennett, chairman,
reported a series of resolutions which
were adopted. (See page 146.)
64. The Special Committee appointed
to meet with American Pomological So-
ciety, Messrs. L. Phelps and G. L. Taber,
reported through Mr. Taber. They also
reported the result of the conference as
to the orthography of the word pomelo.
This form of the word was recommend-
ed by Prof. H. J. Webber, of the De-
partment of Agriculture. (See page
65. Adjourned sine die.


Mayor J. E. T. Bowden.

Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen
of the State Horticultural Society-I
throw open to you the gates of the city
of Jacksonville.
It is to your organization that the
State must look largely for the intelligent
cultivw.tion of our fruits and our vegeta-
bles. Scientific cultivation must take the
place of the simple methods of the man
with the hoe, if we are to compete suc-
cessfully with other States. By the in-
vestigations made by your body; by its
intelligent research, study and experience

explained and put in useful form by the
interchange of thought and views on oc-
casions like this, all the people of the
State are benefited, and the world is
made better and richer.
Appreciating this, I do now, upon the
part of all of the people of the city of
Jacksonville, bid you welcome, thrice
welcome, and express the hope that ev-
ery moment of your time spent here will
be enjoyed, and that when you leave you
will take with you only happy recollec-
tions and a desire to come back.

Capt. C. E. Garner.

Mr. President and Members of the State
Horticultural Society:
In behalf of the Board of Trade, I de-
sire to extend to you, one and all, a most
hearty welcome.
This organization, during its exist-
ence, has entertained many distinguished
visitors from all parts of our country. I
can assure you, however, that no individ-
ual, however distinguished, or organized
body however important, has ever re-
ceived, or is likely to receive, a more cor-
dial welcome than that which we tender
to your society. We feel that you are
our nearest and best friends; that your
interest is our interest, your prosperity is
our prosperity, and the benefits growing
out of your annual deliberations are for

our advantage fully as much as for yours.
We feel that there is a co-partnership ex-
isting between this Board and the Horti-
cultural Society, inasmuch as we are both
engaged in promoting the welfare and
the upbuilding of the State.
* A great many of our fellow-citizens
seem to think that all prosperity comes
from legislation; that proper legislation
would bring universal wealth. As a mat-
ter of fact, however, legal enactments do
not produce wealth. Legislation may
stimulate or depress industry, may cause
an unfair distribution of wealth, but after
all the real wealth of the country comes
from the soil, from the mines, from the
forest, from the field. If legislation or the
enactment of laws could create wealth, in


order to have universal prosperity all
that would be required would be for us to
multiply our politicians, our law-makers
have continual sessions of Congress and
of our State Legislature; and in the event
this should transpire we need have no
fear of there not being a sufficient num-
ber of patriotic citizens who would be
willing to sacrifice themselves for the
good of their State or their country.
It does seem to me that the advance
in legislation is not so much by the en-
actment of new laws as by the repeal of
the useless old ones, and all that the real
workers and producers of this country
demand of law is protection to life and
that every man shall enjoy the fruits of
his own industry.
The past year, dating from your last
annual meeting, has been one of unex-
ampled prosperity to this country. Our
exports have exceeded those of any pre-
vious year, wages have advanced, facto-
ries are busy and overrun with orders.
vessel tonnage is in greater demand than
ever before in the history of our country.
Our State has received large benefits
from this industrial revival. The price
of staples has advanced, cotton is worth
almost double what it was one year ago;
the same is true of naval stores, our phos-
phate mines are busy and prices good,
citrus fruits brought a good price, or-
anges selling for $2.25 to $2.50 per box
on the trees, and grapefruit as high as $9
per box.
Our city has certainly kept pace with
the Nation and the State. You will ob-
serve as you go through the streets an
air of cheerfulness and prosperity. Our
* merchants are busy, our mills are run-
ning full time, every wheel of industry is
running to its fullest capacity. You will
find our harbor filled with ships. The
work of deepening our river and improv-

ing our bar is progressing satisfactorily.
Two new railroads have been opened,
giving us now practically nine railroads
centering in this city. Whether this
prosperity is permanent or transient, we
do not know, but it must be self-evident
to anyone that there can be no perma-
nent prosperity in this country, in this
State or in this city, if the great mass of
our people represented by the agricultur-
al and horticultural communities are not
The agricultural workers in our State
comprise a very large majority of the en-
tire population. They are the great con-
suming class of the products of factories.
It must necessarily follow if they are un-
able to buy furniture, clothing, shoes or
other necessaries or luxuries of life, that
there will be a depression in those lines
of business. The factories must close
down, the merchants go into bankruptcy,
the bank must close its doors, and a cloud
of depression settles over all the indus-
tries of the Nation. In other words, the
high-water mark of agricultural prosper-
ity must ultimately be the high-water
mark of prosperity in every other line of
business, and the low-water mark df ag-
ricultural depression must ultimately be
the low-water mark of depression with
us all.
It is for these reasons that we extend
to you the hand of fellowship, and I am
sure, on the other hand, you will rejoice
at the prosperity of this city. We feel
that the upbuilding of this city is a part
of your work; that you should rejoice
with us at its prosperous condition; that
it should be a matter of pride to every
citizen of this State; and we desire and
hope that the members of this society
will come here at least once every year
and note what is being done in this, your


Dr. George Kerr.

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Our esteemed president has conferred
upon me the honor of making the re-
sponse to the addresses of welcome.
I, therefore, in his name and in the
name of each and every member of this
society, tender our heartfelt thanks for
this gracious manifestation of your wel-
come, made known to us so kindly by
his honor, the mayor, and the president
-of the Board of Trade.
These expressions of greeting and
sympathy are elevating and ennobling,
stimulating us to a higher plane of duty
in our several spheres, giving courage to
the strong, strength to the weak, energy
to the indolent and hope to the cast
Never before have we known the full
value of ourselves or been able to take
our measure.
We are here again at your request, at
your solicitation. We come gladly, pre-
senting our salutations and our congrat-
ulations. We are proud of this, your
beautiful city, the chief city of our great
commonwealth, alike creditable to your
enterprise and your artistic perception.
Beautiful! Yes, art everywhere, wrestl-
ing with nature for the supremacy, you
no doubt, ever remembering that your
future greatness rests upon the founda-
tion stone of justice to all.
I wish to explain a few of the seeming
incongruities of country life. We coun-
try people imagine that our city cousins
laugh at us, saying we have frowzy
heads, freckled faces, and when we come

to the city we stare at the stores. We
ofttimes hear words of derision and see
the finger of scorn pointed at the lowly
tiller of the soil. Don't do it again; if
there were bears about, you would be in
We have prepared a picture or group
of these lowly tillers of the soil; with
your permission, Mr. President, I will
now exhibit it. Behold them! I see a
few among them who are not lowly til-
lers. Our president good naturedly per-
mits them to remain merely as a contrast.
We may be somewhat uncouth, not hav-
ing the time to practice two hours a day
to get the correct pose, the fashionable
step, the swing of the coat-tails, to ap-
pear in public. We may have a few hay-
seeds in our hair and a few of the festive
sandspurs clinging to our coat-tails. We
may not be able to dance the highland
fling or the sailors' hornpipe at a fancy
dress ball, but, as poor Bobbie Burns
said, "A man's a man for a' that and a'
that." He is also the man to stand in
the breach in the day of dire distress.
Volumes have been written in his praise
and glory.
It is of his toil and his life I would
speak. He toils in the bright sunshine,
breathes in the pure air of heaven, drinks
of the limpid waters from the fountain
head, mingling with nature in her many
forms, tempest and sunshine, flower and
fruit, seed time and harvest, communing
with nature's God. Night brings to him
home, loved ones and sweet repose; day
follows day with conscious thought that
his labors are rewarded with life, liberty


and happiness, if not with adequate com-
There is also a sad side to this picture.
We, too, have our trials and our sorrows.
Our .daughters are sometimes beguiled
into marrying some young man from the
city with perfumed mustache and his hair
plastered down on his forehead with po-
made. After a while our grandchildren
come to see us, the dear little sweet nuis-
ances; they are so timid and frail, they
must be kept away from the dogs and
the cats, the chickens and the goslings.
Consequently grandpa must carry them
about upon his back, hence grandpas are
usually round-shouldered. After a few
years these little ones come out to see us
as young ladies; that is the time that
grandpa and grandma have their-hands
full. On Saturday afternoons the young
gentlemen come out to see us, I mean to
see the girls. They have a good time
for a day or two. The young man be-
coming tired because it is too tame for
him, says to the ladies, "I think you
would be awfully wetched if you were
compelled to stay out here a couple of
months. How do you amuse your-
selves?" "Oh, well," they reply, "we
have a splendid time; grandpa takes us
around in the ox-cart with lots of straw
in it, and sometimes he puts the halter
and saddle upon the cow and we ride
around the lawn, grandpa leading the
cow. Oh! we've lots of fun!" "Oh!"
he says, "Not any in mine. But what do
you do about these howible bugs, these
ugly toads, these tewible calves with long
horns and these fwightful wazorbacks?"
He is gone in a day or so.
It is for our boys we are mostly con-
cerned. They leave the home of their
childhood, often a humble one, followed
by the tears and prayers of Invinr Chris-

tian parents. Oh! those hallowed memo-
ries never fade. Away, they go, swal-
lowed up in the many trades,in the great
marts of business, in the colleges, univer-
sities and other institutions of learning
all over our broad land. Soon we hear
of them becoming a President of the
United States, generals, admirals and of-
ficers of the army and navy, United
States Senators and Representatives and
other officials of the government, of
which there is no end, governors of
States and their officials, presidents and
secretaries of Horticultural and Agricul-
tural societies, mayors, presidents of
boards of trade, preachers, doctors, law-
yers, merchants, business men of all
kinds and all the make-up of a great city,
even to the lowest stratum. There are a
few dudes.
In some parts of our country horticul-
ture and collateral branches are languish-
ing. I have discovered the cause, and
hope the society will vote me a medal in
token of their appreciation. Our sons
and many of our daughters have been
called to fill the responsible places in the
State and Nation. Statistics prove that
over 90 per cent. of all the learned pro-
fessions, including the business men of
prominence were formerly farmers' sons.
The old gentleman, when the shadows
of the evening of life begin to gather
about him, finds that he is alone, his sons
all gone, decides to put an "ad." in a
prominent city paper for help. In a few
days comes a decayed city dude dressed
with shabby gentility, his working
clothes done up in a handkerchief. He
does not know which end of the horse
the collar is to be pulled over, and if it
is to be buckled or snapped; he fastens
it under the throat.
Here is the whole matter in a nutshell.


Insufficient or inefficient help. That is
the trouble with Florida today. It is as
bad as a frost.
As a remedy it has been suggested to
make our homes more happy and attrac-
tive to our boys, with pleasant surround-
ings, good books (not dime novels), as-
sist them in getting as good an education
as possible, teach them to be self-reliant.
I believe in the expressive, though very
inelegant phrase "root hog or die." Do
not use force. Force is usually backed
by anger. Give the boy a few acres of
land to cultivate on shares, but be sure

and give him his just share. If you have
plenty of land it would be better to give
him a number of acres in fee simple; it
would be an anchor to him in after years.
Don't lie, swear, drink rum, chew or
smoke tobacco or anything else immoral
unless you wish him to follow in your
footsteps. The old adage is applicable
here, "As the old ones crow, the young
ones learn." Impress upon them that
farm life is the ideal life and the peer of
any calling. Our example and life are
indelibly stamped upon our children. Let
it be a blessing and not a curse.


George L Taber.

Members of the Florida State Horticul-
tural Society, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Twelve years ago a small band of Flor-
ida fruit growers met at Ocala and or-
ganized a State Horticultural Society. Of
the eighteen who assisted in the organi-
zation one-half have since crossed the
"Great Divide," and of the remaining
half some have scattered or become en-
gaged in other pursuits, until the fingers
of one hand more than suffice for the
counting of those who are left of our
charter members.
But the principles and purposes for
which we organized stood and still stand
good, and notwithstanding the severe
losses that we have sustained by death
of men illustrious in horticulture, and
notwithstanding that we have, during re-
cent years, encountered such severe cli-
matic conditions as to call forth from cal-
amitists the ghoulish proclam- ion that

"horticulture in Florida is a thing of the
past," we have yet, by united effort on
the part of both officers and members,
been able to maintain our membership
to such a high numerical average and our
work to such a degree of excellence that
we stand today in the recognized front
rank of the State Horticultural Societies
of America.
This is no idle statement, for I speak
advisedly when I say that there are few
Horticultural Societies in America that
can show as large a membership in com-
parison to State population, and, I feel
free to say, none that are working hard-
er to solve current horticultural prob-
lems, delving deeper into scientific re-
search, or achieving more lasting and
beneficial results.
It is a matter of congratulation that
not only are we in a flourishing condition
as regards numbers, but also entirely free


from dissensions or factional discord. If
we hold diverse views as to best modes
and methods these are but the natural
differences of opinion that indicate a
healthy condition of the Society as a so-
ciety. For, if we were all of the same
mind, in relation to every phase of every
topic under consideration, it would sig-
nify nothing so much as the arrival of the
comatose condition that precedes death.
There is one great basic principle upon
which we have built and are building,
which is, that all of us, from gray-haired
veterans down to the youngest acquisi-
tion to our ranks, are but scholars. We
recognize fully that no matter how much
of value we may have learned there yet
remains much more of value to be ac-
quired; and it is this very quality of re-
ceptivity and power to healthily assimi-
late new ideas that gives us strength.
Dudley W. Adams never uttered a great-
er truism than that the man who "knows
it all" is of no use to either himself or
anybody else; that such an one could be
of no benefit to this Society and that we
could be of no benefit to him. I am
happy to say we have no such members.
Standing then uppn that broad plank
of "advancement in horticulture," which
our constitution recognizes as the funda-
mental principle of our existence; having
outgrown our swaddling clothes and
demonstrated our ability to stand advers-
ity as well as prosperity; recognizing the
dignity of our calling and the responsi-
bilities that attach to us as representa-
tives of that calling; let us look ahead
for a moment and see what the future
has in store for us.
And here let me remark that whatever
is in store for us lies, to a great extent at
least, within our own power to predeter-
mine. Unlooked-for vicissitudes may,

and do, arise, that may, and often do, al-
ter the outcome of our plans, but that
does not affect the validity of the state-
ment that either as individuals or as a
Society, we should plan ahead-a long
way ahead if need be-for what we wish
to happen, and then do our utmost to see
that it does happen. Blind luck counts
for little in these days of strenuous en-
deavor, and he who, Micawber-like, sits
idly waiting for something to "turn up"
would better, to say the least, engage in
any other business than that of horticul-
Now what I would like to see and what
I have no doubt many of us would like to
see, is the Florida State Horticultural So-
ciety with a membership of several times
its present numbers, owning a library
that would be of service and accessible to
each one of us, and possessed of a horti-
cultural building that would suitably
house the Society and its library and be a
credit to both the Society and the city in
which it were located.
Some of you may say this all sounds
very well, but it will never be accom-
plished. Perhaps not, in its entirety, in
our day. But my belief in the future of
Florida, her horticulture, and this society
as the representative of that horticulture,
is so great that I think we may reasona-
bly expect the Society to live to see it,
even if we as individuals do not. Other
State Horticultural Societies have lived
to accomplish as much. Why not this
But, coming right down to the practi-
cal point: The building is, I admit, for
the immediate present, beyond our reach.
But the library, which I consider of even
more importance than the building, is
clearly within our reach. Not that we
can hope to come into immediate posses-


sion of such an extensive and costly li-
brary as older and richer Societies have
been years in collecting, but that we can
make a beginning without which nothing
of value is ever accomplished.
Freed from its political significance, 1
am a great believer in the principle enun-
ciated in Greeley's phrase that "the best
way to resume specie payment is to re-
sume," and, paraphrased, this would
read, if we want a library the best way
for us to get it is to start it.
I am aware that the present state of
the Society's finances does not warrant
putting any of the Society funds into it,
and I would not recommend doing so-
at least not for the present. Anyone who
wished to subscribe could do so, but such
subscriptions would be purely voluntary.
The secretary has already on hand some
available matter which has, from time to
time, and from various sources, come
into the possession of the Society, and
there are undoubtedly amongst our
members those who have duplicates of
books on horticulture, or single volumes,
with which they have become so familiar
that the contribution of them to this So-
ciety's library would be accompanied by
a sense of gratification that such volumes
could be placed where they would be a
source of continuous usefulness. Money
contributions, in greater or lesser
amounts, would undoubtedly be made by
others in the same spirit. Later and per-
haps larger accretions might follow from
those, either in or out of the Society,
who have the welfare of Florida at heart,
and thus, from one source and another,
we might in time become possessors of a
library that would add greatly to the So-
ciety's usefulness.
As to the housing of the library, I

would say that the Society has already re-
ceived generous, although informal, of-
fers. If the action to be taken by you is
favorable to the library these offers will
doubtless be renewed in a more formal
way. I would also say that, if this rec-
ommendation is favorably acted upon,
there will be considerable detail to be
worked out, which can probably best be
done, for the first year at least, through
a committee. And if this committee
were composed of the Society's secretary
and treasurer, and perhaps one other
member, this would make a desirable
personnel. The treasurer of the Society
could become treasurer of the fund to be
known as "library fund," and the secre-
tary could arrange and list all available
matter on hand, and that may accrue,
previous to our next annual meeting, at
which time the committee could make a
full report, with such suggestions as to
future action as a thorough investigation
of the subject would lead them to recom-
mend. If sufficient material has been ac-
cumulated by the time we meet again,
and the report of the committee should
be favorable to such action, a librarian
could then be appointed.
If you agree that it is a good idea to
start the library it is for you to say what
the mode of procedure shall be, and per-
haps some of the suggestions I have
made can be improved upon. I am not
so much concerned as to the exact
method to be followed, as I am interested
in seeing the library started. I believe
that there is not a single member of this
Society who would not be benefited by it,
either directly or indirectly. I believe
that we would each of us feel that the
Society had added breadth and scope and
dignity and power for good, and that the


bond of fellowship which exists between
its individual members would be still fur-
ther strengthened.
Many of us are more or less isolated
in our home life; the very nature of our
calling makes this necessary. Left to
ourselves we are apt to become too ab-
sorbed in scanning a horizon compassed
by the boundary lines of our own little
individual possessions. In a collective
capacity-as a Society-we obtain
through the medium of our annual con-
ventions, a more extended view, in which
our boundary fences disappear and the
methods, practices and results of the best
thought of an entire State lie spread out
before us. In laying the foundation for
a carefully selected horticultural library
we would be still further broadening our
horizon, and making available the best
thought and practices of other States and
other countries on the manifold ques-
tions that have a direct bearing on our in-
dividual horticultural interests.
I have already spoken of the faith that
I have in this Society and, with your per-
mission, I will relate a little personal ex-
perience that will illustrate more fully
than I could do in any other way, how
deep this faith is:
Just previous to the unprecedented
freeze of February, 1899, I had been
planning to plant five acres of additional
orange grove. The ground, however,
had not been cleared or any preparation
made, other than that stakes had been
driven in the places that the trees were
to occupy. When that blizzard came
along, and leveled to the banks the twen-
ty acres of orange groves that I already
had, the question very naturally arose, if
that were not enough? Wouldn't it be a
good idea to pull up the stakes that had
been driven and save the expense of

clearing ground and planting additional
orange trees away up here in North Flor-
ida? Wouldn't it be better to turn the
orange industry over to parties located
nearer Cape Sable-or south of it. These
were questions which were very proper
to consider, and were similar to those
which had to be considered by many of
you who, unlike myself, are located in
the counties generally included in what
used to be called the "orange belt"-and
which, please God, will still remain a part
of the "orange belt."
But, whatever may have been the
proper answer to the question, I rea-
soned this way: I have raised oranges
in North Florida without protection. Or-
anges, if they require protection, can be
protected in North Florida. Banking
with earth will protect the trees as high
up as the mound extends. Burning
wood in sufficient quantities will protect
the tops above the mounds. I have a
large amount of earth and a good supply
of wood. I will plant the trees and de-
pend upon this combined method of pro-
tection until I am satisfied which one of
the several methods, advocated by this
Society, seems best to adopt in its place.
And so, simultaneously with the cut-
ting off the frozen tops of the twenty
acres, I went to work and planted out
five acres additional, including standard
varieties of both oranges and pomelos.
The trees were set out in wild land and
the ground cleared after the trees were
planted; the logs and stumps being
placed in piles in every other middle in
every other row, on much the same plan
as that suggested in my address of two
years ago. I have since that time had
considerable experience with open-air
firing and, as already indicated, shall de-
pend upon that, combined with high
banking, until I decide which one of the


several methods that are being advocat-
ed, or already in use by different mem-
bers of this Society, seems to offer the
best solution to the protection question.
And the point that I wish to make is
not that North Florida is the best loca-
tion for an orange grove, not by any
means that the horticulture of North
Florida is dependent upon the growing
of oranges, not that the temporary
method of protection that I adopted is
necessarily the best; but simply and sole-
ly that I had faith enough in this Society
to believe that it would solve the protec-
tion problem in a way that would make
orange growing, even in North Florida,
a safe investment.
And I still believe so. The progress
we have already made in this direction is
very gratifying. We shall, at this meet-
ing, hear much of value in connection
with the question from a purely practical
standpoint. Many of us have been study-
ing it by day and dreaming of it by night
-except on such particular nights as
have afforded us opportunities to put our
theories to practical test.
But, ladies and gentlemen, even if the
orange was our first love and if her
charms still continue to entice us, we
must not forget that the "Golden
Queen," as Adams felicitously styled her,
is not all there is to Florida horticulture.
A perusal of the programme will show
you that we not only have under consid-
eration, at this meeting, all the principal
fruits of Florida, as well as topics that
have a direct bearing upon Florida horti-
culture, but also special papers on some
subjects that perhaps might be more
strictly classified as bearing on the wel-
fare of the horticulturist rather than that
of the horticulture that he represents.
But this, after all, might be analyzed into

a distinction without difference, from the
standpoint that anything which contrib-
utes toward maintaining life in the horti-
culturist, while his horticulture is being
brought to a profitable basis, is, to a very
marked extent, conducive toward ad-
vancement in horticulture.
There are existing in Florida today
two distinct State Societies which have to
do with the tilling of the soil; one of
them agricultural, the other (this one)
horticultural. Although working in per-
fect harmony with each other neither of
these Societies believes that the two
should be amalgamated. Their lines are
more or less distinct, and it is very prop-
er that the two Societies should continue
to exist. There is much in agriculture
that the horticulturist does not care for,
and much in horticulture that the agri-
culturist does not care for; but there is
also a common ground, occupied by us
both, in which I believe we should both
be more deeply interested. It is that
ground covered by the horticulturist
when he is trying to provide for present
necessities, by the raising of farm crops,
until his orchards come into bearing-
and which I believe can often be profita-
bly continued long after his orchards
come into bearing. It is that ground of
the agriculturist that holds out horticul-
tural inducements, and leads him to plant
fruit trees as a valuable adjunct to his
fields of corn and cotton.
And so, to the newly formed State Ag-
ricultural Society, which holds its annual
meeting in this city during the present
week, our older State Horticultural Soci-
ety extends kindly greeting. We hope
that they may derive benefit from attend-
ance at our meeting, and, that if we
should be asked to attend theirs, we shall
be equally benefited.


The brief space of time that our con-
ventions consume may, perhaps, well be
likened to an interrogation point on the,
as yet, unwritten page of the history of
the horticultural and agricultural pro-
gress of our State. We know what the
past has been; what the present is; but

what of the future? May we help to de-
cide this wisely and well, and may hope
"that springs eternal in the human
breast" be ever with us, and be ably sec-
onded by our efforts; for, without effort,
hope is but a fallacy.


Hon. Geo. W. Wilson, Chairman.

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Your Committee on Local Arrange-
ments has the honor to report the follow-
The East Coast Railway extends the
courtesy of an excursion to Pablo Beach.
It was at first thought possible by your
committee to arrange a trip to Mayport
and to see the immense improvements
being made by Mr. Flagler; but it was
found that the road would not be com-
pleted in time, therefore all that can be
offered now is a trip to Pablo, which of-
fer the East Coast officials have liberally
It was thought at first your committee
would be able to secure a special train,
so that the Society would need to con-
sume only a portion of the day, knowing

that their time would be limited, but this
was found to be impracticable.
We herewith submit the letter of invi-
The Board of Trade of the city of
Jacksonville desires to tender to the So-
ciety a river trip at such time as the So-
ciety may designate.
It is the purpose of the board to leave
the city at 10:30 of the morning selected,
returning at 2 or 2:30. Lunch will be
served on board of the boat. We here-
with append the letter of the board.
The Times-Union and Citizen will fur-
nish the official stenographer to make
and keep the record of your proceedings.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
George W. Wilson, C. M. Griffing, L.


All Known Devices Tested by a Scientific but Practical Grower-With Artificial Heat and Without-Dor-
mancy, Hybridizing, Whitewashing, Spraying, Banking, Open Fires Fail Utterly or Only
Partially Protect-Shields, Tents and Sheds Do the Work-Sheds Best
of All-Orange Culture Placed on a Business Basis.

By Prof.J. Y. McKinney, of Candler.

Can there be mentioned a single in-
stance where a thoroughly established
profitable industry, an industry in the
sphere of either horticulture or agricul-
ture, has been abandoned in any country
because of adverse natural conditions?
True, in a few instances we may find
that because of artificial conditions such
as too great a supply for the demand,
some industry has gradually given place
to other more profitable investment, but
with a supply constantly less than an
ever increasing demand, no natural dif-
ficulty has ever yet barred the progress
of human achievement.
Can it be, then, that the culture of the
citrus fruits in Central and Northern
Florida is to stand out as an isolated ex-
ception, a marked contradiction to an es-
tablished law of events?
That orange culture in Florida is to-
day and has been for some time face to
face with the adverse condition of low
temperatures, all will admit. That it has
already passed from the plane of an es-
tablished high prosperity and is today on
the low plane of absolute necessity, none
will deny. That during the past winter

the most earnest and intelligent efforts
have been made in various parts of the
State; that the crisis with low tempera-
ture has been met successfully and that
therefore we are now entering a period
of renaissance destined to raise the in-
dustry to a higher plane of more expen-
sive, more intensive and more profitable
culture, are statements that we believe
can be truthfully asserted before this
body tonight.
To combat successfully low tempera-
tures so many plans have suggested
themselves and so many expedients have
been tried that to deal with the subject
in any way approaching a scientific pro-
cedure, it becomes necessary to classify.
The whole subject naturally arranges
itself under the following classifications:
I. Protection Without Artificial Heat.
I. By controlling the condition of
the tree.
a by cultivation.
b by coating trunk and branches.
c by budding or grafting on to
hardier stock.
d by hybridization.


c by withholding heat, moisture
or light.
2. By banking with sand.
a to save the bud.
b to save the entire tree.
3. By airtight covers.
4. By water spraying.
5. By water and forest protection.
6. By latitude.
II. Protection with Artificial Heat.
I. Open fires.
2. Tents artificially heated.
3. Wind breaks with open fires.
4. Sheds artificially heated.
The subject is too broad for compre-
hensive discussion in one paper; we shall
consider in detail therefore only those
methods of protection that have thus far
proved successful, giving but passing no-
tice to many expedients here outlined.
As to the value of the various methods
here presented this thought shall be the
criterion upon which judgment is made,
viz: "Orange culture on a Sound Busi-
ness Basis." Any method which in our
judgment fails to bring the industry up
to that standard we must discard as in-
Can the orange tree then be protected
in present climatic conditions without ar-
tificial heat by controlling the condition
of the tree? That with well matured
wood the various species of the citrus
family will withstand great extremes of
temperature, there can be no question-
there is no question.
Compelling Dormancy.
But to compel the tree to remain dor-
mant during the danger periods is the
vital question.
It has been suggested that this may
be done by methods of cultivation; that
if we fertilize early in the year, permit

no late cultivation in the fall and grow
winter crops of grain among the trees to
withdraw the nitrogenous matter from
the sod, the trees in consequence will re-
main dormant until late in the spring.
As to the extent of merit in these sug-
gestions we will not take space here to
enquire. That any or all of them are en-
tirely insufficient has been thoroughly
demonstrated. We erase therefore this
expedient from the list of successful
Coating With Lime.
Coating the trunk and branches with
preparations of lime and with other pat-
ented material has been strongly urged
in more northern latitudes for keeping
trees dormant. This treatment may be
somewhat effective on the plum, peach
and pear tree whose deciduous habit
causes them when defoliated to depend
on the lenticels or breathing spots on
trunk and branches for the necessary sup-
ply of oxygen. To close these with such
preparations might sufficiently devitalize
trees of deciduous habits to require con-
siderable renewal of spring-time energy
to awaken them to a growing condition.
With members of the citrus family,
however, the millions of stomata or
mouths on the underside of their count-
less evergreen leaves render futile any
attempt to render them dormant by this
Budding on Hardy Stocks.
Can we control the condition of trees
by budding or grafting our choice fruits
on more hardy and deciduous stocks?
When this method was first suggested
much hope was entertained that it might
solve the problem. The hardy and de-
ciduous trifoliata seemed especially
adapted to this end./


Just what effect the root stock has on
the hardiness of the bud or graft cannot
be stated with precision. From the evi-
dence at hand we are inclined to believe
that the ability of a bud or graft to with-
stand cold depends on two conditions;
first, the inherent nature of the bud it-
self. For instance, a seedling Satsuma is
one of our hardiest trees, while the Tan-
gerine is less hardy. If buds or grafts
from both of these are placed on com-
mon third stock equally suited to both
the Satsuma bud or graft will be propor-
tionately more hardy than the Tangerine
bud or graft, just as the original Satsuma
seedling was more hardy than the origi-
nal seedling Tangerine.
The second condition is not quite so
fully established; the evidence, however,
justifies the opinion that in addition to
the inherent nature of the bud the abil-
ity to withstand cold depends also on the
vigor of the root stock to being a good
feeder rather than upon its inherent abil-
ity to withstand cold. Hence a bud or
graft on a rough lemon stock, if the bud
union be protected, may withstand more
cold than when placed on the hardy tri-
foliata stock, the former being a strong
vigorous feeder, while the latter is a
much less vigorous feeder.
On this point we have personally ob-
served that several hundred Satsuma
buds on rough lemon stock in a nursery
remained uninjured, while the unbudded
rough lemon stocks in the same nursery
were all killed.
We have noted also another similar in-
stance with the same results where the
trees were set in grove form. In these in-
stances the hardiness of the Satsuma bud
did not seem to be affected by the tender
nature of the root. In other instances
where Satsuma buds were placed on tri-
foliata stocks they were killed to the

ground in common with the other or-
anges of the neighborhood.
But granting that some little differ-
ence in the hardiness of the bud may be
secured from grafting or budding judi-
ciously it is at most so slight that it can-
not be relied upon as sufficient under
present conditions.
Much confidence is expressed by some
experimenters that the solution of the
problem may lie in obtaining a new and
distinct species by hybridization. To do
this, as it appears to us, two intricate pro-
cesses must first be successfully accom-
plished, both of which, especially if
marked change in the nature of the tree
is desired, require long periods of years
and even then the chances of success and
failure seem to be about equally balanced.
The first process is to obtain a distinct
species, sufficiently hardy and one that
will propagate true to its kind. The sec-
ond process would then be to evolve or
develop a good quality of fruit from the
deteriorated hybrid.
When we consider the wide difference
between our choice high-bred Florida
oranges and the inedible trifoliata, we
should consider the process rapid and
successful indeed if an orange approach-
ing in quality our common orange should
be thus developed from the proposed hy-
brid within the next three-quarters of a
century. Whatever the future of this
theory may be, for the present genera-
tion at least we shall be on the safe side
by erasing this expedient from the list
As to the effect of shade on the con-
dition of the tree there are some interest-
ing data, but as this of itself is insuffi-
cient it will be more to the point to speak
of it under another form of protection.


The three conditions of plant growth
are heat, light and moisture; since these
conditions are present in their full sig-
nificance during many days in January
and February, the orange tree is certain
to respond with new growth and bloom,
hence the problem of forcing the tree to
remain dormant is of very doubtful solu-
Protection With Sand.
The efficiency of sand banking as a
means of protecting the bud is too well
known to admit of discussion; but since
we cannot hope to raise a good crop of
oranges under the ground, unless per-
chance the orange may be hybridized
into some member of the peanut fami-
ily (?), we must draw a line around this
form of protection as too limited.
Sand banking to save the entire tree
will perhaps admit of some discussion.
To test this form of protection we had
about thirty young trees covered entirely
over with sand. Ten of these were cov-
ered on Decembr 15 and opened up
March 21. These died back to within
three inches of the bud union. The other
twenty were opened at different times
with the following results. Those cov-
ered four weeks were but little damaged.
Those covered six weeks lost all their
leaves and were otherwise devitalized so
that they were slow in recovering. Some
of' my neighbors, however, banked as
high as six and seven feet and left the
banks for from five to seven weeks.
Aside from losing their leaves the trees
are but little damaged.
From other sources on this point I get
varying results, so that in forming judg-
ment on this form of protection it must
be said there is great risk attending it,
so much so indeed that if we place any

financial value on our young trees we
must exclude this expedient from a plan
of orange culture on a sound business
The next device, an original one, we
shall term the ventilated sand case. We
had 150 fine young buds from four to
six feet high placed under this treatment.
The trees were first tied up into as small
a space as practical by means of No. 18
galvanized wire; a case was then placed
close around the tree. Most of these
inner cases were of thin boards; some
few even of paper. A second case was
then made about three inches from the
first; this outer case was made of small
boards placed laterally between trough-
like corner pieces. The space between
the two cases was packed with sand. At
the bottom a ventilating box extended
from the outside into the tree. This vent
and the top were closed and covered with
sand during the cold wave period only.
The labor of putting up this device and
attending it during the winter and clear-
ing it away in the spring cost us 20 cents
per tree. The lumber used was odds and
ends from our mill and did not figure in
the expense.
The trees were placed in these cases
during the week of December 15 and so
remained until the week of March 21,
with the following result: A number
came out without loss of leaves and in
excellent condition. Others were defoli-
ated on the lower branches, the top
branches retaining their leaves. Some
were entirely defoliated, but the wood
was in good condition and quickly put
on leaves when the cases were removed.
On the whole this plan may be regarded
as a safe one, and if the vents are large
enough there will be no serious risk at-
tending it from either suffocation or the


cold. Its practical use, however, is limit-
ed to small trees.
Air Tight Covers, Spraying, Etc.
As to the next point on the outline we
can assert with confidence that no form
of cover, whether of air-tight cloth, pa-
per, wood, pine straw or other collected
vegetable materials placed around a tree
will save it without artificial heat. The
resident heat from the ground positively
cannot be relied upon.
As to water spraying as an effective
means of saving from the freeze, we have
observed one failure and are strongly of
the opinion that any effort to save on an
extended scale by this means will meet
with disappointment if not disaster. The-
oretically the plan has merit. When wa-
ter freezes a great quantity of latent heat
is given out that must raise the tempera-
ture of the surrounding air; also when
masses of ice are frozen around any veg-
etable organism the consequent slow
thawing will greatly lessen and some-
times entirely prevent damage. Doubt-
less if means could be devised so that
water could be kept constantly freezing
in the atmosphere immediately surround-
ing the tree effective work might be
done. But an attempt to do this in the
blizzard of '99 proved to our satisfaction
that to accomplish this successfully the
tree must, first be sheltered from the high
wind, and if that expedient had to be re-
sorted to other means of heating would
be more satisfactory. Water spraying is
therefore erased from the list.
Well selected locations with respect to
large bodies of water and forests will be
of service as a means of protection, but
that these alone are entirely insufficient,
dead stumps in many such localities to-
day are in full evidence.
With reference to latitude in the State
of Florida we will simply make this state-

ment, that during the past two winters
the official record is that no portion of
the mainland of the State was entirely
without freezing conditions. An exami-
nation of the records, as far as there are
authentic data, reveals no tendency to-
wards general climatic change, nfor are
the cold waves more frequent or of
longer duration than formerly; but the
facts do warrant the fear at least that
these cold waves are gradually dipping
further and further southward, thus in-
tensifying the extremes. It is a matter
of known fact that within the memory of
men now living oranges were raised in
South Carolina. The north boundary of
Florida has produced large crops. A
quarter of a century ago the extremes of
cold in the central portion of the State
very closely resembled the extremes
much further south today. Whatever
the causes that have led to this southward
dipping of the cold waves, the question
arises, may not these causes continue to
be operative? There being no mountain
barriers to arrest the southward progress
of these waves a slight increase in the
cause may drive them southward hun-
dreds of miles.
Should we go to the southern limit of
the State and plant new groves, may not
the cold waves, like a bad conscience,
follow us? May there not be danger
that the sad experience that has befallen
the industry in the central belt will be
repeated in the southern portion of the
We dismiss this part of the subject
with the assertion that we believe there
is no permanent practical security that
will place the industry on a sound busi-
ness basis without preparation for arti-
ficial heat.
Artificial Heat Required.
During the past winter we have wit-


nessed some very effective work done by
means of open fires. From our own ex-
periments, as well as trials by others, we
believe that this form of protection can
be trusted in still freezes when not more
than eight degrees of freezing tempera-
ture are to be combated. In windy
freezes the limit is from two to four de-
grees Fahrenheit.
In the past winter during the cold
wave in January the temperature fell to
seventeen degrees Fahrenheit. The
night was clear and without wind. The
trees were in a dormant condition. They
could have withstood twenty-four and'
perhaps twenty-two without much dam-
age to leaves, and perhaps eighteen de-
grees without serious injury to wood. In
this instance groves protected by open
fires lost but few leaves. This would in-
dicate that a temperature of at least five
degrees above the outside temperature
was maintained.
During the moderately windy freeze
in February when the sap was rising in
the trees the temperature fell to twenty
degrees Fahrenheit. Open fires in this
instance were only partially successful;
much new growth and bloom were killed
and even wood.
In a blizzard such as we had in Feb-
ruary, '99, to save a grove by open files
would be next to impossible. The wind
accompanied by sleet and rain was so in-
tense that we witnessed sticks of wood
hurled from the fires as if they were
bunches of straw. Fires at one end of
the row would be blown down and ex-
tinguished before the one in attendance
could replace those at the other end.
Trees not more than six feet through
were scorched on one side while the ther-
mometer registered fourteen degrees Fah-
renheit on the opposite side. In such
conditions, and even in conditions much

less severe we must conquer the wind be-
fore we can hope to combat the cold suc-
cessfully; therefore we conclude that
open fires will not place the orange in-
dustry on a sound business basis as long
as such conditions are among the proba-
Protection by Tents.
Can we protect trees successfully by
tents or other individual enclosures heat-
ed by lamps or stoves? To test this
proposition we had tents placed over 150
trees. The tent used was a small paper
tent, a model of which is here produced
in order that the data given may be bet-
ter understood.
The tent was 3x3 6 feet high. The
trees were tied in the same manner as
those placed in sand cases. By raising
the tent on legs and banking beneath we
were enabled to protect trees eight feet
high and seven feet through, before ty-
ing up.
By a number of tests as to proper ven-
tilation we found the best results were
reached when the door was raised about
ten inches from the bottom and at least
one-half the top opened.
When thus opened it was found that
the temperature inside during warm
weather would be several degrees cooler
than the outside temperature.
One experimental tree tied up and en-
closed November Io, 1899, and opened
up March 21, 1900, showed no bad ef-
fects either from being tied up or from
tent enclosure. Of the 150 trees under
tent enclosure we had three damaged
from failure of lamp to operate. The
others came out in excellent condition;
many had bloom and some few had or-
anges set when the tents were removed.
The lamp used was simply a Mason fruit
jar, in the lid of which a hole was cut by


an ordinary washer cutter of such a size
that a No. 3 burner would snugly screw
into the opening.
During the past winter this tent was
tried by heavy rains, high winds and one
hail storm. On storing away we found
that not more than ten per cent. will need
repairs before being again used.
For small trees it forms a very prac-
tical and thoroughly efficient device.
With it properly handled trees can be
protected in any conditions that have vis-
ited the orange belt.
While this tent can be enlarged to only
a moderate size, yet the general principle
of tent protection observed in this tent
will hold good in tents of larger design
and equally well adapted for the needs of
the case. Hence we believe the plan of
tenting trees with properly designed
tents can be relied upon as a safe and
satisfactory plan.
Having saved the tree the question of
tent protection is only partially answered.
We must enquire whether it can be done
at sufficiently low cost to justify the in-
vestment. It will give an idea of the
probable cost of operating tent protec-
tion if we present briefly the cost of pro-
tecting 150 trees during the past winter.
The lamps were lit seven nights.
Three barrels oil at $9 per barrel. $27 oo
Lighting lamps seven nights at
$1.50 per night... .......... .o 50
Filling and trimming seven times
at $1.50 ......... ........ o10 50
Putting up tents, taking same
down and storing in barn..... 15 oo

Total .. ...... ... ...... $63 oo
Cost per tree, 42 cents.
As the trees grow larger more fuel will
be required, so that for bearing trees
sixty cents per tree will probably cover
the expense of protection, exclusive of

the first cost of tent, during the average
per box
Hence if i box per tree is produced
protection costs .............. 6oc
2 boxes per tree is produced protec-
tion costs ......... ......... 30c
3 boxes per tree is produced protec-
tion costs ......... ...... 2oc
4 boxes per tree is produced protec-
tion costs .................. 15c
5 boxes per tree is produced protec-
tion costs ............ ..... I2c
6 boxes per tree is produced protec-
tion costs .............. . Ioc
The first cost of tents or of protection
in any permanent form is to be regarded
as part of the investment and not as part
of the running expense. While all forms
of protection are more or less perishable
and therefore each year are becoming
less valuable, on the other hand the trees
are increasing in producing capacity,
which much more than compensates for
the slight yearly deterioration in the pro-
tecting device.
Aside from saving the trees the secur-
ity of the fruit under thorough protec-
tion enables the grower to select his mar-
ket. From the record of fruit sales in the
past this one item would many times pay
for all cost of protection.
In this form of protection there are
cautions that must be observed if success
is to crown our efforts. Great care must
be taken to adjust the blaze of the lamp
properly. If turned too high the lamp
will smoke, suffocate and go out. If
left too low, sufficient heat will not be
generated and damage will result. An-
other difficulty to be met when ordinary
wicks are used is the thick incrustation
that forms on the wicks after several
hours burning. The lamp then ceases to
give out its normal heat. By a number
of tests with self-registering thermome-


ters I found when first lit that a lamp in
a tent of this design would make a dif-
ference of from twenty to thirty-one de-
grees increase in temperature. But inva-
riably the difference would fall off before
morning to from six to eight degrees.
During the past winter this did not en-
danger the trees, but should we have a
repetition of the '99 blizzard this would
prove disastrous. The remedy to be sug-
gested is, either to have a second lamp
ready to light or retrim the one already
lit when the outside temperature falls be-
low eighteen degrees Fahrenheit.
In taking the temperature in all these
experiments the thermometer was placed
one foot from the ground and remote
from the lamp.
The most serious objection to the tent
plan of protection is the need of chang-
ing the size of the tent to suit the rap-
idly growing tree.
Considered in all its phases, however,
the plan of tent protection with well-de-
signed tents and under proper manage-
ment will, in our judgment, place the
growing of oranges in Florida on a good
business basis.
Windbreaks With Open Fires.
The next point in the outline is protec-
tion by means of windbreaks with open
Since it has been repeatedly demon-
strated that low temperatures can be suc--
cessfully overcome in still freezes, it nat-
urally follows that if we control the wind
the problem is solved. In pursuance of
this idea one year ago we constructed
about 3,000 running feet of wall in what
we deemed the proper locations in our
grove. This wall was of solid plank
twenty feet high. When these titanic
barricades were up they looked as if they
ought to have kept out even his Satanic

Majesty. But when the blizzard of '99
appeared on the scene we had the en-
couraging experience of seeing the trees
killed to the banks in spite of fires and
protecting barricades, excepting those in
the rows next the north and south walls.
In these rows with fires at intervals of
fifty feet water was kept from freezing
during the coldest part of that memora-
ble blizzard.
Trees in these rows were unquestion-
ably saved until after daylight. The sup-
ply of wood then failing there was no al-
ternative but to order the trees banked
and give up the fight. After removing
the banks all the trees in the first row
from the north and south walls were
alive to the top of the banks, as were also
a few in the second row. The others in
this division were killed to the ground.
Out of this expensive wreck we recov-
ered as salvage one idea, namely, that a
windbreak with fires is good protection
in the immediate vicinity of the wall only.
During the past winter we had parts
of the walls again constructed, forming
enclosures approximately 150 feet each
way. During the still freezes in January
to control the temperature within these
enclosures was comparatively easy. In
the windy freeze in February all the trees
next the west wall were saved perfectly
and easily, new growth, bloom and all.
Two or three rows from the walls, how-
ever, the trees were saved only by heavy
firing, and then even we lost considera-
ble new growth.
The fact that trees were saved easily
near the walls pointed toward smaller in-
dividual windbreaks as a more effectual
device. Several devices were constructed
with a view of studying carefully the be-
havior of wind currents in presence of
The most important device from a Fci-


entific standpoint was a large semi-circu-
lar wall sixteen feet in diameter by four-
teen feet high, presumably large enough
to encircle a full-bearing tree.
This semi-circular wall, constructed of
light material, was supported to a cen-
tral pivot and balanced by a swinging
stove located diametrically opposite the
center of curvature. The whole device
thus freely movable was operated auto-
matically by a weather vane; by this
means the stove was always opposite the
wind and the semi-circular shield between
the wind and the tree.

With this device I could obtain a con-
stant effect even in the frequently shift-
ing winds.
By filling the device with smoke and
by other means, such as small naper
weather vanes, during the presence of a
heavy wind the various currents could be
-traced with surprising precision.
The accompanying diagram will show
clearly the movements of the air within
the device when a heavy wind is blowing.

A main reflex current is generated
whose center passes backward over the
main axis B C. On reaching the wall
this main current diverts, part forming
an ascending current and part turning to
the sides. These lateral currents meet
the inward end currents, forming vortices
of whirling, ascending currents at A and
AI. It will readily be seen that by plac-
ing a fire at B the greater part of the in-
terior of the device will be filled with
heated air and smoke. The two vortices
at A and AI form effectual barriers
against the cold end currents.


7 '

The high temperature that can be
maintained within this windbreak is evi-
dently due to three causes. First, and
most important is the reflex current just
mentioned: second, the reflection of heat
from the walls, and third, the absorption
of heat by the walls and consequent re-
A strictly scientific device that would
produce the maximum effect from all
these causes perhaps would be a shield


in the form of a parabolic curve with the
fire and the wall so relatively situated
that all rays of reflected heat would pass
back in parallel lines, thus distributing
the heat equally to all parts of the tree.
Since curves and circles are difficult and
expensive in construction the nearest
form that will produce almost equal re-
sults and at the same time is thoroughly
practical in construction, is the triangle.
As a more practical test a triangle was
constructed of boards. The tree selected
was five feet high. The two sides of the
triangle were made six feet high, of
boards eight feet long laid on edge. The
open side of the triangle faced the south-
east, our cold winds invariably coming
from the northwest.
During the January freeze a thermom-
eter placed just outside the wing of the
triangle showed a temperature of eigh-
teen degrees Fahrenheit. Another ther-
mometer placed on the innermost limb of
the tree and hence farthest from the fire
showed forty-two degrees Fahrenheit, a
difference of twenty-four degrees. The
fire was not a large one, simply three
small sticks of wood blazing a foot and
a half high.
So satisfactory were the results that
we at once directed that a portion of the
high wall be torn down and constructed
into triangles. Thirty of the largest
grapefruit and some other varieties of or-
ange trees were selected.
At the time of the February blizzard
these trees in the triangles were in the
tenderest condition; they had made the
largest new growth of all the trees in the
grove. They were simply bristling all
over with new growth from five to ten
inches long with some bloom.
The triangles were placed in charge of
a regular hand as part of his regular work
for the night.

The result was completely satisfactory;
the new growth and bloom were as
bright the next morning and continued
to grow as if no blizzard had occurred.
These trees matured the leaves and wood
of the first growth fully two weeks earlier
than those protected by any other device.
All our experiments with this form of
protection would indicate that, if proper-
ly handled, it can be relied upon as abso-
lute protection against any temperature
that has ever reached the orange belt;
and I am of the opinion that even much
lower temperatures can be successfully
overcome with them.
Owing to the fact that the triangle was
introduced hurriedly just before the Feb-
ruary blizzard and the wood gathered
from other parts of the grove, we cannot
give exact figures as to the cost of firing.
The fuel burned we believe need not ex-
ceed one-third the amount necessary for
ordinary open fires.
We dismiss this part of the subject by
saying that we have great confidence in
the triangle as a means of thorough pro-
tection, and predict for it an important
place in the future of the orange culture.
Perhaps the cheapest form of protec-
tion if a new grove is to be planted would
be to plant dwarf trees in rows running
northeast by southwest, planting them as
close as practicable, say eight feet apart.
The rows should be fifty feet, better sev-
enty-five feet apart, construct a portable
fence that can be placed close up against
the trees on the northwest side and fire
on the southeast. In this arrangement a
tree ten feet high could be protected
with a twelve foot fence, or ninety-six
square feet of fence for each tree.
Protection With Sheds.
The last device on the list is the orange
shed. Under this form of protection we


had in all 500 trees; 167 were from
stumps of old bearing trees, 333 were
newly set intermediate trees.
The space covered is 400 feet long by
230 feet wide. The shed was designed
with reference to three essential points:
first, permanency; second, sufficient
light, and third, quick operation.
As to the first point, the very best
heart pine lumber was selected for all the
permanent parts. The posts are placed
on tarred blocks that can easily be re-
moved if signs of decay appear. The
whole frame work is self-supporting in
all its parts and rigidly nailed into one
complete structure. The walls are porta-
ble, being put up without nails, the de-
sign being to take them down each sea-
son and store in a suitable building.
The roof consists of two parts, a per-
manent part laid in two feet widths and
a portable part made of hinged doors.
The doors are made of light sap lumber
and are to be removed and stored during
the summer.
The shed is fifteen feet in the clear and
since the doors operate entirely above
the stringers the trees may occupy the

entire space beneath without interfering
with the working parts.
The amount of light and method of
operation can be seen from the accom-
panying cross-sectional view. This cut
represents one bent in the frame work;
all the rest are exact duplicates.
When the doors are raised in to the
positions shown by a a a a and b b b b
in drawing they are held in that position
by draw wires B B, one such wire passing
along one end of every one of the doors.
All the doors inclined in the same direc-
tion in two rows are fastened to one of
the draw wires, that extends entirely
across the shed. To drop the doors the
wire is unfastened at B and pulled in the
direction of BI. It is only necessary to
pull the doors a short distance and grav-
ity quickly does the rest. When the
doors are up a two-thirds light is admit-
The operation of closing the entire
shed is quickly and easily performed.
One man passes down each side of the
roof of the shed; each unfastens the wire
to be pulled by the other, each united
pull of the two men closes 128 doors.



In larger sheds this could be greatly
increased and still be within practical lim-
its. About twenty minutes is required
for two men to close this shed over 500
trees, occupying an area of a little over
two acres. This places this form of pro-
tection entirely out of danger from being
caught by surprise.
Results Obtained.
The results obtained under the shed
thus far place this far in advance of any
other protective device used.
During the first night in the January
freeze of the past winter the temperature
outside fell to twenty degrees Fahren-
heit. Twenty-eight degrees Fahrenheit
was the lowest recorded under the shed,
and hence no artificial heat was needed;
no fires were lit.
On the second night of the freeze at
about three thirty o'clock a. m. the tem-
perature inside approached the danger
point-twenty-six degrees Fahrenheit.
In fifteen minutes, with the assistance of
one hand, we had sixty small open fires
lit and the temperature raised to thirty-
six degrees Fahrenheit.
During the third night of the freeze
we had the fires kindled only two hours,
merely lighting the fires and letting them
take their course.
In the February blizzard we found the
results equally satisfactory, having tc file
but four hours during the duration of the
The total number of hours firing in
the shed during the entire winter was ten,
as against seventy or more in all the
other forms of protection.
The total amount of wood consumed
in the shed during the entire winter was
a little less than four cords. Fifty cords
were consumed in saving one-third the
number of trees in an equal area within
the high wall enclosure.

The total cost of operating the shed is
as follows:
Fuel, four cords wood at $1.Io..$ 4 40
Labor in firing ten hours at 25c
per hour .............. 2 50
Arranging kindling .......... I oo
Manipulating doors and other la-
bor connected with protection. 2 50

Total ......... .. ........$o 40
Five hundred trees, or a trifle over 2
cents per tree.
The cost of taking down doors and
walls, storing them in lumber shed and
putting same in place again when needed
is estimated at $40.oo per year, making
the total cost of shed protection of this
design $50.40, or a little over ten cents
per tree.
Who will challenge the assertion that
under intensive culture, with thorough
protection, trees planted twelve and one-
half feet apart will produce two boxes
per tree or 500 boxes per acre? While
we confidently hope in time to do much
better than that, yet with this yield pro-
tection would cost only five cents per
Auxiliary Benefits.

Shed protection not only affords the
most thorough control of the tempera-
ture, but is attended with the least care
in its operation and in the end we are
confident it will be found the cheapest
and most satisfactory protection that has
been devised. Not only this, but the
effect on the condition of the tree will of
itself place the shed paramount. If the
results in the future shall continue as
they were during the past winter, and we
see no reason to doubt it-under a well
designed shed the condition of the tree
is largely under the control of the owner.
It can be kept dormant during the warm


weather in January or February, or be
pushed forward into growth at will.
S During the past winter portions of the
shed that were given one-third light only
remained dormant until well along in
March, while trees given two-thirds light
started to grow almost as soon as those
in the open. At the time some fear was
entertained that we had not given the
trees in the shed sufficient light, and
consequently they were remaining dor-
mant too long. On taking down the
walls and opening up the roof to admit
two-thirds light, towards the last of
March, the results were simply marvel-
ous. I can compare it to nothing but the
sudden outburst of springtime verdure
in the more rigid latitude of my native
State; and even that does not do it jus-
tice. In less than six weeks the trees, far
surpassing in growth all those protected
by other devices, had more than doubled
their entire volume, some of the new
growth measuring over thirty-six inches,
hardy, sound and perfect in color.
Men of long experience in the orange
industry inform me that they have never
witnessed such a spring growth and sel-
dom one equal to it in mid-summer.
It has been urged against shed protec-
tion that it deprives the tree of dew and
otherwise places it in unnatural condi-
tions. Our observation thus far has been
very much to the contrary. As we walk

among these trees in the early morning
the dew drops sparkle from every leaf,
and vanish only at the instance of the
early rays of the morning sun.
A closer study of the nature of the or-
ange in its natural wild state shows that
it invariably seeks the shelter of the pal-
metto, the live oak or the stately magno-
lia. Have not the brightest fancy fruits
in the past been gathered from the dense-
ly shaded hammock groves? The shed
reproduces these conditions.
With a motive single to the expression
of natural truths as we have witnessed
them in our various experiments, we are
of the firm conviction that after duly con-
sidering all the facts pertaining to protec-
tion yet in evidence, the shed so far sur-
passes all other protecting devices that
we have reached the conclusion that
thorough shedding, if i-ot the only busi-
ness method, is the most business-like
method of dealing with the problem.
In conclusion we will say that we be-
lieve the orange industry is here to stay.
Under methods of thorough protection
with complete control of sunlight and
shadow, of heat and moisture, the culture
of the orange can be carried to the high
plane commensurate with the fondest
dream of the most passionate horticul-
turist, the satisfaction of the ambitious
investor and the world-wide fame of our
adopted and beloved State.


Words of Hope and Encouragement-Prophetic Utterances.

By Rev. Lyman Phelps, Chairman of the Standing Committee.

Mr. President and Members of the State
Horticultural Society:
It was aptly said on this floor five years
ago, "The subject of citrus culture is a
very broad one." The words are true to-
day in a way we did not know then. The
subject has been "thrashed" over and
over and again and again. Still it will
not down, more than Banquo's ghost.
Our practical, wise President has given
it the place of honor in the thirteenth
annual proceedings. In all our meetings
we have counted on attentive ears as well
as willing minds when discussing the cit-
rus and the matters thereto appertaining.
Was it not true of last night's proceed-
ings? Citrus has been the one thing
above all others in the State Horticul-
tural Society. Today it still is the one
thing which brings this goodly Society
together, and will cement and unify it
while the red blood, made by Florida's
sunlight, courses through artery and
vein, and we hold faith with God and
our neighbor. And, my brothers, "God
willing," we shall yet grow oranges on
the old orange lands and better ones
than in the good times before we were
parted from so much of our very selves,
which now to us is a dead past," and
one we can "let bury itself," while we
work for future success. Florida is still

much alive, not yet "kicking at nothing."
There is still work appertaining to cit-
rus for us, never was there more, none of
us doubt it.- The Society set work for
itself thirteen years ago. It has never
faltered in that work, and is as busy de-
vising ways and means in which and by
which to have more attractive, brighter,
more refined and perforce better fruit.
It has been cynically said the love of
bright colors is a survival of savagery.
Is it true? No. Ask the women who
have come to this meeting, and adorn
this room and gladden the hearts of the
Horticulturists. Their hats emphatically
say no. In the olden time God said, "Be-
hold the lilies of the field, how they grow,
and yet Solomon in all his glory was not
arrayed like one of these," that is, so
georgeously colored.
You who will yet ship your queen of
fruits know your most highly colored
ones will most delight the cultured and
most refined women, even in king's pal-
aces, as well as in humble cottages. A
professor's wife once wrote me, "Those
oranges so highly colored were the most
refined things I ever saw." The Queen
of Belgium once wrote on receipt of a
box of Florida's "golden spheres," "King
and I have been up to our ears in the di-
vine juice all day."


From our most highly colored fruits
came the fancy prices which enabled us
to improve quality as well as quantity.
Today there is a hopeful feeling about
citrus culture in Florida. Even the pine-
apple and the celery do not deter the
orange grower. The question of ques-
tions asked, ten to one, is, "How are the
trees ?" There is more activity in orange
lands in the old orange belt than at any
time since 1895; more sales of land for
the cultivation of citrus, more attention
is being given, more trees being set.
Not since the cold of 1886 has there
been such a normal growth on the citrus
trees. This question of late has been
asked me a score of times, "Did you ever
see such a growth on the orange trees?"
There is money coming to Florida for in-
vestment. There is much inquiry for cit-
rus lands.
There is a growing belief that we have
passed the crisis of disaster, that the
higher level of success is appearing, not
in the uncertain dim distance afar off but
now nigh at hand. I have a good hope,
a well grounded belief, that after two
years we shall see forty years of normal
Florida weather, and probably even bet-
ter than we have seen, and I have seen
pineapple leaves standing in open air five
feet, enclosing pines weighing fourteen
pounds, lemon trees fruiting 14,000 lem-
ons and an orange tree holding twenty
and more boxes of oranges.
The coming of the normal rainy sea-
son of '99 made us very hopeful of a nor-
mal winter to follow. In a measure we
were not disappointed.
This spring has developed a leaf
growth on forest tree and bush and flow-
er we have not had since '86.
The Pinus inops at Christmas had the
old-time fragrant bloom, only more of it.
A little later the Pinus serotina sent out

double the bloom I ever saw before. Then
followed the Cubensis, with its great
wealth of beauty and fragrant pollen, and
last of all the Pinus palustris, the grand-
est of our southern pines, never more
healthy and attractive in leaf and bloom
than in the spring of 1900.

Fascinations of Orange Culture-It Will Never
Die-Dormancy the One Great Requisite.
.By M. S. Moremen, of the Committee.
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
The growing of citrus fruits in Florida
has passed through such an ordeal of dis-
aster in recent years that it becomes a
difficult matter to decide from what
standpoint to treat the subject assigned
to your committee. Treat it as we may.
we must bear in mind that the para-
mount object is to discover some method
whereby the production of citrus fruits
in Florida shall become reasonably safe
and profitable.
It is said that the wayward child has
the warmest and most enduring affection
of its parents. In like manner it seems
that the more disaster that befalls the
citrus industry, the more energy, thought
and industry are given to it, in order to
overcome and counteract the seemingly
ever pending calamity. And this is true,
because we still have faith in the suit-
ableness of Florida's climate and soil, to
produce the best oranges of the world.
despite the often advanced theory of a
radical change of climate.
Had we who ventured into citrus cul-
ture twenty years or more ago met with
even a small portion of the reverses that
have recently overtaken our beloved in-
dustry, we should have at once aban-
doned it, with but little if any regret.
Maybe with congratulation that we had
escaped so early from a line of misdirect-


ed effort. But no disaster warned us, the
times were propitious. We planted and
nourished. We lived with the trees until
they became a part of us. We saw the
tree grow and develop into a thing of
beauty, but alas! not a joy forever. When
destruction came on the wings of the
blizzard and swept our groves away, it
was not as though a flood had destroyed
the corn or the caterpillars had devoured
the cotton; for it touched our lives; it
stung our affections; it wrecked our
hopes. Yea, it made us feel as though a
beloved member of the family, who had
filled our lives with hope, confidence and
consolation, had been torn from us, and
left bleeding at our feet, piteously plead-
ing for succor.
Likewise the appeal moved us. We
stretched forth our hands and applied
restorative measures. When hope would
spring again to life a cruel blow would
fell it again to the earth. Many, disheart-
ened, have turned mournfully away from
the once fascinating citrus culture. A
few here and there, it may be a Gide-
on's band, are still insistently striving to
rebuild their groves. To prophesy that
an abundant harvest will ultimately
crown their efforts is not hazarding a
great deal, since what has been can be.
It may be added with equal safety to
one's reputation as a prophet that the
many appliances and methods resorted
to for protection will fall into disuse and
pass into the history of citrus culture.
However, it is well while the present
habits of February weather continue to
take refuge behind that which promises
most protection, be it sheds, tents or
fires. In the meantime, the skilled hor-
ticulturist must discover some certain
way of keeping the trees dormant until
March, for when dormant the matured
citrus trees will live through the coldest

weather that visits Florida. At least the
orange will. This has been demonstrat-
ed time and again.
Would it not be well for the Horticul-
tural Society to appoint a standing com-
mittee whose purpose shall be to gather
all known facts relative to methods of
keeping trees dormant and reporting
same to the Society at the next meeting,
or, having same published through our
agricultural papers next autumn. It will
behoove ever orange grower in Florida
to experiment with a view to discover-
ing some method of keeping the tree dor-
mant. A thoroughly dormant tree is
better protected than it can be by any
method yet proposed.
Should this Society through its labors
and wisdom discover a method practica-
ble and within the grasp of the Florida
orange grower, of rendering the tree dor-
mant until after blizzard dangers are
over, it will have builded for itself a mon-
ument enduring as time and will confer
a blessing immeasurable.

Damage from Cold and Best Methods of Pre-
vention-Shed Covers With Coke.Burning
Salamanders-A Success.
By H.B. Stevens, Chairman of the Committee.
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Of the many best methods that will be
presented to this Society I will confine
myself to that of sheds, as the method
that has proved the most successful with
us. We found that with an outside tem-
perature of twenty-one degrees a five-
acre shed could be kept warm enough to
prevent damage from cold with 32
salamanders, burning from one hundred
to one hundred and fifty pounds of coke
per salamander, and that one man could
fire them for the night. We have one
five-acre shed so fired that came through


in perfect condition. A fifteen-acre shed,
not fired in the January cold, shed most
of its leaves, but the young wood was not
injured, and with six fires to the acre it
went through all the later colds without
the new growth being injured, even
though the outside temperature was
down to twenty-two.
As for the cost of the sheds, that will
depend on the price of lumber and labor,
but where the trees are planted as we
plant ours-four acres of trees to one
acre of shed-it will cost not far from
$2.00 per tree, and should last many
years, or until the trees are large enough
to crowd so much as to need moving;
and as they would then be old, well-hard-
ened trees they could stand the outside
temperature much better than our trees
do now. We find that trees grow well
under the sheds, that they do not suffer
so much in dry weather, that the ferti-
lizer goes farther, and that they require
less labor than those outside.

Sheds of Split Cypress Lath-Rationale of Pro-
tection-A Plea for Better Weather
By E. S. Hubbard, of the Committee.
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Having been requested by Mr. Stev-
ens, Chairman of this Committee, to pre-
sent a separate report, I am somewhat in
the dark in doing so, as my own experi-
ence is small and I am not aware what
points will be more particularly covered
by the other members of the committee.
The conditions affecting orange cul-
ture are continually changing. For the
past three years we have had water and
to spare in my section of the State in the
spring months, but it is not so many
years ago that drouth, red spider and irri-
gation were the live topics.

These were followed by limb blight
and foot rot, with the fungicide and fer-
tilizing questions.
In 1893 and '94 half the leaves and
most of the fruit on my orange trees
nearest the St. Johns river were blown
off by hurricane storms and the remain-
der of the fruit in my grove was more or
less damaged by the threshing it received
and by the excess of water.
From 1895 on freezes have received
our undivided attention, but judging the
future from the past, it is reasonable to
suppose that the belated northern win-
ters with their abnormal and extreme
blizzards will soon return to more equa-
ble conditions such as prevailed before
1895; and that favorable locations in the
central and northeastern sections of the
peninsula will again produce oranges
with comparative immunity. The bulk
of the oranges propagated since the
freezes have been early varieties to be
shipped before Christmas.
An orange tree carrying a crop of fruit
must circulate considerable sap to keep
the fruit alive and is practically in a
growing condition; twenty-eight degrees
or lower will soon damage fruit and the
trees that carry it, while a dormant tree
without fruit will stand much more cold
without injury.
Personally, therefore, I shall protect
by shelter only late varieties, and it would
have paid me to do it under the old con-
Protection is a question of more fire
or more shelter ranging from thickly
placed fires in open groves, as practiced
in South Florida, to close, dark shelters
without fire which will retard growth for
several weeks, but with questionable ef-
fect on health and fruitfulness of the
trees. For myself I am following a com-
bination of fire and shelter to achieve all-
round results as economically as possible


by using tight sides around and a slatted
roof over the whole enclosure.
The orange in its native clime is an un-
dergrowth bush and will thrive as well
and produce finer fruit under half shade
than in the open, while the diffused sun-
light of a slat roof is far superior for this
purpose to the natural shade of forest
trees. As the diameter of the sun is to
its distance from the earth approximately
as I to 107 a slat roof of lath I 3-8 inches
wide, no matter what width spaced apart,
147 inches or 12 feet 3 inches above the
ground, would cast no solid shade, as the
spread of the rays from opposite edges
of the sun's disk would meet under the
shadows at that distance; and probably
such lath set three-fourths of an inch
apart fifteen feet above the ground would
give ample diffused sunlight in summer
to produce healthy foliage and fully ma-
tured fruit. My own shelter of about
one and one-fourth acres is covered with
riven cypress pickets five feet long aver-
aging about five inches wide and set
about four inches apart, the ends being
fastened to Ix12 boards laid flat on Ix6
stringers on edge, nailed on posts set
Ioxio feet, standing fifteen feet high.
This gives over three-fourths shelter, and
about two-thirds sunlight on the ground.
One-half of my cover is in ten-feet pan-
els, to be taken down in summer if neces-
sary; but with only one-fourth taken
down I have ample sunlight, and I am
using part with all in position. Two-
thirds to three-fourths protection in still
frosty weather will raise the temperature
about five degrees above the outside air
for several hours, but if the outside tem-
perature drops below twenty-six degrees
or twenty-seven degrees and the surface
of the soil is moist inside the shelter fires
must be built and the inside temperature
kept at or above the freezing point.
Otherwise, if the temperature inside the

shelter falls to twenty-eight degrees or
below the ground will freeze in an hour
or two, radiation of heat from the earth
will be shut off. and it will take twice as
much artificial heat to prevent damage.
My shelter was not completed this
winter at the time of the February I7th
freeze; and having burned some wood
previously, I did not have enough on
hand to keep up sufficient heat against
the eddies and undertow of cold air that
surged through the one-fourth openings.
Still I saved part of my young growth,
with a minimum temperature outside of
twenty-one degrees one foot from the
ground, but lost some foliage and tips of
fall growth on part of my trees, chiefly
from the fact that killing of undeveloped
young shoots three to six inches long
killed also the auxiliary buds at their
bases, which prevented further sprouting
from these young branches.
At present this shelter is filled with
small sour orange nursery stock between
the regular orange tree rows, but I pro-
pose later to plant in thickly with small
growing, heavy-blooming and bearing
late varieties of oranges at the rate of
1,000 trees to the acre, to be given in-
tensive culture.
This will make protection cost about
fifty cents per tree good for ten years,
with but small repairs-and but little ma-
nipulation, and a total durability of about
twenty years, with forty cords of two-
foot wood per acre placed for small fires
in fireplaces 20x20 feet apart I shall feel
secure against any emergency we have
yet had to meet.
It is arduous work fighting cold arti-
ficially even with the closest and most
expensive plans of shelter, and the pluck,
judgment and endurance of the individ-
ual will prove the chief factors in obtain-
ing success.
A Plea for Better Weather Forecasts. ..


Before closing I would put in a plea
for better service from the Weather Bu-
reau in the daily press.
The temperatures given in the morn-
ing papers are those of the preceding
evening, while the morning temperatures
which are the ones that really convey in-
formation as to the fluctuations and in-
tensity of changes, are too late even for
mailing by the bureau to the needy por-
tions of the State. The Times-Union
and Citizen also fails to give regularly
the memoranda as to direction, move-
ments and force of storms that are custo-
mary with the Northern papers.
It would greatly help intelligent hor-
ticulturists and agriculturists if both the
morning and evening temperatures, with
data tables and evening memoranda of
the day previous were published, for with
these as guides they might guess as
closely as the bureau observer who pre-
dicted twenty-five degrees for February
17th and registered nineteen degrees mi-
nus. Any interested person can easily
prepare a blackboard, say three by four
feet, with outline of the country and loca-
tion of the stations as in the bureau
charts, and with different colored cray-
ons draw isotherms and isobars of the
morning and evening temperatures and
barometer readings with wind directions,
thereby being able to watch the progress
and velocity ao storms and cold waves.
If a cold wave is moving from the
northwest towards us, a comparison of
morning and evening temperatures will
show probable range or drop of temper-
ature, modified by time of day and veloc-
ity of wind when it reaches us, and height
of barometer will be a guide to loss of
earth heat by radiation.
Our nearness to the Gulf stream and
ocean often causes us to give undue
prominence to local weather indications.

I trust the Society, the Press and the
Weather Bureau will work together to
give the best possible service to all suf-
ferers from cold waves in Florida.

Personal Experience of a Practical Man-Tent-
ing and Shedding-Rapid Covering-A
Lamp That Can Be Depended On.
By B. 0. Painter, of the Committee.
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
My observations and practical experi-
ence during the past winter with tents
proved conclusively that the orange tree
can be protected in this way to a cer-
tainty, providing the grove-tender or
owner is not found napping when the
critical moment arrives.
The principal item of interest that I
have learned from experience is, that the
transparent tent of any kind that is per-
manently placed over a tree will be found
to work to disadvantage from the fact
that the temperature inside of the tent is
from five to ten degrees warmer in the
daytime than outside, which forces the
tree forward earlier, making it more ten-
der, so that in case of a blizzard, it is
more susceptible to the cold and liable
to be frozen out, when trees in a normal
condition would not be injured. Again,
in case of cold the temperature inside the
tent will go from four to six degrees
lower than the outside, if no artificial heat
is used. I gleaned this from experience
of a year ago when I had five acres cov-
ered with tents.
The past winter I perfected a tent
made from specially prepared mildew-
proof cloth which has the advantage of
giving the tree the benefit of air, sun-
shine and temperature, with the addition-
al advantage that it can be quickly closed
on the approach of cold weather. Last
fall I expected to cover my five
acres with this form of tent, but




_ ~


unfortunately my materials were de-
stroyed by fire last November, so
that all I had left was my sample
tents, which have done good service. The
trees that were protected with them now
stand out like an oasis in the desert, for
on all sides the trees that were not tented
were frozen back to the banks. I found
it very little trouble to care for them, as
on nights when damaging cold was ex-
pected I had the lamps lighted, the cur-
tains dropped, and after making the
rounds to see that the lamps were burn-
ing all right I went to bed. I was not
troubled with my lamps creeping up or
down, owing to the fact that I foresaw
this possible trouble and purchased the
best brass burners. These I had soldered
to tin cans made for that purpose, which
would hold enough oil to last twenty-
four hours, so that in case the cold con-
tinued through the day the trees would
not suffer before they could be re-filled.
I used a tin chimney. The whole outfit
of lamp cost about twenty cents apiece.
I have visited nearly all of the shedded
groves in the State, and have seen many
different devices. The merits of the dif-
ferent ones have been placed before you.
ferent ones have been placed before you
in my illustrated edition of the Agricul-
turist of November 22, 1899, a copy of
which any one can secure by addressing
me at DeLand.
The principal thing to figure on in the
shed covering is to get something that
can be worked rapidly. The quickest op-
erating cover that I have seen is that built
by Mr. M. H. Lubrecht, Island Grove.
With his method, which is something
like a window blind, he can cover his four
acres in two hours. The next is that
built by Mr. Stevens over his Citra grove
and also one at Stetson, both of which
are illustrated in the Agriculturist.

I have been asked my candid opinion
as to the best method of protection, and
my conclusions are these: If any one
has money with which to build sheds
they are the cheapest in the long run, as
the cost can be reduced to about $2 per
tree. But if your condition is similar to
that of the orange grower who said he
had "many trees but few cash," the indi-
vidual tent system will enable you later
to secure sheds.
In cutting out my cloth for tents, I
make them so that the sheets are 6xi6,
intending to increase the size another
year by doubling them. In this way the
cloth can be used as long as it will last,
without having to be cut up or made
I have not had much experience with
firing, but during the past spring have
noticed its effects in several groves in the
southern part of the State. The groves
that were fired are now covered with fruit
on the outside limbs as well as on the
inside, but the groves that were not fired
have no visible fruit on the first six inches
or a foot of the limbs, showing that the
fires were sufficient protection to keep
the chilling blasts from killing the buds
on the outside limbs. Whether the fruit
saved is enough to pay for the expense
of wood, etc., remains to be seen, but
there is one thing evident, that if the cold
had gone a few degrees lower, the man
with the fire protection would have been
in far better shape to escape than the one
who depended on Providence.
I am thoroughly convinced that the
problem of protection will be solved so
that those who still cling to the orange
industry will be able, in a measure, to re-
construct their fortunes in a manner
which their perseverance and hard labor


Mr. McCarty-I would like to ask Mr.
Hubbard what variety we must plant to
get trees about seven feet apart, which
would be the distance of I,ooo trees to
the acre.
Mr. Hubbard-I recommend using
Valencia Late, which resembles the Mal-
ta Oval, and the King. I have seen a
box of fruit apiece on trees which were
only about six feet high. I have no
doubt they will do just as well under
shelter. The King is not the old long-
legged King, but a compact, improved
Mr. Hart-One interesting point
raised here is the question as to the com-
parative economy as between tents and
sheds for young trees. I would like to
say in regard to this, that a tent is merely
a protection against cold. That is what
it is used for, that is the whole aim and
end of a tent. A shed, according to my
experience and from what I can learn
from others, has other advantages than
that of merely being a protection from
cold. If damaging cold was eliminated
entirely from our consideration sheds
would still pay well for their building.
One of the main benefits of shedding,
where there is half shade and that cover
is left on in the summer, is increasing the
growth of the trees throughout the whole
season of growth. Another benefit is in
doubling the moisture in the top foot of
soil which it does during a drought.
There is double the quantity of available
water under a shed that there is in the
open ground in a dry spell. In California
the Everest Company have shedded
some of their groves, about 17 acres, and
they claim that the one matter of in-
creased moisture alone pays for the shed-
ding. They have to buy water for irri-
gation and the shed reduces this expense

one-half. Sometimes they cannot get
water at any price and their open groves
go back, but with the shed they have
water in the soil to bridge over without
irrigation, so the mere matter of in-
creased moisture alone will pay for the
shed and might even save the grove in a
dry year. This matter of moisture has a
wider bearing than one would think at
the first consideration, and that brings
up another point, the economy of ferti-
lizer. That water in the soil with ample
heat keeps plant food soluble and availa-
ble to the trees to such a degree that the
trees continue to grow straight along
through severe drouths. The nitrifying
and other ferments are given the best
condition for rapid development and
other activities increase as well in pro-
portion to the amount of water in the
soil up to a certain limit. The shed keeps
the ground porous so air can penetrate
it. This aeration also has a beneficial ef-
fect on the soil ferments. I will read in
this connection extracts from an article
published in 1893 in The Experiment
Station Record on this subject.
I was greatly at a loss to understand
how my trees under shed could get such
and abundance of nitrogen, none having
been applied in the past two years. This
quotation satisfactorily and scientifically
explains this.
I would like you to see how dark and
rich these leaves are and how large. Dur-
ing last season's extreme drouth they
had the appearance as though the oil was
dripping from them, as Maj. Healy said
of Col. Harvey's trees at Pensacola,
while outside the leaves were turning yel-
low and the trees becoming barkbound.
You could turn the earth over with your
foot and find moist earth just under the
surface. Last season I planted about 12
acres to beggar weed. I got a good
growth under my shed, while on the out-


side I got nothing. My experience
about applying organic nitrogen to or-
ange trees under shed indicates that it is
best that we go slowly until we know
more about it, or we may over do the
thing and cause dieback. Nitrogen is the
most expensive element of plant food we
apply to our trees. With potash and
phosphoric acid at 4 to 6 cents nitrogen
will cost about 17, therefore that one fact
of developing it in abundance and mak-
ing it available to the trees should have
proper attention as a matter of great
If you want protection from cold alone
on very small trees, I do not see but that
tents are economical and would serve the
purpose, but when trees get larger you
will have to get another set, and when
they get from twelve to fifteen feet high,
no horticultural industry that I know of
can stand the expense. It seems to me
that the cost of tents for fifteen or twenty
foot trees is prohibitive. Why not cover
the grove over with canvas when you
want protection alone? That is very
much cheaper than covering each tree
separately, if above banking size, and
when trees get large they interlock their
limbs, but I want something more than
protection from the cold, and I get it
through the shed and very cheaply, al-
most as cheaply as you can buy your
small size tents, and I have protection
that I believe will last fifteen to twenty
years. But I will put it at eight, and still
you get benefits that will pay for the ex-
pense outside of the protection from cold.
The greatest benefits are received from
the sheds when the trees are small and
the cover shades the ground. My shed is
small, it is only an acre and a half, but it
is sufficiently large to allow of consider-
able in the way of experimentation. My
shed is about 15 1-2 feet high; that will

with small fires (all effective plans re-
quire artificial heat) furnish absolute pro-
tection until the trees get up to the top.
When the trees reach such a size that the
branches interlap and the tops want to
push through, I can take that cover off,
leave my walls up and still protect them
just as well. In protecting with tents if
your trees are large it is too expensive,
even if there is room to get the canvass
between the trees, when you can protect
them with open fires, if you have shelter
or a high wall about them. By all means,
with my experience, I would choose the
shed. My shed only cost $450 an acre
and even with the increased price of wire
and lumber I think they can be built for
$550 an acre, and they are there for a
long time, as they are mostly galvanized
wire and thin cypress, both of which are
very lasting.
Mr. Pierpont-I would like to have
Mr. Hart's experience about the fruit of
the trees under his shed.
Mr. Hart-Most of my trees under the
shed are small trees because they have
been cut back year after year by freezes
until I put the shed on a year ago. I
then lad about six trees that were large
enough to bear oranges, and they were
protected simply by the palmetto trees.
When I started shedding every tree was
killed below the height of my knees ex-
cept six, so you can see they are not in
the condition yet to put growth into
fruit buds as much as in the leaf. I can
say, however, that considering the
growth the trees are making they are
fruiting fairly well. On our coast we
have thousands and thousands of wild
orange trees growing under heavy live
oak, bay, hickory and palmetto. In some
of these we find thin tops because the
trees grow high for light and are crowd-
ed above and below ground, but what


tops there are on them put on fair crops
of fruit. My shaded trees are wide-
spreading and of dense foliage. I know
of quite a large acreage of hammock
trees where they bear ample crops, and
where they get very much more shade
than my shed gives. Of course this shed-
ding is a matter of experiment to a great
extent yet. We will have to have more
experience before we will learn all the
advantages and disadvantages, but I feel
very sure that we will have ample bloom,
because I see it in the hammocks, and I
feel sure that a larger proportion of the
bloom will set and give more perfect
fruit than trees on the outside.
Mr. F. D. Waite-From my past ex-
perience in growing oranges under for-
est protection, I believe that orange trees
grown under sheds will give finer quality
and thinner peel than those grown on the
Mr. Jones-When I was on my way
here, a great many asked me if this Soci-
ety, which was a recognized organization
of the State and had great influence,
could not petition the. Government to
have a Commission appointed to see
whether the destruction of the forest had
any influence on the climate of Florida,
and whether any steps could be taken to
remedy this matter if such was the case.
If so, we would know what we are going
to do, if not we will go on in the same
old way. It seems that in many places
turpentine men cutting down the forest
seem to have a tendency to create a vac-
uum or opening. They asked me to
bring this before this meeting to see if
we could petition to have a Commission
appointed to enquire into this matter.
Dr. Geo. Kerr-It is not my intention
to answer Mr. Jones at this point. It has
been proven that the destruction of our
forests has little or nothing to do with

the climatic conditions that we have had
recently in Florida. I would say that I
believe if the citrus trees had simply been
shaded or protected from the cold dur-
ing this past winter, they would have
come out uninjured, that is, shaded until
the middle of the day. I have a King or-
ange tree standing on the west side of
my house, two of them. There are gen-
tlemen here who have seen them. The
house is sixty feet long north and south;
these trees stand within ten feet of the
house, probably nine, and they received
no sun until mid-day; they did not shed
their leaves. I believe that simply shad-
ing in the morning would have prevent-
ed much injury to orange trees during
the past winter, but when it comes down
to shedding, it does little or no good.
Maj. G. P. Healy-I do not believe
any of these isolated cases prove any-
thing. I have orange trees, or did have
-have none now-that stood on the
west side of the house and they were all
killed to the ground this winter. We
have a neighbor a thousand feet from me
with a small Tangerine grove out in the
open with no protection of any kind; his
trees never lost a leaf; he was in the wide
open and my trees were protected. If a
man could tell me how it was possible
that my neighbor carried his grove
through the winter without shedding
their leaves and I not 200 feet from him
had mine killed to the ground, then I
would take some stock in these isolated
cases of what happened in the sun, wa-
ter and mud.
Mr., Butler-Frequently I have seen
orange trees on the north side of the
house killed; it was because they were
not protected. To shed a tree will make
a great difference. The Tangerine tree
is the hardiest tree we have. I believe if
a good healthy tree it will stand almost


as much cold as any, but sheds will pro-
tect and have protected in hundreds and
hundreds of cases. I put up seven sheds
and what is said in regard to moisture
under those sheds is true. I think it a
mistake not to get that additional mois-
Mr. Hart-In regard to the question
of moisture and cultivation under the
sheds. I will say that my trees have the
same cultivation when inside the sheds
as on the outside; it is not a matter of
my opinion or experience but an actual
experience at West Palm Beach and in
In regard to nitrification in the shed
that is another point. Under a shed
there is need of application of nitrogen
much less than in the sunshine.
Mr. Phelps-There is one question I
would like to ask Mr. Hart. He spoke
of the time when he would remove the
sheds, the trees being so large that the
branches would be interlaced; also the
necessity of heating them when they are
interlaced. Where, then, is he going to
put his fires?
Mr. Hart-I will say that I have
thought of that considerable. I see the
difficulty of burning open fires under
trees that are closely grown all through
like that. The question is, whether I
will have stoves with long pipes carrying
the heat a long distance to let it out, or
spreading it so that it will not be intense
at any point; or whether I will take out
a tree here and there. It will be only
necessary to have a very few fires on an
acre when the trees are large and there
is a reasonably good wall around the out-
side. That matter can be easily over-
come in some way; I am satisfied I will
be able to work it out by the time it is
Mr. Jones-I will ask Dr. Kerr what

authority he has for saying the destruc-
tion of the forest trees has no climatic in-
fluence in Florida.
Dr. Kerr-The Government has al-
ready had a Commission appointed to in-
vestigate that matter and that is their
Mr. Bradt-As to the statement that
the destruction of forests has nothing to
do with the climate, I will say that the
gentleman is not in touch with the
Weather Bureau. It has been proved
that the forest does protect the immedi-
ate vicinity. There is no evidence that
the mean temperature of Florida has
changed, but there is evidence of local
changes. It has been proven beyond
question that the destruction of forests
does affect climate, and the turpentine
business is jeopardizing the climate also.
Mr. W. H. Mann-There is one ques-
tion connected with protection that I do
not think we give due consideration to,
that is the condition of the trees. We
find one tree is killed and another is not.
In 1886 I had a young grove of about
one hundred trees; that winter the ther-
mometer went down to 16, still we went
on and budded those trees that were
small. What we want to know is how
to get the trees in a proper condition so
that we can overcome these difficulties
and so they will be enabled to stand the
Mr. Gillett-I have been interested in
this discussion of protection and I think
what Mr. Mann has just said is the point
we must begin upon. My experience
has been with larger and older trees dur-
ing the past year. This matter of retard-
ing the growth or keeping the trees dor-
mant until after cold has passed, is the
one we should determine upon, and it
would, in my opinion, fix the whole mat-


ter. As far as my experience has been,
however, I can see no way by which we
can accomplish it. Last fall I stopped
working my grove about the Ioth of Oc-
tober; there was no more work done;
it seems the opinion of others was to
stop the cultivation in the fall as soon as
possible that the trees might harden up.
I did this and was confident I had struck
the right plan. Some of my neighbors
continued to plow until February and as
I can see their groves went through the
freeze just as well as mine did, and they
fertilized heavily, too. It seems the cit-
rus tree can stand almost any kind of
treatment and there is no fixed rule to
go by.
In regard to building fires in groves.
During the freeze of February I was told
of a grove where fires had been built and
was told that they had lost no leaves;
had all bloomed heavily. The groves I
have charge of now are near Tampa, the
trees are twenty-five years old and many
of them bear many oranges; we had fires
twenty-five to thirty feet apart just un-
der each tree. In December we fired for
the first time with the thermometer at
twenty-four, but thinking that the ther-
mometer would continue to fall as it
usually does, we started other fires.
When we began firing the thermometer
stood at twenty-four; within thirty min-
utes, although the ground was frozen
hard, the temperature had risen ten de-
grees, making it thirty-four, and the
ground immediately thawed out soft. I
was satisfied with the experiment,
although we did not need the
fires. By 6 o'clock the thermom-
eter was thirty-six, with a stiff
wind. I had had no experience in
firing under those conditions, but we be-
gan lighting the fires and went from one

grove to the other watching the ther-
mometer, which registered twenty-six.
The thermometer on the inside regis-
tered thirty-two to thirty-three. We had
the wood piled up and got chips and
brush matted together with resin, from
the turpentine stills, cut it up into
chunks and put pieces of it under the
end of the wood pile. I had tongs and
would take hold of a piece, put it into
the fire and get it thoroughly lighted
and a man would run through the grove
and ignite those piles. This turpentine
or rosin will ignite under almost any con-
ditions. I put some in a bucket of wa-
ter two hours and then lit it with a
match. We kept those fires going until
6 o'clock in the morning. During this
last freeze there were buds a foot long,
but I did not see any damage. I went
into the groves of those who had no fires
and while there was some damage, they
have about as good a crop as we have.
Last year under the same conditions ev-
erything was killed on the trees all about
Tampa; I am at a loss to explain this and
have not found anybody yet who can ex-
plain this. If we could find some way to
keep our trees dormant, we could keep
them from freezing.
Mr. Mote-Mr. President, I am inter-
ested in the growing of oranges. I have
been at it for sometime and would like
to ask the question whether or not ihe
orange industry is being driven from
north to south in Florida. Is it true that
they used to raise them in Savannah,
Brunswick, Valdosta and other places as
high as that? It looks to me as t!h ugh
the winters are getting colder and driv-
ing the orange business south. I would
like to have any data on that point that
these gentlemen can give.
I will ask Mr. Hart about the shedding
in California. I spent a year in Califor-


nia and failed to find any place in that
State where they could raise oranges
without irrigation. Where is that grove
of seventeen acres where they did not ir-
rigate ?

Irrigation Under Sheds.

Mr. Hart-It is 150 acres, near River-
E. H. Mote-I do not believe that
particular grove is any criterion to go
by. If the gentleman knew the condi-
tion of that grove, he would say it was
no criterion. The trees were far from
being that dark rich color that some of
the gentlemen speak of. If I remember
correctly they irrigated there right
along. Every grove that I saw in Cali-
fornia had to be irrigated. I would like
to ask the question: Does the shedding
of groves as advocated by some of the
gentlemen, produce more insects? I
would like an answer to that question.
Are the trees that are covered up during
the summer liable to be more infested
with insects than those on the outside? I
would say yes.
As to one grove freezing down I,ooo
feet from another, and one grove freez-
ing on one side of a wire fence where one
on the other side escaped, I am unable
to explain. It may be the kind of stock
the buds are put in; it may be the way
they are put in, or it may be that they
are grafted or budded, I will answer Maj.
Healy's question by asking another.
Why is it that of two adjacent tomato
fields, one will be killed and the other
not? The condition of the tree has a
great deal to do with it, how the stock
is budded and how it has been worked
for years past. Mr. Gillett advocates the

idea of keeping the trees dormant. Why
is it the trees in California will stand sev-
eral degrees more cold than they will in
Florida? It is a fact; it is because they
are dormant. If our trees in Florida
would stay dormant, as they do in Cali-
fornia, we should not have the trouble
of having them freeze down every win-
ter. The winters in California are much
colder than they are in Florida. In the
middle of the day, during the summer
season, it is very warm; about 3 or 4
o'clock it begins to get cooler; I saw the
same conditions exist in the middle of
winter with two or three weeks of warm
weather in the winter. If the nights had
been as warm in proportion the sap in
the trees would have continued to move.
The sap being down, the trees being dor-
mant, this is what saved them. If we
could find some way to keep the trees
dormant, we would solve the whole ques-
tion. If there can be no way devised to
keep the trees from being destroyed by
insects or frozen down every winter,
then the orange business will have to be
Mr. Gillett-When I first came to
Florida, as an Irishman would say, I
went to Georgia. I landed in St. Mary's,
Ga., and the collector of the port there
tried to convince me that it was useless
to go further south to grow oranges. He
showed me his grove, a very handsome
one, looking very healthy and vigorous,
but we had a frost, a heavy one too, ev-
ery morning; so I came on further south
and got to Jacksonville, where they told
me was the best place to raise an orange
grove. But I proceeded to Palatka and
from there went to Lake Weir, and I
have seen the orange industry move on,
and in my opinion there is absolutely
no safety in what is known as the "or-


ange belt," unless the trees are grown
as hot-house plants.
I spent six or eight winters in Califor-
nia, but the conditions there are differ-
ent from Florida. I have a brother there
who has charge of 250 acres of orange
trees, and he says there is hardly a win-
ter when they are not frozen, but as long
as we fellows in Florida do not have any
oranges here, they can manage to sell
what they raise. The first winter he was
there the thermometer went to eighteen;
he expected to see the grove ruined, but
to his surprise he did not lose it. They
have no rain for eight or nine months in
the year, and by taking water away from
the trees they absolutely stop all growth
and there is no sap moving during the
winter. Their soil is stiff and heavy and
it takes a long time for the sun to pene-
trate it. When the soil becomes soft so
a horse can work it, they begin to culti-
vate it. If they have four or five days
of work and a little rain the sunshine
penetrates it and the growth takes place.
It takes four or five weeks of warm sun-
shiny weather for the trees to begin to
grow. It takes so long for the ground
to warm up that the conditions of
growth are slow. If we could govern
and control our soil as they do, we would
never have cold enough here to hurt us
at all.
Mr. Mote-The rains commence there
in October, so there is no very great pe-
riod between the time they stop irrigat-
ing and the time when the rain com-
Prof. Hume-When the freeze of Feb-
ruary came I was at Florence with Dr.
Inman, and went through his grove and
many others in that section. I noticed
on the north and northwest sides of all
the trees the growth had started. The

new growth was out three or four inches,
while on the south and southeast sides
the trees had not started.
Dr. Inman-This question is of more
importance to the orange grower than
any other. If we can keep our trees dor-
mant until late in the spring, we are
pretty sure to save them, as well as the
crop. I have quite a number of groves
of my own and those I am caring for, so
I have to begin in September and Octo-
ber to put them away for the winter. I
observe the graves that I continue cul-
tivating until the middle of December
pass through the winter as well as those
laid by earlier. The orange tree, I find,
has a certain period of rest, running from
fifty to seventy days. If we can keep
them growing up until the middle of De-
cember, I think that the chances of
keeping them dormant are much en-
hanced. There is no danger in keeping
trees growing too late in the fall; there
is no danger but that they will become
dormant before the cold becomes too
great. I think from my experience,
which has been quite a little, about four-
teen years, that cultivating until the mid-
dle of December is best to be recom-
mended, much preferred to putting them
to sleep early in the fall.
Mr. Crane-If we succeed in keep-
ing our trees dormant, will it solve the
problem? Before 1895 we were in trou-
ble about this question. We raised five
million boxes of oranges. What was the
result? Because the fruit will not stand
as much cold as the tree, we were
obliged to ship our fruit early to avoid
all danger, then the price dropped. We
were obliged to ship at once; we put our
fruit in the market all at the same time.
If we succeed in retarding the growth-
will we not be in the same fix? We


must market it fll at the same time and
get the same results. As Mr. McKin-
ney said, we must bring this thing down
to a business basis. If we shed our
trees we have six months in which to
market our fruit and we can hold the
fruit or sell it, and market it when it is
Maj. Healy-The whole subject of
shedding a grove is a rich man's privi-
lege. A rich man can shed and the poor
man cannot. It is simply impracticable,
the whole thing, as far as the average
orange grower is concerned. With
plenty of money you can put up sheds,
but the man who can't raise 13 cents
cannot shed his grove. If you want to
protect the poor orange grower at the
same time, you have got to do it some
other way, do it with something that
don't cost anything, and you will never
do it any other way.
Mr. Gaitskill-A great many of our
people are growing truck among their
orange trees. Those groves are culti-
vated, possibly beginning in September
and all through the winter. They ferti-
lize at different times, use ammoniated
fertilizers, and I do not see much differ-
ence between those groves and the one
belonging to the man who does not cul-
tivate his. One gets killed and the other
does not. As to Mr. Jones' question
about the past record of cold, I believe
that our Weather Bureau has published
statements that they have found that
over two thousand years ago there were
periods of extreme cold, but I do not
know whether all the timber was cut
down or not. I do not know if there
was very much turpentining done then.
I do not know if taking the forest trees
out will make any difference.
Mr. Hart-I want to protect against

this question of shedding being only the
rich man's privilege. I am poor, yet if I
put forth all my energies I could shed
several acres and I could do it in a year
or two if I had not one cent. This south-
ern country is made up of energetic, en-
terprising, progressive people and there
is hardly one here of that class but what,
if they are not deeply in debt at present,
can shed half an acre or more, and then
they would have a nest egg, and very
soon they would be in better condition.
It seems to me a man is weak in the
knees, if he is out of debt, who cannot
get to work and shed half an acre; he
can do it if he tries. If he really wants
anything and is willing to work for it,
he can get it. If he will go at it with a
vim he will do it. In reply to the ques-
tion of insects under the sheds, it is too
early for me, at least, to answer that
question fully.
A Member-It has been demonstrat-
ed that the wild orange tree is free from
insects, but when cultivated and the soil
is stirred up the insects come. The
sweet orange tree when wild is almost
as free from insects as the sour. It is
when the soil is cultivated that you have
Insects Under Sheds. ,
Mr. Hart-The purple mite has ap-
peared in my grove this year. It is a
relative of the red spider, but turns the
leaves gray or whitish, instead of yellow,
as does the latter. It also works on the
top as well as under part of the leaves.
This is my first experience with it. Early
in the season I saw it on a few trees in
one of my groves; now it is on every
tree in that grove. Soon after I found it
on two trees in my shed. I am now un-
able to find them on any trees except


those two; instead of spreading in the
shedded grove, as they did in the open
grove, they have confined themselves to
these two trees. There are few birds
and little wind to help spiders bridge
from tree to tree to carry them, so the
conditions seem to be strongly against
crawling insects spreading from one tree
to another under a shed. That one item
is in the line of evidence that the insects
will not be as numerous under a shed.
The scale insects may possibly be more
plentiful under sheds to start with, but
if we can get the white headed and San
Jose fungi started, which we can, with
the help of their other enemies, we need
not worry over them.
Mr. Mote-In California certain in-
sects are very bad. There is a State law
that requires each man who has an or-
ange grove to fumigate his trees. If
there are insects in his grove, within a
certain period he is expected to do away
with them; they throw over the tree
some spray and use certain means to kill
them. If that man fails to get rid of
those insects in a certain time, the State
takes charge of the grove, and charges
the expense of ridding it of insects to
the grove. The white fly is the worst
enemy that the orange has to deal with
in Florida. One man takes care of his
grove, but his neighbor is allowed to go
along without taking care of his. If the
State would take this matter up, they
could remedy this evil to a great extent.
Rev. Lyman Phelps-This question of
insects has come up. If there is one
thing in the past that this Society has
discussed, besides citrus fruits, it is in-
sects. I began shedding for a protection
as an argument for growing oranges as
early as 1878; I abandoned it as I went

along to give my attention to the in-
Dr. Inman-I have come to my con-
clusions by practical experience. I could
show you on the first day of March
young groves that were budded the first
day of March of the previous year that
did not have their buds injured, and my
Tardiff trees would have stood twenty-
eight degrees without injury. Speaking
of fertilizers, I have come to the conclu-
sion that in fertilizers a stimulating one
containing a good percentage of am-
monia is very good. I use that for the
first application in the spring.
Mr. Butler-In regard to keeping or-
ange trees growing until they want to
rest, that is a practical matter. By work-
ing the tree until late in the fall, apply-
ing only phosphoric acid and potash, it
makes some difference in the matter of
its dormancy. Trees that are so treated
blossom four weeks later than those not
so treated. One year ago this spring
my trees blossomed four weeks later
than they usually do on account of this
treatment. This is well illustrated in
case of a late spring drought.
Mr. Gillett-I wish to quote Maj.
Healy; he said, "All this proves rot."
As I stated before, we had trees all
around Tampa, some of which had been
worked every month in the year, others
which were not worked after the first of
October, and all had a growth five or six
inches long and all endured a tempera-
ture of twenty-six without any injury.
It proves nothing.
Maj. Healy-Prior to 1895 we talked
this old question over and over; this is
the same old thrashing machine, Mr.
President. Going back to personal rec-
ollections and personal experience, I
think that there are some here who will


remember that on Thanksgiving Day,
1878, they saw on their young trees
icicles hanging. I think there are some
here who can remember that, and yet
these trees came through without harm;
that cold'did very little harm. That was
at a time when the trees could not have
been dormant. I cannot see how you
are going to make a perennial tree dor-
mant. How is it possible for a tree to be
perennial and dormant? If there is no
circulation of sap, how can the leaves re-
main upon the trees? What makes de-
ciduous trees? It is nothing but the
descent or reflow of the sap. That is not
true of any evergreen tree I ever saw. It
must flow at all times during the year to
a greater or less extent. It is the nature
of the tree to do so and how are you
going to check it without a cold storage
plant over each tree?

Dr. Inman-There may be some ridic-
ulous points in this subject, but it is of
vast importance. It is more important
to keep our trees dormant than anything
else, but when it comes to orange grow-
ing, we have got to grow them in the
open fields of Florida. Nine-tenths of
us have to do that. We cannot shed our
large trees in groves of one hundred or
two hundred acres. The winds will tear
down all the shedding or tents we can
construct. Does fertilizing and the cul-
tivation of trees change their condition?
If it does, then we can overcome these
difficulties by changing our methods of
cultivation. I do not depreciate tenting
and shedding for those who can afford it.
I only want to learn if there is not some
mode of protection feasible for the rest
of us.


Detailed Description-Protection Perfect-Cost will be About $4.00 per Tree in Five Years.

By J. C. Icenhour.

Feeling that protection to citrus trees
in the northern portion of the orange
belt will be a topic of interest at this
meeting, I thought a word about the
method I used in protecting I,500 trees,
the cost and their condition would be of
We have nothing patented, nor have
we anything to sell. We at all times are
ready to give any information we have
in regard to the scheme.
We boxed in each tree. Our box sec-
tions were four feet wide and six feet

high, made out of matched three-quar-
ter-inch cypress, the material being
nailed to two battens, each 3-4 in by 3
in. by 4 feet. The section facing east
at bottom had an entrance Io in. by 12
in., closed by box head, through which
a lamp was placed. A cover was made
of unbleached sheeting and for this, the
first season, they were made six feet
square, leaving a margin of a foot to
drop over sides of box.
When the box was set up this cover
was nailed to top of west side, and


caught up and lightly tacked, to so re-
main till the weather man gave the warn-
ing to draw over and make fast. This
we did January Ist, but did not light our
lamps till January 12th.
We use a common glass lamp, such as
fits the ordinary bracket, a No. 2 sun
burner, inch wick and a tin chimney,
with hood to shield the overhanging
limbs from direct heat of lamp, and to
shield wick from rains, etc.
The founts cost, delivered, 70 cents a
dozen; burners, 57 cents a dozen; chim-
neys, $4.50 a hundred; wicks, 70 cents a
This lamp in our boxes kept the tem-
perature up to 42 degrees or 44 degrees
when it was 18 and 20 degrees on the
This lamp will burn from fourteen to
sixteen hours. We used 130 degree oil,
but found it unsatisfactory, as the wicks
would crust and would have to be
scraped after each burning to insure best
results. Would advise the use of the
best oil and a really good burner. Do
not try to save in these two items, for if
you do, some cold day you will wish you
had not.
Our sheeting cost us 4 3-4 cents in
New York; our lumber, cut to lengths,
cost us on lighter, at our dock $10.50 per
I,ooo feet. It was a No. 4 grade, good
enough for the purpose. We paid $i
per day for our labor. Our sections
were nailed together on forms. Material
was forced together and held in place by
ordinary bench screws. Tops of horses
were strapped with iron, so as to clinch
the nails when driven through.

Counting every item and all labor used
in making and setting up boxes, lamps,
oil (13 barrels), labor of tending (paying
20 cents an hour for night and Sunday
work), we found on March 15th our pro-
tection had cost us $1.85 a tree.
Our box sections are on skids, cov-
ered with a few sections, and as battens
give a 3-4 inch air space, I claim they
will be good for ten years. I estimate
the cost to protect our trees for five
years will not exceed $4 per tree, and
for ten years not over $7 per tree. When
the tree gets so large that two sections
must make a side (eight sections to a
tree) I have a simple way (not to be pat-
ented) to fasten two sections into one,
and to facilitate handling and piling, dis-
engaged by drawing two wire nails, cost
per tree about 15 cents at present price
of malleable iron.
We expect to keep the trees headed
low. Aspiring shoots will be severely
dealt with. But as the tree grows, our
modern walls will expand, and the cover
will be cut ample to meet them.
Our trees came out of the boxes look-
ing as if they had wintered on the keys.
The expense of such protection does not
annihilate prospective profits. It gives
employment to home labor, and makes
a demand for a class of lumber that can
not be shipped to distant markets. Hav-
ing your lamps lighted you can go to bed
as I do, though the cold is driven by a
thirty mile gale.
The box scheme is not ornamental,
but the McCormick & Hubbs trees
prove its efficiency, and the figures I
have given count the cost.


Deep Plowing-Good Ventilation-Use of Lime-Cropping with Field Crops to use Up Nitrogen-Appli-
cation of Minerals-Wide Planting Recommended.

By C. K. McQuarrie.

In choosing a location for an orchard
one is often apt to overlook some very
important points in the matter. The
quality of the soil, the exposure to sun,
its level character or sloping nature, its
subsoil and drainage facilities, its prox-
imity to a thick belt of timber on either
side, preferably to the north, and yet to
be so located that there is always a cer-
tainty of a good air current all through
it during hot weather.
I may say that my remarks on this
occasion will be confined entirely to
peach, pear and plum orchards.
My preference for a location is a high
level piece of pine land with a southeast-
ern exposure, and, if possible, a belt of
pine timber on the northern side. I do
not want any hammock lands near my
orchard in any case whatever, because
the hammock cuts off air circulation ow-
ing to its density, and the ravages of the
San Jose scale and the pear blight are
intensified by lack of this air circulation.
From practical experience and close ob--
servation I find that during our hot moist
days of July and August, the scale and
pear blight are more destructive than at
any other period of the year, because all
the conditions are then favorable for its

rapid production, and if the orchard is
surrounded by belts of dense timber or
hammock its ravages are doubly destruc-
After choosing the location the next
step is to put the land in proper condi-
tion to receive the trees. If newly
cleared land is used it should be thor-
oughly broken up as deep as possible
without interfering with the subsoil, and
all trash and rubbish burned up. If pos-
sible the stumps should be also removed,
but as it sometimes happens that this is
impossible at the time, at least any of
them that interfere with the proper cul-
tivation of the future orchard should be
We are sometimes rushed for time at
planting and think that a little later we
can get more leisure to attend to details;
but that period, when we have more time
than the present, very seldom ever
comes around, so we had better do
things properly while we are at it.
The aim of one who plants an orchard
should be to get the most returns for
outlay of time and capital, therefore he
should make a proper beginning, his
chief aim being to always improve the
quality of his soil every year: and this


brings up the point of the best methods
to be employed for this purpose.
Avoid Too Much Nitrogen.
The first year of the tree's existence in
the orchard is the most critical period of
its whole career.
If on planting, too much nitrogenous
fertilizer is used the wood made will be
sappy and unreliable to build a good tree
upon. On the other hand, if enough of
this wood and foliage-making material is
not used the tree will be unthrifty and
lack vitality. The peach particularly is
very much of a problem in this respect,
for if the spring growth is rank and the
wood made of a soft nature it is apt to
continue the operation in the fall and
make two growths in one season; in that
case the buds on the second or fall
growth are sure to be destroyed during
the following winter's frosts.
We see this going on all over this
State every year, that is, stretches of
limbs on peach trees on which there is
not a single live bud, all having been de-
stroyed by the previous winter's frost.
After considerable experimenting with
fertilizers for first year's growth of the
trees my preference is for cotton seed
meal and acid phosphate, half of each by
measure. A handful of this mixture put
in the hole at planting time but not to
touch the roots, and a couple of hand-
fuls more a few weeks later scattered
around the tree and worked into the soil
will keep it growing and in a thrifty con-
dition, for we must remember that what
is wanted is a thrifty tree, not a prodigy
in size or extra growth of wood. The
future care of the orchard should be to-
ward improving its fertility so that our
trees shall give good account of them-
selves at fruiting time; but we must not
overlook the fact that we cannot get this

permanent fertility by simply dumping
so much fertilizer in it year after year.
No, the proper way is to grow crops in
the orchard that will improve the soil
and at the same time improve the trees.
Now, this is a point that opens up a long
lane of debatable ground and I have no
doubt a good many of my audience will
dispute some of the assertions that I am
about to make; but all that follows is
founded on personal experience and
close observation of conditions as I
found them in growing pears, plums and

At first a crop of cowpeas, beans, or
such can be grown with profit and ad-
vantage, though these crops are nitro-
genous in their nature and should not be
plowed under, but cut for hay and the
roots used for fertilizing purposes. Af-
ter the orchard gets into bearing the
only crop of this nature that I would
grow would be buckwheat. Neither rye
nor oats should ever be grown in a bear-
ing orchard. A crop of buckwheat sown
in August, plowed under when it is in
full blossom, a ton of lime per acre ap-
plied at the same time, and hairy vetch
sown for a winter cover, will do more to
add to the fertility of the orchard than
anything I know of. Here let me say a
word about lime and the mode of appli-
Apply Lime.
In applying lime if we air-slake it first
we lose more than half of its value. It
should be scattered just a little at a time
and plowed in at once; in that way we
get the benefit of the effect the gases
generated in the slaking process have on
the soil, and that effect is more potent


toward improving the fertility of the soil
than we are willing to give it credit for.
In the case of plowing under any green
material, unless lime is applied and
plowed in with it, the effect will be more
hurtful than beneficial. The treatment
that I have thus indicated will leave or-
Schard soil, in the spring, full of nitro-
genous matter and to counteract any bad
effect it might have on our trees by
causing them to make too much wood
we must plant a crop that will absorb a
good deal of this matter and add phos-
phoric acid and potash as required. The
three fruits under consideration are great
consumers of potash, and must have it
to give good results; therefore, in pre-
paring for any crop we must apply
enough of these elements to supply the
wants of the tree over and above what is
wanted for the crop. The objection can
here be made, Why grow a crop at all?
But in growing a crop we are providing
cultivation and using the undesirable
portion of the soil fertility, our aim being
to encourage less wood and more fruit.
Then, again, Why grow a winter crop
that will give you so much nitrogen that
you must grow another crop to use it
up? Because we want the soil covered
all winter to prevent the leaching of fer-
tility that would take place if left bare.
In orchards where hay has been cut the
hay stubble will prevent washing or
leaching, but in that case also those very
hay roots and stubble will give more of
this undesirable fertility than you want.
Again, the more cultivation and work-
ing the soil gets and the more it is cov-
ered from the hot sun the better the sup-
ply of moisture will be for the roots of
the trees, for it is a well known fact that
a healthy peach tree will require a supply

of water equal to six gallons every twelve
hours during our hot summer weather.
Best Crops to Plant.
Now comes the point, What crops
would be the most desirable to grow?
As already said, I would avoid all small
grain crops because they are very ex-
hausting on the soil and they do not
want any cultivation in their growth.
Potatoes are good, either Irish or sweet,
or both, but should be followed next
year with a vine crop.
Cabbage is also a very desirable crop,
but will require an extra amount of pot-
ash to serve both cabbage and fruit
trees. Tomatoes and celery are also rec-
ommended. The main thing to be kept
in view is the proper rotation of crops
and making sure that you add to, every
year, more than you take away from the
In years when there is no fruit, with
crops in the orchard, the trees will be
apt to make extra wood in spite of ef-
forts to prevent it. In that case fertiliz-
ers for the crops should be applied di-
rectly in the drill, because the cultiva-
tion of the soil is enough to keep the
trees thrifty and in condition for next
year's fruit crop.
Plant Wide.
There is one other point in this con-
nection that I want to make, and that is
that we plant our trees too close to-
gether. When I go through our coun-
try and see plum trees set sixteen feet
apart, pears twenty-five feet and peaches
twenty feet, I feel sorry for the owners
of these orchards, because they neve-
can properly take care of them so close-
ly planted; and when the trees attain
their full size the whole orchard will be


one huge propagating bed of disease of
some kind or other. The density of foli-
age in that orchard will help the breed-
ing of all known enemies to both trees
and fruit.
It Prevents Disease.
Every practical fruit grower knows
that he gets the best fruit and the best
trees when they are set wide apart to al-
low free air currents and sunshine to pass
all through and around them. I planted
my Elberta peach trees, when I first set
out my orchard, twenty-five feet apart
each way; experts said I was wasting
land taking up too much room, but the
results prove the contrary. I set some
LeConte pears fifty feet apart and have
grown crops on the land ever since.
That was nine years ago, and there
never has been a blighted leaf among
them. I planted other LeContes twenty-
five feet apart, simply plowed the land
and applied fertilizer in the orthodox
fashion. These are all dead from blight
and burned up long ago. I planted Alex-
ander and other early peach trees sixteen
feet apart, treated them in the orthodox
fashion; the San Jose scale came along,
ate them all up; they have also gone the
way of all scale-infested trees-to the
fire pile. My trees set wide apart, I
have been growing crops among for the
past five years, and there is not a scale on
them today, and they are as full of fruit
as they can carry, and I defy Florida to
produce thriftier or healthier looking
Therefore, in conclusion, the remedy
in combating and keeping away pear
blight and San Jose scale from our or-
chards lies in setting trees wide, say not
less than fifty feet for plum and peaches
and sixty feet for pears. Thus we can

keep the soil in the condition nature
planned for good fruit crops and have
plenty of air circulation to keep the trees
free from all diseases and insect enemies.
Therein lies the whole secret of profita-
ble fruit growing and at the same time
permanently increasing the fertility of
our orchards.
The Production of a Hardy Orange.
By Herbert J Webber, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
At the meeting of the Horticultural
Society, last year, the writer had the
pleasure of outlining the work of the De-
partment of Agriculture in the produc-
tion of a hardy orange, and at that time
showed photographs of some of the hy-
brid trees illustrating the intermediate
characters exhibited by some of them.
In the present paper the only attempt
will be to give an idea of the progress
of the work, the experiments not yet hav-
ing reached a conclusion. None of the
trees will fruit within two or three years
yet and the success of the experiments,
of course, cannot be determined until
that time. The members of the Society
will remember that Mr. Swingle has
been associated with the writer in this
work and must be given equal credit.
All of the hybrids which were made
with an idea of securing increased hardi-
ness were transplanted from Washington
to the South last spring, the tops which
were cut off in transplanting them being
used as bud wood to secure stocks for
extending the experiments. Something
over 800 Trifoliata stocks were budded
with these in the nursery of President G.
L. Taber, of this Society, at Glen St.
Mary, Fla. During the summer the
buds made a growth averaging about
three feet or 3 1-2 feet in height and
were in excellent condition during the


past winter to exhibit their qualities of
hardiness. The following notes are com-
piled from a report on their condition
kindly furnished by Mr. Taber.
On the nights of January 2d and 3d
the thermometer at Glen St. Mary went
down to twenty-two degrees when hung
on porches under cover and when hung
in the open air entirely unprotected reg-
istered seventeen degrees above.
An examination of the trees January
19, 1900, gave the following results:
I. One hybrid of Ruby crossed with
pollen of Trifoliata-All of the numerous
'buds of this hybrid were frozen back se-
2. Three hybrids of Sanford Mediter-
ranean crossed with pollen of Trifoliata.
-Numerous buds of two of these hy-
brids which resembled the mother plant
only (Sanford Mediterranean), proved to
be quite tender, being frozen back se-
verely. Mr. Taber estimated the injury
at about twenty-five per cent. Buds
from the third hybrid of this combina-
tion, however, proved more satisfactory.
It had trifoliate leaves like the male par-
ent but with the central leaflets enlarged.
It differed from the Trifoliata further-
more in being evergreen like the com-
mon orange. All the buds of this hybrid
had the foliage still green and perfect,
being entirely uninjured.
3. Thirty-six hybrids of the Trifoliata
crossed with pollen of the Sweet Orange,
-Of these thirty-six hybrids, twenty-six
resembled the mother parent so far as
could be observed, having deciduous
trifoliate leaves. The buds of these
showed no injury from the frost, but can
not be considered promising, as they
seem to be typical Trifoliata. The other
ten of the hybrids of this combination,
however, were distinctly intermediate

between the two parents, being ever-
green and having the central leaflet
larger than in the true Trifoliata. These
ten were also uninjured, their foliage re-
maining green and perfect.
4. Eleven hybrids of Tangerine
crossed with the pollen of Trifoliata.-
Ten of these hybrids had foliage like the
mother parent, the Tangerine, and were
quite seriously injured, though a few of
the larger buds proved somewhat resist-
ant. One of the eleven, however, had
trifoliate leaves similar to the Trifoliata
but was evergreen, and buds of this
seedling were wholly uninjured, their
foliage remaining green and perfect.
It will be seen by comparing the above
statement that twelve of the hybrids
which showed plain intermediate charac-
ters between, the orange and Trifoliata
were uninjured by the freeze and re-
tained their foliage green and perfect.
In regard to the comparative hardiness
of these Mr. Taber wrote as follows: "I
have already mentioned that Citrus tri-
foliata has lost all of its foliage and hence
a comparison of these varieties that are
marked 'foliage green and perfect' shows
that said varieties are not only extreme-
ly resistant to cold, but are also entirely
evergreen. Some of them are in fact
very handsome. For further compara-
tive purposes I would mention that one-
year-old Satsumas side by side with
these Government varieties will lose
about one-third of their foliage and per-
haps five per cent. of the tender growth
of the tops."
The importance of this comparison in
hardiness of the twelve evergreen hybrid
orange with buds of Satsuma on Trifo-
liata stock will be apparent to all orange
growers, as Satsuma on this stock is, I
think, unquestionably the hardiest ever-


green orange known to us up to the
present time. These twelve hybrids
which seem plainly to be hardier than
the Satsuma thus become now the hardi-
est known evergreen oranges.
After the freeze of February 17 and
18, 1900, Mr. Taber again examined the
trees for us and found that these twelve
hardy evergreen hybrids still retained a
large portion of their foliage uninjured.
\Jt will be seen from this that so far as
hardiness is concerned the hybrids are
proving to be all that could be asked.
Should they further favor us by produc-
ing good fruit the battle will be won.
We, however, cannot expect to succeed
so easily, and as a brace to your contin-
ued patience, I must reiterate what I
said last year, that it is probable that
these first generation hybrids will not
give us fruit of the quality we desire. We
must be prepared to go on with the work
when these hybrids fruit, and obtain nu-
merous blends between them and our
best sorts, and by this means it would
seem that we must ultimately obtain
what we desire.
/ I should further state that budded
tre-es of these hybrids have been placed
with the various Southern Experiment
Stations for thorough testing as to hard-
iness and other qualities.. If in the
course of the experiments we are fortu-
nate enough to secure good fruits, buds
will be distributed to growers and the
members of this Society will largely reap
the benefit of the work. Until that time
we trust that vou will be patient with

our failures and give us your sympathy
and aid.
Washington, D. C., April 30, 1900oo.
By Prof. Webber's request, President
Taber added:
Of the fifty-one varieties referred to
there are a dozen that certainly went
through the winter very handsomely.
While the leaves of these particular
twelve varieties retain the trifoliate char-
acter they are considerably modified in
form from the type of foliage of the true
C. Trifoliata and these twelve sorts also
remained evergreen all winter, while the
true C. Trifoliata is pronounced decidu-
ous and sheds its foliage early in the win-
ter. My observation of the whole fifty-
one varieties in nursery would lead me
to make the general statement that those
of which the foliage resembles the sweet
orange most closely are the most ten-
der, while those whose foliage resem-
bles C. Trifoliata most are the most
hardy. Some of these fifty-one varieties
are so nearly like true C. Trifoliata that
it would be impossible to distinguish be-
tween them by their growth and foliage,
while others show their sweet parentage
much more than they do the C. Trifoli-
It is worthy of emphasis that the
twelve varieties particularly referred to
stood the numerous freezes of the past
winter without losing their foliage not-
withstanding. that they were without
protection and that the thermometer
went down to twenty degrees on the
17th of February, after growth had com-


The White Fly-Common Long Scale-The Brown Fungus as a Friend of the Tree.

By A. J. Pettigrew, of the Committee.

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
The Committee appointed to report on
Diseases and Insects of Citrus Fruits
have several large and intricate subjects
before them, and they wish most earn-
estly that they could tell you how to ex-
terminate all the injurious insects and
how to prevent or cure all the diseases.
We surely would if we only knew. Hon-
esty to you and to ourselves compels us
to say that what your committee do not
know would make a large and valuable
book. We hope that you do not expect
much of us and we think that the best we
can do will be to give some of our ex-
The White Fly or Mealy Wing.
Aleyrodes citri appeared near my place
south of Manatee as early as at any place
in the State, and Col. C. H. Foster, own-
er of Fair Oaks groves, was one of the
first, probably the first, to send speci-
mens to Washington and to receive let-
ters and advice from the Department.
The first advice was to use kerosene
emulsion, which he did and killed nmil-
lions. Then other mixtures were tried,
nearly all of which destroyed all it
touched. The final summing up was that
with the resin wash or some other good
and cheap sprays the flies could be con-
trolled in isolated groves or in whole

neighborhoods if all would spray. But
the flies could not be exterminated be-
cause they breed on many native growths
in the hammocks. My nursery and
young grove was on Col. Foster's road
from his place to Manatee, and after the
freeze of February '95, he and I agreed to
have every remaining leaf removed from
all our citrus trees before hatching time.
We did so, but the next October some
of the pupae could be found on the out-
side trees next the uncleared hammocks
and the next year they had so increased
as to blacken some trees.
Before this freeze a red fungus had
appeared and was destroying some of
the pupae and the year after or the next
year Professor Webber found a fungus
which he called the brown fungus which
propagates both by spores and mycelia,
and under favorable circumstances it in-
creases many hundred times faster than
the flies can, and it will ultimately ex-
terminate them. After the most careful
inquiry and investigation as to their or-
igin I am convinced that they are native
and also their fungus enemies, and I be-
lieve the spores of their fungus enemies
could be dormant a thousand years and
then arise and destroy them if they
should again become numerous. Or-
ange trees usually have one fair crop of


fruit after the flies commence on them,
but after that no more as long as the
flies remain numejpus; and when they
are very plentiful tlere are from 400 to
i,600 pupae on medium to large leaves.
When the fungus gets a good start in an
infested grove as early in the season as
July that grove will likely bear a half
crop the next year and full crops after
that, if fairly treated. From some un-
known cause the brown fungus seemed
to be dormant from September or Octo-
ber, 1898, to July, 1899, and during that
time the flies increased rapidly and
blackened some groves that had been
freed several years. But in July, 1899,
the fungus spread very rapidly and over-
took the flies again.
Since 1898 the Common Long Scale
Has caused -much damage and rather
more where the white flies had been than
where there had been few or none. The
purple fungus and one or two other sorts
prey on the scale, also one or more of
the varieties of ladybug, but all of them
were not sufficient to control the worst
cases. Spraying with good lime white-
wash, as thick as it can be used, or the
resin wash or kerosene emulsion will de-
stroy them; also whale oil soap if ap-
plied at the right time. No sure date
can be given for the young brood of
scale insect, as it depends on the temper-
ature. I had to spray some small trees
three times two weeks apart with a
strong solution of kerosene emulsion be-
fore I completely exterminated the scale
The way the scale acts in some groves
indicates that a tree afflicted with the foot
rot suits the insect much better than a
sound, healthy tree does. Sulphate of
potash has helped some foot rot trees in

the Manatee section, and inarching with
healthy young sour orange or rough
lemon seedlings has renewed and cured
nearly every tree tried, unless the tree
was too far gone before -the inarching
was done.
A very large part of the loss from dis-
eases and insects on citrus fruits is due
to neglect and carelessness, and to the
common fault of not doing promptly as
well as we know.
It is the case with myself and possibly
with others; and right here by impres-
sing this point I hope this paper will be
of some benefit and help to some one.
After cleaning around the roots and in-
arching a foot rot tree I have realized
that it could and ought to have been at-
tended to sooner. After spraying trees
three times to free them from scale I
could see that it would have been much
better for me to have done it sooner,
and the same principle applies in drain-
Sing and other things. It is not foresight,
it is simply using reason and judgment
after obtaining sight. Good, sound cit-
rus trees planted on good, well drained
land not fertilized too much are but little
troubled with insects and diseases, but
trees not so well situated should be
watched, and at the first appearance of
insects or disease should be attended to
promptly, and with the knowledge al-
ready attained and the well known ap-
pliances, insects and diseases can be so
controlled as to do but little damage.
Valuable Notes on the Fungus Enemies of
Scale Insects.
The Chairman of the Committee, Pro-
fessor P. H. Rolfs, having removed to
Clemson College, S. C., could not pre-
pare report, but wrote- the following let-


Clemson College, S. C., April 26, 'oo.
My Dear Mr. Pettigrew:
I simply want to add one word to your
interesting paper on Orange Insects and
Diseases. While studying some plant
diseases at Manatee last year I had oc-
casion to pass through some groves.
This called to mind the fact that our
Treasurer, Mr. W. S. Hart, had lost his
culture or start of the white-headed fun-
gus which is so destructive to the long
scale. After making inquiries and ex-
amining several groves Messrs. Wyman
& Rogers took me to some trees that had
been infested by long scale. After some
searching I found the white-headed fun-
gus in abundance. This was a delight-
ful find from the fact that it gives us a
permanent source of supply.
Soon after returning to the college I
mailed some specimens to Mr. Hart,
who acknowledged the receipt of them
gratefully. He will doubtless have a
good start of this fungus now, but not
enough to be able to distribute any for
a year or two.
By putting a grove in proper sanitary
condition and making a judicious use of
the white-headed fungus, there should
be no preceptible loss from the long
I find that the long scale, the purple
scale and the chaff scale are all attacked
by the San Jose scale fungus (sphaero-
stilbe coccophila, Tul.) (See Bulletin 41
of Fla. Exp. Sta., Lake City, Fla.)
This fungus is distributed throughout
all portions of Florida, and is a very for-
midable enemy of many scale insects, but
as a rule it is quite inconspicuous, and
often needs a good microscope to prove
its presence and identity.
To clear trees and vegetation of :n-
sects and to protect them against fungi

promptly it is usually necessary to sptay;
but this is at best only a temporary ex-
pedient and one not capable of eradicat-
ing the evil-doer. 7"'e fungus remedy
is nature's own method of striking a bal-
ance, though, like nature, it may be
somewhat slow. Respectfully,
Prof. Hume-Ladies and Gentlemen:
Since Prof. Rolfs left the Station the De-
partment of Entomology has been sep-
arated from that of Botany and Horti-
culture, and I took charge of the sections
of Botany and Horticulture, while Prof.
Gossard is in charge of Entomology.
Since I came to the State in October
last, I have given the question of fungus
diseases of citrus trees considerable
study. I realized in coming here that
the citrus industry was one of the most
important. We naturally associate Flor-
ida and oranges together. I find that the
most prevalent diseases were foot-rot,
the white fly and its accompanying trou-
ble, the sooty mold and the die-back.
These were causing the most trouble of
the whole lot, I think, and as the gentle-
man who has spoken said, we have per-
haps more to fear from the white fly
than from anything else. The condition
of many groves of Florida is rather de-
plorable; they look as though they were
coated over with shoe black. This sooty
mold is not a parasitic fungus; it does
not live upon the tissues of any plant.
The white fly is common throughout cer-
tain sections of the country, and I found
plenty of it. It appears to me that the
white fly has to be dealt with in a serious
manner. I am willing to grant both the
red fungus and the brown fungus their
places of honor, but never will the white


fly- be in any degree held in check until
the people take the matter in hand. The
fungi are subject to the same natural
laws as the insects themselves, but when
the white fly is able to develop the fun-
gus is not always able to do so, conse-
quently the orange trees get the worst
of it. In regard to the treatment of the
white fly, I think Prof. Gossard will have
something to say.
Mr. Hart-I will take my chances
with cold any time if they will give me a
remedy for blight. Not even the cause
is known. It is a very serious matter,
something we want to study closely.
Prof. Hume-It is a matter which I
overlooked. I find that the blight is still
here. I noticed it at least in three dif-
ferent localities, but only a few trees in
each place were affected, and my obser-
vations on it bear me out in saying that
it is of a contagious nature, and the only
advisable thing to do is to do away with
the trees.
Mr. Waite-The blight is in nearly ev-
ery grove in Manatee county; in every
old bearing grove. It is a very serious
thing. At present the only remedy I
know of is to dig the trees up and burn
them, but this year I am making a few
experiments myself, and it does look
hard to burn those trees up. After dig-
ing them up with a sufficient root and
cutting back the top, I set them out
about half a mile from where they stood
and put them in a different soil and I am
watching the result. So far the trees are
making a very fine growth, but I remem-
ber several years ago Mr. Adams made
some experiments in the way of cutting
back the tops, and for two or three years
the trees made good growth, but Mr.

Adams said they eventually went back
to the original condition. But possibly
removing the trees from their present po-
sition and placing them in a different soil
may change the conditions. ,
Mr. Hart-I will say it is not best to
base your hopes too strongly on moving
trees. As much as fifteen or eighteen
years ago, when the blight appeared, I
cut some trees back according to the ad-
vice of Dr. Moore, who thought it was
a sort of fungus which killed the smaller
limbs by suffocation or strangulation. I
cut back to where the limbs were about
two inches in diameter. Those trees put
on a very fair growth in a year or two,
but they only put on the new growth for
a short time, then went back. In an-
other experiment the trees were doc-
tored, treated and sprinkled with the dif-
ferent washes and insecticides, then
transported to another grove some
distance off, and we watched that
experiment, but they have all gone but
one tree. That tree has a small top on it,
and right now has a very few small or-
anges on it, but it shows the disease is
hopeless, as the tree will never become a
good one. I believe the only thing we
can do is, as soon as the blight shows on
a tree, to dig it up and destroy it. It is
hopeless to ever expect it to produce a
profitable crop, even a small one.
Mr. Pettigrew-Nine or ten years ago
I lost nearly every lemon on some of my
trees which were affected with blight;
the leaves looked like fire-blight. Those
lemons were cut out, but they have
never been strong. I knew of some cases
of blight where they could not do one
thing to stay its progress. I know of
one instance where a grove on high pine
land had the blight, but it spread very
little-took a long time to kill a tree,


and in some instances it takes one or two
years to get to the next tree. I know of
another grove where it spread fifty to
one hundred feet in three or four months
and it killed trees in less than a year. All
our knowledge cannot help save the tree
when it is once attacked with blight; the
only way we can do is to dig it up and
burn it.
Mr. Waite-I would like to ask if the
members ever saw blight on trees with
sour roots.
Maj. Healy-I have seen it on the bit-
ter-sweet, sour and every kind.
Mr. Hart-In my grove for the last
year or two the blight seems to prevail
to some extent. I took the affected trees
up. Among other experiments I made
was to cut off a large handsome tree-by
the way, it takes your handsomest trees,
it may destroy the whole tree immedi-
ately or it may go on for years-I cut
off a large tree that only had blight on
one side. I showed the tree to a friend
who questioned its being diseased at all.
I took him around to the other side when
he recognized it at once. I had it cut
off at the ground, and we set it near a
good sound, healthy tree with the limbs
interlapped, to prove whether the disease
is contagious or not. In that case the
limbs interlapped were sound until the
freeze cut it back and it is sound today,
what there is left of it; so for that reason
I have not always burned the stock, but
I dig it up.
Mr. Phelps-Have you noticed wheth-
er it was inoculated from the top or from
the roots?
Mr. Hart-I have tried many experi-
ments to test that matter. Some years
ago we had some trees budded from the
diseased trees into healthy ones and vice
versa. Time and time again every ex-
periment that I could think of and some

that I did not think of were tried,.but
the orange tree is a slow-growing one,
and it hardly ever shows a disease until it
is six or seven years old, so it takes a
long time to prove an experiment; and
in the meantime freezes come on and de-
stroy the trees in which the experiment
is being made, so we lose our work and
I do not know nor does any one whether
it comes from the roots or the top.
Mr. Lyle-I would like to hear a state-
ment by the Professor on the dieback.
Prof. Hume-Mr. Lyle, I am not a
member of the Committee and I came
without a report. I have looked into the
matter of dieback and I have reached
the conclusion that others have, that it
will be produced by the use of too much
rank fertilizer. It seems to be due to a
case of over-feeding or indigestion.
There has been a good deal of discus-
sion for the past year in horticultural pa-
pers regarding the use of Bordeaux mix-
ture for dieback, and it seems to produce
a good effect. I saw one experiment that
had been carried out by Mr. Harring-
ton; and he had by applying Bordeaux
mixture succeeded in getting a new
growth where he had had none. This
mixture seems to exert a good effect, a
stimulating one, on the plant. I think
the best treatment is to remedy our fer-
tilizers and drainage, which pertain inti-
mately to the health of the orange tree.
Mr. Farley-In regard to drainage:
Where I live is on a high ridge, a heavy
hilly hammock. I do not think there is
a grove in that locality but what has the
dieback. The condition of a grove that
I have in mind is that it has not been
fertilized for some years; the weeds grew
around it and there had been nothing
done to it for two years. On about an


acre which is east of an artesian well,
there is not a tree but what is affected
more or less with this dieback; and it is
on the side of a hill with about ten feet
fall to the banks of a river, so it does not
seem to me it could be remedied by
Mr. Pettigrew-Have the trees ever
been frozen?

Mr. Farley-They were frozen in 1899,
but were not killed out.
Mr. Pettigrew-Were the stocks large
with heavy tops?
Mr. Farley-They were and they
looked black; later on all that growth
showed the red rust or dieback.


Requisites of Success Stated by an Experienced Grower-Rich Land for Peaches, Poor Land for Pears-
Never Prune Without Good Reason-Errors as to Pear Blight.

By W. E. Baker, of the Committee.

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
I fail to understand why I was chosen
as one of this Committee, unless it was
that President Taber, seeing that I want-
ed to be a fruit grower so very much, in
the goodness of his heart thought that
he would give me a little boost by plac-
ing me on an important committee. If
such was his reason, I can say it seems
to have had the desired effect, as I have
been asked to take charge of various
peach orchards in East Florida, aggre-
gating some three hundred and- fifty
acres, and now am sure you will agree
with me before I am through reading
this paper, when I say I have a fictitious
reputation on peach culture.
I came to this State a little more than
eighteen years ago an invalid with the
hope that the healthful climate would re-
store me sufficiently to engage in the se-
ductive orange culture. I was only an
inexperienced lad then, of course, and
on arriving at Lake City, Columbia

county, I was told that there was no bet-
ter place in the State to grow oranges,
as some large seedling trees around that
town would seem to testify. We pro-
ceeded forthwith to purchase land and
set a small grove, setting more peach
trees, however, than we did oranges, as
peach trees were much cheaper than or-
anges, and we knew something about
growing peaches and nothing about
growing oranges.
The peach industry was not on at that
time, of course, but it was a very notice-
able and remarkable fact that every
bushel of decent peaches brought to
Lake City, sold from $i to $1.50 per
bushel, while hundreds of bushels were
allowed to drop off and spoil over the
farms throughout the county, which
could have been made marketable by a
little care and attention to the trees at
the proper time. But at that time cotton
was bringing from twenty-five to thirty
cents per pound, which paid for the ex-


pense of raising it, and that was good
enough for the average farmer.
I was interested in fruit growing, how-
ever, and after learning that I had
stopped in the wrong section to follow
the same, I drifted to the high lake reg-
ions of Putnam and Clay counties, and
entered the employment of a wealthy
Connecticut gentleman who had a vari-
ety orchard, oranges, figs, pears, plums
and peaches. I took such interest in the
business that I was subsequently pro-
moted to foreman of a fifty thousand dol-
lar property, and later bought the prop-
erty for less than five per cent. of the
original cost. You can all guess about
the time this was done.
Well, I soon realized that I had a ver-
itable white elephant to pay taxes on and
nothing to pay taxes with, as the orange
trees were killed, the peach, plum and
pear were neglected, having given no re-
turns to the former owner. So I began
to trim up, work out and fertilize the old
peach trees, of which there were about
five hundred of the Peento and Honey
varieties, believing as I did that the
proper way to get returns from peaches
was to give them the same close atten-
tion that I would anything else. The re-
sult was I made money sufficient from
less than half of these old peach trees
(the Peentos proving unprofitable thus
far north), to pay the taxes on the prop-
erty, besides buying the necessaries of
life for my family, as long as I owned the
property, which was over two years; and
I proved so conclusively to the gentle-
man to whom I sold that there was
money in the peach that he now has over
a hundred acres in peaches.
Well, now'for my methods of planting
and cultivating.

The soil for a peach orchard should be,
if possible, naturally well drained, and of
the best quality of land you have. Some
people seem to think that if they have an
old field, that will not produce profitable
farm crops any longer, there is the place
to plant the orchard. No greater mis-
take can possibly be made. If you are
not willing to devote good land to the
orchard, my advice would be to let the
business alone. In the section of coun-
try for which I am writing, we have no
red lands and but little clay subsoil, but
the gray sandy loam is good enough for
For an ideal peach orchard plat, I
would select some good lake front slop-
ing to the north, or northwest if possible,
virgin soil only, as nine times out of ten
the -old-land peach orchard has proven
unsatisfactory in the end, though I do
not say peaches can not be grown on
old land. I would also try to get a plot
as free from the little bush commonly
known as the gopher apple, as possible,
for I consider this a very prolific breeder
of root knot; and my theory is, "An
ounce of prevention is worth a pound of
Setting Out.
I need not attempt to give any ideas
as to this very essential part of the sub-
ject, after we have just had such an excel-
lent article from President Taber.
A pound of good bone meal at the
time of setting, I find gives the tree a
wonderful impetus, and for the second
application a pound or so to the tree of
any well ground and blended high grade


commercial fertilizer. I find Mapes to
be most excellent, especially if early
fruiting is desired.
But I find after a visit to the fruit-
growing sections of Georgia, that their
methods for fertilizing for fruit are dif-
ferent from ours, or from my experience
on the light sandy soil of my section.
They seem to think, and no doubt justly,
that their great success in peach growing
is due largely to the knowledge which
the growers have of the needs of their
soil. The manure treatment I find es-
pecially to differ from my experience
here in the following particulars: Where
I would cultivate my orchard up to Oc-
tober at least they cease to cultivate af-
ter June, when the land is sown in cow-
peas or some humus or nitrogen-gather-
ing crops. Nitrogen being the most ex-
pensive ingredient, they claim great
economy in supplying it thus, which has
proven to me,. while beneficial to the
land, very detrimental to the peachtree,
having a tendency as it does to breed
It would no doubt be interesting to
know the different ideas that actuate the
minds of some of the great army of those
who wield the shears, the saw and the
pruning knife. It may be the case that
many of them are victims of mistaken
notions, like the apprentice whom I once
heard of who was set to grind the tools
in his master's absence one day, and
when asked at night whether he had
ground all the tools replied in the affirm-
ative except that he had not been able to
grind down the teeth of the big saw. If
we had to guess at the intentions of some
of the pruners of deciduous trees, whom
I have seen at work one would imagine

they had been sent to give the trees a
good hacking, and if so they carried out
orders to the letter. We have seen those
who were supposed to be experienced
hands set to prune peach trees and no-
ticed that not only the breast wood was
cut back, but all spurs were cut back too,
irrespective of whether there were fruit
buds below the cut or not. There are
those whose conceptions of pruning are
to share all sides alike so as to make a
tree as uniform as possible; and there are
other kinds of uniformity that are very
offensive to the eye and entirely objec-
tionable. This is the practice in pruning
large trees all to one uniform shape, not
merely that bracing branches may be
headed back to make the trees more
compact but to fashion them according
to one preconceived ideal; and when
such trees are leafless they are sugges-
tive of scarecrows. There should always
be some object in pruning, though no
doubt every wielder of the knife stands
ready to affirm that he had that aim, but
whatever the object may be, let me in-
sist that the hand shall be guided by
judgment and reason.
The selection of varieties for the com-
mercial orchard is a vital point to its suc-
cess, and in making this selection there
are many considerations that need our
attention. While I do not condemn new
varieties, yet it is wisdom on the part of
the commercial grower to go very slow
until he has tested them himself or they
have been tested by others than the nurs-
ery men, and that in soil and location
similar to his own. The matter of hardi-
ness is another vital one, for while a va-
riety may be beautiful in appearance and
fine in flavor, it may on account of its


non-productiveness be altogether un-
worthy a place in the commercial orch-
ard. The grower should also study the
production of other peach-growing cen-
ters, with which he may be brought into
competition, and should confine his list
to a few varieties such as are not grown
in other favored large peach-growing
sections. The Waldo, Angel and Honey
varieties are good enough for me, and
do not come in contact with the large
Albertas, etc., of Georgia, unless we have
a very dry season and they have a very
favorable one. Will treat on best meth-
ods of packing perhaps when we get
more fruit to ship.
I claim to try to be an up-to-date
peach grower in all respects save the bi-
ological aspects of diseases and the bi-
ographical history of insects such as in-
fest the peach trees, for all my experi-
ence has been confined to high pine
lands which I think freest from all in-
sects. I claim to have never been both-
ered with any to any considerable extent
except the borer.
This fellow has no respect for location,
health or climate and will attack a sick
tree the same as a well one, a well fed
tree or a poorly fed one, and, as we all
know is a stubborn fellow to combat. I
find but one sure practical remedy for
him, and that is the quack's potato-bug
remedy, catch him and kill him. This
would seem to some a very tedious and
loathsome task, but being my occupation
in boring season, I can say it is not as
bad as you might suppose, and there is
something expectant about it which
seems to interest one; like the faithful
darkey Nimrod who had fished all day

without getting a bite, but was expecting
one every minute.
I have not much to say for the plum,
my experience with this fruit being con-
fined to the Kelsey only. I had ten acres
or about four hundred very large flour-
ishing Kelsey trees which were budded
on sweet native stock; I have just had
the major part of them cut down and
relegated to the orange tree cemetery on
the lake shore, after patiently but vainly
waiting nearly ten years for the fruits of
my labor, a veritable snowbank of white
bloom each spring being the only com-
pensation for many hard licks and dol-
lars spent.
Of the pears grown in this section of
the State, I find the LeConte to be the
most profitable, and in fact the' only kinl
worth growing, and that only for home
use, as, if depended upon for a money-
maker, like the Kelsey plum, it wilHonly
prove in the end a delusion and a snare.
The blight or dieback being the only se-
rious enemy to the pear, I will just say a
few words in regard to my observations
on the same. I quote here from a
lengthy article on the subject seen in the
Farmer and Fruit-Grower department of
the Times-Union of last summer, which
was very misleading, though from the
pen of a man whom I know to be prac-
tical and successful in most things, viz:
"We have in our pear orchards what is
by some of our growers called blight or
dieback, and for all I know there may be
other names. I have taken some pains
to ascertain the cause of this malady in
my travels through a large portion of
Clay and Putnam counties this summer,
and I have concluded that if the major-


ity of cases it is starvation, or what
might be termed indigestion which is
simply starvation by another name."
Now any old settler in the pear growing
section of Florida (the writer of the above
being an amateur of only three years'
residence in the State), has long since
learned that it would not do to plant a
pear tree in a very rich place, as there is
where the blight was always known to
first attack them. Being a resident of
one of the richest farming sections of
Columbia county and noticing this result
of good care on good land in a large
pear orchard owned by Mr. Legrone, I
decided to plant my orchard in the poor-
est plat of land I owned in Clay county,
which is as poor as can be found in the
State, if not in the world. The result is
I have eighty trees, all I have, eight years
old with not a sign of blight nor have
they ever had the slightest sign, nor have
they ever had but one small application
of fertilizer and but little cultivation; and
while, they have made a comparatively
slow growth, of course, they are today
the picture of health, as the old lady liv-
ing in the Okefenokee swamp would like
you to say of her children.

Oral Report-Profit in Peach Culture-Avoid
Pruning-The Oviedo Variety.
By Maj. G. P. Healy.
I made an attempt to grow peaches
ten years ago, and I find myself today a
good deal in the same position that I did
when my orange grove was frozen. I
knew more about raising oranges when
I first went into the business than I did
when it was frozen in 1895. The longer
I was in it the less I knew about it.
Growing peaches will never be as popu-
lar as growing orange trees. Now, it is

a fact that you must have something be-
sides tents and sheds to grow bread and
butter out of. You may grow bread and
butter under tents and sheds, but I have
very little faith in it so far, and having
little faith in it, I concluded that it must
be a wise thing to put part of my eggs
into another basket, and I went into the
peach, pear and plum business. I was
led astray in the plum business by the
President of this Society. I do not blame
him now, as he was a poor man then and
wanted some of my money and he ad-
vised me to buy Kelsey plums. I never
had a plum after wrestling with them fif-
teen years. I said to him, "My Kelsey
plums won't bear." He advised me to
just let them grow up and they would
bear. Of course I took his advice-I al-
ways do, I take anybody's advice. They
grew up in the "rough" for seven or
eight years and this year the fire got into
the "rough," and what is left ol the trees
are loaded with plums.
I think we have a plum now that is go-
ing to be a co nmercial commodity.
There is no doubt but that there is some-
thing in it. If there is anybody here who
wants to go into something and make a
dollar out of it from my experience, I
would say undoubtedly it was a valuable
thing to know about this.
So far as the peach industry is con-
cerned, Florida will be unquestionably in
the next ten or fifteen years the largest
peach State in the country; she is plant-
ing faster than any other State in the
Union. Peach trees are being put out in
large quantities. Of course there will be
mistakes made, and if I can lead you in
a line that will enable you to produce this
crop I will be glad to do so. One of the
points is, that when the orange ripens,
it hangs upon the tree for six months,
but with a peach crop you will have to


begin picking when the peach is ripe and'
you must send it to market or it is lost
when a peach is ready to go, it must go
at once. If you have a large crop you
will have to have a force there and you
must handle it when it is ready to go
whether you have any market for it o1
not. If the market is overflowed there i,
but one thing you can do and that is to
let your peaches rot on the ground.
I heard Mr. Pettigrew say today,
whatever you do, do not cut a peach tree
I say with Mr. Pettigrew, don't put a
knife on a peach tree, do not trim or cul
a limb of it. It should be headed as low
as you can possibly head it, but nevet
cut it. Do not cut back the limbs, as
the peach has a fancy to bear at the ends
of limbs; in any Florida peach orchard
you will find that it bears right along
down the limbs. You should make it a
rule to pick off at least four-fifths of the
peaches, and if you do not the peaches
will load down the limbs until they are
broken. When a tree is so loaded the
fruit is absolutely worthless. I begin to
take them off as soon as the peaches be-
gin to form and in about three weeks I
take off another picking, so as to get rid
of three-fourths of the peaches.
There is a certain limit of danger in
peach trees being frozen; our early
peaches are liable to be frozen. If the
early peaches put out I calculate in about
two out of five years we lose them. We
lost one year ago all the early peach
trees. Mr. Mace, who is possibly the old-
est peach grower for market in the State,
said to me some time ago that he found
the Oviedo was so shy that he was go-
ing to cut it down. His Oviedos do not
bear; my Oviedos bear so heavily that I
prune them almost as closely for fruit as
any on my place. My trees bear a great
deal more than I care to leave on them.

We have enemies in every direction,
but the worst is the borer, and is so con-
sidered by the peach growers. The borer
is the one thing that we have no way of
managing, except as Mr. Baker has stat-
ed: get down on your knees with a knife
and pick them out. But there is another
remedy that is very simple and that is
hilling up around the tree about one foot
high. In this way about 50 per cent.
will be kept off, but you have to fight
As I say again that it is not a subject
that you are interested in, but I believe
today it is the most profitable fruit indus--
try in the State, but you have got to
learn it in order to be successful grow-
Mr. Phelps-I am very glad to hear
the practical talks Major Healy gives us.
But I see no reason why the culture of
oranges should prohibit a man from
knowing something about other things.
I believe that there are a great many or-
ange growers who believe just as much
in peaches. For some years past the one
enemy above all others has been the
borer, but I would like to know what I
am to do about it. The worms are all
hatched out by the first of March. Maj.
Healy and I differ in many things. I do
not believe the hilling amounts to much.
Nature is a great deal wiser than I am.
If I furnish sufficient food, instead of
spending my time in getting the borers
out, the trees will do well. I sold several
hundred bushels in Sanford last year. I
threw away perhaps a fifth of the peaches
I had. I sent a great many peaches to
market that would weigh three peaches
to the pound. They had to be picked
night and morning and put in a cool
place and started to market at once.
Those picked in the morning I picked


and put in my cellar and they stayed
there until sent to market. I sold
peaches in Sanford when my peaches
brought double the price that my neigh-
bors' did for the same variety. I have
taken more money from peaches than I
have ever taken from oranges. I believe
in peaches and I believe in them today.
They need care, and what does not need
care? The child brought up in the Epis-
copal church learns, and the directions to
the sponsors of the child are: "I must
take care."
Prof. Hume-In Mr. Baker's paper
there are two things I would like to call
attention to. I think I can perhaps ex-
plain or at least come near explaining
the reason why the Kelsey plum does not
bear. It is a well known fact in the cul-
tivation of apples, pears and plums that
many varieties are self-sterile. It is not
safe, for many varieties, to plant a solid
block of the same variety. Now, perhaps
if you had had some other varieties of
plums scattered through there, you
would have had fruit. In Maj. Healy's
case he had some old shoots, he says. I
ask him if the shoots grew up.
Maj. Healy-They were worthless, but
we had a great deal of that wild plum
Prof. Hume-The pollen of the wild
plum is a fertilizer of the Kelsey. Re-
garding the blight of the pear, I would
make the statement that it is due to a
species of bacteria, a vegetable parasite
of a low order. I give the scientific name
for it (micrococcus amylovorus). It be-
longs to the same class that breeds con-
sumption, etc., and about the only rem-
edy for this is to do as Mr. Baker did.
Let the tree take its chances for living
and give it very little care and attention.
Then there is less sappy, vigorous

growth produced, and there is very little
chance for the bacteria to take hold.
In regard to the fruits of Florida be-
ing self-sterilizing, I believe in Florida
the question of self-sterility is an impor-
tant one. It exists in certain varieties of
citrus fruits, in the plum and I think that
is perhaps the explanation of Mr. Bak-
er's case. I would like to ask a question
regarding certain diseases. Has any one
noticed any cases of the peach rosette in
Mr. Phelps-There is a question that
is not understood; I do not know any-
thing about it. There are isolated cases
of Kelsey plums that bear a large crop;
in my neighborhood there are some that
bear well, and others have never grown
a crop. Some bear every year, others do
not bear at all. As far as sterility is con-
cerned, I have experimented on a few
Kelseys, but the bloom comes earlier
than any other plums that come out.
This year I succeeded in getting some
near them to bloom at the same time,
and this year I have a fair crop. We
have some pear trees that do not bear; I
do not know why, for they bloom until
they are white every year. Some of the
pears that bloom late bear, some bear in
abundance. This year I concluded to
try spraying and out of the first blooms
I have a splendid crop of Satsuma plums
coming on. In order to test the matter
I did not spray some and they all fell off
and I have not a single plum from the
second bloom. I sprayed with an insec-
ticide, the receipt of which I will give to
any one who desires it.
Mr. Hart-The remarks of the gen-
tleman who has just spoken call to my
mind a matter that I would like to bring
before the Society, it is in regard to the
honey bee and others of the bee family


which gather honey and pollen from
these trees and fertilize their bloom. In
the North it is the only insect on hand
in numbers to accomplish this fertiliza-
tion of the fruit trees, and even in Flor-
ida if you spray with poisonous spray at
the time the trees are in bloom you will
not accomplish anything that can not
better be done just before the bloom
opens or after it has fallen, except on the
other hand, you destroy many dollars
worth of bees and thousands of their
lives which is wrong to all neighboring
apiarists that any just man will gladly
avoid. A great many of the States have
made laws prohibiting citizens from
spraying fruit trees while in bloom.
Most of the Experiment Stations have
instructed against this spraying of trees
while in bloom, so as to prevent destroy-
ing the lives of the bees. As to the fer-
tilizing blossoms of the Kelsey plum:
There must be some other reason for the

non-bearing of our Kelseys than the lack
of pollination of the bloom. I have not
examined the blossom of the Kelsey
plum nor do I know if it has a perfect
bloom or not. Pears are mostly light
bearers in South Florida. The lack of
more than one variety in bloom at a time
may have something to do with this.
The pear is best cross fertilized, although
scientists tell us they are more self-fertfle
down here than further North. This
explains why the LeConte pear will pro-
duce fairly when there is no other va-
riety near; it would not do so North, but
as in the case of many other va-
rieties, produce imperfect fruit and an
abortive seed when not cross fertilized.
The fruit on my LeConte trees have the
appearance of being self-fertilized. I
think probably it would improve the
chances for our crop in Southern Florida
if we had more light on this subject.


Joint Report of the Committee-A Hopeful and Encouraging Statement-Cottony Cushion Scale Not to be
Feared-Crude Petroleum as an Insecticide.

Report Read by Prof. H. A. Gossard, Chairman.

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
During the past year the usual batch
of inquiries regarding such insects as the
aphis, the pickle worm, grasshoppers,
leaf hoppers, weevils, curculio, etc., has
been received by one or another of the
members of your committee, but the
number of entomolgical problems to

which attention has been chiefly direct-
ed has been confined to a much smaller
field. Perhaps no new outbreaks of par-
ticularly dangerous insects have hap-
pened since our last meeting, though
some species possessing ample capabili-
ties for mischief have extended their
range of distribution somewhat and have
appeared in new localities.


The New Peach Scale.
In West Florida, at Molino and Quin-
tette, the new peach scale, Diaspis amyg-
dali, has obtained a strong foot-hold and
is devastating some of the orchards in
that vicinity. The insect is supposed to
be of West Indian origin, and is, there-
fore, commonly spoken of as the West
India or Jamaica scale. Like many of
our insects imported from abroad, it
must be regarded as an insect with some-
what threatening possibilities, though it
can doubtless be controlled beyond the
power of greatly checking the vitality of
the trees it infests, by application of ker-
osene, whale oil soap or petroleum and
The White Fly.
The white fly reached about its normal
degree of destructiveness the past year,
a few groves in the Manatee section, per-
haps, suffering a little more than usual.
The observations of careful growers
seem to indicate that closely planted
groves are far more badly infested by
this insect than those in which the trees
are well spaced, and in which sufficient
pruning is done to allow free circulation
of air through the tops of the trees. In
a few instances where inquiries have
been received at the Experiment Station
regarding the insect, we have recom-
mended Prof. Webber's resin wash, and
some very favorable results have been
reported from the use of this application.
We have reached a pretty definite con-
clusion that California methods of tent
fumigation can be followed in this State
with great profit in those districts where
the orange is a reasonably certain crop,
and we further believe that the process
can be profitably used with deciduous
trees under some circumstances. Exper-

mental work in grove and orchard fumi-
gation is contemplated by the Florida
Station in co-operation with practical
growers and orchardists, and is already
in progress in the Manatee district. In
the early part of February we had the
pleasure of working for a few days with
Mr. C. P. Fuller, of Ellenton, Florida,
who had procured an outfit of tents and
was anxious to give the process a trial.
A number of leaves taken from the fumi-
gated trees and brought to Lake City
were examined some ten days afterwards
and a large percentage of the pupae were
beginning to decompose, showing that
they were unmistakably dead. No in-
sects ever issued from any of the pupae
cases, but we did not expect that they
would retain their vitality upon the dry-
ing leaves for more than two or three
weeks at the longest, and, therefore, can-
not regard the conclusion as certain that
everything was killed by the gas treat-
ment. Some specimens of red spider and
other imported insects were also killed,
but we are unable to pass a decisive judg-
ment as tolvhether the gas may be relied
upon to kill the eggs of any of these in-
sects, although we think it very proba-
ble. One of the fumigated trees was
dripping with dew when it was tented,
and we, therefore, increased the strength
of the chemicals used by the California
people about one-third, and still expect-
ed that the work would be unsatisfac-
tory. However, an examination of in-
fected leaves taken from this tree, made
after an interval of some two weeks, in-
dicated that a large percentage of the
pupae were in process of decomposition,
from which we infer that the treatment
was much more thorough than we ex-
pected it would be. We suspect that the
heavy dews of Florida will be found to


constitute the most disturbing factor
since it is well-nigh necessary when fumi-
gating trees in leaf to do this work at
night away from sunlight, and of course
the dew cannot be avoided at this time.
Since the gas is effective against all forms
of insect life, the common grove scales as
well as the insects that we have just been
discussing, we hope that one or at most
two fumigation treatments per year will
practically hold in check all of the insects
with which the orange grower has to
A correspondent at Tarpon Springs
sent in a communication a few days ago
saying that white fly had suddenly ap-
peared there in great numbers. We also
had specimens come in from Marion
county last summer.
Crude Petroleum as an Insecticide.
During the past year Dr. J. B. Smith,
Entomologist of the New Jersey Experi-
ment Station, has put forth a bulletin
upon crude petroleum as an insecticide,
in which he makes the following state-
ments :
"Since January, 1898, nearly four
thousand trees in ordinary orchard fruits
other than cherry, have been treated with
crude petroleum either undiluted or
mixed with from 60 per cent. to 75 per
cent. of water. The trees varied from
stock just out of the nursery row to old
trees in full bearing. Not a single case
of injury to any tree treated in winter has
been observed; on the contrary, in a
number of cases the oil seems to have
acted as a stimulant, and the sprayed
trees have shown greater vigor and bet-
ter foliage than those untreated. It is ful-
ly as effective against scale insects as
kerosene, and is harmless to the most
tender varieties and on the'youngest
trees. As the oil remains on the surface

for a long time it makes no difference
whether it is put on undiluted or mixed
with water. It remains as
an oily or greasy surface coating for
many weeks, and no scales can set on
this coating within a month of the appli-
cation and live. A minor
advantage is the fact that it gives a
greasy brown color to the bark, making
it easy to see exactly how thorough the
application has been."
In view of the fact that pure kerosene
was at one time considered by some en-
tomological authorities to be a safe win-
ter application to fruit trees, and it was
afterwards discovered that it is exceed-
ingly variable and capricious in its behav-
ior under what are apparently precisely
similar conditions, and when we remem-
ber that extensive orchards have been
killed by its use, it seems safe to be some-
what cautious in accepting Dr. Smith's
statements as being applicable to the en-
tire country.
On the 25th day of January some ap-
plications of Ioo per cent. crude petro-
leum were given to pear, plum and peach
trees. The variety of pear is unknown,
but three trees of which we will speak
as Nos. I, 2 and 3 were badly infested
with San Jose scale. Tree No. i was ap-
parently nearly dead, the trunk blistered
and crusted with scales, the leaves and
branches having been thickly infested the
preceding season clear to the tips. To all
appearances the tree could not be expect-
ed to live, whether the scales upon it
were killed or not. The bark upon both
trunk and branches was very much hide-
bound, and had to be slit open with a
knife, in order to give the new wood a
chance to form beneath. This tree was
slow in putting out its leaves in the
spring, but eventually leaved out and is


living today with a fighting chance for
life. All scales upon it seem dead, and
while it looks almost impossible for it to
recover any degree of healthful vigor,
yet we are uncertain regarding the out-
come. Tree No. 2 was a larger pear of
the same variety, and not so badly in-
fested, although many of the branches
were completely crusted and coated with
scales, and the bark of the trunk and larg-
er branches had to be split with a knife
as in the first case, to give an opportunity
for new wood to grow. This tree leaved
out at the usual time, and today it is vig-
orous and thrifty in appearance, and ap-
parently has suffered no injury from the
application given it. A smaller pear tree
No. 3 was also given a treatment of I00
per cent. petroleum and seems to be in
perfect condition at present. Upon the
same day a number of plums of eight dif-
ferent varieties were sprayed with Ioo
per cent. petroleum. Beside each of
these trees, in an adjoining row, another
tree of the same variety was left untreat-
ed as a check for comparison. Unfortu-
nately both the treated row and the
check row seem to be in an unhealthy
condition, and it has been impossible to
weigh accurately the effects of the pe-
troleum spray. The sprayed trees are ap-
parently but little, if any, worse than the
check row, though they are certainly
worse than some adjoining rows that
were sprayed with a thirty per cent. me-
chanical mixture of water and petroleum.
It is my belief that these larger trees
were injured in some degree, but some
smaller plum trees that have been in the
ground only one year seem to have sur-
vived the application without the least
noticeable injury.
One hundred per cent. was also ap-
plied to nine bearing Florida Gem

peaches on the 26th of January. Of these
trees but two or three have any signs of
life today, and they are practically
ruined. In other words, the Florida Gem
variety of peach will not stand a heavy
dose of crude petroleum in Florida, un-
less the conditions governing its applica-
tion are different from those that sur-
rounded these particular trees. No spe-
cial care was taken in making these ap-
plications, as our object was to find out
what would be the effect of crude petro-
leum if put on liberally in quantity suffi-
cient to just reach the dripping point,
and without regard to sunshine or the
precautions that are generally observed
in making applications of kerosene.
Some hundreds of plum and peach of va-
rious varieties were sprayed with from
fifteen per cent. to thirty per cent. me-
chanical mixture of petroleum and water,
and we have been unable to detect the
least injury of any kind following any
of these diluted applications. The trees
in all cases were sprayed until they just
reached the dripping point, and in no
case were they banked, nor was any at-
tention paid to cloudy weather or to the
hours of the evening near to dusk. Some
applications were made upon bright days,
but most of the time the weather was de-
cidedly hazy, the sun being scarcely if at
all visible.
We believe that Dr. Smith has con-
tributed a very important material to our
list of insecticides, but it is quite possi-
ble that it will be found to require cau-
tious handling, as kerosene has proved
to need in the past. We are as yet un-
able to say that it would be safe to ap-
ply undiluted petroleum to fruit trees of
whatever description in Florida, even in
the most cautious manner, and for the
present would advise that the same pre-


cautions be taken with petroleum that
are observed in the use of kerosene.
The Cottony Cushion Scale.
The cottony cushion scale has extend-
ed its range of distribution about Clear
Water Harbor to a considerable degree,
being now in a number of groves in that
vicinity. One season's observations upon
the insect have largely dispelled our
fears as to its ultimate importance, even
under the worst possible conditions. We
naturally assumed when its presence first
became known that it would likely repeat
in Florida about the same story that it
had in California and other countries into
which it had been introduced unless it
was quickly taken in hand, here as there.
However, a number of factors seem to
be at work in Florida that make the con-
ditions quite different from those that ex-
ist in most of the countries where the cot-
tony cushion scale has become famous,
and has at times been dreaded; and while
we are not yet prepared to minimize the
danger that might follow the work of this
insect if entirely let alone we still be-
lieve that, at the worst possible outcome,
it will prove to be a very insignificant
economic insect in Florida as compared
with what it has been in some other coun-
We commenced a field study of the
cottony cushion scale about the first of
July last year, and continued on the
ground for several weeks. At this time
the insect was very abundant in some
groves, although we noticed it had prac-
tically disappeared from the myrtle thick-
ets where it had been abundant in the
preceding May. Within two or three
days we were able to find some trees
thickly infested with scales, which were
being rapidly consumed by a small cater-

pillar which we were soon able to iden-
tify as loetilia coccidivora, an insect hith-
erto recorded as feeding upon the lecan-
ium scales, pulvinaria, mealy bugs, the
wax scales, the cochineal insect, and at
times upon the armored scales. Mr. H.
G. Hubbard, in speaking of this insect,
writes as follows:
'Underneath the covering of web, the
caterpillars of loetilia move back and
forth actively engaged in removing the
bark lice from the back and suspending
them in the investing web. Nothing
could be more thorough than their work.
Branches incrusted with lecanium scales
are very quickly cleared of the lice, and
the loetilia larvae do not cease to extend
their operations until every individual
coccid in the colony has been lifted from
its place and securely fastened in the web
above. * It devours not only the
eggs and the young and the softer parts
of the bark lice, but even to some extent
the harder skin or scale. The result of
its operations upon lecanium and cero-
plastes scales is to utterly annihilate the
colonies of these insects which they at-
An Insect Foe.
What Mr. Hubbard observes of this
insect in connection with the lecaniums
and ceroplastes we also affirm of it in re-
gard to the cottony cushion scale. A re-
cent inspection made by the writer of
these trees which had attracted our spe-
cial interest disclosed a scale here and
there, but they were practically free, and
it would seem to us that there can be no
doubt that hundreds of moths will ap-
pear in a short time to complete the work
of total annihilation so nearly accom-
plished last season. The trees are prac-
tically uninjured, and although white


with iceryas last summer, it is apparent
to the most casual observer, who knows
anything of their recent history, that
they have been and are today in far great-
er danger of injury from the common
long scale, mytilaspis gloverii, than from
icerya purchase. We found the same cat-
erpillar scattered everywhere over the in-
fested district and multiplying rapidly.
Among the myrtles and even in places
where would be found an isolated infest-
ed tree, half a mile or more away from
other infested ones, we found this little
caterpillar at work and often in numbers.
We found a number of other predace-
ous insects feeding upon this scale, some
of them possessing a considerable degree
of efficiency. The work of none of these
insects can be considered equal to that
reported of the Australian lady-bug, for
the reason that they are more or less re-
stricted in their movements, and will not
go out upon the leaves hunting for their
dinners. However, it may be boldly
questioned if the cottony cushion scale
can stand before them for more than one
or two seasons, and there is some warrant
for the belief that a grove is in little dan-
ger of destruction when they are present,
although it may suffer serious injury. It
must be further said in their favor that
they are natives of Florida, that they feed
upon other insects than the cottony
cushion scale, and they will never be ab-
sent nor become lost, nor need artificial
propagation in order to insure their per-
petuity, and if our climatic conditions, as
may be entirely possible, should prove
unsuited to the health of the lady-bug we
may rest secure in the knowledge that
we have at hand some native bugs whose
efficiency exceeds that of any other in-
sects hitherto recorded as feeding upon
icerya, with the exception of novius card-

inalis and novius koebelei from Australia
and possibly of rodolia iceryae in South
A Fungus Friend of the Trees.
During the last season a fungus dis-
ease which as yet has received no biolog-
ical study and is only known to belong
in the family phymataspoiae, destroyed
more scales than any other agency. The
first specimens were found on the 27th
of July upon certain badly infested or-
ange trees, and a few days later we no-
ticed that the weeds and undergrowth of
this, the worst infested grove in Florida,
especially in damp situations, were cov-
ered with the remains of slaughtered
scales. We, therefore, impatiently await-
ed a shower of rain and from the 23d to
the 26th of July were favored with a con-
tinuous downpour, accompanied with
heat, as much as fourteen or sixteen
inches of water at the very least coming
down in seventy-two hours. We exam-
ined the trees upon which the fungus was
discovered at the conclusion of the storm
while it was still raining, and found them
enveloped in a white winding sheet of
dead scales from the trunks to the tips of
the leaves. We estimated that not less
than ninety-five per cent. of the scales in
all stages had perished. About one
month later we estimated that not more
than one scale in a thousand was living
upon what hadf been the worst infested
trees in the grove, and the few living ones
that could be found were newly hatched
larvae, a few of the eggs in the egg-sacs
apparently not having been completely
destroyed by the fungus.
Our correspondent, writing under date
of September 22, reported that the bugs
in the grove before mentioned were de-
creasing, that the fungus was affecting


them very.badly; he could scarcely find
one that was not affected, and that while
some trees in the grove still harbored
some young scales, the fungus was to be
found upon all. He further reported that
about ninety-five per cent. of the insects
in some other groves that were just be-
ginning to show the presence of the fun-
gus at the time of our departure were
dead and the owners stated that where
ten scales existed three weeks earlier not
more than one could be found at the date
of writing.
The fungus was found present in a
number of groves a few days ago, and
we entertain no doubt that it will be an
important factor in reducing the crop of
scales this coming season. That this dis-
ease and the insects before mentioned
will prove of immense value in subduing
the insect during some, and perhaps we
may say all, seasons we can not doubt,
but it should still be remembered that
the scale multiplies vigorously during
certain periods of the year and that it is
capable of inflicting damage during this
time. It seems probable that the Cali-
fornia lady-bug will prove more efficient
than any of these native checks if it is
able to stand Florida conditions and cli-
Australian Lady-Bug Not a Success.
We made an attempt to colonize the
Australian lady-bug last summer, but so
far as we can judge, the introduction was
unsuccessful. A number of adult bugs,
somewhere between two dozen and
thirty, were hatched from California ship-
ments, kept under close observation un-
til they were observed to have copulated,
after which they were confined for a short
time in a large sack upon thickly infested
limbs, so as to insure the deposition of

their eggs before they flew to other trees
We hoped that some of the bugs had
gone to other trees than the ones upon
which they were turned loose, since they
were confined in the sack not more than
twelve to fifteen hours, or over night, and
that many lady-bugs would appear in the
grove later, but up to this time nothing
has been known to develop, although the
trees upon which the bugs were liberated
are almost wholly free from scales at
present. We attribute the disappearance
of the scales, however, to the fungus dis-
ease and native predaceous insects and
not to a probability that any lady-bugs
had anything to do with it. We instruct-
ed our correspondents to keep a careful
watch on the field and report to us later
in the season if circumstances seemed to
favor a new introduction. Under date of
September 19 one of our correspondents
"The weather that we have been 'av-
ing this month has been favorable, it
seems, for the spread of the fungus, as
quantities of the dead bugs in their vari-
ous stages show and it is very question-
able just now, I think, if the situation
would justify the undertaking of getting
a sufficient supply of lady-bugs from Cali-
fornia to stock up with."
In December a letter from our corre-
spondents indicated that the bugs were
sufficiently numerous in some groves to
warrant the belief that the introduction
of the lady-bug would probably prove
successful. We therefore wrote to the
California Board on the 2d of January,
informing them of the situation and our
desires, but had to wait two months for
a reply, and then were informed that
their colonies were low, and they could
not supply us with bugs until the latter
part of May. However, Mr. Kimball, a


gentleman stopping in Clear Water, has
succeeded through the influence of the
"Fruit World," in getting a consignment
from one of the County Boards of Horti-
culture, at San Diego, California, and the
bugs were recently put upon a tree that
would seem to promise good results. If
the bugs really get a foot-hold they will
have time to multiply enough so that
they they will possibly stand the severe
conditions of existence that we certainly
look for them to be obliged to face again
in July and August. It will require a
longer period of observation to gauge
with a reasonable degree of certainty the
exact status of the scale or of its insect
enemies, native and imported. There
are some groves near Clear Water that
are going to look very scary in the course
of a couple of months, but we certainly
hope and are inclined to believe that
these groves will suffer less from the
icerya than from some other insects that
have long been in Florida. We very
much doubt if the cottony cushion scale
at its worst will do the damage that white
Sfly inflicts upon the orange groves every
year. It will probably become numerous
and threatening every time it reaches a
new locality, but it is not likely to remain
on the same spot in numbers for more
than one or two seasons.
Cut Worms and White Crickets.
The following observations regarding
methods of fighting cut worms and white
crickets are submitted by those who have
used the remedies given with marked
success, and we, therefore, take pleasure
in submitting their remedies to people
who may not have enjoyed exemption
from the attacks of these insects.
For cut worms, take dry bran and mix
enough Paris green with it to give it a

greenish tinge all through, then stir in
enough syrup to make all a little sticky
and scatter among the infested plants.
Great success with the remedy is report-
ed among strawberries and in seed beds.
For white crickets there is said to be
nothing like a little hot water. If the
insects are very abundant over much of
an area the best way is to have a large
kettle or other vessel set so as to keep
sufficient water hot without having to go
too far to get it. A few spoonfuls poured
into their nests kills them. No digging
is necessary since under the mound they
make on the surface there are always two
holes leading down to the nest, and when
water is poured on the mound it quickly
soaks down to the insects. By carefully
going over the ground two or three times
they are gotten rid of.

Mr. Waite-About three years ago I
had the purple mite and I wrote to the
Experiment Station and they gave me a
formula for a sulphur spray and I com-
menced using it, and when I had used
about half the preparation the showers
began and in a few days the mites were
gone. Afterwards I was told that as soon
as the rains came there would be no fur-
ther trouble with them. A short time
ago I was in Manatee with Mr. Brown, a
member of this Society, and he called my
attention to some trees that were drop-
ping their leaves; he said he thought it
was from the effect of too much water.
As soon as I saw the trees I saw what the
trouble was. I pulled off a few leaves,
examined them and found the trouble.
They had had some, although there had
been some rains in that section. I gave
him the formula. The leaves looked


brown and on the back the wood looked
bad, almost exactly like the work of the
red spider.
Mr. Hart-Did you spray any bearing
trees? The purple mite seems to be
thick on our trees, although we have had

some very hard rains. This purple mite
is a new enemy with me, and the rain
does not seem to affect them seriously at
all. I am afraid to use that spray on
these trees, as they are mostly bearing.


Beginnings on Indian River-Historical Statements-Some Discussion of Varieties-Irrigation Not Nec-
essary on the East Coast-Few Diseases Encountered.

Oral Report by C. T. McCarty, of the Committee.

Our Committee is a new one and is still
disorganized; we hope to get in better
shape later on. If there are any ques-
tions when I am done speaking, I would
be pleased to have them asked. Please
bear in mind that what I say on this sub-
ject will be confined very largely to our
experience and observations on the East
Coast of Florida, in the territory between
Melbourne and Miami. Of the condi-
tions prevailing in the interior where they
have Smooth Cayennes (fancy pines) un-
der cover I am not familiar. It was
hoped that Mr. Price would give us a re-
port on that subject. There are also pe-
culiar conditions prevailing on the Flor-
ida keys which I will not attempt to de-
scribe; the methods of cultivation are dif-
ferent. I hope to be able to give you a
few facts which, as they go into the rec-
ord, you will be able to consider more
when you get the Annual Report. Some
other things are more a matter of indi-
vidual observation and experience, but
the facts I can readily give you.
The industry on our coast is compara-

tively new, that is, on the main land of
the United States. It has been carried
on perhaps two generations on the Flor-
ida keys between Miami and Key West,
being introduced there from Cuba and
other places. With us the pineapple was
planted along in the 8o's; our shipments
commenced about in '84. The first vari-
ety introduced there is now known as the
Egyptian Queen. That is not the true
name. It was introduced by Capt. Burn-
ham. Its true name is Cleopatra, who
was an Egyptian queen, consequently the
names were confused. The industry
grew very rapidly during the early go's,
at which time it had reached a considera-
ble magnitude. Later on we shipped
about 225,000 crates containing between
six and seven million pineapples. A few
years ago I was asked to 'make a canvass
of the East Coast to get the status as to
the crop and increase of that year that we
might know what preparations to make
for the transportation of the crop. That
year I found that the East Coast had in
cultivation 1,400 acres of pineapples;


that we shipped something over six mil-
lion fruits; that the number of new plants
set out that year was 3,850,000, while the
increase in acreage during the single
year was twenty per cent. of that which
existed before. This was considered at
that time a fair estimate of the annual in-
crease of the pineapple business.
It has not kept up that pace because
of climatic conditions. There is a rumb-
ling sound of protection in my head; it is
a very familiar topic.
Present Outlook.
But this year we are very glad to re-
port a very nice crop of pineapples on the
East Coast. In the next six or seven
weeks we will move from that territory
125,000 crates of pineapples which will
very nearly amount to four million fruits.
The fancy varieties including the Smooth
Cayenne, Abakka, Egyptian Queen and
Porto Rico, will yield perhaps ten thous-
and crates. Of these fancy varieties we
shipped in 1887 25,000 crates. The re-
sult that year was not satisfactory consid-
ering the intrinsic value of the fruit. Our
methods of marketing are not suitable
for high-grade fruit. The commission
system of the country does not under-
stand how to push the Smooth Cayenne,
the Abakka and the Porto Rico, and
many individual growers are marketing
these fruits direct. A crate of Smooth
Cayennes containing sixteen or eighteen
fruits should not sell for less than 25 or
30 cents apiece. That year the price
went down below that. This was not as
it should be, nor do I think it will ever
occur again. Like the old orange grow-
ers of ten or twenty years ago, we had to
learn everything by experience. We had
the dishonest commission men, the fer-
tilizer men and all these things which

you have already learned and which we
are rapidly mastering.
As regards diseases, etc., among pine-
apples, I will not discuss that to any ex-
tent. We have a few little troubles in
that way. They are not extensive and
not very serious. Personally I feel that
many of them are due more to the trou-
bles that the plants have had in the way
of climate during the last five years than
anything else. In the matter of insects,
of which we have a few, all of which we
treat promptly by medication, we have
concluded that with good suitable land,
good healthy plants, intelligent cultiva-
tion and fertilization we have nothing to
fear from the results so far as diseases
and insects are concerned. When plants
become diseased and pest-ridden the best
remedy is to take them up and throw
them away, for they are not like orange
trees which need several years to bring
them to maturity. The ordinary plant
costs a half-cent and it is easy to get a
good stand of plants. If you will give
them the proper treatment and not do
anything that will over-stimulate them
you can look for a good steady growth.
We have not found that irrigation is
yet necessary; our rainfall on the East
Coast is heavy. Last year we had seven-
ty-two and a fraction inches and it was
well distributed, which enables us to ma-
ture the fruit well. Moisture is necessary
for swelling out the eyes of pineapples.
This is a Red Spanish (picking up a sam-
ple sent to the Society) raised by Geo.
McPherson; I know his place well. I
started out to say that there is a foreordi-
nation in the size of the pineapple. When


the bloom comes out, the size of the ap-
ple is determined. The same number of
eyes in embryo is seen'there and as soon
as the grower sees one-quarter the
growth of the apple he practically knows
with certainty thesize it will be, if it has
the proper amount of moisture. Some
of us have tried irrigation and many of
us believe that it has no special advant-
age. This apple is much above the aver-
age size, and it would take about eigh-
teen of this size to the crate; that is a
large size of the Red Spanish. The Porto
Rico weighs fifteen pounds, and is nearly
as large as a peck measure, packing
eight to the crate, while this packs eigh-
teen. There is a vast variety of pineap-
ples; we have about twenty-two varieties
on our place. I do not believe there is
any special advantage in having so many
varieties and we have sifted it down to
about six. The Red Spanish is sturdy
and a good shipper; the Smooth Cayenne
is worth about ten cents apiece in our
territory, and if you plant ten thousand
on an acre it would cost you $I,ooo; Red
Spanish would cost net for the plants
$75.00. In saying this I do not detract
from the Smooth Cayenne or the Abak-
ka, but consider the old Red Spanish
financially good enough for most of us.
The topic contemplates that I say
something about
Other Tropical Fruits.
The mango, sapadillo and a great many
others. In our own territory we consider
the avocado pear a failure, and the man-
go is too tender for our locality. It
fruits well and is desirable, but we have
long since thought it was best not to
crowd the tropics too far north. We
were growing the avocado pear, mango,
etc., and found it was better to go to the

territory provided for them. In the vi-
cinity of the Florida keys and on the rock
lands around Miami the avocado pear
seems to be at home. The mango does
well there and so indeed do the guava
and other tropical products. I said I
would not keep you long, and I will be
glad to respond to any questions asked.
Mr. Crane-I would like to ask what
effect an excess of moisture has on the
Mr. McCarty-It is bad; it renders the
fruit soft and perishable. As to fertilizer,
I would use a fertilizer of at least twelve
per cent. fbtash, which makes the fruit
vigorous. The Red Spanish is hardy and
others are also. I would not advise too
much moisture at any time.
Shedding Pineapples.
Mr. McCarty-A word or two in ref-
erence to shedding pineapples. I had in-
tended in my report to mention that.
There is a little shedding being done in
the pineapple territory. It is not deter-
mined whether it will be a permanent
success or not. It is too soon yet to
know. There is no use of being hasty
in our conclusions about these matters;
it is better to be sure of it before we go
into it. The shed has an advantage and
it has several disadvantages; the princi-
pal one is that it makes the plant grow
too tall. Like everything else under a
shed, the leaves grow very long, and, if
of the Red Spanish variety, after a few
years they get too high and they fall
over. Shedding is otherwise objection-
able. If Smooth Cayenne, there is not
the same objection because it is not al-
lowed to carry on its succession uninter-
ruptedly. There are many sheds in our
territory that are very decided failures.
Entirely aside from their cost there are


some up to this day that are not a suc-
cess, and I believe they will not be in the
future, that is, from now on; the cost is
too much. Whenever you invest from
$300 to $400 in an acre of pineapples and
$400 or $500 more in the price of a shed
you will reap but small profits. There is
a better way of protecting pineapples and
it may be called a local method of carry-
ing plants through the winter when you
begin to feel nervous. I call it insur-
ance; some use a switch grass which
grows with us and which can be laid on
top of the plants. We covered 150,000
plants, principally with the sav palmetto
leaves. We keep the entire clump to-
gether, so that we can lay them over the
plants without their being blown away
by the wind. It is a good protection,
warm and cosy; it is cheap and not inju-
rious to anything. The cabbage palmet-
to fan is the same. Put on the first of
January and taken off the first of March,
it only costs you $Io or $15 an acre, as
against an investment of $300 to $500 in
a shed. The shed is too expensive and
too uncertain; it is an experiment yet. I
was asked to report on that subject, and
I will say that until we have had four or
five years' experience, I .could not say
whether the shed is a good idea or not.
I do not think it a necessity, and as to the
advantages on that score I think it out
of the question. It is a conservative
statement; I am not carried away with
any such theories. If you have not the
money, cover with something else. It is
wise, safe and conservative.
Mr. Sperry-I would like to ask if
there are any diseases prevalent among
the pineapples grown on the East Coast,
and if so, what is their character?

Mr. McCarty-II you mean different
diseases on different kinds, I broadly say
not. I am inclined to believe that there
are some varieties that are more suscep-
tible than others. I do not want to be
too dogmatic in my statements, because
there is such a thing as being too hasty,
but I will say that thie Egyptian Queen
pineapple has shown itself to be suscepti-
ble to the red spider, more so probably
than any other. There has been the last
few years a little of what is called wilt
on the Smooth Cayenne; it is so little we
do not consider it much. Among our
Red Spanish we have a certain amount
of spike or long Teaf; that is not a dis-
ease but a condition. I would say broad-
ly that one kind is not more susceptible
to disease than others, but some few are
more liable. There are some insects that
are harmless; the mealy bug is entirely
harmless; the red spider is not harmless,
and there are other things that are not
harmless. We do not know what causes
the spike or long leaf. Prof. Webber
was right in his conclusion that it was
caused by the condition of the plant,
caused by propagating pines from the
same plants for ten years, causing low vi-
tality. I am satisfied of that now.
A Member-Is it a fact that the pres-
ence of lime in the soil is injurious to the
plant ?
Mr. McCarty-That is one of our old-
time fads. The original feeling that went
around the State with reference to that,
resulted from a misapprehension of the
individual who first put it out. The first
few plants that were planted in our ter-
ritory were planted on low land. There
was a good deal of shell in that land, and
from the fact that they did not do well,
he came to the conclusion that the shell
did the damage. On our high, well-


drained, spruce-pine land which is very
poor, he did succeed with fertilizer, and
it was concluded that was better than the
other. Wet land is injurious. As far as
lime is concerned, it is far from being a
bad thing; I have used it as a fertilizer
in the proper way.
A Member-Have you had any trou-
ble with scale of any kind on your plants?
Mr. McCarty-No, sir, none whatever;
we have none.
Mr. Harrington-Do you meet with
any perceptible loss in your uncovered
pineapples by the effects of the sun's
Mr. McCarty-We meet with a very
small loss in that respect. The seasons
differ. When it is very rainy and bright,
sunshine may wilt the plants; two per
cent. will cover all the loss from sunburn
and in the present conditions we have
none whatever. The only way is to plant
them close together. If you plant your
pineapples twenty inches apart in squares
the first year they will be sunburnt; after
that they are so near together there will
be no sunburn. As to fertilizing, if you
give a ton to the acre for twelve thous-
and plants and after they are fruited and
you have twenty or twenty-five thousand
suckers, fertilize for the number of plants,
then you have no trouble.
A member-Did you broadcast your
fertilizer or put it on the plants?
Mr. McCarty-When the plants are
large we broadcast; when they are young
we put it on the ground. When very
young we put a mixture of about a tea-
spoonful of cottonseed meal, and the
same of tobacco dust to each plant; after
that we put our fertilizer entirely on the
ground. When they are high we broad-
cast it, taking care not to have anything

exceedingly caustic so as not to burn the
Prof. Gossard-I understand, Mr. Mc-
Carty, that you use tobacco dust when
you first put the plants out.
Mr McCarty-Yes, a mixture of half
and half as a preventive. We think there
is a reason for everything we do.
Prof. Gossard-Do you base your
statements on your personal experience
or as general statements, as to the exist-
ence of the mealy bug?
Mr. McCarty- We have no knowl-
edge of the bug existing on the small
Prof. Gossard-I have seen a few pine-
apples raised; the bugs had been thick
enough, but they were not there when I
saw the plants. The owner said the bugs
had been there in large quantities and he
had been using a powder upon them and
killed them. I have had plants sent in *
with enough mealy bugs on them to be
convinced that they would do harm.
There is sometimes a scale that gets upon
pineapples, but it has never been report-
ed that it did any harm.
Dr. I(err-I would like to ask Mr. Mc-
Carty how the wilt affects the pineapple,
and what is the remedy?
Mr. McCarty-The wilt affects them
by drying up the extreme outer ends of
the leaves and they drop, and the remedy
is to take the plants up and throw them
away. We do not know the cause even.
Mr. Phelps-Have you seen mealy
bugs during rainfalls?
Mr. McCarty-The seasons when we
have had heavy rainfall and no rainfall
are out of my mind, but I think there
would be a difference in that, although I
do not want to be put on record as to


Mr. Phelps-Fifteen or eighteen years
ago, it was very dry and mealy bugs were
in evidence. A full spray washed them
away, but when there was a heavy rain,
there were no mealy bugs.
Mr. Sperry-I have had pines planted
both on high and low lands. The low
land is known as a bay-head, the water
standing continuously a foot from the
surface. There I have had no trouble,
but on high pine land I have had trouble,
but nothing serious. I would like to ask
Mr. McCarty whether the disease they
have designated as wilt is not sometimes
called blight.
Mr. McCarty-Yes, the same thing.
Mr. Beach, of West Palm Beach, first
called it the wilt in The Farmer and Fruit
Grower, but it is the same thing.
A Member-I understand this is more
or less prevalent among all varieties.
Mr. McCarty-I think it is mostly con-
fined to Smooth Cayennes; not enough
among the Red Spanish to be considered
serious; I know we have had it among
Egyptian Queens.
A Member-In reference to accumula-
tion of sand after setting young plants.
Do you resort to washing it out or re-
moving it in any way?
Mr. McCarty-We have three ways of
doing that. The best way is by the use
of cottonseed meal sprinkled in the
heart of the plant; this crusts the sand
and the growing plant pushes it out. If
it is too bad we blow it out with a pair
of 'bellows. If the sand is in a bad con-
dition the use of the bellows is the better
way. If the weather is wet we can wash
it out with a little water. We are not
much troubled that way.
Dr. Kerr-How long do you discon-
tinue fertilizing before fruiting?

Mr. McCarty-Dr. Kerr, there has
been a considerable divergence of meth-
ods along that line during the past five
years. When I came to the State the
custom was to put the last fertilizer cn
about the last of January or February.
That season became earlier until six
years ago they were fertilizing about the
middle of December; now they put it on
in November, not later than December.
This is based upon the theory that be-
fore the bloom is formed the apple can
be increased by swelling the eyes. If the
fertilizer is put on earlier the plant pro-
duces a larger fruit and a larger plant.
The better practice is to apply in Novem-
ber; seventy-five or eighty per cent. of
the growers are doing that at-the pres-
ent time.
Prof. Hume-Mr. McCarty has men-
tioned the drying up or wilting of the
tops or leaves; I am convinced that the
trouble is back of that, which is only a
manifestation of the disorder. If you
take up one of these plants and cut a sec-
tion of it down under where the roots or-
iginate, you will find from one-half to two
inches of the bottom is lacking the root.
I have made some careful examinations
of those portions to determine whether
there are any traces of fungus in them,
but I have not discovered any, but it oc-
curs to me that the trouble must be
either bacterial or a fungus. The whole
root system is cut off and the wilt at the
top is a manifestation of its approaching
death. With regard to the Egyptian
Queen being subject to the red spider;
there is a difference in the susceptibility
of the different varieties to this disease. I
have a list giving the different varieties,
eight or ten of them, in the way of in-
stances. My recollection is that the


Egyptian Queen is one of the most sub-
ject to the disease and the Red Spanish
is almost entirely proof against it, but
that I am not certain. The disease ap-
pears to be contagious and I have seen
other fancy varieties taken up and in their
stead the Red Spanish was planted with-
out showing any sign of the disease.
Mr. Sperry-Have you any knowledge
how this disease is communicated to one
plant from another, whether by root con-
tact, leaf contact or otherwise? My ob-
servation has been that it grows in
groups. But some of those plants that I
have observed are perfectly healthy.
Prof. Hume-I have no certain knowl-
edge as to how this disease spreads. I
have some experiments under way now
to determine whether it is contagious or
Mr. Butler-Before this subject is
dropped, I want to protest against the
remark that pineapple sheds are built
with "grandmother's money," at least so
far as the West Coast is concerned, for
upon the Pinellas Peninsula there must
be thirty or forty Smooth Cayenne piner-
ies, every one of which is under a shed
and nearly all paying well. Among the
larger ones, I do not know of a single
failure, and many have netted over four
thousand dollars per acre for the first
crop of fruit and suckers.
Mr. McCarty-I confined my remarks
to the fruit grown on the East Coast. I
am glad to know they are making $4,000
an acre on the West Coast, and if I could
make as much as that, I should be a bloat-
ed bond-holder.
Mr. Blackman-The topic has refer-
ence to other fruits besides the pineapple.
There are fruits in our Southern country

that grow without disease and other trou-
bles. One of the best fruits that we grow
in Dade county is the alligator pear, one
of the greatest bearers. There are trees
with apparently no soil near or on the
surface, with comparatively light trunks,
that every year bear a thousand of this
fruit, which finds a ready market. Last
year in the grove of Capt. Tyler a branch
of an alligator pear broke off and he
found there were 360 well-developed
fruits on that branch. That fruit was
worth forty cents a dozen, and that was
only one branch of many on that tree.
Also with the mango, which grows with
ease, has no insect enemies, no diseases
and comes into bearing the third or
fourth year, and the fruit brings a good
price in the local markets. As to the
guava, that used to be grown all over the
State but is now confined to the lower
East and West Coasts. Last year the
priced dropped to $1.25 and $1.50 per
bushel delivered at the depot. It grows
there not as a bush or shrub but to the
size of the trees of the forest, and every
branch is loaded. Hardly anybody liv-
ing in this northern part, where these
tropical fruits do not grow, is aware of.
these facts, but I want you to know that
there is a country where you can grow
these tropical fruits with ease, as much
ease as in Cuba or any other tropical
country, and that they grow and they
bear. I have seen orange trees growing
and thriving, three and a half years old,
bearing three to three and a half boxes
per tree. (?) We must not overlook
these tropical fruits. No one has ever
said much from our section, so I make
these few remarks about the tropical
fruits that grow on our own continent
and in our own State.


Not Available for Commercial Purposes-Plant Only for Home Use.

By W. P. Neeld, of the Committee.

Of course we know of no other section
of the State where tropical fruits have
been grown except in South Florida. If
there is truly more happiness in pursuit
than in possession we can heartily rec-
ommend tropical fruit-growing in any
"favored locality" south of the twenty-
eighth parallel of latitude. Our experi-
ence in this industry is confined to
the little sub-peninsula of Pinellas on the
west side of Tampa Bay. Our observa-
tion embraces about all of Southwest
The lower sub-peninsula high pine
lands seemed to be especially adapted to
the mango and avocado pear. It would
be tedious to mention all the tropical
fruits that we have demonstrated to be
unsuited to our pine lands, and we have
no hammocks. The tamarind, the sugar
apple, the Jamaica apple and the sapadil-
lo, are notable failures with us, though
these fruits seem to flourish on the islands
further south, while the mango is almost
a failure, except at or about Fort Myers.
On the island of Marco the avocado pears
were quite prolific, but not near so fine

as with us, while the mango was not in
evidence, or at least not in countenance.
The writer does advise the setting of a
few trees of a tropical nature and of a
kind demonstrated to be "at home," but
he does not advise any one to attempt to
grow tropical fruits for market. After
we had runf the gauntlet of the colds of
average winters and produced thousands
of boxes or crates of mangoes and avoca-
do pears there was no extensive market
for them. A few cities in the South
paid fairly well for our product, but
strangers did not like them, and our
marketing was a flat failure, to use a
terse term.
If history is to repeat itself and cli-
mates never change-in the history of
man-we may expect our tropical fruit
trees to be destroyed in the future as in
the past.
Pineapples are grown successfully un-
der sheds, and a great many are being
set continually. The writer is an advo-
cate of the high lands for pines, and fa-
vors the lower sub-peninsula as the best
locality he knows.


At Orlando, the Interior Pineapple Center-Minute, Practical Description of Some Devices Used.

Paper by Dr. J. V. Calver

The freeze of February, 1899, empha-
sized the necessity for some means of per-
fectly protecting the pineapple from
The few pineries that at that time were
partially protected by covers demonstra-
ted their utility so that in the following
autumn the larger part of the growers in
and about Orlando took hold of the mat-
ter in earnest. Fortunately many plans
were tried, and although sufficient time
has not elapsed to demonstrate in full
which is the best method, yet a compari-
son of some points will serve to throw
considerable light on this important sub-
ject and open the way for additional
thought and more perfect methods.
Among the plans tried we mention the
I. Covering the plants with pinestraw.
2. Covering the pineries with station-
ary slats.
3. Covering the pineries with movable
slats in sections.
4. Covering the pineries with cloth.
I. Covering with pinestraw or other
similar material to a depth of a few inches
affords a very economical and*very good
protection for young plants, where it is
not desired to push them forward during

the winter. The cost is about $25 per
2. Covering with stationary slats
three-eighths of an inch thick, four inches
wide, sixteen feet long, each one tacked
to its place over the three inch opening,
gives protection to larger plants if fire
is also used during very cold weather;
but it makes the pinery dark and ex-
cludes the warmth, consequently the de-
velopment of the plants is retarded. This
plan requires about 30,000 feet of lumber
and costs from $200 to $250 per acre.
3. Covering with movable slats in sec-
tions of 8x8 or 8xi6 feet, which are
dropped into the open spaces on the ap-
proach of a cold wave, has some advan-
tages and some disadvantages. Two men
can cover or uncover an acre in about
two hours, and in warm weather the
plants get the benefit of the sun; but in
firing much of the heat escapes through
the cracks. The cost for fuel and labor
will approximate $5 per night per acre.
The primary cost of this cover is about
the same as that of the stationary slats.
4. Covering with cloth, while expen-
sive, promises the best results. It makes
a tight cover and retains the heat, while
sudden falls of temperature are not so


quickly felt. Very much less fuel and la-
bor are required. The cost of firing un-
der cloth in a large pinery should not ex-
ceed $2 per acre each night.
Several kinds of cloth have been tried,
varying from an eight ounce duck to a
four ounce muslin, and various ways of
preserving the cloth have been tested to
a limited extent. Which is the most eco-
nomical will take several years to deter-
An extensive experiment was tried
with the cloth prepared by the Varn pro-
cess. This being very heavy it was found
impracticable to use as a movable cover,
but spread on the top of the slats and se-
curely fastened answered very well. Its
first cost is great, but it promises to be
durable. Its disadvantages seem to be
its great weight in handling, and being
nearly water proof it requires irrigating
facilities to afford the necessary moisture
for the plants.
What appears to be a good method of
treating the cloth is to prepare a bath by
dissolving one pound of sulphate of zinc
in forty gallons of water and afterwards
adding one pound of sal soda and two
ounces of tartaric acid, each previously
dissolved by itself. The cloth is soaked
in this solution for twenty-four hours and
then dried without wringing. Five
ounce muslin treated by this process is in
good condition after two seasons' use.
We personally used a four ounce mus-
lin, passing it through a hot bath of par-
affine and oil (heated for safety by a
steam pipe) and immediately after
through a wringer, using four to six
pounds of paraffine to each gallon of oil.
Twelve thousand yards were treated in
about eighteen hours with the labor of
one man and two boys. The muslin had
been already sewed into strips three

yards wide. The object in this treatment
was to use as much paraffine as possible
without making the muslin water proof
after the oil evaporated. The muslin
came off in good condition at the end of
one season.
There are two methods of using the
muslin, one putting it above the slats,
the other below.
When the cloth is placed on top of the
slats it is necessary to fasten it very se-
curely. For this purpose wires over the
cloth secured by staples were generally
We used the muslin under the slats,
resting on wires three and one-half feet
apart. The edge of the muslin was se-
cured by drawing it under and around
the corner of the stringer and tacking it
once in eighteen inches or two feet, the
other edge being lapped over a pole one
inch square, which in turn was nailed to
the stringer. This proved perfectly se-
cure. The only disadvantage in this
method seems to be that as the strips of
cloth cross the beds, the cover is more
difficult to put on and take off when the
plants are very large. To obviate this we
would suggest making the strips of cloth
fifteen feet wide, and running them
lenghwise of the beds. A strip of wood
Ix3 inches nailed from post to post would
afford means to support the wires and the
edges of the cloth. The wires could pass
through the centre of the strip or be se-
cured by staples to the under side. Tack
the edge of the cloth around the corner
on the upper side and the next piece of
cloth around the corner on the under
side. Fastening it with four ounce tacks
in this way once in eighteen inches will
make it perfectly secure, and it can be
easily put on and taken off.
Other methods are being tried, among


which is a wooden cover to open and
shut like a window blind; a similar cover
is used for protecting brick in the brick-
yards along the Hudson river.
The amount of heat required under a
tight cloth cover is comparatively small.
We used with great satisfaction a very
simple coke stove, consisting of a cylin-
der of No. 20 sheet-iron twelve inches in
diameter and thirty inches in length,
made slightly tapering. A piece three
inches by four inches was cut out of the
lower edge, and the whole slipped over
the flange of a cast-iron grate, the grate
being without legs and when in use sup-
ported on three bricks. The fires were
started with a very small quantity of
wood or charcoal and the coke broken
into egg-size. To prevent any possible
danger to the cloth, two wires were bent
into the form of a letter W and slipped
over the upper edge of the stove and
these supported a piece of tin about
eighteen inches square three or four
inches above the stove. Six of these
stoves to the acre were found sufficient
to keep the temperature at 40 degrees
when it was 23 degrees outside, so that
ten or twelve to the acre will be sufficient
for any cold likely to occur where the
pineapple is raised. The cost of these
stoves is about $i each.
The cost of coke with us being not
less than $8 per ton, some preferred to
use wood. The best plan adopted for
burning wood was to use it in a stove of
sheet iron of oval form resting on the
ground; it had a large door with a verti-
cal movement and a pipe passing through
a piece of sheet-iron three feet square to
protect the cloth. These stoves, we un-
derstand, gave very good satisfaction.
They cost, with the necessary pipe, about
$3.50 apiece.

We contemplate trying some experi-
ments with oil-burners.
It has been estimated that the addi-
tional growth of plants under the cloth
cover during a single winter will nearly
or quite pay for such a cover.
It may afford the means, when prop-
erly understood, of bringing the crop
forward so as to perfect the fruit at the
season when it is most desired.
The many advantages of a cloth cover
seem to justify us in pronouncing it a de-
cided success.
Mr. McFarland-I ask the gentleman
in speaking of treating cloth with paraf-
fine, etc., to make it water proof and mil-
dew proof, does he treat it for mildew be-
fore he gives it the water proof? My rea-
son is I believe that by the experimenting
we have done since 1895 we hope to
spread around our successes and failures
as much as we possibly can. I believe
that it is for the benefit of the State of
Florida to find out what is right and what
is not right to do, and I say what I do
without antagonizing any one. In speak-
ing about water proofing a piece of cloth:
After twenty-two years' experience by
one that knows what canvas is, he ought
to have more knowledge about the treat-
ment of canvas for mildew or water
proofing than any one who has treated
canvas in the United States. Unless you
treat a cloth for mildew, do not put on
the paraffine; it will mildew quicker than
if you do not do anything to it. You
must take the starch all out of that cloth;
that is what causes mildew; take that out,
then put it in a solution of alum-that
does not allow it to take mildew. After
that water proof it, then you have mil-
dew proof and water proof and you have
not got it until you do. Those are facts
and I know it.


Considered Historically and Commercially-Best Varieties Up to Date-Excellent Advice as to Packing.

By L Cameron, of the Committee.

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
The strawberry has been termed the
Queen of Fruits, but in Florida we can
not yield it that place, as the orange is
Queen here, but the strawberry comes
next. It has given renewed life and pros-
perity in a great many localities when
the frost killed the hope of orange-rais-
Duval county has the honor of having
raised the first strawberry for shipment
to Northern markets.
The Wilson's Albany was the first
planted here, and was the leading variety
up to 1886. The Charleston Seedling
and the Newnan followed.
In those days the fruit began to come
in in the latter part of January, and Feb-
ruary was always reckoned as the straw-
berry month. Conditions have changed
and March and April are now the straw-
berry months.
Fruit shipped from here from 1886 to
1890 brought from 50 cents to $I.oo per
quart, and it did not pay to ship when
prices went below 30 cents. It thencost
about 15 cents per quart to put the fruit
in the Boston or New York markets.
There have been numerous varieties
planted during the past few years with
more or less success. The Hoffman,

Cloud and Michel were long the lead-
ers. The Lady Thompson came in a few
years ago and is probably the best vari-
ety grown.
From all quarters come praises of this
variety, and planted alongside of others,
the Brandywine, Clyde, Nick Ohmer and
other new varieties, went ahead of them
in earliness and productiveness.
The Brandywine was not a success; it-
is too late and a shy cropper, but a sweet-
er berry than the Lady Thompson, and it
might be called a second crop variety.
Lady Thompson planted the latter
part of September ripened some fruit for
Christmas, and with a light covering of
pine-straw the bloom was saved through
the February freeze, but got caught in
the March freeze, yet the plants were
soon in fruit again and produced a good
crop until drowned on April I8th. That
night 4.78 inches of rain fell before morn-
ing and did more damage than the frosts.
In regard to fertilizers, the different
soils require different treatment; more
potash is necessary on new heavy soil and
more ammonia on high, light soils. To
get strong plants for setting out it is
advisable to keep the bloom picked off a
few rows, not allowing them to fruit, and
to fertilize with a manure containing


more ammonia than for fruiting plants.
The runners will then have large, strong
crowns and will stand the transplanting
much better than weaker plants, conse-
quently reducing the chances of the
plants dying and having to be replaced.
*Many articles written on strawberry
culture advise planting late varieties for
a succession crop, but this does not apply
to Florida, for if a grower has several
acres to set out he wants them all early.
The prices of fruit have been greatly
injured by what is called "topping," that
is, putting green or imperfect berries in
the bottom of the basket and fine looking
fruit on top, and it seems that with all
that has been said and written against
this dishonest method of packing-and
dishonest it is-it is still practiced to
some extent.
A representative of a large and respon-
sible commission house in New York in-
formed me that hundreds of crates of
berries were thrown out or sold to ped-*
dlers for a song every year in New York
on account of this style of packing.
When a commission house knows that

fruit is put up honestly and can be recom-
mended to the best class of dealers, these
dealers know their customers and that
the price is not the object, but good
fruit, and will pay a great deal more for
a brand that they know will give their
customers satisfaction.
Put up your berries so that a dealer
can turn the basket upside down and
show as good fruit on the bottom as on
the top, and you will get the best prices
the market affords when your brand is
With all the back-sets of the past sea-
son, the frosts and the floods, the straw-
berry growers are not discouraged, but
are satisfied with their season's work and
almost all of them now contemplate
planting a larger acreage next fall.
Major Healy-What do you consider
the best table berry for home use?
Mr. Cameron-The Clyde is the best.
The Brandywine is not a profitable berry,
at least around Jacksonville. I cannot
recommend it either as a cropper or a


The Hardy Shade and Ornamental Trees of Florida-Native or Adopted Shrubs and Vines.

By J. W. Elsworth, of the Committee.

The subject of ornamentals presents a
subject so far-reaching in scope that in a
brief paper we cannot hope to more than
here and there stir the surface. It seems
to us well therefore to refer particularly
to some of the material for ornamental
planting to be had in abundance in al-
most any locality of the State. The ex-
perience of the past few years having
shown us the Tutility of using for perma-
nent planting anything not strictly hardy
has also added emphasis to the value of
many of our native sorts for this purpose.
In many sections of Florida is found a
considerable variety of oaks, of which the
water oak is perhaps most known and
used for street planting and shade trees.
By careful observation it will be seen that
this variety shows quite a wide variation
in color and shape of leaf. When put-
ting forth new growth this variation of
color is specially marked, ranging from
a light, almost yellow, green through in-
termediate shades to the darkest green,
some showing in the tender growth a dis-
tinct wine color, handsome and striking
in appearance. In form of leaf a tree
here shows a long, narrow leaf, while in
other specimens we find the foliage much
broader, some being heavily lobed.
Properly used these variations admit of
pleasing effects. A special and valuable
feature of the water oak is that, though
found growing naturally in a more or less
moist, rich soil, it readily adapts itself to
almost any situation and is specially suit-
able for planting in high, dry localities,*

where the small trees may be expected
to quickly develop into symmetrical and
beautiful specimens. The only objection
we have ever heard to this variety is that
it is not considered a long-lived sort,
forty to fifty years probably being the
The live oak is also desirable for orna-
mental planting, especially if one is wil-
ling to await its much slower develop-
ment. Though found naturally in more
or less moist situations this variety well
withstands transplanting to drier situa-
tions and when unrestricted in its devel-
opment shows much symmetry of
growth; it also attains a gigantic size and
lives to a good old age.
Among other desirable sorts may be
mentioned the magnolia grandiflora, thie
most popular broad-leaved evergreen of
the South, hardy as far north as New
York; the sweet bay, another variety of
the magnolia family, also very hardy; the
sweet gum, a tree of remarkably sym-
metrical growth, almost as hardy as the
sugar maple, which it much resembles;
the cabbage palm, of great beauty in any
stage of growth, very numerous in some
sections, and hardy as far north as South
Carolina; the wild cherry, the fruit of
which will attract to your homes as many
birds as a mulberry; various sorts of the
cedar family, several branching forms of
the pine, etc.
The foregoing are grouped by them-
selves on account of their large growth.
There are available many varieties of


smaller growth also suitable for orna-
mental planting; among these we find the
cherry laurel, a very beautiful sort, also
of special value as a hedge plant; vari-
ous sorts of holly, the dogwood, gray-
beard (chionantius), wild plum, prickly
ash (not an ash, but botanically xanthox-
ylum), hawthorn, aralia, etc.
The list of shrubs suitable for planting
about our homes includes many sorts of
great beauty, for instance various sorts
of vaccinium, including vaccinium arbo-
reum, which loads itself in spring with
myriads of small lily-of-the-valley-like
flowers, several species of andromeda, vi-
burnum, prunifolium, the foliage of
which is of the shiniest green, appearing

as if varnished; itea virginica, azalea un-
diflorum, the elder (sambucus), etc.
The list of desirable vines includes
many excellent sorts and admits of a con-
siderable variety. Perhaps the best
known is the yellow jessamine, a sort
that occasionally is found in bloom from
December to May; others are the trum-
pet vine, producing in great profusion
showy red flowers; various species of
smilax, or sweetbriar vine, the trumpet
creeper, Virginia creeper, etc., all hardy
and of free growth. This list is not in-
tended to be complete but to direct at-
tention to a few good sorts in each class
and urge upon planters the value and use
of our hardy native trees and plants.


Mr. Waite-I would like to ask some
of the old vegetable growers if there is
any remedy for tomato blight, and what
is the cause of it? Is it a lack of any-
thing in the soil or something else?
Mr. Gaitskill-There are two blights,
one of the fungus and one of bacteria.
We have not learned what will cure the
bacteria blight. Prof. Smith, of the Ag-
ricultural Department, Washington, D.
C,. has been working on it for six years
and has not learned what will cure it yet.
Mr. Healy-There is not very much
visible difference on sight between the
two, bacteria and fungus.
Mr. Cameron-It is caused sometimes
by too much moisture; I have several
times put pieces of charcoal around them
which helped them a great deal.
Mr. Gaitskill-With the fungus you

will notice the very tops of the vines wilt
and fall down, which is the first sign. If
you will look at the ground you will find
the bark will peel off. With the bacterial
blight you will find one leaf will turn yel-
low, then another and another; you will
find that disease in the wood tissue in the
plant; and there is no way to get rid of
it but to pull it up and throw it away.
We have been planting other crops for
about five years and there is no differ-
ence. Probably the dry seasons affect
this; we hope this wet weather will help
us out on that.
Dr. Inman-I have grown tomatoes
very extensively and I call to mind an in-
stance where the blight was very bad one
-season. On the same land we planted
potatoes the following season without
any blight.


The Nominating Committee, consist-
ing of S. H. Gaitskill, B. N. Bradt and F.
D. Waite, through the Chairman, pre-
sented a ticket, which was as follows:
President-George L. Taber, Glen St.
Vice-Presidents-Dr. George Kerr,
Pierson; G. W. Wilson, Jacksonville; W.
A. Cooper, Orlando.
Secretary-Stephen Powers, Jackson-
ville. j
Treasurer-W. S. Hart, Hawks Park.

Executive Comnrittee-Lyman Phelps,
Chairman, Sanford; E. S. Hubbard, Fed-
eral Point; E. O. Painter, DeLand.
Each of the above-named gentlemen,
in succession, on motion made and sec-
onded, was unanimously elected by the
Secretary being instructed to cast the
vote of the Society for him. In case of
the Secretary the Treasurer was so in-
structed. Each of the officers elect re-
turned grateful acknowledgements in a
few fitting and occasionally humorous re-


This function, on this occasion, proved
to be uncommonly spirited and exciting.
There was a strong sentiment among
many of the older members that, since
the Society had met, at one time or an-
other, in nearly every representative sec-
tion of the State-Orlando three times,
Ocala twice, Ormond, DeLand, Inter-
lachen, Jacksonville three times, Pensa-
cola-that the West Coast should be ac-
corded the courtesy of meeting in that
section this time. This view was ably
presented by W. S. Hart, who, as a resi-
dent of the East Coast and one of the
oldest members of the Society, spoke.
from a vantage ground of great strength.
Early in the session the West Coast
had two candidates, Tampa and St. Pe-

tersburg, but before the election came )n
the friends of the two places harmonized
their views by agreeing to work unitedly
for St. Petersburg. The attractions and
inducements of St. Petersburg in partic-
ular and West South Florida in general,
especially of that fertile and rapidly ad-
vancing region, the Manatee river val-
ley, were earnestly and eloquently pre-
sented by C. W. Butler, M. E. Gillett, A.
J. Pettigrew, F. D. Waite and Dr. F. W.
Inman. It was urged, with little possi-
bility of successful contradiction, that ex-
treme Southwestern Florida is now
practically the only productive orange
belt of the State; that this section has
scores of splendid pineries in fruit or in
building; that this Society, if it is any-

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