• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 South Florida bird habitats
 South Florida birding areas
 The status of South Florida...






Title: Field list of South Florida birds
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053714/00001
 Material Information
Title: Field list of South Florida birds
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Cunningham, Richard L.
Tropical Audubon Society
Publisher: Little River Press, Inc.
Publication Date: 1961
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- South Florida
 Notes
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Coastal Engineering Department series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053714
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01591745

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Acknowledgement
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    South Florida bird habitats
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    South Florida birding areas
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    The status of South Florida birds
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
Full Text


A FIELD LIST
of
South Florida Birds
ici
Richard L. Cunningham



















Over 'Photograph of 'Roseate Spoonbill

by

'Dade '). ;homton










A FIELD LIST

OF

SOUTH FLORIDA BIRDS


By


RICHARD L. CUNNINGHAM

Research Assistant

National Audubon Society


Sponsored by Tropical Audubon Society













The Little River Press, Inc.
Miami, Florida
1961







ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author wishes to express his gratitude
to the Board of Directors of the Tropical Audubon
Society for their sponsorship of this book. To
Dade Thornton, President, my special thanks are
given for his interest and support of this proj-
ect. The author hopes this book will help to
stimulate an interest in, increase the knowledge
of, and promote the conservation of South Florida
birds.

I would like to offer my special gratitude
to the following men for offering suggestions and
checking the accuracy of the manuscript: Dennis
R. Paulson, Department of Zoology, University of
Miami; Dr. William B. Robertson, Jr. Field Re-
search Biologist, Everglades National Park; and
Alexander Sprunt, IV, Director, Research Depart-
ment, National Audubon Society.

The author is also indebted to the following
men for either checking the manuscript or offer-
ing valuable information: Charles M. Brookfield
and Alexander Sprunt, Jr.,of the National Audubon
Society, Robert Porter Allen, Louis Stimson, and
Art Schaffner.

To my wife Celina,I wish to thank deeply for
her help in many, many ways in these past months.


Richard L. Cunningham
Tavernier, Florida








INTRODUCTION


South Florida offers some of the finest bird-
ing areas in the United States and some of its
most interesting birds. The purpose of this book
is to describe these areas, how to reach them,
and what to look for. A section is given on the
major habitats and the birds indicative of these
habitats. The second section gives details on
birding areas and how to find the special birds
of the area. Finally, a section of graphs shows
the relative abundance of each species known to
occur in South Florida.

South Florida, as covered by this book,
includes all the area from Martin, Glades, and
Charlotte Counties south to Key West, the Marque-
sas Keys, and the Dry Tortugas.

Several species of West Indian birds occur
mainly in the South Florida area and are not
regularly found elsewhere in the United States.
Large numbers of migrants can be found in both
spring and fall. The mild winter climate makes
it possible for several species which normally
winter further south, to have some individuals
remain the entire winter. The great amount of
water areas in South Florida attract large numbers
of water birds, particularly in winter. Several
species of western birds are regularly found in
the area in migration and during the winter. The
offshore waters offer interesting pelagic birding
throughout the year. Hurricanes and other storms
often cause West Indian or pelagic birds to occur
in the South Florida area. These birds are gen-
erally found along the coasts.








SOUTH FLORIDA BIRD HABITATS


In order to find a certain species, it is
important to know the type of habitat in which it
occurs. Some species may occur in two or more
habitats, while others may be restricted to only
one. Below are the major bird habitats of South
Florida. Most species listed are typical breed-
ing birds of that habitat; others are seasonal
visitors which are nonbreeders,but they are to be
looked for in the given habitat.

1. Tropical Hammocks Woods composed of trees
and shrubs of West Indian origin; found along
coasts, in the Everglades, and in the Keys. Birds:
White-crowned Pigeon, Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Chuck-
will's-widow, Pileated Woodpecker, Crested Fly-
catcher, and Carolina Wren.

2. Pinelands Found along both coasts,on higher
ground inland (Long Pine Key area), Big Pine Key
in the Lower Keys (which actually lacks many of
the typical pineland birds); make up much of west
coast area. Slash Pine and Saw Palmetto are the
dominant plants. Birds: Bobwhite, Turkey, Great
Horned Owl, Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Brown-headed
Nuthatch, Eastern Bluebird, Pine Warbler, and
Bachman's Sparrow.

3. Wood Margins and Thickets areas with small
trees and shrubs, often dense and hard to walk in.
Birds: House Wren, Catbird, White-eyed Vireo,
Orange-crowned Warbler, Yellow-breasted Chat,
Painted Bunting, and many other finches.

4. Sand Scrub Sand Pine and Rosemary are typ-
ical plants of this habitat; occurs in a narrow
strip along the east coast south to Ft.Lauderdale
and scattered along west coast. Birds: the Scrub
Jay is restricted to the sand scrub areas, though
is lacking in many suitable places in the western
part of South Florida.







5. Cypress Swamps Occur mainly in southwestern
part of area (Big Cypress Swamp), scattered else-
where; Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary is an excellent
place to see typical cypress swamp wildlife.
Birds: Wood Duck, Limpkin, Barred Owl, Pileated
Woodpecker, Tufted Titmouse, and Blue-gray Gnat-
catcher.

6. Fields or Pastures Cleared or cultivated
areas, usually grassy. Birds: Cattle Egret,
Burrowing Owl, Loggerhead Shrike, blackbirds, and
grackles. Ideal habitat to search for Golden and
Upland Plovers during migration; other shorebirds
often occur.

7. Prairies Found along western side of Lake
Okeechobee, with large areas present in Charlotte,
Glades, and Hendry Counties; Cabbage Palm Hammocks
are often present. Birds: Caracara, Sandhill
Crane, Burrowing Owl, Loggerhead Shrike, and
Grasshopper Sparrow.

8. Lakes, Rivers, Rockpits, Canals Areas which
often support large numbers of wading birds,
waterfowl, and other water birds. Birds: Pied-
billed Grebe, Double-crested Cormorant, Anhinga,
various herons and egrets, Wood Ibis, White Ibis,
ducks, Bald Eagle, Osprey, Common Gallinule,
American Coot, Belted Kingfisher, and many other
birds.

9. Fresh-water Marshes -This is the habitat that
makes up the true Everglades, with sawgrass the
dominant vegetation. Large numbers of wading
birds are found in fall, winter, and spring, along
with waterfowl and shorebirds. Birds: Mottled
Duck, Everglade Kite, Limpkin, King Rail, Black-
necked Stilt, and Gull-billed Tern.

10. Salt Marshes Found along the coasts and in
the Keys. Birds: the Clapper Rail is confined
to this habitat. Many wading birds and shorebirds
are often present in salt marsh areas.








11. Mangrove Forests Found along both coasts,
the Keys, and on Florida Bay islands. Birds:
Mangrove Cuckoo, Gray Kingbird, Black-whiskered
Vireo, Yellow Warbler, and Prairie Warbler. Great
White Herons, Reddish Egrets, Roseate Spoonbills,
Wood Ibis, and many other wading birds nest in
mangrove rookeries.

12. Bays and Coast-Saltwater areas which harbor
large numbers of ducks and other water birds.
Birds: Common Loon, Horned Grebe, Brown Pelican,
White Pelican, Magnificent Frigate-bird, Great
White Heron, Reddish Egret, Bald Eagle, and Osprey.

13. Beaches or Mudflats Found along both coasts
and in Keys. Marco Island, Flamingo, and Ricken-
backer Causeway in Miami offer good beach birding.
Wading birds, shorebirds, gulls, and terns are to
be expected. Birds: Snowy Plover (West Coast),
Wilson's Plover, Willet, Laughing Gull, Least,
Royal, Sandwich, and Caspian Terns, and Black
Skimmer.

14. Oceanic Pelagic birds seldom seen from
shore, are best found by going out on a charter
fishing boat to the Gulf Stream. Exact status of
South Florida pelagic birds is not well known.
Audubon's Shearwaters can best be found during
summer and fall; other species of shearwaters and
petrels occur frequently. Sooty, Bridled, and
Noddy Terns are often seen offshore during summer
and fall. Gannets can generally be found during
winter.

15. Towns and Suburbs Urban and residential
areas with their diverse plant life attract many
land birds. The Spotted-breasted Oriole is found
in residential sections, mainly in the Miami area.
During the winter months well maintained bird
feeders attract many birds, often including the
Painted and Indigo Buntings.








SOUTH FLORIDA BIRDING AREAS


There are many good places to see birds in
South Florida. The best areas are described be-
low. Birds of special interest are underlined for
quick reference. Directions are given and should
be used with a good road map.

1. Miami area has several good birding spots.
Matheson Hammock County Park, south of Miami, with
its fine tropical hammocks, lakes, mangroves, and
beaches offers good land and water birding. To
reach the park from downtown Miami, drive south
on U. S. 1 to Le Jeune Road (S. W. 42 Ave.); then
south on Le Jeune until you reach a circle; con-
tinue straight ahead on Old Cutler Road to the
park. Turn left and enter the park; drive about
150 feet and park in the open area to your left.
Walk across the road and check the hammock on both
sides of Old Cutler Road. This is a good area for
migrants and wintering land birds. Herons, ducks,
and other water birds can often be seen on the
lakes. A drive to the wading beach and the swim-
ming beach parking lot often produces shorebirds
and other water birds.
Adjacent to this park is the Fairchild Trop-
ical Gardens, also a good land birding area. The
Spotted-breasted Oriole can be found here and all
over the Miami area. The orioles are very common
in the Coconut Grove area, especially around
Loquat and Poinciana Avenues. Another good place
to look for the orioles is in Bayfront Park near
the Public Library in downtown Miami. In the park
during summer, look for the Gray Kingbird and the
Black-whiskered Vireo.
Rickenbacker Causeway to Key Biscayne offers
good water and shore birding. Just after cross-
ing the second bridge check the shoreline on both
sides. Look for Semipalmated and Piping Plovers
(winter), Wilson's Plover (summer), Willets and
other shorebirds, Royal Tern, Least Tern(summer),








and Caspian Tern (winter). Laughing Gulls are
always present and in winter look for Ring-billed
and Herring Gulls also. This is a good area to
look for the rarer winter gulls such as Glaucous,
Great Black-backed, and Kittiwake. In the mud-
flats north of the road look for various wading
birds, including the Great White Heron, Reddish
Egret, and Roseate Spoonbill which ere occasional
visitors. During the summer look for the Gra
Kingbird and the Black-whiskered Vireo(mangroves)
on Virginia Key. The small hammocks on Key Bis-
cayne should be checked for migrating or wintering
land birds. The hammock a couple of blocks south
of the Jamaica Inn is often very good.
During the winter the many rockpits and lakes
in the Miami area often have good numbers of
ducks. The rockpits on both sides of S. W. 72
Avenue at 56 Street are two of the better. The
Redhead, Canvasback, and Bufflehead can often be
seen here. Biscayne Bay, just south of the Mercy
Hospital parking lot, often has wintering ducks
of several species.
Burrowing Owls can be found in the fields at
Miami International Airport. Drive out West Flag-
ler to N. W. 57 Avenue and turn right; stay on 57
Avenue until it dead ends at the airport. Park
the car and search the fields. The owls can also
be found in the pasture lands around Dressel's
Dairy (N. W. 72 Avenue, north of 20 Street). Cow-
birds in the winter, and shorebirds can often be
found in back of the dairy. This is one of the
few places Starlings breed in South Florida.
Greynolds Park, north of Miami on U. S. 1,
has a large breeding colony of Cattle Egrets and
other wading birds. Good land birding can often
be found in the woods. Another good place to see
the Spotted-breasted Oriole.
During the winter the National Audubon Soci-
ety runs its famous Wildlife Tours to Everglades
National Park and the Florida Keys. During the
summer tours are taken to Duck Rock on the wes t
coast. Information can be obtained from the Miami







orrice at 143 N. E. 3 Avenue. Audubon Tours are
an excellent way to see South Florida wildlife.

2. Tamiami Trail The Trail (U.S. 41) cuts
across the Everglades from Miami to the west
coast. During the winter and spring large numbers
of wading birds, ducks, and other water birds can
be seen along the canal and in the marshes. The
Loop Road, leaving the Trail at Forty Mile Bend
and rejoining it at Monroe Station, passes through
good pine and cypress habitats. This is a good
birding area, but the road is of poor quality and
the birder takes his own chances using it. The
road is often impassable during times of high
water. The Turkey, Barred Owl, Limpkin, and other
birds of pine and cypress lands can be seen.
A drive along theTrail may produce such birds
as Pied-billed Grebe,Great Blue Heron, Common and
Snowy Egrets, Louisiana and Little Blue Herons,
Cattle Egret, Green and Black-crowned Night Her-
ons, Wood Ibis, White Ibis, Mottled Duck and other
species in winter, Swallow-tailed Kite (spring
and summer), Sandhill Crane, Limpkin, King Rail,
Purple and Common Gallinules, Coot, shorebirds in
the marshes, Pileated Woodpecker, swallows, and
other land birds.
Stops should be made at large cypress heads
for the Wood Duck, Turkey, Limpkin, Pileated Wood-
pecker, Tufted Titmouse, and Red-eyed Vireo. One
of the best stops is that 8.0 miles west of Monroe
Station. This is a good place for migrants and
wintering warblers.
One of the best places to see the endemic
Cape Sable Sparrow is the marsh 1.2 miles west of
Ochopee, south of the Trail. Best time to find
the birds, which are resident, is in the spring
when they are singing. In the winter Savannah and
Sharp-tailed Sparrows are also present. The Cape
Sable Sparrow is no longer found on Cape Sable.
Driving west from the junction of the Trail
and State 29, check the rockpits and the ponds for
wading birds, ducks, shorebirds, gulls and terns.








The Mottled Duck and Sandhill Crane can often be
seen.

3. Chokoloskee Island -Can be reached by driving
south on State 29 at the junction of 29 and the
Tamiami Trail (U. S. 41); drive slowly on the
causeway from Everglades to Chokoloskee. The
beaches offer good shorebirding and many wading
birds can often be found in the mangroves and the
marshes. In the spring and summer look for the
Swallow-tailed Kite, Mangrove Cuckoo, Gray King-
bird, and Black-whiskered Vireo. Good land bird-
ing, particularly in migration, can oftenbe found
at Everglades and Chokoloskee.

4. Marco Island Is often one of the best bird-
ing areas in South Florida. At the junction of
the Tamiami Trail (U. S. 41) and State 92 (about
15 miles south of Naples), turn and drive west on
92 until you cross a bridge. If during spring or
summer, turn left and drive into Goodland. Swal-
low-tailed Kites are common here as they are on
the whole island. Return to 92 and take mileage.
Drive ahead on 92 for 1.3 miles; look carefully
on your left for the pilings of an old bridge.
If possible, cross over onto the road that leads
into the woods. This is a good area for migrants
and wintering land birds. In the mangrove forest
on either side of State 92 look and listen for the
Mangrove Cuckoo. Marco Island is one of the best
areas in South Florida for this elusive species.
Drive ahead on 92 until you come to the beach;
either drive or walk up to the north end of the
beach. If possible, cross over the channel to
the beach on the other side. On either beach look
for the Magnificent Frigate-bird, an occasional
Great White Heron, Reddish Egret, Roseate Spoon-
bill (summer), Snowy and Wilson's Plovers, many
shorebirds, gulls and terns, including Sandwich
Tern, Black Skimmer, and Bald Eagle.







By driving south on State 951 to Caxambas, or
north to the town of Marco, more good shorebirding
can often be found. At Caxambas, during spring
and summer, look for the Mangrove Cuckoo, Gray
Kingbird, and Black-whiskered Vireo. Check the
hammocks north of Caxambas for land birds. Take
the first road south of the large pink house that
you pass on your way to Caxambas.

5. South Allapattah Gardens and the adjacent
farmlands offer year around good birding. Drive
south from Miami on U. S. 1 to Princeton, turn
left (east) onto Coconut Palm Drive (the main
cross street passing a Cities Service Gas Sta-
tion). Drive ahead 2.5 miles; after crossing a
four lane highway, turn right on the first road.
Smooth-billed Anis are resident and can usually be
found near the grove of large Royal Palms or on
the next street east. Look for them on the ground
or in the hibiscus bushes. During the winter
Western Kingbirds are regular, and Scissor-tailed
Flycatchers are occasional here. Baltimore Ori-
oles often winter here as does the rare Bullock's
Oriole. The hammocks in the farmlands offer good
land birding during migration. A drive on any of
the back roads through the farmlands is always
interesting. During winter the rare Swainson's
Hawk and the Avocet can often be seen in the
fields. During spring or late summer and fall the
fields should be checked for migrant shorebirds,
such as Golden Plover (rare), Upland Plover, Pec-
toral and Baird's Sandpipers(rare). During spring
and fall large numbers of Bobolinks can be seen
in the fields. During summer Black-necked Stilts
should be looked for.
A drive down the Card Sound road usually pro-
duces wading birds, often including the Roseate
Spoonbill. Check the marsh around the transmit-
ting tower. Card Sound road joins U. S. 1 at the
southern end of Florida City just where U. S. 1
becomes a four lane highway.








6. Everglades National Park-is one of America's
greatest birding areas. During the winter large
numbers of wading birds, shorebirds, ducks, gulls,
and terns are present. Many land birds winter and
large numbers pass through in migration. Summer
offers many of the West Indian species typical of
South Florida. The park is reached by driving
south on U. S. 1 to Florida City, then west on
State 27 to the park. After entering the park,
drive about three miles, turn left at sign, and
drive to Royal Palm Ranger Station. From here
walk to the end of Anhinga Trail. Watch for many
wading birds, including White Ibis, Wood Ibis,
American Bittern(winter), Least Bittern, and Limp-
kin. Anhingas are common. At the end of the
boardwalk look for the Purple Gallinule on the
lily pads. This is the best area in the park to
see them. While at Royal Palm watch overhead for
the rare Short-tailed Hawk. Gumbo Limbo Trail and
all of the surrounding hammock offers good land
birding. Return to main road and continue toward
Flamingo.
A stop at Mahogany Hammock often produces
such birds as Pileated Woodpecker and Barred Owl.
When you reach West Lake, if during winter, look
for large numbers of Coots and ducks. From here
to Flamingo in spring and summer watch for Swal-
low-tailed Kites. Also, from West Lake to Flamin-
go, watch for the Short-tailed Hawk. One of the
outstanding bird attractions in the park in late
winter and spring is Mrazek Pond, east of the road
and just north of Coot Bay Pond. Blue-winged and
Green-winged Teal, Pintail, and American Widgeon
are often seen, along with many species of herons,
egrets, ibis, and Roseate Spoonbills. Just before
crossing the bridge to Flamingo, turn left at the
road marked "Utility Area". Search the mudflats
for shorebirds, including the Long-billed Curlew
and Marbled Godwit. Also, look for the White
Pelican, Great White Heron, Reddish Egret, Bald
Eagle, Osprey, Wilson's Plover, Caspian Tern, and
Black Skimmer.








At Flamingo, good land birding can often be
found in the mangroves at the campgrounds. Two
excellent birding areas are closed to the general
public, but birders may obtain permission and
directions to reach them from a park ranger.
These are Snake Bight and Bear Lake. The roads to
both these areas have good land birding, and the
White-crowned Pigeon and Mangrove Cuckoo can often
be seen. Snake Bight is an excellent place for
shorebirds and water birds. Flamingos are occa-
sionally found at Snake Bight but are seldom seen
from the end of the road. Bear Lake offers good
water birding, with many species of ducks and
wading birds present in winter. The evening flight
seen from the end of the Bear Lake Road is an
impressive sight. A stop at Paurotis Pond often
produces water birds, including the Mottled Duck
and the Caspian Tern (winter).

7. Keys The first key U. S. 1 touches is Key
Largo, on about the middle of the island. By
turning left (north), there is a lot of tropical
hammock left with good land birding. During the
summer, here and on all of the Keys, the White-
crowned Pigeon, Gray Kingbird, and Black-whiskered
Vireo are common. The Mangrove Cuckoo, le ss
common and harder to find, is also present along
with the Yellow-billed Cuckoo. The Short-tailed
Hawk can often be seen on upper Key Largo. At
Tavernier during the winter, the National Audubon
Society runs trips into Florida Bay to Cowpens
Key. Here a large colony of Roseate Spoonbills
nest, along with Great White Herons and Reddish
Egrets. Non-breeding Magnificent Frigate-birds
are also seen here. These birds can usually be
seen all the way to Key West.
Near the southern end of the town of Islamo-
rada look for the 1935 Hurricane Monument east of
U. S. 1. Drive one block (0.2 mile) north of the
monument on the old road and turn right at first
cross street. Park the car at end of short block.
Scissor-tailed Flycatchers and Western Kingbirds
can often be found during winter.








On Lower Matecumbe Key take the old road west
of U. S. 1. During the winter Scissor-tails and
Western Kingbirds are found on wires or in trees.
White-winged Doves are occasional. At the very
southern end of the island check the beach on the
Atlantic side for shorebirds, gulls, and terns.
Black Skimmers are abundant here in the winter ;
Sandwich Terns are often found here in winter
also.
Pigeon Key, along the Seven Mile Bridge, often
produces excellent land birding during migration,
especially after strong westerly winds.
On Big Pine Key a drive over the back roads
offers good land birding. This is one of the best
of the keys to see the Mangrove Cuckoo. Also look
for the White-crowned Pigeon and the South Flor-
ida breeding race of the Yellow Warbler.
On Stock Island, first island north of Key
West, turn at sign west of U. S. 1 saying "Monroe
General Hospital". Drive past hospital and turn
right on next road(a dead end). Park car and walk
into woods on east side of road. White-crowned
Pigeons, common in summer, regularly winter in
small numbers. These woods offer good land bird-
ing during migration. Several species of migrants,
rare in the rest of South Florida, can often be
found here. In Key West the old cemetery offers
good land birding, and the drive around the island
along the water's edge offers good water birding.
Check the salt ponds near South RooseveltBoule-
vard for various shorebirds; Avocets are possible
in winter, and Black-necked Stilts can often be
seen in summer.

8. Dry Tortugas Lie 68 miles west of Key West
and can be reached by chartering a boat from Key
West. Food and water must be taken along. Per-
mission to stay at Fort Jefferson must be obtained
from the Superintendent, Everglades National Park,
Box 275, Homestead, Florida. During spring and
fall large numbers of migrants pass through the
Tortugas. The islands are best known for their







breeding colonies of Sooty and Nodd Terns, found
nowhere else in the United States. The Roseate
Tern also nests here in small numbers. These
birds are present from April to September. The
non-breeding Brown and Blue-faced Boobies can be
seen year around. The boat trip to the Tortugas
may produce the Audubon's Shearwater, Wilson's
Petrel, and other pelagic birds.

9. Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary Owned by the
National Audubon Society, this beautiful refuge
features a cypress swamp with surrounding pine-
lands and marshes. A 3,555 foot boardwalk leads
into the cypress swampto America's largest breed-
ing colony of Wood Ibis (December to March).
Several species of wading birds can be seen in
the swamp, plus the Anhinga, Wood Duck, Limpkin,
Barred Owl, Pileated Woodpecker, and Tufted tit-
mouse. In the pinelands around the entrance look
for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Brown-headed
Nuthatch, and Pine Warbler. Corkscrew is about
30 miles northeast of Naples. From Naples drive
north on U. S.41 about 8 miles and turn east on
State 846; stay on 846 until you see the sign.
Corkscrew can also be reachedby driving southwest
from Immokalee on State 846 for about 16 miles.
During the winter the National Audubon Society
runs a one day Wildlife Tour to Corkscrew from
Naples.

10. Lake Okeechobee area At Clewiston, the
Smooth-billed Ani is resident and can usually be
seen near the high school or along the street
bordering the levee. A drive up onto the top of
the levee should produce several species of wading
birds, Gull-billed Terns (summer), and many ducks
in winter. One of America's rarest birds, the
Everglade Kite, is occasionally seen around the
lake. A fishing guide is necessary to find the
birds.
From Clewiston drive west on U. S. 27. Just
before 27 turns north, check the fields on north
side of road for Burrowing Owls. About two miles








west of Moore Haven take State 78 north. At the
junction of State 721 and 78, one may take either
road, or both via a loop on State 70. Either way
look for the Glossy Ibis, Mottled Duck, Caracara,
Sandhill Crane, Black-necked Stilt (summer),
Burrowing Owl, and Fish Crow. Large numbers of
wading birds, shorebirds, and ducks can often be
found in the marshes. This is one of the best
birding areas in South Florida. The Devil's
Garden, south of Clewiston on State Roads 832,
833, and 846, often produces many of the above
mentioned birds.

11. Jonathan Dickinson State Park Is on U. S.
1, 13 miles south of Stuart. Sand scrub and pine-
lands form the major habitats. Scrub Jays are
very common and tame in the park. Though wide-
spread, they are most common at the campgrounds.
The park also offers good land birding during
migration. Water birds can often be found in the
ponds along the road to the Loxahatchee River, or
at the river itself.

12. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge Has
large numbers of wading birds and ducks present
during winter. The Mottled Duck, Sandhill Crane,
and Limpkin are resident. The Everglade Kite is
an occasional visitor to the refuge. Black-necked
Stilts and Gull-billed Terns are summer visitors.
The refuge headquarters are on the Lee Road, about
two miles south of U. S. 441 and State 804, south-
west of West Palm Beach. Loxahatchee offers one
of the best areas to see waterfowl concentrations
in South Florida. Often during the winter, the
rare Fulvous Tree Duck can be found on the refuge.

13. Fort Myers area Pine Island is reached by
driving north from Fort Myers on U.S. 41 to State
78, then west on 78 to the island. State 767
reaches both ends of the island. Pinelands form
the major habitat. Several pairs of Bald Eagles
nest on the island. Many wading birds, shore-








birds, gulls, and terns can be seen along the
shore at Bokeelia, Pineland, and St. James City.
Look for Yellow-crowned Night Herons, White Ibis,
and other birds in the mangroves, salt marshes,
and on the beaches.
Sanibel Island is reached by driving south-
west from Fort Myers on State 867 to Punta Rassa,
thence by ferry. After coming off the ferry turn
right onto the main road; follow this road until
it dead ends. Turn left and drive on until you
see an observation tower on your right. Take the
road into the tower and park. From the tower
search the marshes for ducks, herons, egrets, and
other water birds. Good land and shorebirding can
often be found around the Sanibel Light at refuge
headquarters on the eastern end of the island.
Sanibel National Wildlife Refuge includes Sanibel
and part of Captiva Island. Large numbers of
ducks winter on the refuge, along with many other
water birds. During summer the Mottled Duck,
Black-necked Stilt, Least Tern, Wilson's Plover,
Mangrove Cuckoo, Gray Kingbird, and Black-whisk-
ered Vireo are found nesting. Roseate Spoonbills
are summer visitors. Snowy Plovers and Sandwich
Terns are also seen in summer. Spring and fall
migrants often occur in large numbers, especially
after strong westerly winds.







THE STATUS OF SOUTH FLORIDA BIRDS


The graphs on the following pages show the
status of the birds of South Florida. Status is
given in terms of relative abundance for all of
the South Florida region. Some species are more
common in certain parts of the area and may even
be missing in other parts. For example, the Fish
Crow is abundant in the northern and western parts
of South Florida, uncommon in the southern part,
and is of rare occurrence in the Keys. It is not
to be implied that the abundance of one species
can be compared with that of all other species.
Some species may occur in several habitats, be of
widespread range and are considered common; other
species may be restricted to a certain habitat,
or in localized area, and can also be considered
common in these certain areas.

The following symbols are used to denote the
relative abundance of each species. The varying
thickness of the lines indicates the status for
those species which are common, uncommon, or rare.
A dot or circle indicates those species of casual
or accidental occurrence; these symbols do not
necessarily indicate individual records but times
of occurrence. A line connecting dots or circles
indicates records within the time period.


Common

Uncommon I

Rare

Casual 0

Accidental 0

Nesting Birds of South Florida are listed
in the first column of the graph pages. A total







of 115 species are considered to nest in the re-
gion. Many species occur in only parts of the
total area covered by this book. The following
symbols are used to show the areas of South Flor-
ida in which each species is generally found
nesting.


A All of South Florida (mainland and Keys)
M Mainland
K Keys and Florida Bay islands
N Northern part of mainland
S Southern part of mainland
E Eastern part of mainland
W Western part of mainland
T Dry Tortugas
C Coastal areas

Habitats of South Florida Birds are listed
in the second column of the graph pages. Only
the major habitats for each species are listed.
Several species often occur in other habitats not
listed for each species. The following symbols
are used to denote the habitats.

H Tropical Hammocks
Pi Pinelands
W Wood Margins and Thickets
SS Sand Scrub
C Cypress Swamps
FP Fields or Pastures
Pr Prairies
L Lakes, Rivers, Rockpits, Canals
FM Fresh-water Marshes
SM Salt Marshes
M Mangrove Forests
Ba Bays and Coasts
B Beaches or Mudflats
0 Oceanic
T Towns and Suburbs








COMMON LOON O-Ba

ARCTIC LOON O-Ba O

RED-THROATED LOON O-Ba

RED-NECKED GREBE O-Ba --
O-Ba
HORNED GREBE L --

PIED-BILLED GREBE M FM-L

CORY'S SHEARWATER 0 0

GREATER SHEARWATER O0 -

SOOTY SHEARWATER 0

MANX SHEARWATER 0

AUDUBON'S SHEARWATER 0

HARCOURT'S PETREL O0

WILSON'S PETREL 0 I n-


SPECIES


N HAB JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC





SPECIES


WHITE-TAILED TROPIC-BIRD O O

WHITE PELICAN Ba-L

BROWN PELICAN A Ba

BLUE-FACED BOOBY O

BROWN BOOBY 0

GANNET 0

GREAT CORMORANT Ba 0
Ba-L
DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT A FM
L-FM
ANHINGA M C-Ba


MAGNIFICENT FRIGATE-BIRD


GREAT WHITE HERON


K


O-Ba


Ba-


Ba-L
GREAT BLUE HERON A FM-B
FM-L
GREEN HERON A Ba-C


I I


TD. j I Idt- I --ICIC I I I ll~


-DI


I I I I I I


N lIAR JAN li'R MAR~ APR MAY .TTnhI .TIIT.v ATrr~ cu'wii j~Jr, pjjr w


I


I


| *







FM-L
LITTLE BLUE HERON A Ba-C
FP-L
CATTLE EGRET M Pr-T


REDDISH EGRET


Ba-B


SFM-L
COMMON EGRET A Ba-C
FM-L
SNOWY EGRET A Ba-C
FM-L
LOUISIANA HERON A Ba-C
FM-C
BLACK-CR. NIGHT HERON A M-L


Vl'T~ I %fOUT(!U'P VWDAU


Ba-M
nwu


LEAST BITTERN M FM

AMERICAN BITTERN FM
FM-C
WOOD IBIS M M-L

GLOSSY IBIS N FM-L

WHITE-FACED IBIS FM-L


SPECIES


N HAB







FM-L
WHITE IBIS M Ba-B


ROSEATE SPOONBILL


Ba-B


AMERICAN FLAMINGO Ba-B

CANADA GOOSE FM-L
Ba-L
BRANT FM

SNOW GOOSE FM-L 0

BLUE GOOSE FM-L

FULVOUS TREE DUCK FM-L

MALLARD FM-L
Ba
BLACK DUCK FM-L

MOTTLED DUCK M m mm

GADWALL FM-L
Ba
PINTAIL FM-L


I I I~ r I CI ~I ~


SPECIES


N HAB JAN F








BAHAMA DUCK Ba-L

GREEN-WINGED TEAL FM-L
FM-L
BLUE-WINGED TEAL Ba

CINNAMON TEAL L-FM 0

EUROPEAN WIDGEON L O
FM-L
AMERICAN WIDGEON Ba
FM-L
SHOVELER Ba

WOOD DUCK M C

REDHEAD Ba-L
L-Ba
RING-NECKED DUCK FM

CANVASBACK Ba-L

GREATER SCAUP Ba-L

LESSER SCAUP Ba-L


SPECIES


N HAAB JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC







COMMON GOLDENEYE Ba-L -

BUFFLEHEAD L-Ba

OLDSQUAW L-Ba_ 0

COMMON EIDER Ba 0

WHITE-WINGED SCOTER Ba

SURF SCOTER Ba

RUDDY DUCK L-Ba ---

MASKED DUCK L O O
FM-L
HOODED MERGANSER Ba


COMMON MERGANSER Ba

RED-BREASTED MERGANSER Ba-L
FP-L
TURKEY VULTURE A FM-C
Pr-C
BLACK VULTURE M FP


0 0


SPECIES


BAB JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE ~TIII.P A~7r,.c~kPr Tr.rlr Nnv nF~


r








WHITE-TAILED KITE L-Ba 0 -
C-M imm
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE M FM m o0

MISSISSIPPI KITE FM-H O 0 0

EVERGLADE KITE N FM-L

SHARP-SHINNED HAWK H-FP -

COOPER'S HAWK IH-FP
Pr
RED-TAILED HAWK N-W Pi
C-Pi
RED-SHOULDERED HAWK A H-FM

BROAD-WINGED HAWK H

SWAINSON'S HAWK FP
M-C
SHORT-TAILED HAWK S H

ROUGH-LEGGED HAWK L-FP

GOLDEN EAGLE H-FP


SPECIES


HAB JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUC SEPT oc'P wnv DFr.





SPEIESN HfAB JAN FEB MIAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUCI, 5fliPT OCT~ NtW nFlW


BALD EAGLE A Ba-
FM
MARSH HAWK FP

OSPREY A Ba-

CARACARA N Pr

PEREGRINE FALCON Ba-B

PIGEON HAWK Ba-BI
Pi-H
SPARROW HAWK A FP-
Pi-
BOBWHITE M FP

TURKEY M Pi-C
FM
SANDHILL CRANE M Pr


LIMPKIN


M FM.


.m~ ~ mI ~ -~ p__ mim l-s-a-


KING RAIL M FM

CLAPPER RAIL A SM-)


SPECIES







FM
VIRGINIA RAIL SM
FM
SORA SM m

YELLOW RAIL FM -
FM
BLACK RAIL SM

PURPLE GALLINULE M FM-L

COMMON GALLINULE M FM-L

AMERICAN COOT M FM-L

JACANA FM O O

AMERICAN OYSTERCATCHER B_

SEMIPALMATED PLOVER B

PIPING PLOVER B

SNOWY PLOVER W B

WILSON'S PLOVER A B


SPECIES


BAB JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JIRIE JULY AUG: SEPT nr.F NC~V nP~







KILLDEER M Pr

MOUNTAIN PLOVER B

AMERICAN GOLDEN PLOVER FP-B
B-FM
BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER FP

RUDDY TURNSTONE B

AMERICAN WOODCOCK FM-B

COMMON SNIPE FM

LONG-BILLED CURLEW B

WHIMBREL B

UPLAND PLOVER FP

SPOTTED SANDPIPER B-L
FM-1
SOLITARY SANDPIPER SM

WILLET A B


SPECIES


N RAB JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE


JIrl.Y bllG SEP~F AP.lr ~nV npr,






FM-B
GREATER YELLOWLEGS SM
FM-B
LESSER YELLOWLEGS SM

KNOT B

PURPLE SANDPIPER B
FM
PECTORAL SANDPIPER FP
FM-B
WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPER FP
FP 10,


0 BAIRD'S SANDPIPER


B-FM
FP


LEAST SANDPIPER B-FM

DUNLIN B

SHORT-BILLED DOWITCHER B-FM

LONG-BILLED DOWITCHER FM-B


STILT SANDPIPER


B-FMH
FP "


SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER B


- n


I -


SPECIES


N HAB JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC


v





ufmajVmj MA XUn m J nn u U Cirl u%. v %x r tUo

WESTERN SANDPIPER B

MARBLED GODWIT B

HUDSONIAN GODWIT FP-B

SANDERLING B
B-FM
AMERICAN AVOCET FP-L

BLACK-NECKED STILT A FP

RED PHALAROPE O
FP
WILSON'S PHALAROPE FM-B___ -

NORTHERN PHALAROPE B-Ba___ e

POMARINE JAEGER 0 I

PARASITIC JAEGER 0

LONG-TAILED JAEGER 0 0

GLAUCOUS GULL B-Ba "


SPECIES


UA~ .TA~l FFP U*b Aa~ u~v +trun rrrrv r~ anhm Mm ~nt r\~nr.








ICELAND GULL B-Ba

GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL B-Ba

HERRING GULL B-Ba-
B-B
RING-BILLED GULL L

LAUGHING GULL A mEB-
FP
FRANKLIN'S GULL Ba-B
B-Ba
BONAPARTE'S GULL L

BLACK-LEGGED KITTIWAKE O-B O O 0
FM-L
GULL-BILLED TERN M Ba-
Ba-
FORSTER'S TERN L__I- ----immmm m m

COMMON TERN Ba-B

ROSEATE TERN T Ba-B
0-B O _
SOOTY TERN T Ba-


FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT


OCT NOV DEC


SPECIES


HAB JAN





N HAB JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC


BRIDLED TERN 0

LEAST TERN A B-Ba

ROYAL TERN B-Ba

SANDWICH TERN B-Ba
B-Ba
CASPIAN TERN L
B-Ba
BLACK TERN FM-L

NODDY TERN T O-B

BLACK NODDY TERN O-B O

BLACK SKIMMER Ba-B

DOVEKIE O-Ba

WHITE-CROWNED PIGEON K-S H-M

SCALY-NAPED PIGEON H O O

ROCK DOVE A T


SPECIES








ZENAIDA DOVE H-M 0
H-M
WHITE-WINGED DOVE T
Pi
MOURNING DOVE M FP-T
H-B
GROUND DOVE A Pi-T

KEY WEST QUAIL-DOVE H O 0 0

RUDDY QUAIL-DOVE H 0 0 0

MANGROVE CUCKOO K-Cn M

YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO A H EE*-

BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO H
N
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI E-K FP-T

GROOVE-BILLED ANI FP-W O
T-FP
BARN OWL A H-Pr,
H-PiO
SCREECH OWL M-T


SPECIES


N HAB JAN PP.B MAR APR MAY dl~NE JULY AUG. SEPT CKlT NCIV nTiT.






GREAT HORNED OWL M Pi
N Pr
BURROWING OWL E-W FP
C-H
BARRED OWL M M

LONG-EARED OWL H O
FP
SHORT-EARED OWL FM

CHUCK-WILLS-WIDOW A H

WHIP-POOR-WILL H
Pi-T
COMMON NIGHTHAWK A FP

CHIMNEY SWIFT W T

RUBY-THR. HUMMINGBIRD M T-W

RUFOUS HUMMINGBIRD T-W i
FM-L
BELTED KINGFISHER N Ba-M
PiYELLOW-SHAFTED FLICKER IA -H
YELLOW-SHAFTED FLICKER )A T-M


SPECIES


N HAB JAN FEB MAR


APR MAY .TIINE .7111.Y hrlr. Rkrp~F nP~~ Alnv nF~







C-M
PLEATED WOODPECKER M H
H-PI
RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER A M-C

RED-HEADED WOODPECKER N-W Pi-T
H-T
YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER Pi-C I

HAIRY WOODPECKER M Pi

DOWNY WOODPECKER M Pi-H

RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER N-W Pi
Pi-T
EASTERN KINGBIRD M Pr-L

GRAY KINGBIRD C M-T 01
FP-T
WESTERN KINGBIRD W
FP-T
SCISSOR-TAIL. FLYCATCHER_ W 0
H-M
GREAT CRESTED FLYCATCHER M C-Pi

WIED'S CREST. FLYCATCHER H


SPECIES


HAB JAN FEB MAR APR HAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC




SPECIES N HA
FP-
EASTERN PHOEBE J FM-


YELLOW-BEL. FLYCATCHER


H-W


, APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC


__ I _-i


ACADIAN FLYCATCHER H-W_
TRAIL'S FLYCATCHER H-W _0 0

LEAST FLYCATCHER W-H
EASTERN WOOD PEWEE H
OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER H
L
VERMILION FLYCATCHER FP-W
FP
HORNED LARK Pr 0
BAHAMA SWALLOW Ba 0 O 0 0
FM-L
TREE SWALLOW FP
FM-L
BANK SWALLOW FP |

ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW N FM-L I


Emm






SPECI~ES N flA JANFE


BARN SWALLOW


CLIFF SWALLOW


Ba-L I
FP-B I
FP
FM


SPECIES


CAVE SWALLOW Ba O O O

PURPLE MARTIN H T-PI-

CUBAN MARTIN Ba O
T-Pi
BLUE JAY M H

SCRUB JAY N-E SS
Pi-C
COMMON CROW M FL-FP
T-Pr
FISH CROW N C-L

TUFTED TITMOUSE M C-H

WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH H I

BROWN-HEADED NUTHATCH N-W Pi -
SW-H O 0
BROWN CREEPER T I-


N HAB JAN FEB


MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC


-- -----





N HAB JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG


HOUSE WREN


WINTER WREN


T
H-W


H-WI I


H-W
CAROLINA WREN M C-T

LONG-BILLED MARSH WREN W FM


0


H W I I I


LO


FM
SHORT-BILLED MARSH WREN SM
T-Pi
MOCKINGBIRD A W-FP
T
CATBIRD W-H m
T
BROWN THRASHER M H-W 1
T-FP
ROBIN H

WOOD THRUSH H -

HERMIT THRUSH H

SWAINSON'S THRUSH H -

GRAY-CHEEKED THRUSH H _____


I I


-1 --~ ~- -, -~ __


--


SPECIES


.. m


III


f -I 1 4 .1 I I i L -C






-----------~----I---- >f *--

EASTERN BLUEBIRD M Pi

_______ _iHIHm -u .,----.m
IWHEATEAR FP 0
H-C
BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER N-W W-T
RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET H-W
FP
WATER PIPIT Pr

CEDAR WAXWING H
Pi
LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE M FP

STARLING N-E T-FP -

WHITE-EYED VIREO A W-EE

BELL'S VIREO H-W

YELLOW-THROATED VIREO H-M
H-M
SOLITARY VIREO W


SPECIES


HAB JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT t~C~ N~Y DECI.




SPECIESS N HBJNFB' C O E


BLACK-WHISKERED VIREO


- P I N .. .


M-H


RED-EYED VIREO N-W C-H


PHILADELPHIA VIREO


H-M


WARBLING VIREO H-M 0_
BAHAMA HONEYCREEPER T-W 0 0 0 O
BLACK-AND-WHITE WARBLER H-M mm
H-C
PROTHONOTARY WARBLER M 0

SWAINSON'S WARBLER H
H-M
WORM-EATING WARBLER W-T
W-H
GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER M
W-H
BLUE-WINGED WARBLER M
C-M
BACHMAN'S WARBLER H

TENNESSEE WARBLER H-M


N HAB JAN'FEB


T OCT NOV DEC


IF






SPECIES


SHAB JAN PEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG3 SEPT OCT NOV DE(C


ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER M

NASHVILLE WARBLER H-W
P-H
PARULA WARBLER M-T

YELLOW WARBLER K M-H
H-M
MAGNOLIA WARBLER T
H-M
CAPE MAY WARBLER T
H-M
BLACK-THR. BLUE WARBLER T ---
H-W
MYRTLE WARBLER FP-M

BLACK-THR. GRAY WARBLER H-T
H-C
BLACK-THR. GREEN WARBLER M

CERULEAN WARBLER H-M

BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER H-M
H-C
YELLOW-THROATED WARBLER M-T







CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER H-M

BAY-BREASTED WARBLER H-M
H-M
BLACKPOLL WARBLER T

PINE WARBLER M Pi

KIRTLAND'S WARBLER __ M 00 OO 0
M-W
PRAIRIE WARBLER A H
T-FP
PALM WARBLER __ W-Pi

OVENBIRD H-M
M-C
NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH H
M-C
LOUISIANA WATERTHRUSH H
W
KENTUCKY WARBLER H-M

CONNECTICUT WARBLER H-T

MOURNING WARBLER H-M


SPECIES


N HAB JAN FEB MAR APR MbV ~lllllfi? .Tfl~.V dllP,.Cprr~ ~~r ~nv npr,





SPECIES N

YELLOWTHROAT M

YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT


W-H


-IsI-h-


~It'


H-M
HOODED WARBLER C-W -

WILSON'S WARBLER H

CANADA WARBLER H-M
H-M
AMERICAN REDSTART T

HOUSE SPARROW A T-FP

BOBOLINK FP

EASTERN MEADOWLARK M Pr
FP
WESTERN MEADOWLARK Pr P

YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD FM-L
FM-L
REDWINGED BLACKBIRD A SM-M

TAWNY-SHOULD. BLACKBIRD T-FP Q1





H-W
ORCHARD ORIOLE T

SPOTTED-BREASTED ORIOLE E T-H

BALTIMORE ORIOLE H-T

BULLOCK'S ORIOLE H-T
FM a a
RUSTY BLACKBIRD FP

BREWER'S BLACKBIRD FP
FM-L
BOAT-TAILED GRACKLE M SM-T .
FM-L
COMMON GRACKLE A FP-T_

BROWN-HEADED COWBIRD FP

WESTERN TANAGER H-M

SCARLET TANAGER H-M


SUMMER TANAGER


H-Pi


S H-W
CARDINAL A T


_I I -r c- r- I ~ i -


SPECIES


N HAB JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY


AUC SEPT OCT NOY DEC







ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK H _

BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK H-T

BLUE GROSBEAK H-W
H-W
INDIGO BUNTING T
H-W
PAINTED BUNTING T
W-H
BLACK-FACED GRASSQUIT T O -0
W-H
MELODIOUS GRASSQUIT T 0--
FP
DICKCISSEL w
W-T
PURPLE FINCH H 0 0


PINE SISKIN


H-W 0"


i-A-.


W-
AMERICAN GOLDFINCH T-
W.
RUFOUS-SIDED TOWHEE M H-
FI
SAVANNAH SPARROW Pi


SPECIES


HAB JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
















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