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^^^ f'- S^ i" \The Miccosukee Tribe is seeking a small
" ' portion ,f land rfqr its.third reservations,
S which Tribal Chairm an Buffalo Tig er says is,
r essential to reach tribal self-sufficiency.
SjiB ,B, t^1The 25-acre lot in west Dade will be used for a
... ;F B business venture that Tiger would not identify,
g'.. in ..... e iobut said, "we could not do it where the
SSprt ste mo...,,reservations are now."
I ...tThe property will give the tribe "economic
bu sai :development opportunities that were restricted
in 1982 by the state government when it agreed
to transfer about 76,000 acres into federal trust
for the tribe, said Tiger.* At the same time, an
adjacent 180,000 acreswas given to the tribe
under a perpetual lease with even more
-------- iTiger said development on the new land will.
create jobs for Indians and income for tribal
no, left, and Richie services such as health, education and housing.
g in common. They "We can't depend'on the federal government
tion this summer, any more for that,' he said. "This way we can
c. Separate stories do more ourselves.l"
~Tiger did not reveal the 1l*cationoftean,
but said it was apart from existing tribal lands.
Dr. Everett Rhoades is facing charges
c------- /")7,,7T)(T--X: --XTX71>(7y7)TYTX------------ -------
Miccosukee Tribe of Indians, PO Box 440021, Miami, FL 33144
"** -. f; ', ", I
- -. ;-- -
1447 SW Grand Drive
SFt. Lauderdale, FL
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Vol, 7 No, 8
years old can seek office, according to an election
ordinance, provided that:
the announcement is made in writing
accompanied by the signature of two eligible
voters who have not supported another candidate
for the same position;
the announcement is presented to the
secretary of General Council at least 15 days prior
to the election, by Oct. 26.
General Council -has already selected the
election board. Jennie Billie is judge, Renee Billie
is teller and Delores Billie is clerk.
For the office of Assistant Chairman, incumbent
Billy Cypress so far has no one running against
him, and he has not officially announced that he
Also not on the official list of candidates are
Secretary Bobby Billie, Treasurer Jasper Nelson
and Lawmaker Henry Bert, Sr. ,
Billie, if he runs, will be challenged only by
Jimmy Bert, so far. Nelson will compete against
at least two, Cassandra Osceola and Michael
Frank, and Bert has as yet one contender, .Betty
Any enrolled member of the tribe at least 23
Although the secretary of General Council has
until Friday, Oct. 11 to post notice of the
upcoming tribal election, a quick consultation
with the Tribal Constitution confirms election
day as Sunday, Nov. 10.
Several persons have announced their
candidacy, but others eligible for candidacy have
until Saturday, Oct. 26 to submit their official
announcements to the secretary of General
Incumbent Chairman Buffalo Tiger will run
against Sonny Billie, and perhaps others who have
not officially announced their candidacy.
Guitarists/singers Jose Feliciar
Havens, right, have something
both came to the reserve
and they both made music
inside ,-this issue.
of IHS applied for scholarships, but the IG report
does not substantiate the claim.
In the meantime, Dr. James Felson, the IHS
chief medical officer who complained about the
alleged favoritism, was transferred out of the
agency, by Rhoades. The IG's -.office is
investigating the transfer at the request of the
Officer of Government Ethics, which ,has stated
that Rhoades has brought "into question his
judgment and management abilities".
Rhoades has been supported publicly by Rep.
Morris Udall and others in the federal government
network, and now by Miccosukee Tribal
Chairman Buffalo Tiger.
Tiger wrote letters to Senators Paula Hawkins
and Lawton Chiles and Congressmen Claude
Pepper and Dante Fascell seeking their assistance
in ensuring Rhoades "an expeditious and fair
hearing". Tiger stated in the letters that Rhoades
w.o rAmovad from office "based on allegations
Inspector General Richard Kusserow, Rhoades'
daughter applied in 1982 for a pre-medical studies
scholarship. Her application was reviewed by two
IHS doctors. The first doctor, on June 2, gave her
83 points out of a possible 100. The second
doctor, on June 8, gave her 85.
Dorothy Rhoades' average was 84, which was
one point below the minimum allowable for
scholarships that year.
Later, according to the IG report, Pierre
Columbel, director of the IHS human resources
management branch, asked the persons in charge
of scholarships to lower the minimum score
because Rhoades' daughter barely missed it.
Soon Columbel had called in a third examiner,
the report said, who gave the application an 88,
raising Dorothy Rhoades' average score above the
minimum. The IG report said the third rating
sheet was originally dated June 18, but was
changed to read June 8, the date of the second
Dr.. Everett Rhoades was temporarily removed-
as head of the Indian Health Service (IHS) this
summer, facing charges that he condoned
preferential treatment in .the awarding of more
than $33,000 in IHS scholarships to his daughter
to attend Harvard University.
The first Indian to hold the position, Rhoades
was reassigned to assist Dr. Robert -Graham,
director of Health and Human Services' (HHS),
health resource and services administration, of
which IHS is a part, .
Rhoades is accused of letting some of his staff
take extra steps to .ensure his daughter Dorothy
received- a passing score on her scholarship
application. He is subsequently being investigated
S-also on whether he improperly transferred a staff
doctor after the doctor. voiced objections to the
Dorothy Rhoades received $16,055 in 1982
and $17,199 -in 1983 from the IHS fund that
S _1---1-- -_ I .1--- _J..- .... -- ..
General Council elect candidates, statements
and job duties inside
2 MiecomukeeEverglades News
correspondence and perform any other duties
assigned to him by the Chairman, Business
Council or General Council.
The treasurer is ordered to keep "adequate and
correct -accounts of properties and business
transactions of the tribe, and to make these
accounts open to inspection by members of the
tribe... at all reasonable times."
The treasurer is given "care and custody of the
funds and valuables" of the tribe to -deposit in
banks to the credit of the tribe,: and he is to be
In addition to disbursing funds, the treasurer is
supposed to make a monthly report to the
Business Council of all of the tribe's financial
transactions, and to make the same reports at
every regular General Council meeting.
The lawmaker's duties are to enforce rules at
all meetings and see that peace and order are
kept, along with any other tasks assigned by the
General or Business Council.
The Constitution states only the following
. about the duties of assistant chairman:
"In the absence of the chairman he shall
preside. When so presiding, he shall have all rights,
privileges and duties, as,,set forth above under
duties of chiran, as well as the responsibility of
^.the chairm an^.,-. ...^ --.^^^ .*-
*a -.. .. *,- &* < r, .-,. ; ... -. <. .a, '
The secretary is directed to maintain minutes
of all meetings, both councils, at the "principal
place of business" of the tribe. He is also to keep
a current list of-enrolled tribal members and a
current list of eligible voters.
The secretary is ordered to post notices of the
date, time and place of all General Council
meetings at least three days in advance of each
meeting, which includes the four regular meetings
held on the first Saturday of November,
February, June and August.
The secretary is to give similar notice for all
meetings of the Business Council, including those
regular meetings held on the second Sunday of
each month (Article I, Sec. 2).
Additionally, the secretary shall make
It is my desire to end the neglect and disregard
of the people, arid .to return the power and
authority back to the Miccosukee General
Council (tribal members).
It is my desire to end the withdrawals and
spending of tribal monies without the approval of
The need for stable government, well informed
councilmembers to make decisions and genuine
concern and interest is more evident if we are to
continue progress for the benefit of our tribal
I am not new to tribal government and politics
as I have served three terms as Assistant
Chairman and .actively participated with the
development and establishment of our tribal.
BUFFALO TIGER, for CHAIRMAN
I feel that I am qualified for the position of
tribal chairman because, first of all, I am
Miccosukee. I have served as chairman of the
Miccosukee Tribe since 1961 a total of 24
years. I have experience in working with not only
the Miccosukee people, as. well Indians
throughout the country, Dade County, the State
of Florida, the Department of Interior/Bureau of
Indian Affairs, Indian Health Service, the United
States Govenment and other countries.
I feel this is a very interesting time for the
tribe. We have progressed, and we have
established a Federal Trust Reservation. We are
working .on additional reservation land for
economic development, which will provide more
trib-al income, employment and improved
knowledgeable leadership at this time. This is why
I feel that I should continue as Chairman of the
MICHAEL FRANK for TREASURER
1. I think I am qualified because I have lived in
the community for 28 years, and I know what the
young people want .and the old people want. I
want the young people to get more education,
and the old people, try to educate them as much
as we can. And the successful ones and the
unsuccessful ones, the ones who are making it in
job fields, in education, in life, and the ones who
aren't making it, we have to deal with both of
2. I think my main goal would be to get more
people educated, knowing how to read and write.
To not quit after high school, but to go on to
college so they can fill the jobs thatare open out
here. So they can be supervisors instead of just
secretaries, and laborers so they know what's
going on, so they understand the government.
Now we have non-Indians running the
departments, but it would be better to have
Indians in charge. Train them so Indians can take
over the important jobs here.
Another goal is to inform people of the
expenses, how much money we have in the banks.
To inform them what we're doing with the
money, instead of people wondering "what
happened to the money?" I would have it on
paper so people will understand it, read it. That's
their money, not our money. We are working for
I also want to provide more activities for the
young people, have more softball games,
basketball games, and have the gym open five
nights a week.
The following questions were given to all
persons who have announced their candidacy (see
story, page 1).
1. Why do you think you are qualified for this
position? Include. any experience you have that
may help you in this position.
2. What main gobaly do you hope to achieve if
you are elected, and what, if any, changes doyou
hope to make?
They were given the opportunity to dictate
their answers, to write their answers or to not
Billy Cypress, incumbent assistant chairman
candidate, chose not to answer, saying only that
"at this point I haven't decided yet,"
Candidates other than those whose responses
appear below did not provide a response.
SONNY BILLIE, for CHAIRMAN
I, Sonny Billie, am a candidate for the
chairmanship of the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians
of Florida. I Lived on the reservation for the past
22. years and am proud of the undertakings we
-have successfully -completed. .-owever, during the
process the administration has neglected its
responsibilities to the important element, its
much yet to be done. It is very
that there be a qualified and
news articles. Contributors can bring their work to the
newspaper office, in the neighborhood building, or
leave it in the paper's mailbox in the administrative
Advertising is accepted. Call or write to the editor
at the address at the left for rates and more
Subscriptions are $10 for one year, $18 for two.
Andl cher cor mnwm nrerler wAithk mr-mla nA.rA-e -#n
Miccosukee Everglades News is published on or
about the 15th of each month by the Miccosukee
Tribe of Indians of Florida.
Letters to the editor regarding community issues
are invited. All letters must be signed to be
considered for publication. Published letters, which
may be edited, express the opinion of the author and
not necessarily that of the tribal administration or
The. following is a brief description of the
duties of elected officers. The information is
summarized solely from the Constitution of the
Miccosukee Tribe, Article II.
The chairman of the tribe, according to
Section 1, presides at all meetings of the
Miccosukee General and Business Councils.
does not vote except in the case of a tie. -
Although he has "general and active
management of the business activities" of the-
tribe, the chairman "shall not act on matters
binding the -tribe"' until either the General or
Business council has discussed the issue and
authorized the chairman to act by passing a
resolution. Likewise, he is to ensure that all
resolutions and ordinances of both councils be
put into effect.
The chairman is directed to sign all official
papers on behalf of the tribe, when so authorized,
and to supervise all other officers and employees.
Lastly, the Tribal Constitution directs the
chairman to prepare a report of the. Business
Council's activities, and to make each report at
every regular meeting of the General Council. "He
shall include in this- report all matters within his
knowledge which the interest of the tribe may be
required to be brought to its attention."
PO Box. 440021, Tomami m Station
Miami, Florida 33144,
Meet this year's Miccosukee Education staff.
You probably already know Principal Marie
Osceola, on her second year as the first
Miccosukee Indian in that position.
Ana Pena is back for her second year teaching
first graders, and she has two teacher aides to help
out, Suzanna Tiger and Faye Frank.
SOf course, you know Judy Piper, who holds
the longest record for teaching at the Indian
School, seven years. This year she's teaching
lower elementary with the help of aide Sue Jane
Maria Belton is back, too, going on her second
year. She teaches upper elementary, and with no
help at all.
Other returning teachers are Josie Maymi,
director of the Head Start program, and Renee
Billie, Miccosukee Language Arts instructor.
STwo teachers are new to the school, but not to
the tribe. Cynthia Rowntree-Greene now teaches
special education in addition to her duties as
adult-education instructor. Meanwhile, Crystal
IHipkins, prevention-education coordinator, took
over the computer literacy class when her health
position was cut to half time.,
And now meet Ilvia Meehan, instructor for
remedial reading, math and language arts under
continued on page 5
reservation. Hunters in the eastern half of the
reservation, in the EWMA, will still be regulated
by the game commission. The northwest corner
has always been closed to the public.
That means once the plan is implemented for
this year, state-licensed hunters will be allowed on
the Alligator Alley Reservation only during the
16-day general gun/vehicle hunt, Saturday, Nov. 9
through Sunday, Nov. 24. Hunters in the eastern,
EWMA half will be required, as in the past, to get
their, permits through the state's deer-quota draw.
Hunters in the gap will have to get additional-
permits from the tribe. The number of permits
issued will be based on the size of the deer herd as
determined by the game commission, and they
will be available only to.existing camp permittees.
"This is a very limited program, a very
conservative approach," said Kruse. She said the
cost of the permits to hunters has not been
In addition to the pilot hunting program, the
tribe intends to regulate fishing and frogging on
both reservations, Kruse said.
There will be two types of permits, one for
fishing in "waterways readily accessible to the
general public, and one for fishing and frogging
available only to hunting camp permittees/' she
said. Both will be issued annually. The general
fishing permit would probably be valid for a year
from the date of purchase.
Drinking while pregnant can hurt your unborn
When the mother drinks, alcohol goes through
her blood to the baby's blood, harming the baby
as it grows and develops. Alcohol is a powerful
drug that crosses the placenta into the- baby'sh
blood in the same concentrations as in the
mother's blood. Since a developing baby's liver is
only half as effective at metabolizing alcohol as
an adult liver, the alcohol circulates in the baby's'
Pregnant women who drink may have babies
w are smaller than normal
have weak sucking relex
have unusual physical development (small
head, facial irregularities, heart defects, joint and
grow more slowly than normal
*have difficulty learning
Help your baby get a good start in life! While
Eat good food Get prenatal care
Eliminate anything that can be harmful to
you and your baby, such as alcohol, smoking and
IV -%.l 'lll l l tl l ll l ll l ll l l I 4v41%..*'Flt q
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Subscriptons to Mkcosukee 6vervadoes News are $10 for one year
I(12 issues) or $18 for two years (24 iues).
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Miccosukee Everglades News 3
CASSANDRA S. OSCEOLA, for TREASURER
In answering your questions I have combined
them into one answer and it is as follows:
I feel confident that I can be a responsible
Treasurer on the Miccosukee Tribal Business
I have been employed with the Tribe, under
various programs, for eight years and have learned
a great deal from these wbrk experiences.
With consideration of the programs I have been
involved with and with whom I have worked
with, I feel I have acted responsibly.
My work experiences include from organizing
recreational activities, program fundraising,
maintaining purchase order books, typesetting,
editing and writing articles for the tribal
newspaper, assisting with Housing Needs Report,
population data, Day Care. Parent Committee,
Headstart Parent Committee, typing, filing and
much more. From working within the, tribe's
programs I have learned the system well enough
and I am willing to learn even more, if given the
I am known in the community for being
outspoken in areas of concern to me and to our
children. Many may feel I've been too outspoken
and do not always know what I am talking about,
but nevertheless, those are my own personal
opinions and values.
I do not expect, nor do I want everyone to
agree with what I say, but in either the
non-Indian or the Indian World there are a set of
values that apply to all. Try hard to maintain
my values in order to set a role model for our
children, to teach them between good and bad,
right and wrong.
Right now my main goals would be to research
the goals of the tribe, present a written report of
our current situation, then to address major
concerns of the tribal members such as housing,
jobs, our Children, Education, Recreation arid
the Family Unit.
These are major concerns that have been
unaddressed for too long.
My short and long term goals are basically the
The tribe is at a turning point and I want to be
there to help make it the best that it canbe.
Many people- may feel that this type of
political position is not the place for a woman, as
you can.tell, I disagree.
Women in the Miccosukee Tribe are the
backbone to our Family and are the more
important part of the Miccosukee Tribe and it's
My mind and my eyes are open. My heart feels
and my ears hear. I have learned and am learning
just as any other humnarbeing.
I alsoknow that I can be the voice for those
who will speak to me on a level headed,
responsible level. Their interests will be my
What more can I say, but thank you for this
opportunity to speak on my own behalf.
Your votes will be appreciated.
Beginning as early as November, non-Indians
who use Miccosukee lands for hunting, fishing or
frogging will have to get licenses from the tribe
first, according to Carol Kruse, director of tribal
The tribe plans to begin a hunting permit
program "just for this year to see how it works,"
said Kruse, to coincide with the state's
gun-vehicle hunt in the Everglades wildlife
Management area (EWMA). In addition, the tribe
intends to issue permits for public fishing and
frogging on its land.
The pilot program for hunting permits will
apply only to the Alligator Alley Reservation in
Broward because there are no available lands for
hunting on the Tamiami Reservation in Dade,
Under the program, the eastern half of the
Broward reservation, which falls into the state's
(EWMA) will be closed to the public except
during the statewide general gun/vehicle hunt,
said Kruse. Currently, Florida's game commission
allows public recreational use of the land for
other than hunting yearlong.
The southwest corner of the reservation,
known as the gap because it lies between the Big
Cypress Preserve and the EWMA would also be
closed exept during the general hunt. Even then,
the tribe will issue hunting permits only to those
who already have been issued permits from the
tribe for their permanent camps on th(
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4 Miccosukee Everglades News
Alice Drake, executive secretary, left, reads aloud
the only bid for a car the tribal police auctioned
as tribal councilman Bobby Billie verifies.
The Everglades marsh was the focus of an
article in the September 1985 issue of Dolphin
Log, a publication of the Cousteau Society. The
society, founded by marine explorer Jacques
Cousteau, promotes the conservative use of the
planet's limited natural resources, and not only in
the sea. In its masthead, the Log notes: "Living
trees are cut to make this paper, so please share
the Dolphin Log and. what you learn from it
with a friend." OK. The September and other
issues of Dolphin Log, along with its sister
publication, Calypso Log, can be read in the tribal
newspaper office, neighborhood building;
Everglades explorer Calvin Stone's book Forty
Years in the Everglades is now available in the
tribe's gift, shop for $7.95. The book is a
collection of 45 true stories of the author's trips
into the Big Cypress and Everglades swamps.
between 1930 and 1980. The anecdotes double as
a chronology of the changes the environment has
endured from encroaching civilization. The book
also sells in Perrine at Monkey Jungle and the
Great Value grocery store. Retailers can order
copies of the book wholesale by writing to W,.
Horace Carter, Atlantic Publishing Co., PO Box
67, Tabor City, North Carolina 28463.1
Tribal court personnel have been rearranged,
added and subtracted during the summer months.
The current set-up: Andy Buster, judge; Linda
Cypress, prosecutor; Jennie Billie, clerk.
:Indian artists have a chance at carving -or
painting, or drawing or photographing- their way
to fame by entering the Miami Beach's Festivalof
the Arts. More than $6,000 will be awarded to
artists entering the five categories: sculpture,
painting, graphics and drawing, crafts and
photography. There are three additional cash
prizes as well totaling $1,850. The winning works
will be selected by a panel of nationally known
judges. About 200,000 people attended the
prestigious show last year. Deadline for the early
February show is Friday, November 1. Call
673-7733 for application information.
Pete Osceola, Sr., was the only bidder for the
1977 Cadillac auctioned by the Miccosukee Police
Department. Osceola submitted a bid for $1,899
in the sealed-bid, minimum $1,500 auction, and
promptly took ownership of the car when the bid
was opened July 30.
Here are the facts on the tribal rank and
file: Steve Terry filled the new position of
resource manager for the Alligator Alley
Reservation, and Jerry Cypress will be his
realty aide; Cathy DeMeillac, from Trinidad,
divides her time between being a tour guide
at the Indian Village and promotions assistant
to Lee Tiger; and Andrea Sanchez is now
managing the Miccosukee Restaurant.
Several employees were laid off when business
got slow during the summer at the tribal gift
shop, but al least two of those people got jobs
with the tribe elsewhere. In CAA, to be exact.
Rita Attaway got the position of recreation aide
for the youth recreation hall, which is under the
Community. Action Agency. And the new
community service aide -new and improved title
for gymnasium attendant- is Jimmy Osceola.
Enrollment in the Miccosukee School is at an
all-time high, according to Principal Marie
Osceola. Sixty-seven students are currently
enrolled, although two of them won't begin
school until the next grading period begins,
Osceola said. Last year's peak enrollment was 53.
I r --
from page 3
the Chapter I program. This is her first year as
full-time teacher, although she has 12 years
teaching experience in South Florida. In addition,
Meehan spent four years answering 911
emergency calls for Metro-Dade. She also teaches
an elective Spanish class for junior-high students,
and of working here she says, "I love it."
Another new instructor is Dale Larse, Jr., who
has 25 years teaching experience. He's in charge
of physical education for all grades, and of
science for junior-and senior-high students. Larsen
has done most of his teaching in Virginia since
1959. He's been coaching for 29 years.
And lastly, welcome Gina Gonzalez. Gonzalez
teaches English. social studies and math to
Miceosukke Everglades News 5
The tribe's Summer Youth Landscaping Project
is over, but the evidence remains.
Weeds have been weeded out. Plants have been
planted. Trees have been trimmed, and the bases
of their trunks are now neatly surrounded by
wood chips. Even a few fresh chickees are up.
Nine young people did all the work, 11
counting their foreman, Jimmy Scott Osceola,
and his assistant, Tracey Cypress. The landscapers
are Donna Billie, Nora Billie, Steve Billie, Douglas
Daye, Kashane Tiger, Brenda Osceola, Jeffrey
Willie and Terry Willie. Jake Keyser worked with
the crew also, but he's employed on week-ends
year round by other than the summer work
Perhaps+ the group's most noticeable
accomplishment is the construction of three
chickees built for bullpens on the softball
"It's been so long since we needed them I can't
remember when we first asked," said Betty
Cypress, director of the tribal Community Action
Agency (CAA), which includes the recreation
Marie Osceola, school principal, is pleased with
the weeding and sodding the crew did around the
elementary and high schools and the library.
-"They really dressed the area up," Osceola said.
"It looks a lot better now."
"They enhanced the- general appearance of the
village," said Stella MacLaughlan, Indian Village
manager. ''They did a lot of weeding and cleaning
up for the summer music festival. '
Florence Doty, employment and training
director who coordinated the project,
complimented the crew for its accomplishments.
"They really made an impact onh the entire
community," Doty said. "They were: a very
cohesive, very cooperative group. They did a good
job on beautification of the community.", 4i '^
The group took two field trips during the
course of the project, and were treated to an
Doty also wanted to publicly thank Donna
Rodio of the Learning Center- for letting the
group use the Big Mac building for meetings.
In a return engagement, Yarko Antonevych
introduced attentive audiences to some of his
native Ukranian folk songs. He played them on an
Ukranian instrument, called a bandura, that
resembles a cross between a guitar and harp in
both sound and appearance.
And from the Pacific, the Aloha Hawaiians
shimmied on stage to an island beat, then brought
up people from their seats to learn the same shake
in their musical-comedy show.
Festival revenues, the amount of which was not
made public, are deposited into the Miccosukee
General Education Fund, according to Lee Tiger,
director of tribal marketing and public relations.
The money is used for future public-education
events such as music and art festivals that expose
non-Indians to Indian culture in a positive way,
Nearly 3,000 South Floridians and tourists
tuned in to the sounds of 11 bands at the
Miccosukee Tribe's tenth Everglades International
Music and Crafts Festival in July, almost double
Last year's attendance.
The tree-day festival drew 2,984 people, 1,104
of them on July 19 to hear folk artist Richie
Havens in concert.
Havens, a streetcorner singer in his youth and
an outdoor-festival regular during the late '60s, at
44 still pours out a sensuous, soul-comforting
voice that he complements with the emotional,
rhythmic voice he induces from his guitar.,
His 90-minute-plus performance of original
songs also included a few covers-given new
meaning by Havens' unique arrangements,
intonation patterns and percussive playing
--including Bob Dylan's "Just Like a Woman,"
Fleetwood Mac's "Players" and Havens' only
By Laura H. Palazesi
writing and different Indian tribes and villages.
Line drawings accompany brief descriptions of
each type of relic. Maps and a history of various
areas aid en the identification process and give a
background for the items described.
This is an easy to use manual for identification
purposes or to learn about the history of the
various tribes in Southeast America.
May, Robin. Indians. 1983. Exeter Books, New
Indians is as interesting to look at as it is to
read. Included are many paintings, drawings and
photographs of American Indians and scenes
depicting everyday life. An overview of the
histories of American Indians from Columbus'
arrival in the New World up to the early 1900s
and descriptions of the different tribes and their
lifestyles are told, along with the altercation of
"those lifestyles by the white man. Especially
interesting are the descriptions of little known
events about the Indians and the white man.
Glenn, James Lafayette. My work among the
Florida Seminoles. 1982. University Presses of
This is a letter written by Glenn, special
commission to the Seminoles in the early 1930s,
to his daughter who had asked him to describe
working with the Indians. Harry A. Kersey, a
history professor at FAU in Boca Raton, edited
and gives historical background to the narrative.
Glenn illustrated his letter with numerous
photographs and identifies the people and events
The 1930s were a time of constant change for.
South Florida and the Florida Indians. Glenn has
+U%%.. U l? ;*% '- *. u'.^ n%%A
chart hit, "Here Comes the Sun," by George
While Havens' amply provided music from the
American folk genre, other performers wore out
the appreciative crowds with song and dance from
reggae, rock, salsa, big-band sound, country to
even Ukranian folk.
Several of the bands are popular on the South
Florida small-club circuit: reggae group Ti-Shan;
Tiger-Tiger, a rock band founded by Miccosukee
brothers Stephen and Lee Tiger; the three
country bands Sidewinrder, Buckshot and
Prospect; and solo country balladeer Monroe
The Mora Arriaga Family, mexicans,
consistent of brothers, sisters and their
parents, played "Hello, Dolly" and other hits.
The Spanish Tuna Group, amused with their
Miccosukee coloring book
The tribal gift shop may have to start stocking
crayons when Miccosukee's cultural program
turns a new leaf this winter.
That's when the program hopes to present the
gift shop with ready-to-sell copies of the first ever
Miccosukee Indian Coloring Book.
The 30 pieces of artwork have been completed
by a "combination of Miccosukee artists," said
Minnie Bert, director of the Miccosukee language
and cultural program, and now she is waiting for a
copyright number. The 15-page book will have
Bert hopes to get the copyright number in time
to print the book before the tribe's annual Indian
Arts Festival, which runs between Christmas and
New Year's Day.
"We're selling it to generate dollars for cultural
activities and materials," said Bert. "We may be
following this with a recipe book."
With this issue, Miccosukee Everglades News
introduces a new feature: brief reviews of books
that are by, about or of interest to Native
All books reviewed in this section are available
through interlibrary loan if they are not already
in the Miccosukee Community Library; just ask
the librarian and allow a few days for delivery.
There is no charge. And if there is a particular
book or topic you'd like to read about in this
section, let the editor know.
The reviews are by contributing writer Laura
H. Palazesi, library consultant, State Library of
Hungry Wolf, Beverly. The ways of my
grandmothers. 1980. William Morrow and Co.,
Hungry Wolf lives with her husband and five
children in a cabin in the wilderness in the British
Columbia Rockies. Over a period of years she has
recorded stories told by her mother, grandmother
and other "grandmothers'' of the tribe.
She minterrhingles legends with teachings from
the grandmothers on cooking, childbirth, making
clothes and crafts. The various dances done by
women are described and some are shown in
This is an interesting overview of the roles
women have played in various tribes throughout
history. Many of the myths and legends included
are humorous and good for retelling.
Bierer, Bert. W. Indians and artifacts in the
Southeast: 1980 edition. 1980. Published by the
u the_ r 1,9 8 i. eodition.
llrI : : I I I I I 1 r ; z I -- --
-- = N
Even when he's off the job, flamenco guitarist
Jose Feliciano can't help but make music.
On the Miccosukee Reservation in late July to
take an airboat ride, the world-famous Feliciano
first did a ditty on the Round Room piano, then
chimed in to a tape of Tiger-Tiger's "I am
Indian." He interrupted his harmonizing to joke
-his conversation is riddled with jokes- that he
was "dying of Indian-gestion."
When the song was over, the part Cherokee,
mostly Puerto Rican musician said he liked it so
much that he might record it himself. It would be
a small addition to the more than a dozen albums
Feliciano has recorded since 1968.
Later during his visit, Feliciano tapped a turtle
shell right into hiF percussion collection. He was
given the shell to feel, and unexpectedly made
music with it. By tapping it with his fingers all
over both sides, he produced a unique range of
tones so pleasing he asked to -keep the
Feliciano was born blind in Puerto Rico and
grew up with 11 brothers and sisters in Spanish
Harlem, New York. His parents taught him to be
self-sufficient, and introduced him to the guitar
and accordian when still a child.
He dropped out of high school at 17 to pursue
music, and about a year later released his first
single. Although initially .most of his recordings
were in Spanish, Feliciano gained international
popularity in 1968 with his Top Five flamenco
version of the Doors' "Light My Fire", which
Over 30 of his records have gone gold in other
countries, while inr the States he had a hit in 1964
with the theme song from "Chico and the Man."
He also recorded with Joni Mitchell on "Free Man
A master at guitar, Feliciano also plays
mandolin, harmonica, bass, banjo, keyboards and
+;*1Vf*1a m/jfa lo r l w4l +1r fla <11<
Miccosukee Everglades News
act up in class. They called him a
behavior problem. Jimbo fought
with the other kids. Sometimes he
would cry. Always, Jimbo tried to
get out of the classes he was having
Jimbo has SLD, specific learning
disability. This is an injury to a
section of the brain that damages
certain functions like writing or
speaking. This damage may hurt a
person's ability to listen, think, read,
talk, write, spell or do arithmetic.
Jimbo got his injury when he was
bqrn. Nobody knew it then. This did
not mean that Jimbo was not smart.
In fact, in order to be labeled with
SLD a student must have an average
intelligence. Some have very high
But they cannot read, or do math.
When teachers teach with the usual
visual-auditory techniques these
children cannot find meaning in
words or word-like symbols. They
need special word-learning
techniques. Sometimes they need
this help in math or spelling.
Students like Jimbo are referred
for testing by their teachers or their
parents. It is important that the
parents of these children understand
their special problems and how to
deal with them. It is important to
remember that these children have
every potential for being
contributing members of society. *
bodega include a "beautiful, private
zoo" that until recently has had a
gator for 70 years. The sherry farm-
factory is in a part of southern Spain
known as the fry pan of the country,
so the climate is similar to the gators'
natural habitat, he said.
The reptiles' new owners prompt-
ly named the expecting female Hal-
pate, the Miccosukee word for alliga-
tor. They named the father-to-be- Ti-
co, after a new alcoholic mixer for
drinks that the company is introdu-
cing, said Lee Tiger.,
Tribal representatives this summer
again returned to Spain to encourage
local tourists to visit the Miccosu-
kees, this time taking two alligators
Tribal Chairman Buffalo Tiger, Di-
rector of Tribal Marketing and Public
Relations Lee Tiger, and Director of
Promotions Hispanic Affairs Divi-
sion Conchita Torano, brought the
male and female gators to the sherry
bodega of the makers of Harvey's'
Lee Tiger said the grounds of the
The folloWing is a fictional
account of true stories that happen
By Cynthia Rowntree Greene
Jimbo knew he was different from
the other kids in his class. No matter
how hard he tried to pay attention.
to his teacher he could not learn to
When his mother told him to do
something he could not remember
what it was. So people yelled at him.
They called him stupid.
Jimbo did not feel stupid, but he
did feel hurt and angry. He began to
with more funds', we can train actors
and adjust the script."
Tiger's idea is the story of a young
Indian man from a traditional family
who wants to go to school off the
reservation. The play will attempt to
show non-Indians how Miccosukees
must straddle the fence between In-
dian and non-Indian life.
"The pageant will be showing how
the Indians have to balance two
worlds, how that conflicts with the
Miccosukee philosophy of the ideal
Miccosukee Indian," said Bert. "It
will expose the public to the culture
and the color and the philosophy of
It will take time to match the suc-
cess of the Eastern Cherokee's drama
Unto These Hills, but the Miccosu-
kee Tribe plans to start presenting a,
seasonal play possibly as early as Fe-
bruary, according to Minnie Bert, di-
rector of the Miccosukee language
and cultural program.
After writing samples were solicit-
ed, said Bert, Cynthia Rowntree-
Greene was selected to adapt the
plot idea of Tribal Chairman Buffalo
Tiger to a script.
"Initially there will be more narra-
tion than dialogue because we simply
don't have the actors around here,"
said Bert. "We hope after a while,
here. We hope there will be more students from
Miccosukee next year".
Broadbent is sending a video tape of the talent
competition to the tribe later, she said.
Andy Buster was the only Miccosukee
counselor chaperone on the trip; others were
from the Seminole Tribe.
The Governor's Council designed the program
to expose Indian students to the advantages of
higher education. The students attend tailor-made
classes, complete special assignments at Florida
State University and live on a floor of a
The federal government awarded $55,000
emergency funds to the Miccosukee Police
Department to avoid cutting out the midnight
patrol shift for the next fiscal year, said Kay
Maley, government programs director.
SThe Bureau of Indian Affairs gave the tribe
$15,000 to extend 24-hour law enforcement on
the reservation, and another $40,000 was allowed
the tribe from leftover money in the federal
1984-85 budget, she said.
Meanwhile, a request for $100,000 to begin
law enforcement on the Alligator Alley
Reservation was cut in half before the U.S. Senate
would approve it. Now the proposal is before a
conference committee between the Senate and
The. federal-budget leftovers from last fiscal
year are also helping extend the tribe's Indian
Child Welfare service, which was given $9,000.
Movie makers are, at it in the Everglades, and
Paul Michael Glaser is telling them how to make
.Glaser (yes, of Starsky and Hutch fame) is
directing the film, tentatively titled Band of the
Hand. The executive producer is Michael Mann,
who produces Miami Vice.
"They're using our work crews, our chickee
builders, our airloats and our talent" for the film,
according to Lee Tiger, director of tribal
marketing and public relations, who is the liaison
between the tribe and filmmakers.
Tiger said the script calls for five Indian
principals -major characters- including a girl
with a gold tooth and a five-year-old girl. In
addition, one scene calls for 55 Indians extras
having a party.
Extras will be paid about $50 a day for one or
two days work, said Tiger. He did not know how
much the principals would be paid, or how many
days they would work. Anyone interested in
being in the film should contact Tiger as soon as
possible. Filming began Sept. 30, and the party
scene is scheduled to be filmed Monday, Oct. 14.
The $7 million film is about "these five punks,
these, street druggie boys," said Tiger. "They're
from the city, Miami, and they take them to the
Everglades to be rehabilitated.. Then they leave
them there to find their own way out."
Indian youth program
All three youths from the Miccosukee Tribe
who participated in the Florida Indian Youth
Program in Tallahassee this summer came home
with awards after competing against about 30
other Indian students.
Anthony Willie -the only person who has
attended the two-week sampling of college every
year since the program began five years ago-
again won the talent contest, this time for his
impersonation of Tina Turner.
Willie's act was so entertaining, he was asked to
give a repeat performance at the closing banquet.
He also earned the top award of outstanding
student, along with an award for his achievement
Andrew Bert Billie, son of Harry Billie of
Naples, also won an otustanding student award, in
addition to awards for his accomplishments in
math and English. And Brenda Osceola earned an
award, for math.
':'They were all delightful," commented
Carolyn Broadbent of the Florida Governor's
Council on Indian Affairs, which sponsors the
Miccosukee Everglades News 7
Aloha Hawaiian member (with lai)
how to shimmy.
members of the audience
A smiling Richie Havens replaces a broken string.
Members of the Mora Arriaga family do a roosing number.
Solo artist Monroe Devos sings a country ballad.
Country group Sidewinder features a violinist.
Lead guitarist for Tiger-Tiger supports singer A member from reggae group Ti-Shan strikes the A member of the Spanish Tuna group kicks his
Stephen Tiger, left. last chord of the set. tambourine over his head.
--- -- -- I I I
by changing the subject or by defending himself
and blaming his drinking on someone or
something else. By pinning the blame on others
the alcoholic is able to defend his self respect and
his right to drink. An example of a middle-stage
alcoholic's defense is his refusal to acknowledge
or admit he has a drinking problem.
In this stage, the alcoholic begins to have
frequent mood swings when he drinks. He will
lose his self respect because he can't find many
reasons to like himself. He is overcome with guilt
when he wakes up after a drunk, proving to him
that his efforts to control his drinking have failed,
yet again. Afraid and disgusted, the alcoholic
turns away from people and inward to himself.
He is overwhelmed with self pity, and this
increases his drinking, and because he feels
everyone is picking on him or demanding more
than he can give, he explodes and stomps off. He
then feels guilty and a-hamed, and to calm down
he takes a drink.
The middle-stage alcoholic has -probably
experienced blackouts from- time to time.
Blacouts are a very distinctive symptom of
alcoholism. It is the one symptom that tells the
difference between alcoholics and non-alcoholics.
The events, that occur during a blackout are not
forgotten, they are simply not recorded in the
memory, or are stored improperly. Later there is
nothing there to remember. During a blackout the
alcoholic will act normal and be aware of the
things that are happening around him. But when
he sobers up, he will be unable to remember
anything that happened during a certain time.
Blackout can be so frightening that the
alcoholic may question his sanity,; yet he still does
not think that his problems could be related to
Towards the end of the second stage of
alcoholism the alcoholic doesn't eat much. One
reason is that'his digestive system won't accept
the food. He suffers from gas, bloating and
heatburn. So in addition to using alcohol for his
source of energy, he finds that it also relieves
He may experience a decrease in sexual
performance. At this time, he will most likely
have more visits to the doctor or clinic. Here he
may be given sedatives, tranquilizers and sleeping
pills to help with his complaints. The only
problem es he is just adding another chemical to
his system, which is already in trouble. The pills
will only mask his deeper problems, at best.
In the next issue well take a look at the third
stage of alcoholism.
Portions of this article were exerpted from
"under the influence," by James Milan and
Katherine K etcham.
Crystal Hipkins, R.N.
Prevention Education Coordinator
In last month's Healthboundwe took a look at
the three stages of alcoholism. Now let's look at-
the behaviors that are displayed during the
As you will recall, in the early, adaptive stage,
the alcoholic has the ability to increase the
amount of alcohol he drinks and still function in
a normal manner. He enjoys drinking, drinks
whenever it- is offered, and often looks for
occasions to drink. The alcoholic at this stage will
have a, greater tolerance for alcohol, drinking
more than his buddies and showing the effects
less. / .*< '* -
Anotlher behavior of this stage is the alcoholic's
growing preoccupation- with alcohol. He will
almost always have access to alcohol. He doesn't
necessarily drink every day and when he does
drink he-can usually control his intake so that he
rarely gets falling-down drunk. If he does get
drunk, he will insist that he was "just in the
mood'" to get drunk. You can understand why it
is difficult to know at this stage who is an
alcoholic and who isn't.
In stage two the alcoholic experiences specific
changes in his drinking behavior. He may try
hiding his growing dependence on alcohol by
"sneaking drinks". He'll keep alcohol stashed so
that he'll have it when he needs "it. "If a
middle-stage alcoholic is going to a party, he'll
loosen himself up with a few drinks before he gets
there. This is called "pre-drinking drinking." He
does this not to get into the party mood, but to
help fool people of his need for a lot of alcohol,
The way he drinks changes also. He tends to:
gulp his first drinks, drinking the first round and
ready for the next before everyone else. Oncehe
has begun drinking, he wants to continue
drinking. One or two drinks no longer satisfy him.
When others are showing signs of slowing down,
he'll order round after round, just to continue his
This behavior points to the beginning of loss of
control He may be able to control where and
when. he will drink, but he won't be able to count
on stopping once he has begun. This does not
happen every single time -he drinks, but it will
increase in frequency as the disease progresses.
The middle-stage alcoholic will develop his own
"'strategies of control" to prove to himself and
others that he can take alcohol or leave it alone.
He may be on the wagon for a while or switch to
a different kind of alcoholic drink. .
-At this time the alcoholic may be threatened
by his spouse with divorce or separation, or be
placed on probation by the courts. He can usually
use his strategies of control temporarily until this
threat is past. Occasional "slips" are rationalized
by the: alcoholic and forgiven by family and
The middle-stage alcoholic Will do anything to
avoid discussing his personal and drinking
problems. If he is asked why he drinks so much
by his family or friends, he will avoid answering
The Miccosukee Tribe was the appropriate host
of Indian Health Service's (IHS) Fourth Annual
Alcohol Conference this summer, after being
named the tribe with the best
prevention-education program in the nation.
The tribe was recognized last-year for its
outstanding prevention efforts -named No.1 by
an independent survey team from a field of 14 of
the nation's finest tribal programs- .so this year
the Miccosukee health staff showed everyone how
they do it. It was the first time the conference
was open to tribes outside the United South and
Eastern Tribes area.
The conference started out with a "responsible
hosting" reception, in which alcohol-free
cocktails were .served. -The remainder of the
five-day event revolved around the theme that
prevention coordinators must identify five factors
before developing an effective program. .
Those five factors were the following:
identifying who needs to be reached; determining
what needs are to be met by that population;
-identifying the "gatekeepers," people in the
community who can open figurative doors to
others in the target population; finding ways to
provide access to prevention education,
specifically, developing methods, activities and
events that educate; and lastly, creating "hooks,"
or fringe benefits, that keep the target population
returning for, and learning, more.
-Conference planners -chiefly Prevention
Education Coordinator Crystal Hipkins and
Human Services Counselor Don Epps, along with
the rest of the tribal health department- used
humorous skits and other creative means to get
their points across.
In fact, the conference was deemed so
successful that Hipkins and Epps were asked to
repeat much of it for tribal health leaders a week
If you do not have the strawberries or peaches
use the non-alcoholic daquiries mix)
Pour mineral water, tonic, club soda, perrier
water or plain water over ice and add a slice or
lemon or lime.
Mock Bloody Mary
Non-alcoholic bloddy mary mix, tomato juice,
or V-9 juice: Pour over ice, add pepper, tobasco
sauce or celery salt to your taste. Garnish with
1 can frozen limeade (thawed)
1/2 to 1 can water (use limeade can as measure)
Pour limeade and water into blender, add ice to
fill blender 3/4 full. Blend to a slush. Salt rim of
Pina Colada Mix (non-alcoholic)
Ini blender with ice, add. pina colada mix, small
amount of fresh or canned pineapple and
pineapple juice. Blend and pour into glass, garnish
with a wedge of pineapple and a cherry.
S(Strawberry -or Peach)
1 Pkg. frozen quick-thaw strawberries or peaches.
1 can frozen lemonade (thawed),
1/2.can water (use lemonade can as measure)
Pour strawberries/peaches, water, lemonade
into blender. Fill blAndir' with- into n /A "ffll
Billy Cypress, left,- assistant tribal chairman,
lunches with Joe Quetone, of the Florida
Governor's Council right, at the community
te.. $$ A..__ - ..__ T_ a_ -- T--_1a
S 8 Miccosukee Everglades News