Group Title: WFES mimeo report - West Florida Experiment Station ; 68-1
Title: Drylot finishing of steers and heifers
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053580/00001
 Material Information
Title: Drylot finishing of steers and heifers
Series Title: WFES Mimeo Report
Physical Description: 3, 5 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bertrand, J. E ( Joseph Ezel ), 1924-
West Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: West Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Jay Fla
Publication Date: [1967]
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. Bertrand.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September, 1967."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053580
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62310414

Full Text




)A \b 1 WEST FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION i" L 'i : Y 7-I
Jay, Florida
September 15, 1967 MAY7 136

WFES Mimeo Report 68-1
i \A -/ -
DRYLOT FINISHING OF STEERS AND HEIFERS ..

J. E. Bertrand i/


SUMMARY

In feedlot studies with fattening beef steers fed a high-concentrate ration
and sorghum silage, the addition of an antibiotic, zinc bacitracin, did not in-
crease gains but did improve feed efficiency. The antibiotic-fed steers had
slightly higher average carcass grade and dressing percent. These differences were
not significant. The profit per head, not including labor, was $4.19 for the
control group compared to $13.72 for the antibiotic-fed group.

Heavy steers (700-800 lb.) in another part of these studies gained faster than
heifers (450-600 lb.), 2.82 and 2.30 lb. per head daily respectively, but were less
efficient in converting feed to gains. The heifers did not yield (dressing percent)
as well as the steers. The profit per head, not including labor, was $12.16 for
the steers and $24.69 for the heifers.

Diethylstilbestrol-implanted steers gained significantly (P < .01) faster than
control steers (2.81 compared to 2.33 lb. per head daily). Control steers, how-
ever, had a significantly (P <.01) higher average dressing percent than the
diethylstilbestrol-implanted steers.
OBJECTIVES

The preliminary studies discussed in this report were undertaken with the
following objectives in mind:

(1). To evaluate the effect of an antibiotic, zinc bacitracin, in the finish-
ing ration of beef steers.

(2). To compare the performance, carcass, and economic data of heavy steers
(700-800 Ib.) and heifers (450-600 lb.) when fed a high-concentrate
finishing ration.

(3). To determine the magnitude of the diethylstilbestrol response when
implanted in the ear of beef steers being fed a high-concentrate
finishing ration under Northwest Florida fall and winter feeding
conditions.
PROCEDURE

Twenty-eight good quality yearling Hereford, Angus, and crossbred (Angus x
Hereford) steers averaging approximately 600 pounds in the fall were weighed and
allowed as equally as possible to two experimental groups of 14 head each. One-
half of the steers in each of the two experimental groups were given a 36 mg.
diethylstilbestrol ear implant each at the beginning of the trial. One experimental
group was fed the basal high-concentrate ration and sorghum silage while the other


V/ Associate Animal Scientist.






-2-


group received sorghum silage and the basal high-concentrate ration plus an anti-
biotic, zinc bacitracin, at approximately 70 mg. per head daily for the entire
feeding period. The composition and cost of the high-concentrate portions of these
two feeding regimes are listed in Table 1. Proximate analyses of the high-
concentrate rations and sorghum silage are listed in Table 2.

In another part of the studies, ten good quality yearling Hereford, Angus, and
crossbred (Angus x Hereford) steers averaging approximately 735 pounds and fourteen
good quality yearling Hereford, Angus, and crossbred (Angus x Hereford) heifers
averaging approximately 525 pounds in the fall were assigned to a heifer experi-
mental group and a steer experimental group. One-half of the steers in the steer
experimental group were given a 36 mg. diethylstilbestrol ear implant each at the
beginning of the trial. Both groups received sorghum silage and the basal high-
concentrate ration which contained approximately 70 mg. per head daily of the anti-
biotic, zinc bacitracin, for the entire feeding period. The composition and cost
of the high-concentrate portion of this feeding regime are listed in Table 1.
Proximate analyses of the high-concentrate ration and sorghum silage are listed in
Table 2.

Individual animal weights were taken at the beginning and at the end of the
studies, after an overnight shrink. Group weights were obtained on all groups
every 28 days during the course of the studies at approximately the same time of
day on each weighing date. Feed data were recorded daily on the concentrate and
sorghum silage consumed by each group.

The animals were fed twice daily and given all the feed that they would clean-
up. Sorghum silage was fed ad libitum during the first few weeks of the trial
along with a limited amount of the concentrat-e-ration. The sorghum silage was then
gradually decreased and the concentrate ration increased simultaneously until the
animals were considered to be on full-feed. At that time and for the remainder of
the trial the sorghum silage amounted to 9% (air-dry basis) of the total ration.
A mineral mixture, consisting of two parts defluorinated rock phosphate and one
part medicated (ethylene diamine dihydroiodide) trace-mineralized salt, plain salt,
and clean drinking water were available to the animals at all times.

At the end of each study, the animals were hauled to Haas-Davis Packing Co.,
Inc., Mobile, Alabama where they were slaughtered. Individual final weights at
the end of the trial and paying weights (hot dressed weight less 3%) were used to
calculate the dressing percentages. Carcass grades and yield grades were determined
for each carcass by a USDA grader at the packing house.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The performance, carcass, and economic data for the two experimental groups
used in the antibiotic evaluation part of the studies are presented in Table 3.
It can be noted that both groups gained equally well, 2.48 and 2.43 lb. per head
daily for the control and the antibiotic-fed groups, respectively. The antibiotic-
fed group was more efficient in converting feed to gains.

The profit per head, not including labor, was $4.19 for the control group com-
pared to $13.72 for the antibiotic-fed group (Table 3). This increased profit
from the antibiotic feeding was due to a number of factors. The antibiotic-fed
animals were not only more efficient in converting feed to gains as stated previ-
ously, but also had a slightly higher average carcass grade and a higher average
dressing percent (Table 3). The last two factors are also important in determining
profit per head, since the animals were sold on a grade and yield basis.







-3-


The performance, carcass, and economic data for the heavy steer and heifer
feeding comparison are presented in Table 4. The steers gained 2.82 lb. per head
daily for a period of 98 days compared to 2.30 lb. per head daily during a 121-day
period for the heifers. The steers gained faster, as might be expected since they
had a much higher initial weight, but required more feed per pound of gain. A few
of the heifers had been accidentally bred and were pregnant, which accounted for
the low average dressing percent in this group (Table 4).

The profit per head, not including labor, was $12.16 for the steers as compared
to $24.69 for the heifers (Table 4). The heifers did not gain, yield, or sell as
well as the steers but were much more efficient in feed conversion. They were also
fed a longer period of time.

When the data were pooled to determine the response to the diethylstilbestrol
implants, some very interesting results were obtained (Table 5). The diethylstil-
bestrol implanted steers put on 20.6% more weight gains (2.81 compared to 2.33 lb.
per head daily). This was a highly significant (P <.01) increase in gains due to
the hormone treatment. The control animals, however, had a higher average yield
grade and a significantly (P< .01) higher average dressing percent.









Table 1

Composition and Cost of the Concentrate Portions

West Florida Experiment Station
Jay, Florida
1966-67


Ingredients

Ground snapped corn

Soybean meal (44% protein)

Urea 45% N

Pefluorinated rock phosphate

Salt

Vitamin A supplement (b)

Zinc bacitracin supplement (c)


Mark-up (d)


91.75

4.95

1.10

1.65

0,55

+


100.00


Basal
Lb./ton

1835

99

22

33

11

+


2000


Cost (a)

$32.11

4.85

1,14

1.50

0.15

0.17


$39.92
7.00
$46.92


Basal Plus Antibiotic
% Lb./ton Cost (a)

91.70 1834 $32.10

4.95 99 4.85

1.10 22 1.14

1.65 33 1.50

0.55 11 0.15

+ + 0.17

0.05 1 0.45
100.00 2000 $40.36
7.00
$47.36


(a). Based on the following prices: ground snapped corn = $35.00/ton, soybean meal
(44% protein) = $98.00/ton, urea 45% N $104.00/ton, defluorinated rock
phosphate = $91,00/ton, salt = $1.32/cwt., Perma-Dual 30A (vitamin A supplement
containing 30,000 IU/gram) = $0.55/lb., and Baciferm 10 (zinc bacitracin
supplement containing 10 grams of the antibiotic per pound) = $0.45/lb.

(b) Added at the level of 3 million IU/ton or 1500 IU/lb. of feed.

(c) Zinc bacitracin added at the level of 10 gm./ton or 5 mg./lb. of feed.

(d) Mixing, milling, overage, etc. --- $7.00/ton.


--










Table 2

Proximate Analyses of the High-Concentrate Rations
and Sorghum Silage

West Florida Experiment Station
Jay, Florida
1966-67


Moisture

Crude protein

Ash

Ether extract

Crude fiber

Nitrogen-free extract


Basal
(%M

10.84

16.20

4.89

3.19

9.00

55.88


Basal Plus
Antibiotic


11.28

16.99

4.74

2.65

9.02

55.32


Sorghum
Silage
(%)

79.31

2.19

1.12

0.46

7.64

9.28


--







Table 3


Data Resulting from the Antibiotic Study

West Florida Experiment Station
Jay, Florida
1966-67


Control Antibiotic
No. of animals 14 14
Length of feeding, days 139 139
Av. initial wt., lb. 603.6 597.5
Av. final wt., lb. 946.4 935.7
Av. gain/animal, lb. 342.8 338.2
Av. daily gain, lb. 2.48 2.43
Feed/cwt. gain
Concentrate 842.9 809.9
Silage 363.1 350.2
Feed/animal/day, lb.
Concentrate 20.98 19.71
Silage 9.00 8.52
Av. carcass grade (a) 12.4 12.6
Av. yield grade (b) 2.6 2.6
Av. slaughter wt., lb. 946.4 935.7
Av. carcass wt., lb. (c) 541.7 551.7
Av. dressing percent 57.24 58.96
Feed cost/cwt. gain
Concentrate (d) $ 19.71 $ 19.18
Silage (e) 1.82 1.75
Total $ 21.59 $ 20.93
Av. cost/head of feeder (f) $139.13 $137.73
Av. feed cost/head of feeder 74.02 70.79
Total cost/head of feeder $213.15 $208.52
Gross sales/head (g) $217.34 $222.24
Profit per head +$ 4.19 +$ 13.72
Av. price/cwt. carcass $ 40.12 $ 40.28
Av. price/cwt. on foot $ 22.96 $ 23.77
(a) 10 = average good, 11 = high good, 12 = low choice,
13 = average choice, etc.
(b) Yield grades numbered 1 through 5 with yield grade 1
representing the highest yield of boneless, closely
trimmed retail cuts (cutability) and yield grade 5 the
lowest.
(c) Paying weight, which is hot dressed weight less 3%.
(d) Control concentrate ration = $46.92/ton and the con-
centrate ration containing the antibiotic = $47.36/ton.
(e) Sorghum silage = $10.00/ton.
(f) Feeder cost of $23.00/cwt. + $0.30/animal for diethyl-
stilbestrol implants ( of the animals received 3-12 mg.
implants).
(g) Animals sold to Haas-Davis Packing Co., Inc., Mobile,
Alabama on a grade and yield basis -- cost of hauling
to Mobile deducted to arrive at gross sales.







Table 4


Data Resulting from the Heavy Steer and Heifer Feeding Comparison

West Florida Experiment Station
Jay, Florida
1966-67

Heavy Steers Heifers
No. of animals 10 14 (a)
Length of feeding, days 98 121
Av. initial wt., lb. 733.0 523.6
Av. final wt., lb. 1009.5 801.9
Av. gain/animal, lb. 276.5 278.3
Av. daily gain, lb. 2.82 2.30
Feed/cwt. gain
Concentrate 818.8 729.7
Silage 413.9 348.8
Feed/animal/day, lb.
Concentrate 23.10 16.81
Silage 11.68 8.04
Av. carcass grade (b) 12.1 11.2
Av. yield grade (c) 3.2 2.3
Av. slaughter wt., lb. 1009.5 801.9
Av. carcass wt., lb. (d) 594.0 439.0
Av. dressing percent 58.84 54.74


Feed cost/cwt. gain
Concentrate (e)
Silage (f)
Total
Av. cost/head of feeder (g)
Av. feed cost/head of feeder
Total cost/head of feeder
Gross sales/head (h)
Profit per head
Av. price/cwt. carcass
Av. price/cwt. on foot


$ 19.39
2.07
$ 21.46
$ 168.89
59.34
$ 228.23
$ 240.39
+$ 12.16
$ 40.47
$ 23.81


$ 17.28
1.74
$ 19.02
$ 92.94
50.13
$143.07
$167.76
+$ 24.69
$ 38.21
$ 20.92


(a) One heifer had to be removed at the end of 28 days due to
pregnancy.
(b) 10 = average good, 11 = high good, 12 = low choice, 13 =
average choice, etc.
(c) Yield grades numbered 1 through 5 with yield grade 1 repre-
senting the highest yield of boneless, closely trimmed retail
cuts (cutability) and yield grade 5 the lowest.
(d) Paying weight, which is hot dressed weight less 3%.
(e) Concentrate ration cost = $47.36/ton.
(f) Sorghum silage = $10.00/ton.
(g) Feeder (steer) cost of $23.00/cwt. + $0.30/animal for diethyl-
stilbestrol implants (k of the steers received 3-12 mg.
implants) and feeder (heifer) cost of $17.75/cwt.
(h) Animals sold to Haas-Davis Packing Co., Inc., Mobile, Alabama
on a grade and yield basis -- cost of hauling to Mobile de-
ducted to arrive at gross sales.


---









Table 5


Data Resulting from the Diethylstilbestrol Study

West Florida Experiment Station
Jay, Florida
1966-67


Control Diethylstilbestrol (a)
No. of Steers 19 19
Av. number of days 128 128
Av. daily gain, lb. 2.33 2.81 (e)
Av. carcass grade (b) 12.4 12.4
Av. yield grade (c) 2.84 2.68
Av. dressing percent (d) 61.27 (e) 55.84


(a) Each animal was implanted with three-12 mg. diethylstilbestrol
implants (36 mg./head) Stimplants (Chas. Pfizer and Co., Inc.)

(b) 10 = average good, 11 = high good, 12 = low choice, 13 = average
choice, etc.

(c) Yield grades numbered 1 through 5 with yield grade 1 representing
the highest yield of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts
(cutability) and yield grade 5 the lowest.

(d) Calculated from hot dressed weight less 3% and final weight off of
experiment.

(e) Significant at P <.01.



















JEB
9/15/67
100 CC




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