Group Title: WFES mimeo report - West Florida Experiment Station ; 69-2
Title: Programs for finishing cattle using sorghum silage, high-moisture corn and grain sorghum, and pasture
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 Material Information
Title: Programs for finishing cattle using sorghum silage, high-moisture corn and grain sorghum, and pasture
Series Title: Mimeo report
Physical Description: 3, 8 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bertrand, J. E ( Joseph Ezel ), 1924-
West Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: West Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Jay Fla
Publication Date: [1969]
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. Bertrand.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1969."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053578
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62310299

Full Text
' -

SHUME LIBRARY

,MAY 9 1969
f.' i WEST FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Jay, Florida
May, 1969 I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida

WFES Mimeo Report.69-2 *

PROGRAMS FOR FINISHING CATTLE USING SORGHUM SILAGE,
HIGH-MOISTURE CORN AND GRAIN SORGHUM, AND PASTURE 1/ 2 /

J. E. Bertrand 3/


The per capita,consumption of beef in the United States has increased from
59.4 lb. in 1945 to 99.0 lb. in 1965. By 1975, the per capital consumption of beef
is projected to increase to 113 lb. In order to meet this continuous increased
demand for beef, the finishing of cattle for market has become an impror--nt phloln
of beef production in the United States.

According to the Florida Department of Agriculture, only about one-fourth of
the fed'beef consumed in Florida is produced by feedlots in the state. The
potential for producing forage and grain in Florida-plus the demand for fed beef
should contribute to increased feeding of cattle.

A study was initiated in the spring of 1968 at the West Florida Experiment
Station to evaluate five (5) different drylot and pasture feeding regimes for
finishing diethylstilbestrol implanted and control beef steers.


PROCEDURE

Eighty good quality yearling Hereford, Angus, and crossbred (Angus X Hereford)
steers averaging 572 lb. were weighed and allowed as equally as possible to 10
experimental groups of eight animals each. The 10 experimental groups, utilizing
a control group and a group in which each steer received a 36 mg. ear implant of
diethylstilbestrol, were assigned to the five different finishing regimes as
follows:

Treatment I high-moisture corn (crimped into a flat flake) + sorghum silage
+ concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.

Ingredients (wet-basis) %, first 84 days %. last 54 days
High-moisture corn 22.4 51.2
Sorghum silage 73.3 45.0
Concentrate supplement 4.3 3.8
100.0 100.0

1_/ Presented at the 1969 Beef Catle Short Course, University of Florida,
Gainesville.
2 / The air-tight, glass-lined silos for the storage of the high-moisture corn
and grain sorghum were donated by the A. 0. Smith Harvestore Products, Inc.,
Arlington Heights, Illinois.
3_/ Associate Animal Scientist.






-2-


Treatment II high-moisture grain sorghum (crimped into a flat flake) +
sorghum silage + concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in
drylot.

Ingredients (wet-basis) %, first 84 days %, last 54 days
Hig.h-moisture grain sorghum 25.1 54.9
Sour.lj:um silage 70.7 41.6
Concentrate supplement 4.2 .. 3.5..
100.0 100.0

Treatment III dry corn (medium-fine ground) + sorghum silage + eoneentrinto
supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.

Ingredients (wet-basis), %, first 84 days i%, last 54 day
Dry corn 19.8 47.3
Sorghum silage 75.7 48.6
Concentrate supplement 4.5 4.1
100.0 100.0

Treatment IV supplemental feeding on bahiagrass pasture (two 1.25 acre plots,
total 2.5 acr-., '.fr each experimental group,of eight calves).--- Ration #1
(Table 1) wan feo' at the level of 1% of bodyweight for the,.first 84 days on
trial and Ration #2 (Table 1) was fed at the level of 2% of bodyweight for
the last 54 days on trial. ,

Treantment V supplemental feeding on Gahi-1lmillet pasture (two .1.25 acre
plots, total 2.5 acres, for each experimental group of eight calves) ---
Ration #1 (Table 1) was fed at the level of 1% of bodyweight for the first
84 days on trial, Ration #2 (Table 1) was fed at the level of 2% of body-
weight until the forage was completely grazed down (28 additional days),
and a short 26-day drylot feeding period during which oats.hay and Ration
#2 (Table 1) were fed ad libitum.

After an overnight shrink (fast from feed and water), individual animal weights
were taken at the beginning and at the end of the trial period..,Group weights were
obtained on all experimental groups every 28 days during the trial at approximately
the same time of day on each weighing date. The feed allowances for the next 28
days for the animals fed on pasture were determined on a basis of these 28-day
weights.

The animals fed in drylot were fed twice daily in an amount of feed that they
would clean-up between feedings. The animals fed on pasture were fed once daily
during the period that they received the pasture supplemental ration at the level
of 1% of bodyweight:. During the period that the pasture supplemental ration was
fed at the level of 2% of bodyweight, the ration was divided into two equal portions
and fed twice daily.

Each experimental group of animals on pasture was rotated between the two
pasture plots of the grass species assigned to it as required for best utilization
of good quality forage.

The composition and cost of the two pasture supplemental rations (Ration #1
and Ration #2) and the concentrate supplement are presented in Table 1. Certain
proximate components of the roughages and concentrates consumed during the trial
period are listed in Table 2.








-3-


RESULTS

The performance of beef steers on the five different feeding regimes is listed
in Table 3. It can be noted that animals on Treatment I had the largest gain (2.63
lb./head/day), followed in order by the gain (2.48 lb./head/day) of animals on
Treatment III, the gain (2.41 lb./head/day) of animals on Treatment II, the gain
(2.17 lb./head/day) of animals on Treatment V, and the gain (1.96 lb./head/day) of
animals on Treatment IV. The first three treatments listed in order were drylot
feeding regimes while the last two were pasture feeding regimes.

Dry matter feed data for the beef steers being finished in drylot with high-
moisture and dry grain as part of their rations are listed in Table 5. On a total
ration dry matter basis, the animals receiving high-moisture corn were 4.67 and
11.95% more efficient in converting dry matter to gain than the animals receiving
dry corn and high-moisture grain sorghum, respectively. The animals receiving dry
corn were 6.96% more efficient in converting total ration dry matter to gain than
the animals receiving high-moisture grain sorghum. On a grain dry matter basis,
the animals receiving high-moisture corn were 6.13 and 16.11% more efficient in
converting grain to gain than the animals receiving dry corn and high-moisture
grain sorghum, respectively. The animals receiving dry corn were 9.40% more
efficient in converting grain dry matter to gain that the animals receiving high-
moisture grain sorghum. The daily dry matter consumption of animals on the three
drylot feeding regimes did not differ to any extent.

The carcass and economic data for the steers finished on the five different
feeding regimes are listed in Table 6. It can be noted that the steers on the
three drylot feeding regimes had higher grading and.yielding carcasses than steers
supplemented on pasture. The cost of gain was lowest for the steers receiving
Treatment IV and highest for the steers receiving Treatment II. However, the
profit per head was highest for steers on Treatment I and lowest for steers on
Treatment IV.

Under the conditions of this trial, it appears that steers prior to being
finished in drylot or on pasture should each be implanted in the ear with 36 mg.
of diethylstilbestrol as a standard practice (Table 8).







Table 1


Composition and Cost of the Concentrate Supplement (Protein, Mineral, Vitamin)
and the Pasture Supplemental Rations

Cone. supp.(a) Ration #i(b) Ration #2(c)
Ingredients -% Lb./ton Cost(d) % Lb./ton Cost(d) % Lb./ton Cost(d)
Ground corn --------- ------------- 89.1 1782 $38.31 96.95 1939 $41.69
Soybean meal (44% protein) 77.25 1545.0 $67.60 8.0 160 7.00 ------ ---- ----
Urea 45% N 5.52 110.4 5.74 0.3 6 0.31 1.00 20 1.04
Salt (trace-mineralized) 5.52 1 l10.4 2.51 0.5 : -10 0.23 0.50 10 0.23
Defluorinated rock phosphate 11.04 220.8 9.94 2.0 40 1.80 1.50 30 1.35
Vitamin A supplement 0.12(e) 2.4 '0.96 + (g) + 0.18 + (i) + 0.09
Zinc bacitracin supplement 0.55(f) l11.0 4.95 0.1(h) 2 0.90 0.05(j) 1 0.45
( 100.00 2000.0 $91.70 100.0 2000 $48.73 100.00 2000 $44.85
hark-up(k) 7.00 7.00 7.00
$98.70 $55.73 $51.85
(a) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) fed in the three drylot rations containing silage.
(b) Ration #ll pasture supplemental ration fed at the level of 1% of bodyweight for the first 84 days on trial.
(c) Ration #2 pasture supplemental ration fed at the level of-2% of bodyweight or above for the last 54 days on
trial.
(d) Based on the following prices: ground corn $43.00/ton, soybean meal (44% protein) = $87.50/ton, urea 45%
N = $104.00/ton, salt'(trace-mineralized) = $2.27/cwt., defluorinated rock.phosphate = $90.00/ton, Perma-Dual
30A (vitamin A supplement containing 30,000 I.U./gm.) = $0.40/lb., and Baciferm 10 (zinc bacitracin supple-
ment containing 10 grams of the antibiotic per pound) = $0.45/lb.
(e) Added at the level of 32.7 million I.U./ton or 16,350 I.U./lb. of concentrate supplement.
(f) Zinc bacitracin added at the level of 110 gm./ton or 55 mg./lb. of concentrate supplement.
(g) Added at the level of 6 million I.U./ton or 3,000 I.U./lb. of pasture supplemental ration.
(h) Zinc bacitracin added at the level of 20 gm./ton or 10 mg./lb. of pasture supplemental ration.
(i) Added at the level of 3 million I.U./ton or 1,500 I.U./lb. of pasture supplemental ration.
(j) Zinc bacitracin added at the level of 10 gm./ton or 5 mg./lb. of pasture supplemental ration.
(k) Mixing, milling, overage, storage, etc. --- $7.00/ton.








Table 2


Certain Proximate Components of the Roughages and Concentrates Consumed During the Trial Period

Sorghum HM HM grain Dry Conc. Ration Ration Oats
(a) (b) (d) (e) (fh (g) B(h
Item silage(a) corn(b) sorghum(c) corn supp.() #1() 2 Bahiagrassh) Millet(i) hay
Dry matter, % 31.47 75.77 70.29 90.65 92.04 90.01 88.62 27.56 14.90 87.92
Crude protein, % 2.34 8.43 6.92 10.04 45.14 12.44 12.06 2.93 3.13 6.03
Crude fiber, % 7.88 2.16 2.05 2.25 5.74 3.82 4.28 8.50 4.05 33.50
(a) Sorghum silage (average of four samples collected at intervals during the trial).
(b) High-moisture corn (average of four samples collected at intervals during the trial).
(c) High-moisture grain sorghum (average of four samples collected at intervals during the trial).
(d) Dry corn (average of four samples collected at intervals during the trial).
(e) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) fed in silage rations (average of four samples collected at
intervals during the trial).
(f) Ration #1 pasture supplemental ration fed at the level of 1% of bodyweight for the first 84 days on trial
(average of four samples collected at intervals during the trial).
(g) Ration #2 pasture supplemental ration fed at the level of 2% of bodyweight or above for the last 54 days on
trial (average of four samples collected at intervals during the trial).
(h) Bahiagrass forage (average of four hand plucked samples collected at intervals during the trial).
(i) Gahi-1 millet forage (average of four hand plucked samples collected at intervals during the trial).
(j) Oats hay (average of four samples collected at intervals during the trial).







Table 3


Performance of Beef Steers Finished on Five Different Feeding Regimes (1968)

Treatments
Item I(a) II(b) IIL(c) IV(d) V(e)
No. of animals 16(f) 6f) 16(f) 16(f)' 16(f)
Length of trial, days 138 138 138 138 138
Av. initial wt., lb. 569.7 570.3 573.8 562.2 584.1
Av. final wt., lb. 932.5 903.1 916.3 832.8 883.8
Av. gain/animal, lb. 362.8 332.8 342.5 270.6 299.7
Av. daily gain, lb. 2.63 2.41 2.48 1.96 2.17
Feed/cwt. gain(g)
High-moisture corn 525.0 --- ----- ---
High-moisture grain sorghum ----- 657.2 ---- ----
Dry corn ----- ------- 465.8 -- --
Sorghum silage 1049.5 1129.4 1081.1 ---- ----
Concentrate supplement 67.9 73.7 70.7
Pasture supplemental ration -- ------------- 521.4 500.7
Oats hay ------- -------------- ------ 59.4
Feed/animal/day, lb. ()
High-moisture corn 13.80 ---- -- -- ---- ----
High-moisture grain sorghum ----- 15.85 ---- -----
Dry corn ------ ----1156 ---- -----
Sorghum silage 27.59 27.23 26.83
Concentrate supplement 1.78 1.78 1.75 --- ----
Pasture supplemental ration ------- ------- ------- 10.23 10.87
Oats hay -- ------- ---- 1.29
(a) Treatment I high-moisture corn + sorghum silage + concentrate supple-
ment (protein, mineral, vitamin) in'drylot.
(b) Treatment II high-moisture grain sorghum + sorghum silage + concentrate
supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(c) Trenat.ent III dry corn +-sorghum silage + concentrate supplement
(protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(d) Treatment IV supplemental feeding on bahiagrass pasture.
(e) Treatment V supplemental feeding on Gahi-l millet pasture plus a short
drylot period.
(f) Two pens of eight steers each per treatment group. The steers in one pen
were implanted in the ears with 36 mg. of diethylstilbestrol each while
those in the other pen were riot implanted.
(g) Does not include pnonture.







Table 4


Duncan's Multiple Range Test between Group Means
(Average Daily Gain) for the Five Feeding Regimes

Stat. sig.
Treatments Means 1% level(a)
I(b) 2.63 a
III) 2.48 a, b
II 2.41 a, b
(e) 2.17 b, c
IV 1.96 c

(a) Denotes statistical significance at the 1-percent
level. Means followed by letter "a" are signifi-
cantly different from those means not having "a",
those followed by "b" are significantly different
from those not having "b", etc.
(b) Treatment I high-moisture corn + sorghum silage +
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin)
in drylot.
(c) Treatment III dry corn + sorghum silage + concen-
trate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in
drylot.
(d) Treatment II high-moisture grain sorghum +
sorghum silage + concentrate supplement (protein,
mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(e) Treatment V supplemental feeding on Gahi-l millet
pasture plus a short drylot period.
(f) Treatment IV -'supplemental feeding on bahiagrass
pasture.









Table 5

Dry Matter Feed Data of Beef Steers Being Finished in Drylot with
High-Moisture and Dry Grain as Part of Their Rations (1968)

: Treatments

Item I(a) 1(b) II(c)


Feed (dry basis)/cwt. gain
High-moisture corn
High-moisture grain sorghum
Dry corn
Sorghum silage
Concentrate supplement
Total
Feed (dry basis)/animal/day, lb.
High-moisture corn
High-moisture grain sorghum
Dry corn
Sorghum silage
Concentrate supplement
Total


397.8


330.3
62.5
790..6


10.46


8.68
1.64
20.78


461.9

355.4.,
67.8
885.1


11.14

8.57
1.64
21.35


422.2
340.2
65.1
827.5



10.48
8.44
1.61
20.53


(a) Treatment I high-moisture corn + sorghum silage +
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in
drylot.
(b) Treatment II high-moisture grain sorghum + sorghum silage
+ concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in
drylot.
(c) Treatment III -dry corn + sorghum silage'+ concentrate
supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.


-----`-~----------


--------






Table 6


Carcass and Economic Data of Beef Steers Finished on Five
Different Feeding Regimes (1968)
Treatments
Item I(a) II(b) III(c) iv(d) v(e)


carcass grade(f)
yield grade(g)
slaughter wt., lb.
carcass wt., Ib.h)
dressing % (carcass yield)


15.1
2.9
932.5
534.8
57.35


57.3 5723 57.8


14.8
2.7
903.1
516.8
57.23


14.5
2.8
916.3
529.9
57.83


13.2
2.4
832.8
453.7
54.48


Feed cost/cwt. gain
High-moisture corn(i) $ 11.24 --- ----- ----- -----
High-moisture grain sorghum) -------- $ 11.50 ----- ---- -----
Dry corn(k) ----- ---- $ 11.65 -----
Sorghum silage(1) $ 5.25 $ 5.65 $ 5.41 -----
Concentrate supplement(m) $ 3.35 $ 3.64 $ 3.49---"---- ----
Pasture supplemental ration(n) ------- ------- ------- $ 13.92 $ 13.35
Oats hay(o) -------- -------- ----- $ 0.89
Bahiagrass pasture(P) ------- ----- $ 5.07 ----
Gahi-1 millet pasture() -- --------- ------------ 4.90
Total(r) $ 19.84 $ 20.79 $ 20.55 $ 18.99 $ 19.14
Av. cost/head of feeders) $146.13 $146.28 $147.18 $144.20 $149.82
Av. feed cost/head of feeder $ 71.98 $ 69.19 $ 70.38 $ 51.39 $ 57.36
Total cost/head of feeder(r) $218.11 $215.47 $217.56 $195.59 $207.18
Gross sales/head(t) $236.26 $226.74 $232.64 $196.26 $212.33
Profit per head(r) +$ 18.15 +$ 11.27 +$ 15.08 +$ 0.67 +$ 5.15
Av. price/cwt. on foot $ 25.34 $.25.11 $ 25.39 $ 23.57 $ 24.02
Av. price/cwt. carcass $ 44.18 $ 43.87 $ 43.90 $ 43.26 $ 43.64
(a) Treatment I high-moisture corn + sorghum silage + concentrate supplement
(protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(b) Treatment II high-moisture grain sorghum + sorghum silage + concentrate
supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(c) Treatment III dry corn + sorghum silage + concentrate supplement (protein,
mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(d) Treatment IV- supplemental feeding on bahiagrass pasture.
(e) Treatment V supplemental feeding on Gahi-1 millet pasture plus a short
drylot period.
(f) 13 = low good, 14 = average good, 15 = high good, 16 = low choice, etc.
(g) Yield grades numbered 1 through 5 with yield grade 1 representing the highest
yield of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts (cutability) and yield grade 5
the lowest.
(h) Paying weight, which is hot dressed weight less 3%.
(i) High-moisture corn = $42.76/ton.
(j) High-moisture grain sorghum = $35.03/ton.
(k) Dry corn = $50.00/ton ($43.00 + $7.00 mark-up = $50.00).
(1) Sorghum silage = $10.00/ton.
(m) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) = $98.70/ton.
(n) Pasture supplemental ration = $55.73/ton for the first 84 days on trial and
$51.85/ton for the last 54 days on trial.
(o) Oats hay = $30.00/ton.
(p) Bahiagrass pasture cost = $43.90/acre.
(q) Gahi-1 millet pasture cost = $46.95/acre.
(r) Does not include labor.
(s) Feeder cost = $25.65/cwt. (includes initial cost of animals, hauling, and
veterinary cost).
(t) Animals sold to Hlaas-Davis Packing Co., Inc., Mobile, Alabama, on a grade and
yield basis.


13.8
2.4
883.8
486.5
55.05








Table 7


Duncan's Multiple Range Tests between Group Means of Three Carcass Measurements from
Steers Fed Five Different Feeding Regimes

Carcass grade(a) Stat. sig. Yield grade(b) Stat. sig. Carcass yield, %(c) Stat. sig.
Treat. Means 1% level(e) Treat. Means 5% level(d) Treat. Means 1% level(e)
II.q'n


1t) 15.1
II ) 14.8
III(h) 14.5
(i) 13.8
IV 13.2


a
a
a, b
a, b
b


I 2.9
(h)
III 2.8
II g 2.7
(j)
V() 2.4
IV 2.4


kh)
1(f)_
(g)

IVI


57.83
57.35
57.23
:55.05
54.48


(a) 13 = low good, 14 = average good, 15 high good, 16 = low choice, etc.
(b) Yield grades numbered 1 through 5 with yield grade 1 representing the highest yield of
boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts (cutability) and yield grade 5.the lowest.
(c) Paying weight, which is hot dressed weight less 3%, divided by final weight off of
experiment X 100.
(d) Denotes statistical significance at the 5-percent level. Means followed by letter "a" are
significantly different from those means not having "a", those followed by "b" are
significantly different from those not having "b", etc.
(e) Denotes statistical significance at the 1-percent level. Means followed by letter "a" are
significantly different from those means not having "a", those followed by "b" are
significantly different from those not having "b", etc.
(f) Treatment I high-moisture corn + sorghum silage.+ concentrate supplement (protein,
mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(g) Treatment II high-moisture grain sorghum + sorghum silage + concentrate supplement
(protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(h) Treatment III dry corn + sorghum silage + concentrate supplement (protein, mineral,
vitamin) in drylot.
(i) Treatment IV supplemental feeding on bahiagrass pasture.
(j) Treatment V supplemental feeding on Gahi-l millet pasture plus a short drylot period.


-- --








Table 8


The Effect of Diethylstilbestrol on the Performance, Carcass Data, and
Economic Data of Finishing Beef Steers (1968)


Item


No. of animals
Length of trial, days
Av. initial wt., lb.
Av. final wt., lb.
Av. gain/animal, lb.
Av. daily gain, lb.


carcass grage(C)
yield gradelu)
slaughter wt., lb.
carcass wt., lb.(e)
dressing percent (carcass yield)


Feed cost/cwt. gain(f)
Av. cost/head of feeder(g)
Av. feed cost/head of feeder
Total cost/head of feeder(f)
Gross sales/head(h)
Profit per head(f)
Av. price/cwt. on foot
Av. price/cwt. carcass


Control

40(b)
138
579.5
877.8
298.3
2.16


14.5
2.7
877.8
494.9
56.38
$ 21.06
$148.64
$ 62.82
$211.46
$217.43
+$ 5.97
$ 24.77
$ 43.93


$ 43.93L---


DES(a)
40(b)
138
564.5
909.6
345.1
2.50*
14.1
2.6
909.6
513.8
56.49
$ 18.92
$144.79
$ 65.29
$210.08
$224.27
+$ 14.19
$ 24.66
$ 43.65


(a) Diethylstilbestrol --- 36 mg. implanted in the ear of each steer.
(b) Five pens of eight steers each per treatment group.
(c) 13 = low good, 14 = average good, 15 = high good, 16 = low choice,
etc.
(d) Yield grades numbered 1 through 5 with yield grade 1 representing the
highest yield of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts (cutability)
and yield grade 5 the lowest.
(e) Paying weight, which is hot dressed weight less 3%.
(f) Does not include labor or cost of the diethylstilbestrol implants.
(g) Feeder cost = $25.65/cwt. (includes initial cost of animals, hauling,
and veterinary cost).
(h) Animals sold to Haas-Davis Packing Co., Inc., Mobile, Alabama, on a
grade and yield basis.
** Significant at P<0.01.


- -


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