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Group Title: WFES mimeograph report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations ; 72-3
Title: Comparative value of corn, non-bird resistant and bird resistant sorghum grain in silage rations for finishing feedlot steers
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 Material Information
Title: Comparative value of corn, non-bird resistant and bird resistant sorghum grain in silage rations for finishing feedlot steers
Series Title: Animal Science mimeograph report
Physical Description: 10 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Maxson, W. E ( William Edwin ), 1947-
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1972
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: W.E. Maxson ... et al.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Mimeo report (West Florida Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053575
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62310126

Table of Contents
    Comparative value of corn, non-bird resistant and bird resistant sorghum grain in silage rations for finishing feedlot steers
        Page 1
        Procedure
            Page 1
        Results
            Page 2
            Page 3
        Summary
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Acknowledgements
            Page 10
Full Text




HUME LIBRARY


Animal Science MAY 25 1972 Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Report AL-1972-2 and E periment Stations
UFES Mimeograph Report 72-3 G inesville, Florida
I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida
COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CORN, NON-BIRD RESISTANT AND BIRD RESISTANT SORGHUM
GRAIN IN SILAGE RATIONS FOR FINISHING FEEDLOT STEERS
1/ 2/ 1/ 1/ 1/
W.E. Maxson-, J.E. Bertrand-, R.L. Shirley-, J.W. Carpenter- and A.Z. Palmer-


In various feeding areas of the United States, sorghum grain (milo) has

been shown to be an economical cattle feed. New bird-resistant varieties of

grain sorghum have produced as much or more tonnage of grain per acre in

Florida during dry years than corn or the non-bird-resistant grain sorghum

varieties. The feeding value of thers new bird-resistant varieties of sorghum

grain appears to be lower than that of non-bird-resistant varieties of sorghum

grain as reported by Bertrand and Lutrick (1970) and Anonymous (1969).

The objective of this study was to compare the rate of gains, feed efficiency

and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers fed finishing rations differing

only in the grain source, corn, non-bird-resistant sorghum grain, or bird-resistant

sorghum grain.

Procedure

Forty-eight steers with an average 7-i'ght of 702 pounds were randomly

assigned among six treatments. The cattle were all of British breeding; Angus,

Hereford and Hereford-Angus crosses. All animals were shrunk for a period of

12 hours prior to being placed on experiment, individually weighed and implanted

with 36 mg. of diethylstilbestrol. Three groups of full-fed steers were placed

on either a corn ration, non-bird-resistant (NBR) sorghum grain ration or bird-


/ Graduate Assistant, Animal Nifritionist, Meat Scientists, respectively.
University of Florida, Gaine?ille.
2/ Associate Animal Scientist, Agricultural Research Center, Jay.








HUME LIBRARY


Animal Science MAY 25 1972 Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Report AL-1972-2 and E periment Stations
UFES Mimeograph Report 72-3 G inesville, Florida
I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida
COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CORN, NON-BIRD RESISTANT AND BIRD RESISTANT SORGHUM
GRAIN IN SILAGE RATIONS FOR FINISHING FEEDLOT STEERS
1/ 2/ 1/ 1/ 1/
W.E. Maxson-, J.E. Bertrand-, R.L. Shirley-, J.W. Carpenter- and A.Z. Palmer-


In various feeding areas of the United States, sorghum grain (milo) has

been shown to be an economical cattle feed. New bird-resistant varieties of

grain sorghum have produced as much or more tonnage of grain per acre in

Florida during dry years than corn or the non-bird-resistant grain sorghum

varieties. The feeding value of thers new bird-resistant varieties of sorghum

grain appears to be lower than that of non-bird-resistant varieties of sorghum

grain as reported by Bertrand and Lutrick (1970) and Anonymous (1969).

The objective of this study was to compare the rate of gains, feed efficiency

and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers fed finishing rations differing

only in the grain source, corn, non-bird-resistant sorghum grain, or bird-resistant

sorghum grain.

Procedure

Forty-eight steers with an average 7-i'ght of 702 pounds were randomly

assigned among six treatments. The cattle were all of British breeding; Angus,

Hereford and Hereford-Angus crosses. All animals were shrunk for a period of

12 hours prior to being placed on experiment, individually weighed and implanted

with 36 mg. of diethylstilbestrol. Three groups of full-fed steers were placed

on either a corn ration, non-bird-resistant (NBR) sorghum grain ration or bird-


/ Graduate Assistant, Animal Nifritionist, Meat Scientists, respectively.
University of Florida, Gaine?ille.
2/ Associate Animal Scientist, Agricultural Research Center, Jay.











resistant (BR) sorghum grain ration, while the other three groups of steers

were placed on the same rations as the full-fed steers only restricting their

intake so gains would approximate 1.50 pounds daily. This was done in order

that the net energy of the rations could be calculated at a later date. Feed

ingredients and cost of the rations can be seen in table 1, while the ingredi-

ents and cost of the supplement appear in table 2.

Steers were weighed by groups every 28 days in order that feeding levels

for restricted-fed groups could be determined. Amount of feed allotted to

each restricted-fed group for the next 28 days was calculated for expected

gains from the data pulY:_ished in the NAS-NRC bulletin (1970). At the end of

the experiment, all animals were again shrunk 12 hours, weighed and transported

to Gainesville for slaughter. Carcass grades were determined by a federal grader

and yield grades were calculated by University Meats Laboratory personnel.

Data were analyzed for significance by Duncan's multiple range test out-

lined by Dixon and Massey (1969).

Results

Average daily gain and feed utilization data for the full-fed steers

are presented in table 3. The steers fed the corn ration had a significantly

greater rate of gain, which consisted of 2.83 pounds per day compared to

2.47 and 2.19 pounds gain per day for the NBR and BR groups, respectively.

Steers fed the BR ration consumed 35.4 pounds (fresh weight) of ration per

day, which was 20% more than those fed the corn rations and 13% more than

those fed the NBR rations. Efficiency of conversion of feed to gain by steers

was best on the corn rations, poorest on the BR ration and intermediate with

those fed the NBR ration. Feed cost per hundred pounds of gain was approximately

the same for the corn and NBR ration groups. However the feed cost was highest

for BR ration group, For the calculation of cost data, the cost of the two










-3-

types of sorghum grain was considered to be the same. However, the data

obtained in this study showed that the NBR sorghum grain was worth more per

ton than the BR sorghum grain in silage rations for finishing feedlot steers.

Feedlot data for the restricted-fed steers are shown in table 4. The

results follow the same trend as those obtained with the full-fed steers.

Cost of feed per hundred pounds of gain was quite close for each ration at the

two levels of feeding.

In table 5, comparative values of the rations are expressed in terms of

average daily gain and feed efficiency for both the full-fed and restricted-

fed steers. The corn ration was used as a standard in both methods of compari-

son. The rate of gain for the steer fed corn is considered as 100% and the

sorghum grain rations are given relative values or percentages. Steers full-

fed the NBR and BR rations gained 87 and 77% as rapidly as those full-fed the

corn ration, respectively. Comparing the two types of sorghum grain, the BR

full-fed group of steers produced only 89% as much gain as those steers full-

fed the NBR ration.

Comparative values for the three rations were also calculated by dividing

the feed efficiency of the corn ration into the feed efficiency of the other

two rations. These calculations showed that it took 1.21 pounds of the full-

fed NBR ration and 1.56 pounds of the full-fed BR ration to produce as much

weight gain as a pound of the corn ration. Similar calculations with the

average daily gain and feed efficiency for the restricted-fed steers followed

the same trend as the full-fed steers.

The carcass data for the full-fed cattle are presented in table 6.

Steers fed the corn and NBR rations showed no significant differences in

chilled carcass weight, dressing percentage or any of the factors that make

up quality or yield grade. Steers fed the BR ration were significantly lower











in chilled carcass weight, dressing percent, hot carcass weight and yield

grade than the steers fed the corn and NBR rations. Since dressing percent-

age is a function of fatness, the lower dressing percentage of the BR fed

cattle would indicate that the cattle full-fed corn and NBR rations contained

the most fat. This is substantiated by the higher marbling scores and in-

creased fat over the eye values for the corn and NBR full-fed cattle. All

three rations produced choice grade steers. Carcass data for the restricted-

fed steers (table 7) showed that they had lighter carcasses, lower dressing

percentage and lower quality grades than the full-fed ones. Only the corn

restricted-fed steers made the choice grade after 128 days on feed. There

were no significant differences among restricted-fed steers in carcass

characteristics.

Summary

Corn, non-bird-resistant and bird-resistant sorghum grain rations were

fed to 48 feedlot cattle to compare the rate of gain, feed efficiency and

carcass characteristics. Cattle receiving the corn ration gained faster and

more efficiently than those receiving either type of sorghum grain. The NBR

ration proved to be more efficient in both rate of gain and feed conversion

than the BR ration. The full-fed steers that consumed the BR ration had

significantly lower carcass dressing percentages than those that consumed the

corn or NBR rations. The BR group of steers had a significantly lower yield

grade which resulted in higher carcass cutability. The steers restricted in

feed intake generally had a decreased dressing percentage. Under the conditions

of this study, the corn and NPR sorghum grain rations were more economical

when compared to the BR sorghum grain ration for finishing feedlot steers.










Table 1 Feed Ingredients and Cost of Rations, as Fed Basis


Corn NBR sorghum


BR sorghum


Item ration grain ration grain rai

% % %

Ground corni/ 61 0 0
Ground non-bird- esistant 61 0
sorghum grain-
Ground bird-resistant 0 0 61
sorghum grain3 4/
Forage sorghum silage 35 35 35
Supplement- 4 4 4


Cost/ton
Moisture %
Protein % (dry matter)


$36.27
37.17
12.53


$30.17
37.40
13.45


$30.17
36.91
11.94


1/ A mixture of Pioneer 3369A and DeKalb S-900B; $47.00/ton.
2/ DeKalb E-57; $37.00/ton.
3/ DeKalb BR-64; $37.00/ton.
4/ A mixture of DeKalb FS-24, Funk 102F, Taylor-Evans TDN and
Rudy-Patrick 55F; $10.00/ton.

5/ $102.65/ton.


Table 2 Feed Ingredients and Cost of Supplement, as Fed Basis

Item

Soybean oil meal (44% protein) 76.00
Urea (45% N) 1/ 7.18
Trace mineralized salt- 5.52
Defluorinated rock phosphate 11.04
Perma Dual 30A2/ 0.12
Baciferm 403/ 0.14
Cost/ton4/ $102.65


1/ Trace mineralized salt contained 97.5% NaCl, 250 mg
100 mg iron, 50 mg sulfate sulfur, 33 mg copper, 15
8 mg zinc and 7 mg iodine per gram.


manganese,
mg cobalt,


2/ Perma Dual 30A contained 30,000 I.U. of vitamin A per gram.
3/ Baciferm 40 contained 90 mg of zinc bacitracin per gram.
4/ Cost of $8/ton was added for mixing, milling, storage, etc.


tion










Table 3 Average Daily Gain, Feed Consumption and
For Full Fed Steers17


Efficiency Data


Corn NBR sorghum BR sorghum
Item ration grain ration grain ration

No. of steers 8 8 8
Days on trial 128 128 128
Avg. initial wt, lb. 694 718 698
Avg. final wt, lb. 1056 1034 b 978
Avg. daily gain, lb. 2.83 2.47 2.19


Feed/animal/day, lb. 29.5 31.3 35.4
Feed/cwt gain (as fed
basis) 1043 1265 1622
Feed/cwt gain (dry
matter basis) 655 792 1024
Feed cost/cwt gain/ $18.88 $18.99 $24.33


1/ Values in horizontal rows with different superscript letters
are different, P< 0.05.
2/ Does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the
animals.


Table 4 Average Daily Gain, Feed Consumption and Feed Efficiency
Data For Restricted Fed Steers1/


Corn NBR sorghum BR sorghum
Item Ration grain ration grain ration

No. of steers 8 8 8
Days on trial 128 128 128
Avg. initial wt, lb. 699 720 703
Avg. final wt, lb. 926 943 873
Avg. daily gain, lb. 1.77 1.75 1.32


Feed/animal/day, lb. 18.0 21.0 22.5
Feed/cwt gain (as fed
basis) 1075 1202 1698
Feed/cwt gain (dry
matter basis) 2/ 641 752 1071
Feed cost/cwt gain- $19.46 $18.03 $25.34


1/ Values in horizontal rows with different superscript letters
are significant different, P< 0.05.
2/ Does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the
animals.











Table 5 Comparative Value of Corn, Non-Bird Resistant
Resistant Sorghum Grain Rations


and Bird-


1/ 1/ 2/
NBR:- BR:- BR:-
Corn Corn Corn NBR

ADG % % % %
Full fed 100 87 77 89
Restricted 100 99 75 75


Feed Efficiency

Full fed 1.00 1.21 1.56 1.28
Restricted fed 1.00 1.17 1.67 1.42


1/
SCorn ration is used as standard and given a value of 100 for
average daily gain and a value of 1.00 for feed efficiency.
2/
SNBR sorghum grain ration is "red as standard and given a value
of 100 for average daily gain and a value of 1.00 with feed
efficiency.












Table 6 Carcass Data of Full Fed Steersl/


Corn NBR sorghum BR sorghum
Item ration grain ration grain ration

Chilled carcass
wt, lb. 646 624a 575b
Dressing %- 61.2 60.4 58.7

Carcass Quality

3/
Conformation- 17.8 17.6 17.0
Maturity 2 2 2
Marbling5/ 15.5 15.1 14.7
Quality Grade6/ 17 17 16

Carcass Cutability

Hot carcass wt, lb. 661a 639ab 587b
Fat over the eye, inch .59 .56 .40
Estimated kidney fat, % 3.31 3.19 3.29
Rib eye area, sq. inch 11.06 11.29 10.72b
Yield grade- 3.69 3.59 3.07

1/ Values in horizontal rows with different superscript letters
are significantly different, P< 0.05.
2/
-Dressing percentage based on off experiment weight and chilled
carcass weight.
3/ +
SCarcass conformation is based on Prime 19; Choice 18;
Choice, 17; Choice 16; Good 15; etc.
4/ +
/ Maturity scores are based on A 1; A, 2; A 3; B 4; etc.
5/ +
/ Marbling scores are based on Modest 13; Modest, 14; Modest,
15; Moderate 16; etc.
6/ +
SQuality grade scores are based on Prime 19; Choice 18;
Choice, 17; Choice 16; etc.
/ Yield grades numbered 1 through 5 with grade 1 representing the
highest yield of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts and yield
grade 5 the lowest.











1/Table 7 Carcass Data of Restricted Fed Steers
Table 7 Carcass Data of Restricted Fed Steers-


Corn NBR sorghum BR sorghum
Item ration grain ration grain ration

Chilled carcass wt, lb. 554 557 511
Dressing %2/ 59.8 59.0 58.6

Carcass Quality
3/
Conformation3 16.3 16.4 15.3
Maturity4/ 2 2 2
Marbling5/ 11.6 10.0 10.6
Quality grade6/ 17 15 15

Carcass Cutability

Hot carcass wt, lb. 568 568 526
Fat over the eye, inch .29 .25 .23
Estimated kidney fat, % 3.1 3.0 3.1
Rib eye area sq. inch 11.67 11.28 11.40
Yield gradeZ/ 2.37 2.38 2.11


None of the treatment means were
the P< 0.05 level.


statistically different at


Dressing percentage is based on off experiment
chilled carcass weight.


weight and


3/ +
SCarcass conformation is based on Prime 19; Choice 18; Choice,
17; Choice", 16; Good, 14, etc.

4/ Maturity scores are based on A 1; A, 2; A 3; B 4; etc.

5/ Marbling scores are based on Slight 19; Small 10; Small,
11; Small 12; etc.

SQuality grade scores are based on Choice, 17; Choice 16; Good ,
15; Good, 14; etc.

7/ Yield grades numbered 1 through 5 with grade 1 representing
the highest yield of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts and
yield grade 5 the lowest.











-10-


Acknowledgements

The assistance of Jerry Scott, Manager of Meats Laboratory,

and fellow workers is gratefully acknowledged.

Literature Cited

1. Anonymous. 1969. Bird-resistant milo and wheat in high concen-

trate steer fattening rations. Feedstuff. 41(19):50.

2. Bertrand, J. E. and M. C. Lutrick. 1971. Feeding value of NBR

(non-bird-resistant) and BR (bird-resistant) sorghum grain

in the ration of beef steers. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.

Fla. Proc. 31:In Press.

3. Dixon, W. J. and F. J. Massey. 1969. Introduction to Statis-

tical Analysis. McGraw-Hill Book Company.

4. National Academy of Science-National Research Council. 1970.

Nutrient requirements of Domestic Animals. No. 4.

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. National Academy

of Sciences, Washington, DC.




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