Group Title: Mimeo report - Agricultural Research Center ; WFES-72-1
Title: Corn and grain sorghum silages (unrolled and rolled) for growing stocker beef calves in northwest Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053574/00001
 Material Information
Title: Corn and grain sorghum silages (unrolled and rolled) for growing stocker beef calves in northwest Florida
Series Title: Mimeo report
Physical Description: 7 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bertrand, J. E ( Joseph Ezel ), 1924-
Dunavin, Leonard Sypret, 1930-
Lutrick, M. C ( Monroe Cornealous )
Agricultural Research Center, Jay
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Jay Fla
Publication Date: [1972]
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. Bertrand, L.S. Dunavin, and M.C. Lutrick.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1972."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053574
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62310051

Full Text



it1O ?X-l AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
F Jay, Florida

MIMEO REPORT-WFES-72-1 May, 1972

CORN AND.GRAIN SORGHUM SILAGES (UNROLLED AND ROLLED) FOR
GROWING STOCKERR BEEF CALVES IN NORTHWEST FLORIDAI' 2/

J. E. Bertrand, L. S. Dunavin, and M. C. Lutrick3/

The dry rolling of sorghum'silage prior to feeding to yearling steers
resulted in a significant increase in digestible energy and animal gain in a
study reported by Mississippi State University. These findings appear sound
because the small hard kernels from the sorghum plant are very resistant to
the digestive processes, even when ensiled, and may go through the animal intact.
A large portion of the nutritive value of the sorghum plant is in the grain.

A study was initiated in the fall of 1970 at the Agricultural Research
Center near Jay to compare corn and grain.sorghum silages (unrolled and rolled)
for growing stocker beef calves. The effects of RALGRO (Zeranol-a protein
anabolic agent) implanted in the ears of stocker beef calves consuming a silage
growing ration was included as a main treatment effect.

PROCEDURE

Sixty-four fall-weaned, good quality Angus, Hereford, and crossbred
(Angus X Hereford) steer calves averaging 393 pounds were weighed and allotted
as equally as possible to eight experimental groups of eight steer calves each.
The eight experimental groups, utilizing two groups (the eight steer calves in
one group were given a 36 mg. ear implant of RALGRO while the eight steer calves
in the other group were not implanted) per treatment, were assigned to the dif-
ferent treatments on November 17, 1970, as follows:

1. Rolled silage (95% of ration on wet-basis) + concentrate supplement
protein, mineral, vitamin) (5% of ration on wet-basis) in drylot.

a. Corn silage.

(1) Implanted with RALGRO eight steer calves. HUME LIBRARY
(2) Unimplanted eight steer calves.

b. Grain sorghum silage. MAY 11 1972

(1) Implanted with RALGRO eight steer calves.
(2) Unimplanted eight steer calves. I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida



I/Presented at the 1972 Beef Cattle Short Course, University of Florida,
Gainesville.

A/The Peerless silage and high-moisture grain roller mill used to roll the sil-
ages was donated by the A. 0. Smith Harvestore Products, Inc., Arlington
Heights, Illinois. The RALGRO (brand of Zeranol) implants were donated by
Commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute, Indiana.

A/Associate Animal Scientist, Associate Agronomist, and Associate Soil Chemist,
respectively, Agricultural Research Center, Jay.








2. Unrolled silage (95% of ration on wet-basis) + concentrate supplement
(protein, mineral, vitamin) (5% of ration on wet-basis) in drylot.

a. Corn silage.

(1) Implanted with RALGRO eight steer calves.
(2) Unimplanted eight steer calves.

b. Grain sorghum silage.

(1) Implanted with RALGRO eight steer calves.
(2) Unimplanted eight steer calves.

The rolled silages were processed through a Peerless silage and high
moisture grain roller mill in order to crimp (flatten or crush) the kernels of
grain.

The corn silage was made from three varieties (Funk's G-4761, Funk's
G-5757, and McNair 440V) of corn which yielded 14.0 tons per acre of 36% dry
matter forage from one cutting. On a dry matter basis, 38% of the corn forage
was grain. The grain sorghum silage was made from DeKalb BR-64 sorghum. It
yielded 12.5 tons per acre of 46% dry matter forage from two cuttings. On a dry
matter basis, 39% of the grain sorghum forage was grain.

After an overnight shrink (fast from feed and water), individual animal
weights were taken at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Group weights
were obtained on all experimental groups every 28 days during the trial at
approximately the same time of day on each weighing date.

Each group of steer calves was fed once daily in an amount of feed that
they would clean-up between feedings. Feed data were recorded daily.

A mineral mixture (consisting of two parts defluorinated rock phosphate
and one part trace-mineralized salt), plain salt, and clean drinking water were
available to the animals at all times.

The composition and cost of the concentrate supplement (protein,
mineral, vitamin) are presented in Table 1. The proximate analyses of the silages
and concentrate supplement consumed during the trial period are listed in Table 2.

The trial was terminated on April 6, 1971, because the supply of silage
was exhausted.

The analysis of variance was conducted according to the method of
Snedecor (1946).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Animal performance and economic data with growing beef calves fed un-
rolled and rolled corn and grain sorghum silages are presented in Table 3. For
the 140-day feeding period, calves fed rolled corn silage gained significantly
faster than those fed unrolled corn silage (1.40 compared to 0.98 lb./head/day).
Calves fed rolled corn silage consumed more feed and were more efficient in con-
verting feed to gain than those fed unrolled corn silage. The cost of gain
($15.49/cwt.) and the profit per head ($28.38) for calves fed rolled corn silage
were better than the cost of gain ($18.62/cwt.) and the profit per head ($14.82)
for comparable calves fed unrolled corn silage.


WFES-72-1


- 2 -








Calves fed rolled grain sorghum silage gained slightly faster than those
fed unrolled grain sorghum silage (1.12 compared to 1.06 lb./head/day) (Table 3).
Feed consumption was very similar for calves on the two grain sorghum silage treat-
ments. However, calves fed rolled grain sorghum silage were slightly more
efficient in converting feed to gain than those fed unrolled grain sorghum silage.
The cost of gain and the profit per head did not differ to any great extent be-
tween calves on the two grain sorghum silage treatments.

When the data were pooled, corn silage (unrolled and rolled) fed calves
gained 0.1 lb. more per head daily than grain sorghum silage (unrolled and rolled)
fed calves (1.19 compared to 1.09 lb./head/day) (Table 4. The average daily gain
on each one of the silages was not considered good. This low animal gain may have
been partially due to the short feeding period (140 days) compared to longer feed-
ing periods (155-173 days) in previous trials. Animals normally consume more
feed and gain more towards the end of a silage feeding trial. This terminal in-
creased gain and feed consumption by silage fed calves normally results in a
higher average daily gain and a higher average feed consumption for the longer
feeding periods. Also, the increased gain by corn silage fed calves when compared
to the gain of grain sorghum silage fed calves was not as large as that obtained
in previous years. The calves fed corn silage consumed less feed, but were more
efficient in converting feed to gain than those fed grain sorghum silage. It can
be noted in Table 2 that the grain sorghum silage was higher in dry matter than
the corn silage. Therefore, the advantage in converting feed to gain by corn
silage fed calves when compared to grain sorghum silage fed calves was even more
pronounced than shown in Table 4. The cost of gain ($16.76/cwt.) and the profit
per head ($21-62) for calves fed corn silage were better than the cost of gain
($21.26/cwt.) and the profit per head ($12.63) for calves fed grain sorghum silage.

When the data were pooled, calves fed rolled silage (corn and grain sor-
ghum) gained somewhat better than calves fed unrolled silage (corn and grain sor-
ghum) (1.26 compared to 1.02 lb./head/day) (Table 4). Calves fed rolled silage
consumed more feed and were more efficient in converting feed to gain than those
fed unrolled silage. This advantage due to rolling was mainly due to the increas-
ed performance of calves fed rolled corn silage (Table 3). The stems of the grain
sorghum plants were somewhat fibrous and coarse and the resulting silage was not
easily rolled or readily consumed by the calves. The corn kernels in the corn
silage were rolled into a flatter flake than the sorghum kernels in the grain sor-
ghum silage. This was due to the larger kernels of corn when compared to sorghum
and the less fibrous and better chopped stems of the corn plant. The cost of gain
($17.95/cwt.) and the profit per head ($20.90) for calves fed rolled silage were
better than the cost of gain ($20.18/cwt.) and the profit per head ($13.22) for
the calves fed unrolled silage.

Calves implanted with RALGRO gained 0.1 lb. more per head daily than com-
parable unimplanted calves (1.19 compared to 1.09 lb./head/day) (Table 5). Im-
planted calves were also more efficient in converting feed to gain than unimplant-
ed calves. The feed consumption did not differ to any extent. The cost of gain
for implanted calves was lower than that of unimplanted calves ($17.81 compared to
$20.12/cwt.). Implanted calves were also more profitable ($19.91 compared to
$14.35/head).

It was felt that the rolling of silage was worthwhile. This processing
of silage is sound, because the kernels of grain in silage, particularly sorghum,
are very resistant to the digestive process and may go through the animal intact.
A large portion of the nutritive value of silage is in the grain. Further studies
need to be conducted with rolled silage (corn and sorghum) for growing beef calves.


WFES-72-1


- 3 -







Table 1


Composition and Cost of the Concentrate Supplement(a)
Ingredients % Lb./ton Cost(b)
Soybean meal (44% protein) 83.195 1663.9 $ 76.96
Urea 45% N 4.150 83.0 3.32
Salt (trace-mineralized) 4.150 83.0 2.41
Defluorinated rock phosphate 8.300 166.0 7.55
Zinc bacitracin supplement 0.130(c) 2.6 4.16
Vitamin A supplement 0.075(d) 1.5 0.60
100.000 2000.0 $ 95.00
Mark-up(e) 8.00
$103.00
(a) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) fed in silage rations.
(b) Based on the following prices: soybean meal (44% protein) = $92.50/ton,
urea 45% N = $80.00/ton, salt (trace-mineralized) = $58.00/ton, defluori-
nated rock phosphate = $91.00/ton, Baciferm 40 (zinc bacitracin supplement
containing 40 gms. of the antibiotic/pound) = $1.60/lb., and Perma Dual 30A
(vitamin A supplement containing 30,000 I.U./gm.) = $0.40/lb.
(c) Zinc bacitracin added at the level of 104 gm./ton or 52 mg./lb. of concen-
trate supplement.
(d) Vitamin A added at the level of 20.4 million I.U./ton or 10,200 I.U./lb. of
concentrate supplement.
(e) Mixing, milling, overage, storage, etc.---$8.00/ton.

Table 2

Proximate Analyses of the Silages and Concentrate Supplement
Consumed During the Trial Period
Grain
Corn sorghum Concentrate
Item silage(a) silage(b) supplement(c)
Moisture, % 67.22 56.61 7.04
Crude protein, % 2.82 3i51 51.02
Ash, % 1.28 1.77 17.32
Ether extract, % 1.13 1.16 1.91
Crude fiber, % 8.58 11.62 5.43
Nitrogen-free extract, % 18.97 25.33 17.28
(a) Corn silage (Funk's G-4761, Funk's G-5757, McNair 440V) (average of four
samples collected at intervals during the trial).
(b) Grain sorghum silage (DeKalb BR-64) (average of four samples collected at
intervals during the trial).
(c) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) fed in silage rations
(average of four samples collected at intervals during the trial).


WFES-72-1


- 4 -






Table 3


Evaluation of Rolled Silages for Growing Beef Calves
Corn silae(a) Grain sorghum silage(b)
Item Unrolled Rolled(') Unrolled Rolled ()
No. of animals 16(d) 16(d) 16) 16(d)
Length of trial, days 140 140 140 140
Av. initial wt., lb. 386.3 391.3 396.6 396.9
Av. final wt., lb. 523.8 586.9 544.7 553.4
Av. gain/animal, lb. 137.5 195.6 148.1 156.5
Av. daily gain, lb. 0.98 1.40* 1.06 1.12
Feed/cwt. gain 2463 2015 2777 2645
Silage 2340 1914 2638 2513
Concentrate supplement 123 101 139 132
Feed/animal/day, lb. 24.2 28.2 29.4 29.6
Silage 23.0 26.8 27.9 28.1
Concentrate supplement 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.5
Feed cost/cwt. gain
Silage(e) $ 12.29 $ 10.29 $ 14.51 $ 14.14
Concentrate supplement(f) $ 6.33 $ 5.20 $ 7.16 $ 6.80
Total $ 18.62 $ 15.49 $ 21.67 $ 20.94
Av. cost/head of feeder(g) $124.58 $126.19 $127.90 $128.00
Av. feed cost/head of feeder $ 25.60 $ 30.30 $ 32.09 $ 32.77
Total cost/head of feeder(h) $150.18 $156.49 $159.99 $160.77
Gros's value/head(i) $165.00 $184.87 $171.58 $174.32
Profit per head(h) +$ 14.82. +$ 28.38 +$ 11.59 +$ 13.55

(a) Corn silage + concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
(b) Grain sorghum silage + concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
(c) The silages were rolled in order to crimp the kernels of grain.
(d) Two groups of eight steer calves each.
(e) Corn silage (unrolled) = $10.50/ton, corn silage (rolled) = $10.75/ton, grain
sorghum silage (unrolled) = $11.00/ton, and grain sorghum silage (rolled) =
$11.25/ton.
(f) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) = $103.00/ton.
(g) Feeder cost = $32.25/cwt. (includes cost of animals, hauling, veterinary
costs, etc.).
(h) Does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for animals.
(i) Based on an animal value of $31.50/cwt. at the end of the trial.
*Significant at P<0.05 (this applies to the corn silage rolled and unrolled
comparison only).


WFES-72-1


- 5 -







Table 4


Performance and Economic Data of Growing Beef Calves
Fed Unrolled and Rolled Corn and Grain Sorghum Silages


Corn
Item silage(a)


No. of animals
Length of trial, days
Av. initial wt., lb.
Av, final wt., lb.
Av. gain/animal, lb.
Av. daily gain, lb.
Feed/cwt. gain
Silage
Concentrate supplement
Feed/animal/day, lb.
Silage
Concentrate supplement


32 e4
140
388.8
555.3
166.5
1.19
2200
2090
110
26.2
24.9
1.3


Grain
sorghum
silage(b)
32(e)
140
396.7
549.1
152.4
1.09
2709
2574
135
29.5
28.0
1.5


Unrolled
silage(c)
32(e)
140
391.4
534.2
142.8
1.02
2626
2495
131
26.8
25.5
1.3


Rolled
silage(d)
32(e)
140
394.1
570.2
176.1
1.26
2295
2180
115
28.9
27.5
1.4


Feed cost/cwt. gain
Silage(f) $ 11.09 $ 14.31 $ 13.43 $ 12.03
Concentrate supplement(g) $ 5.67 $ 6.95 $ 6.75 $ 5.92
Total $ 16.76 $ 21.26 $ 20.18 $ 17.95
Av. cost/head of feeder(h) $125.39 $127.94 $126.23 $127.10
Av. feed cost/head of feeder $ 27.91 $ 32.40 $ 28.82 $ 31.61
Total cost/head of feeder(i) $153.30 $160.34 $155.05 $158.71
Gross value/head(i) $174.92 $172.97 $168.27 $179.61
Profit per head(i) +$ 21.62 +$ 12.63 +$ 13.22 +$ 20.90

(a) Corn silage (unrolled and rolled) + concentrate supplement (protein, mineral,
vitamin).
(b) Grain sorghum silage (unrolled and rolled) + concentrate supplement (protein,
mineral, vitamin).
(c) Unrolled silage (corn and grain sorghum) + concentrate supplement (protein,
mineral, vitamin).
(d) Rolled silage (corn and grain sorghum) + concentrate supplement (protein,
mineral, vitamin).
(e) Four groups of eight steer calves each.
(f) Corn silage (unrolled) = $10.50/ton, corn silage (rolled) = $10.75/ton, grain
sorghum silage (unrolled) = $11.00/ton, and grain sorghum silage (rolled) =
$11.25/ton.
(g) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) = $103.00/ton.
(h) Feeder cost = $32.25/cwt. (includes cost of animals, hauling, veterinary costs,
etc.).
(i) Does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for animals.
(j) Based on an animal value of $31.50/cwt. at the end of the trial.


WFES-72-1


- 6 -


I


I







Table 5


Response to RALGRO When Implanted
Item
No. of animals
Length of trial, days
Av. initial wt., lb.
Av. final wt., lb.
Av. gain/animal, lb.
Av. daily gain, lb.
Feed/cwt. gain
Silage
Concentrate supplement
Feed/animal/day, lb.
Silage
Concentrate suDDlement


in the Ears of Growing Beef Calves
Control RALGRO(a)
32(b) 32(b)
140 140
393.4 392.0
545.4 558.9
152.0 166.9
1.09 1.19
2598 2302
2468 2187
130 115
28.2 27.4
26.8 26.0
1.4 1.4


Feed cost/cwt. gain
Silage(c) $ 13.42 $ 11.89
Concentrate supplement(d) $ 6.70 $ 5.92
Total $ 20.12 $ 17.81
Av. cost/head of feeder(e) $126.87 $126.42
Av. feed cost/head of feeder $ 30.58 $ 29.72
Total cost/head of feeder(f) $157.45 $156.14
Gross value/head(g) $171.80 $176.05
Profit per head(f) +$ 14.35 +$ 19.91

(a) RALGRO (Zeranol a protein anabolic agent) ear implants produced by
Commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute, Indiana. All calves were
given a 36 mg. ear implant initially.
(b) Four groups of eight steer calves each.
(c) Corn silage (unrolled) = $10.50/ton, corn silage (rolled) = $10.75/ton,
grain sorghum silage (unrolled) = $11.00/ton, and grain sorghum silage
(rolled) = $11.25/ton.
(d) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) = $103.00/ton.
(e) Feeder cost = $32.25/cwt. (includes cost of animals, hauling, veterinary
costs, etc.).
(f) Does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for animals.
(g) Based on an animal value of $31.50/cwt. at the end of the trial.


WFES-72-1


- 7 -




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs