Group Title: Mimeo report - Agricultural Research Center ; WFES 71-2
Title: Four levels of grain sorghum silage and reconstituted corn for finishing cattle in northwest Florida
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 Material Information
Title: Four levels of grain sorghum silage and reconstituted corn for finishing cattle in northwest Florida
Series Title: Mimeo report
Physical Description: 10 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bertrand, J. E ( Joseph Ezel ), 1924-
Dunavin, Leonard Sypret, 1930-
Lutrick, M. C ( Monroe Cornealous )
Agricultural Research Center, Jay
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Jay Fla
Publication Date: [1971
 Subjects
Subject: Cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. Bertrand, L.S. Dunavin, and M.C. Lutrick.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "March, 1971."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053573
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62310014

Full Text

WV S71

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
Jay, Florida

Mimeo Report WFES 71-2 March, 1971



FOUR LEVELS OF GRAIN SORGHUM SILAGE AND RECONSTITUTED CORN
FOR FINISHING CATTLE IN NORTHWEST FLORIDA1/

HUI'~E LIBRARY J. E. Bertrand, L. S. Dunavin, and M. C. Lutrick2/

MAY 25 1971
SUMMARY

F.A.S. Univ. of Floriria different levels (80, 65, 50, and 35%) of grain sorghum silage
--. wih- recon'stituted corn (crimped into a flat flake) and a concentrate sup-
plement for finishing beef steers were tested. Steers receiving more silage in
their ration, in every comparison, gained less and required a longer feeding
period to reach market weight (approximately 1000 lb.). Thus, the steers re-
ceiving the lowest level of silage (35%) in their ration gained (2.47 lb./head/
day) faster and were more profitable ($21.13/head), while the steers receiving
the highest level of silage (80%) gained less (1.99 lb./head/day) and were less
profitable ($2.23/head).

In every comparison, the carcass yield (dressing %) was lower for steers
receiving more silage in their ration. However, the carcass grades did not differ
considerably since the steers in each treatment were slaughtered at approximately
the same market weight.

On a total ration dry matter basis, steers receiving 35% silage in their
ration were 10.3, 20.4, and 31.8% more efficient in converting dry matter to gain
than the steers receiving 50% silage, 65% silage, and 80% silage, respectively.
The daily feed consumption per steer on a dry matter basis did not differ to any
extent.

When final weights were adjusted to the same hot carcass yield (dressing
%), steers receiving more silage in their ration, in every comparison, gained less,
had a higher cost of gain, and were less efficient in converting total ration dry
matter to gain.

OBJECTIVE

The study discussed in this report was undertaken with the following
objective in mind:

1. To determine the optimum level of grain sorghum silage to use with
reconstituted corn and a concentrate supplement in the finishing
ration of beef steers.



1/ The "oxygen limiting" unit for the storage of the reconstituted corn was
donated by the A. 0. Smith Harvestore Products, Inc., Arlington Heights, Illinois.
2/ Associate Animal Scientist, Associate Agronomist, and Associate Soils
Chemist, respectively, West Florida Experiment Station, Jay.







PROCEDURE


Sixty-four good quality Angus, Hereford, and crossbred (Angus x Hereford)
steers (average 648 lb.), treated with a 36 mg. ear implant of diethylstilbestrol
each, were weighed and allowed as equally as possible to eight experimental groups
of eight animals each. The eight experimental groups, utilizing two groups per
treatment, were assigned to the four feeding regimes on May 15, 1970, as follows:


Treatment I Ration----(wet-basis)


Grain sorghum silage
Reconstituted corn
Concentrate supplement


80.0%
16.9%
3.1%
100.0%


Treatment II Ration---(wet-basis)


Grain sorghum silage
Reconstituted corn
Concentrate supplement


65.0%
31.7%
3.3%
100.0%


Treatment III Ration--(wet-basis)


Grain sorghum silage
Reconstituted corn
Concentrate supplement


50.0%
46.5%
3.5%
100.0%


Treatment IV Ration---(wet-basis)


Grain sorghum silage
Reconstituted corn
Concentrate supplement


Ration (dry matter basis)

63.8%
29.5%
6.7%
100.0%

Ration (dry matter basis)

45.3%
48.6%
6.1%
100.0%

Ration (dry matter basis)

31.0%
63.2%
5.8%
100.0%

Ration (dry matter basis)


35.0%
61.3%
3.7%
100.0%


19.5%
75.0%
5.5%
100.0%


The reconstituted corn, prior to mixing into the complete ration and
feeding, was crimped into a flat flake. The animals were fed the mixed ration
twice daily in an amount of feed that they would clean-up between feedings.

After an overnight shrink (fast from feed and water), individual animal
weights were taken at the beginning and at the end of the trial periods. As far as
practical, all groups were fed to comparable final weights (approximately 1000 lb.).

A mineral mixture (consisting of two parts defluorinated rock phosphate
and one part trace-mineralized salt), plain salt, and clean drinking water were
available to the animals at all times.

The animals were slaughtered at Frosty Morn Meats, Quincy, Florida.
Carcass and yield grades were determined for each carcass by a USDA grader at the
packing house.


Table 1.
listed in


The composition and cost of the concentrate supplement are presented in
The proximate analyses of the feeds consumed during the trial period are
Table 2.


-2-







The analyses of variance were conducted according to the method of
Snedecor (1946). The multiple range test of Duncan (1955) was employed to test
significance between group means.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The performance of beef steers finished on four different levels of
silage with reconstituted corn and a concentrate supplement is listed in Table 3.
It can be noted that steers on Treatment IV (35% silage) had the largest gain
(2.47 lb./head/day), followed in order by the gain (2.36 lb./head/day) of steers on
Treatment III (50% silage), the gain (2.21 lb./head/day) of steers on Treatment II
(65% silage), and the gain (1.99 lb./head/day) of steers on Treatment I (80% silage).
It required 150 days of feeding for the groups of steers on Treatments IV (35%
silage) and III (50% silage) to reach market weights of approximately 1000 lb.,
while the groups on Treatments II (65% silage) and I (80% silage) required 178
days of feeding to reach market weights of approximately 1000 lb.. In every compari-
son, steers receiving more silage in their ration gained less and required a longer
feeding period to reach market weight. The gain of steers on Treatment IV (35%
silage) was significantly (P<0.01) higher than the gains of steers on Treatments II
(65% silage) and I (80% silage). The gain of steers on Treatment III (50% silage)
was significantly (P<0.01) higher than the gain of steers on Treatment I (80%
silage).

The carcass and economic data of beef steers finished on four different
levels of silage with reconstituted corn and a concentrate supplement are listed
in Table 4. It can be noted that the carcass grades did not differ significantly
when the steers in each treatment were slaughtered at approximately 1000 lb..
Steers on Treatment I (80% silage), however, had a significantly (P<0.01) lower
yield grade (leaner carcasses) than steers on Treatments II (65% silage) and IV
(35% silage). In every comparison, the carcass yield (dressing %) was lower for
steers receiving more silage in their ration. Steers on Treatments IV (35% silage)
and III (50% silage) had significantly (P<0.01) higher carcass yields than steers
on Treatment I (80% silage).

The cost of gain ($21.05/cwt.) was lowest for steers on Treatment IV
(35% silage), followed in order by the cost of gain ($21.97/cwt.) for steers on
Treatment III (50% silage), the cost of gain ($22.05/cwt.) for steers on Treatment
I (80% silage), and the cost of gain ($22.31/cwt.) for steers on Treatment II (65%
silage) (Table 4). The profit per head ($21.13) was highest for steers on Treatment
IV (35% silage) and lowest ($2.23) for steers on Treatment I (80% silage).

Dry matter feed data of beef steers finished on the four different levels
of silage with reconstituted corn and a concentrate supplement are presented in
Table 5. On a total ration dry matter basis, steers on Treatment IV (35% silage)
were 10.3, 20.4, and 31.8% more efficient in converting dry matter to gain than the
steers on Treatments III (50% silage), II (65% silage), and I (80% silage), respec-
tively. On the same basis, steers on Treatment III (50% silage) were 9.1 and 19.5%
more efficient in converting dry matter to gain than those on Treatments II (65%
silage) and I (80% silage), respectively. Steers on Treatment II (65% silage) were
9.5% more efficient in converting dry matter to gain than steers on Treatment I
(80% silage). The daily feed consumption per steer on a dry matter basis did not
differ to any great extent (Table 5). There was, however, a trend for steers on
the rations containing more silage to consume more dry matter.


-3-







Since carcass yield (dressing %) appeared to be dependent on level of
silage in the ration (high silage-fed steers had lower yielding carcasses), the
performance and feed cost data with final weights adjusted to the same hot carcass
yield (average dressing % of all carcasses = 60.8) are presented in Table 6. With
feed prices as listed below Table 6, steers receiving more silage in their ration
had a higher cost of gain in every instance. Steers receiving more silage in
their ration also gained less and were less efficient in converting dry matter to
gain in every instance.

Under the conditions of this study, a high level of grain sorghum silage
priced at $11.00/ton, when fed with reconstituted corn crimped into a flat flake
and priced at $45.00/ton, did not make a profitable ration for finishing beef
steers. The most profitable ration was the one where just enough grain sorghum
silage was used in the ration with reconstituted corn to furnish the "roughage
properties" generally considered necessary for finishing beef steers.


-4-






Table 1


Composition and Cost of the Concentrate Supplement
(Protein, Mineral,Vitamin) (a)


Ingredients % Lb./ton Cost(b)


Soybean meal (44% protein) 77.66 1553.2 $ 70.67
Urea 45% N 5.52 110.4 4.42
Salt (trace-mineralized) 5.52 110.4 2.51
Defluorinated rock phosphate 11.04 220.8 10.27
Vitamin A supplement(c) 0.12 2.4 0.96
Zinc bacitracin supplement(d) 0.14 2.8 4.48


100.00 2000.0 $ 93.31
Mark-up(e) 8.00
$101.31


(a) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) fed in the rations along
with reconstituted corn and grain sorghum silage.
(b) Based on the following prices: soybean meal (44% protein) = $91.00/ton, urea -
45% N = $80.00/ton, salt (trace-mineralized) = $2.27/cwt., defluorinated rock
phosphate = $93.00/ton, Perma-Dual 30A (vitamin A supplement containing 30,000
I.U./gm.) = $0.40/lb., and Baciferm 40 (zinc bacitracin supplement containing
40 grams of the antibiotic per pound) = $1.60/lb.
(c) Vitamin A added at the level of 32.7 million I.U./ton or 16,350 I.U./lb. of
concentrate supplement.
(d) Zinc bacitracin added at the level of 112 gm./ton or 56 mg./lb. of concentrate
supplement.
(e) Mixing, milling, storage, overage, etc.---$8.00/ton.


-5-







Table 2

Proximate Analyses of the Feeds Consumed During the Trial Period


Sorghum Recon. Cone.
Item Silage(a) Corn(b) Supp.(c)


Moisture, % 66.60 26.67 10.42
Crude protein, % 2.88 8.54 50.07
Ash, % 1.26 1.33 21.21
Ether extract, % 1.19 5.17 2.96
Crude fiber, % 8.47 3.21 5.59
Nitrogen-free extract, % 19.60 55.08 9.75


(a) Grain sorghum silage (average of four samples collected at intervals during
the trial).
(b) Reconstituted corn (average of four samples collected at intervals during
the trial).
(c) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) fed in the rations (average
of four samples collected at intervals during the trial).


-6-







Table 3


Performance of Beef Steers Finished on Four Levels of Silage
with Reconstituted Corn and a Concentrate Supplement (1970)


Treatments

Item I(a) II(b) IIl(c) IV(d)


No. of animals 16(e) 16(e) 16(e) 15(e)(f)
Length of trial, days 178 178 150 150
Av. initial wt., lb. 649.7 649.1 646.9 647.3
Av. final wt., lb. 1003.4 1042.2 1000.3 1017.7
Av. gain/animal, lb. 353.7 393.1 353.4 370.4
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.99c** 2.21b** 2.36a,b** 2.47a**


Feed/cwt. gain
Grain sorghum silage
Reconstituted corn
Concentrate supplement
Total
Feed/animal/day, lb.
Grain sorghum silage
Reconstituted corn
Concentrate supplement
Total


1806
381
70
2257

35.9
7.6
1.4
44.9


1172
572
59
1803

25.9
12.6
1.3
39.8


734
682
51
1467

17.3
16.1
1.2
34.6


419
734
44
1197

10.3
18.1
1.1
29.5


(a) Treatment

(b) Treatment

(c) Treatment

(d) Treatment


I 80.0% grain sorghum silage + 16.9% reconstituted corn + 3.1%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
II 65.0% grain sorghum silage + 31.7% reconstituted corn + 3.3%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
III 50.0% grain sorghum silage + 46.5% reconstituted corn + 3.5%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
IV 35.0% grain sorghum silage + 61.3% reconstituted corn + 3.7%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).


(e) Two pens of eight steers each per treatment group.
(f) One steer had to be removed during the course of the trial due to sickness;
the data for that animal were disregarded.
** Denotes statistical significance at the 1-percent level. Means followed by
letter "a" are significantly different from those means not having "a", those
followed by "b" are significantly different from those not having "b", etc..


-7-







Table 4


Carcass and Economic Data of Beef Steers Finished on Four Levels of
Silage with Reconstituted Corn and a Concentrate Supplement (1970)


Treatments

Items I(a) II(b) III(c) IV(d)


carcass grade(e)
yield grade(f)
slaughter wt., lb.
carcass wt., lb.(g)
dressing % (carcass yield)


15.1
2.5b**
1003.4
597.6
59.6b**


16.1
3.2a**
1042.2
633.1
60.7a,b*


15.8
3.0a,b**
1000.3
611.1
S61.la**


Feed cost/cwt. gain
Grain sorghum silage(h)
Reconstituted corn(i)
Concentrate supplement(j)
Total(k)
Av. cost/head of feeder(l)
Av. feed cost/head of feeder
Total cost/head of feeder(k)
Net sales/head(m)
Profit per head(k)
Av. price/cwt. on foot
Av. price/cwt. carcass


(a) Treatment I 80.0% grain sorghum silage


+ 16.9% reconstituted corn + 3.1%


concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
(b) Treatment II 65.0% grain sorghum silage + 31.7% reconstituted corn + 3.3%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
(c) Treatment III 50.0% grain sorghum silage + 46.5% reconstituted corn + 3.5%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
(d) Treatment IV 35.0% grain sorghum silage + 61.3% reconstituted corn + 3.7%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
(e) 13 = low good, 14 = average good, 15 = high good, 16 = low choice, etc.
(f) Yield grades numbered 1 through 5 with yield grade 1 representing the highest
yield of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts (cutability) and yield grade 5
the lowest.
(g) Paying weight, which is hot dressed weight.
(h) Grain sorghum silage = $11.00/ton.
(i) Reconstituted corn = $45.00/ton.
(j) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) = $101.31/ton.
(k) Does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the animals.
(1) Feeder cost = $29.00/cwt.
(m) Animals Sold to Frosty Morn Meats, Quincy, Florida, on a grade and yield basis;
choice = $45.87/cwt. carcass, good = $44.37/cwt. carcass, and standard = $43.37,
cwt. carcass (hauling was deducted to arrive at these values).
** Denotes statistical significance at the 1-percent level. Means followed by
letter "a" are significantly different from those means not having "a" and
those followed by "b" are significantly different from those not having "b".


-8-


Av.
Av.
Av.
Av.
Av.


15.9
3.3a**
1017.7
630.6
62.0a**


$ 9.93
$ 8.57
$ 3.55
$ 22.05
$188.41
$ 77.99
$266.40
$268.63
+$ 2.23
$ 26.77
$ 44.95


$ 6.45
$ 12.87
$ 2.99
$ 22.31
$188.24
$ 87.70
$275.94
$288.09
+$ 12.15
$ 27.64
$ 45.50


$ 4.04
$ 15.35
$ 2.58
$ 21.97
$187.60
$ 77.64
$265.24
$276.99
+$ 11.75
$ 27.69
$ 45.33


$ 2.30
$ 16.52
$ 2.23
$ 21.05
$187.72
$ 77.97
$265.69
$286.82
+$ 21.13
$ 28.18
$ 45.48







Table 5


Dry Matter Feed Data of Beef Steers Finished on Four Levels of Silage
with Reconstituted Corn and a Concentrate Supplement (1970)


Treatments


Item


Feed (dry basis)/cwt. gain
Grain sorghum silage(e)
Reconstituted corn f)
Concentrate supplement(g)
Total
Feed (dry basis)/animal/day lb.
Grain sorghum silage(e)
Reconstituted corn f)
Concentrate supplement(g)
Total


I(a)


603
279
63
945


12.0
5.6
1.3
18.9


II(b)


391
419
53
863


8.7
9.2
1.2
19.1


III(c)


245
500
46
791

5.8
11.8
1.1
18.7


(a) Treatment

(b) Treatment

(c) Treatment

(d) Treatment


I 80.0% grain sorghum silage + 16.9% reconstituted corn + 3.1%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
II 65.0% grain sorghum silage + 31.7% reconstituted corn + 3.3%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
III 50.0% grain sorghum silage + 46.5% reconstituted corn + 3.5%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
IV 35.0% grain sorghum silage + 61.3% reconstituted corn + 3.7%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).


(e) 33.40% dry matter.
(f) 73.33% dry matter.
(g) 89.58% dry matter.


-9-


140
538
39
717

3.4
13.3
1.0
17.7


---







Table 6


Performance and Feed Cost Data with Final Weights Adjusted to the
Same Hot Carcass Yield or Dressing Percentage (1970)


Treatments

Item I(a) II(b) III (c) IV (d)


No. of animals 16 (e) 16 (e) 16(e) 15(e)(f
Length of trial, days 178 178 150 150
Av. initial wt., lb. 649.7 649.1 646.9 647.3
Adjusted final wt., 1b.(g) 982.9 1041.3 1005.1 1037.2
Adjusted gain/animal, lb. 333.2 393.2 358.2 389.9
Adjusted daily gain, lb. 1.87 2.21 2.39 2.60


Feed/cwt. gain
Grain sorghum s .age 1914 1172 727 398
Reconstituted corn 404 572 675 697
Concentrate supplement 74 59 50 42
Total 2392 1803 1452 1137
Feed cost/cwt. gain
Grain sorghum silage(h) $ 10.53 $ 6.45 $ 4.00 $ 2.19
Reconstituted cornti) $ 9.09 $ 12.87 $ 15.19 $ 15.68
Concentrate supplement(J) $ 3.75 $ 2.99 $ 2.53 $ 2.13
Total(k) $ 23.37 $ 22.31 $ 21.72 $ 20.00


(a) Treatment

(b) Treatment

(c) Treatment

(d) Treatment


I 80.0% grain sorghum silage + 16.9% reconstituted corn + 3.1%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
II 65.0% grain sorghum silage + 31.7% reconstituted corn + 3.3%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
III 50.0% grain sorghum silage + 46.5% reconstituted corn + 3.5%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).
IV 35.0% grain sorghum silage + 61.3% reconstituted corn + 3.7%
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).


(e) Two pens of eight steers each per treatment group.
(f) One steer had to be removed during the course of the trial due to sickness;
the data for that animal were disregarded.
(g) Average hot carcass yield (dressing %) of all carcasses was 60.8%. This
figure was used to adjust final weights.
(h) Grain sorghum silage = $11.00/ton.
(i) Reconstituted corn = $45.00/ton.
(j) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) = $101.31/ton.
(k) Does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the animals.


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