Group Title: WFES mimeo report - West Florida Experiment Station ; 70-1
Title: Comparative value of corn and sorghum, both fed as high-moisture and dry grain, for finishing beef steers
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053572/00001
 Material Information
Title: Comparative value of corn and sorghum, both fed as high-moisture and dry grain, for finishing beef steers
Series Title: WFES mimeo report
Physical Description: 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bertrand, J. E ( Joseph Ezel ), 1924-
Dunavin, Leonard Sypret, 1930-
Lutrick, M. C ( Monroe Cornealous )
West Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: West Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Jay Fla
Publication Date: [1970]
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. Bertrand, L.S. Dunavin, and M.C. Lutrick.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1970."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053572
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62302467

Full Text

WEST FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Jay, Florida
May, 1970


WFES Mimeo. Report 70-1


COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CORN AND SORGHUM, BOTH FED AS HIGH-MOISTURE

AND DRY GRAIN, FOR FINISHING BEEF STEERS /


J. E. Bertrand, L. S. Dunavin, and M. C. Lutrick "3


The potential for the production of grain (corn and sorghum) and silage for
use as feeds for finishing beef cattle is good in northwest Florida. By harvesting
this grain between 22 and 30% moisture and storing it in "oxygen limiting" units
until fed, losses from field lodging, bird damage, field drying, and storage (rat
and insect damage) are eliminated. A study was conducted in 1969 at the West
Florida Experiment'Station near Jay to determine the comparAtive value of corn and
sorghum, both fed as high-moisture and dry grain, when incorporAted; in.the ration
of beef steers finished in drylot.
PROCEDURE

Sixty-four good quality Steers (average 662 Ib.) of British breeding treated
with a 36 mg. ear implant of diethylstilbestrol each were weighed and allowed as
equally as possible to eight experimental groups of eight animals each. The eight
experimental groups, utilizing two groups per treatment, were assigned to four,
drylot feeding regimes as follows:

Treatment I shelled corn (medium-fine ground) + foragesorghum silage +
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, Ivitmin): Ration
(wet-basis) 46.0% corn,5 500.% silage, and 4.0% concentrate
supplement.

Treatment II sorghum grain (medium-fine ground) t forage sorghum silage +
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin).i Ration
(wet-basis) 46.4% sorghum grain, 49.6% silage, and 4.0%
concentrate supplement.

Treatment III high-moisture corn (crimped into a flat flake) + forage
sorghum silage + concentrate supplement (protein, mineral,
vitamin). Ration (wet-basis) = 49.2% corn, 47.0% silage, and
3.8% concentrate supplement.

Treatment IV high-moisture sorghum grain (crimped into a flat flake) +
forage sorghum silage + concentrate supplement (protein,
mineral, vitamin). Ration (wet-basis) = 50.2% sorghum grain,
46.1% silage, and 3.7% concentrate supplement.

Presented at the 1970 Beef Cattle Short Course, University of Florida,
Gainesville.
2 /The "oxygen limiting" units for the storage of the high-moisture grain were
donated by the A. 0. Smith Harvestore Products, Inc., Arlington Heights, Illinois.
Also, their support in part by a grant-in-aid is gratefully acknowledged.
3-/Associate Animal Scientist, Associate Agronomist, and Associate Soils Chemist,
respectively.





- 2-


Each one of the four rations, on a dry matter basis, was formulated to contain
71% grain, 23% silage, and 6% concentrate supplement.

After an overnight shrink (fast from feed and water), individual animal
weights were taken at the beginning and;at the.end of. the trial period. The
animals were fed twice daily in an amount of feed that they would clean-up between
feedings. '' '

A mineral mixture (consisting of two parts defluorinated rockphosphate and
one part trace-mineralized salt), plain salt, and clean drinking water were avail-
able to the animals at all times.

S The composition and co.t of the concentrate supplement are presented in Table


The aninaLs were slaughtered at,,.the end of the trialat Frosty Morn Meats,
Montgomery, Alabama., ,:jCar.eass and yield grades were determined for each carcass by
a USDA grader at the packing house .

RESULTS

The performance of beef steers finished on the four drylot feeding regimes is
listed in Table 2. It canbe noted that animals on Treatment III had the largest
gain (2.595 lb./head/day), followed in, order,: by :the, gain (24,41 lb./head/day) of
animals on Treatment I, the gain (2.40, lb./head/day) of. animals, on Treatment, II,
and the gain (2.35 lb./head/day) of animals ,on Treatment EV. .

The carcass and economic data of beef steers finished on the four drylot
feeding regimes are listed in Table 3,, .Steers on Treatments III and, IV hlad
significantly (P, .0.05).higher: grading carcasses than those.of steers on Tr.atment
I.' None of the other carcass data of, the steers on the four treatment dcif J '`fed
significantly. .

The cost of gain ($20.05/cwt.) was ;lowest, for the steers on Treatment III,
followed inrorder by the cost of gain ($21.50/cwt.).for steers on 7 atmen' t IV,
the cost of gain f($21.79/cwt.) for steers :on Treatment I, and the cost of gain
($23.54/cwt.) for steers on Treatment II, (Table 3),. The profit per head ($24.89)
was highest for steers on Treatment III (high-moisture corn) arnd the profit per
head ($4.84) was lowest -for stearso on Treatment ,II (sorghum grain). Steers
receiving the -'two,,high-moisture: grains (corn and sorghum:, grain, respectively) in
their rations were the most profitable :and steers receiving the two dry grains
(sorghum grain and corn, respectively) in their ratipps were the least profitable.

Dry matter feed dataEof beef steers finished in drylot with high-moisture and
dry grain'as "part of -their rations :are listed in T:.le 4.. On a total ration dr-;.
matter basis, the animals receiving high-moisture co-.n in their ration were 8.8,
14.1, and 24.9% inoraJefficilent i, converting dry .-att r to.gain than the animals
receiving shelled corn, high-moisture sorghum grain, and sorghum grain, respective-
ly. On the same basis, animals receiving shelled corn were 4.9 and 14.8% more
efficient in converting dry matter to gain than the aniwls' receiving hi.h-mo.;'-tc.e
sorghum grain and sorghum grain, respectively. Animals receiving high-;moidiuri
sorghum grain were 9.5% more efficient in;converting dry matter td gaint than.,:
animals receiving sorghum grain.' : ",' ,





-3-


On a grain dry matter basis, the animals receiving high-moisture corn in their
ration were 9.3, 14.4, and 25.5% more efficient in converting grain to gain than
the animals receiving shelled corn, high-moisture sorghum grain, and sorghum grain,
respectively (Table 4). On the same bdais, animals receiving shelled corn were
4.6 and 14.8% more efficient in converting grain to gain than the animals receiving
high-moisture sorghum grain and sorghum grain, respectively. Animals.receiving
high-moisture sorghum grain were 9.7% more efficient in converting grain to gain
than animals receiving sorghum grain.

Pooling the data showed that animals receiving corn in their ration were 14.5%
more efficient in converting total ration dry matter and grain dry matter to gain
than animals receiving sorghum grain in their ration (Table 5). Animals receiving
high-moisture grain in their ration were 9.2 and 9.6% more efficient in converting
total ration dry matter and grain dry matter, respectively, to gain than animals
receiving dry grain in their ration. The dry matter consumption was higher for
animals receivingg sorghum grain in their ration when compared to corn. This would
indicate that the steers tried to compensate for the lower efficiency of sorghum
grain when compared t6 corn by increasing consumption. This agrees with many
reports in the literature stating that where digestive system capacity is not a
limiting factor animals try to meet.body nutrient need for a particular productive
function by increasing intake of a less efficient diet. Apparently for the same
reason, dry matter consumption was higher for animals receiving dry grain in their
ration when compared to high-moisture grain.






Table 1

Compositionand Cost of the Concentrate Supplement
S(Protein, Mineral,, Vitamin) (a)


Ingredients ::% Lb./ton Cost (b
Soybean meal (44% protein) 77.25 1545.0 $ 77.25
Urea 45% N 5.52 110.4 5.08
Salt (trace-mineralized) 5,52 110.4 2.51
Defluorinated rock phosphate 11.04 220.8 10.16
Vitamin A supplement 0.12(c) 2.4 0.96
Zinc bacitracin supplement 0.55(d) 11.0. 4.95
100.00 2000.0 $100.91
Mark-up (e) 7.00
$107.91
(a) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) fed in the dry-
lot rations along with silage and grain.' i
(b) Based on the following prices: soybean meal ,(44% protein) =
$100.00/ton, urea 45% N = $92.00/ton, salt .(trace-mineralized)=
$2.27/cwt., defluorinated rock phosphate = $92.00/ton, Baciferm 10
(zinc bacitracin supplement containing 10 grams of the antibiotic
per pound) $0.45/lb., and Perma-Dual 30A (vitamin A supplement
containing 30,000 I.U./gm.) = $0.40/lb.
(c) Vitamin A added at the level of 32.7 million I.U./ton or 16,350
I.U./lb. of concentrate supplement.
(d) Zinc bacitracin added at the level of 110 gm./ton or 55 mg./lb. of
concentrate supplement.
(e) Mixing, milling, storage, overage, etc. --- $7.00/ton.





Table 2

Performance of Beef Steers Finished on the Four Drylot Feeding Regimes (1969)

Treatments
Item 1(a) I1(b) IIl(c) iv(d)
<,e) (e) 1 (e
No. of animals 16) 16(e) ) 16(e)
Length of trial, days 146 146 146 146
Av. initial wt., lb. 666.9 655.9 665.0 660.3
Av. final wt., lb. 1018.4 1006.6 1043.8 1003.8
Av. gain/animal, lb. 351.5 350.7 378.8 343.5
Av. daily gain, lb. 2.41 2.40 '2.59 2.35
Feed/cwt. gain
Forage sorghum silage 674 774 627 713
Shelled corn 620 --- ---
Sorghum grain --- 725 ,-- -
High-moisture corn- -- 656 -
High-moisture sorghum grain -- 776
Concentrate, supplement 54 63 51, 57
Feed/animal/day, lb.
Forage sorghum silage 16.2 18.6 16.3 16.8
Shelled corn. 14.9 -- ---
Sorghum grain ---- 17.4 -
High-moisture corn ---. --- 7.0
High-moisture sorghum grain -- --- --18.3
Concentrate supplement 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.4


(a) Treatment I shelled corn + forage sorghum silage + concentrate supplemu
(protein,; mineral, vitamin) inm drylot,.
(b) Treatment II sorghum grain + forage sorghum silage + concentrate supply
(protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(c) Treatment III high-moisture corn + forage sorghum silage + concentrate
supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(d) Treatment IV high-moisture sorghum grain + forage sorghum silage +
concentrate supplement :(protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(e) Two pens of eight steers each per treatment group.


ant


cement







Table 3


Carcass and Economic Data of Beef Steers Finished on
i ,: i: the Four DrylotFeeding Regimes (1969)

Treatments
Item-, i(a) l(b) il(c) I(d)
Av. carcass grade(e) 14.4b* 15.4a,b* 15.9a* 16.3a*
Av. yield grade(f) 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.1
Av. slaughter wt.', lb. 1018.4 1006.6 1043.8 1003.8
Avy. carcass wt., b1.() 625.6 606.1 638.9 615.9
Ay., dressing % (carcass yield) 61.4 60.2 61.2 61.4
Feed cost/cwt. ,gain
Forage sorghum silage(h) $ 3.37 $- 3.87 $ 3.13 $ 3.56
Shelled corn(i) $ 15.51 -------- -------- -
;Sorghum grain(3J) ----- $ 16.30 ------
High-moisture corn(k) --- ------- $ 14.18 ------
High-moisture sorghum graii'() .-.. ------ $ 14.85
Concentrate supplement(m) $ 2.91 $ 3.37 $ 2.74 $, 3.09
Total(n) $ 21.79^ $ 23.54 $ 20.05 $ 21.50
Av. cost/head of feeder(o) $ 180.06 $ 177.09 $ 179.55 $ 178.28
Av. feed cost/head of feeder $ 76.59 $ 82.55 $ 75.95 $ 73.85
Total cost/head of feeder'n) $ 256.65 $ 259.64 $ 255.50 $ 252.13
Gross sales/headP $ 269.85 $ 264.48 $ 280.39 $ 271.07
Profit per head(n) +$ 13.20 +$ 4.84 +$ 24.89 +$ 18.94
Av. price/cwt. on foot $ 26.50 $ 26.27 $ 26.87 $ 27.00
Av. price/cwt. carcass $ 43.13 $ 43.64 $ 43.89 $ 44.01
(a) Treatment I shelled corn + forage sorghum silage + concentrate sunnlement


(protein,


mineral, vitamin) in drylot.


--------------------------------------------------------- -rr1' .. .


(b) Treatment II sorghum grain + forage sorghum silage + concentrate supplement
(protein', mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(c) Treatment III high-moisture corn + forage sorghum silage + concentrate
supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(d) Treatment IV high-moisture sorghum grain + forage sorghum silage +
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(e) 13 = low good, 14 = average good 15 = high good, 16 low choice, etc.
(f) Yield grades numbered 1 through 5 with grade 1 :representing the highest yield
of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts (cutability) and yield grade 5 the
lowest.
(g) Paying weight, which is hot dressed weight.
(h) Forage sorghum silage = $10.00/ton.
(i) Shelled corn = $50.00/ton ($43.00 + $7.00 mark-up = $50.00).
(j) Sorghum grain = $45.00/ton ($38.00 + $7.00 mark-up = $45.00).
(k) High-moisture corn = $43.22/ton.
(1) High-moisture sorghum grain = $38.28/ton.
(m) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) = $107.91/ton.
(n) Does not include labor.
(o) Feeder cost = $27.00/cwt.
(p) Animals sold to Frosty Morn Meats, Montgomery, Alabama, on a grade and yield
basis.
Denotes statistical significance at the 5-percent leMel. Means followed by
letter "a" are significantly different from those me.ars not having "a" and
those followed by "b" are significantly different from those not having "b.'





Table 4

Dry Matter Feed Data of Beef Steers Finished in Drylob'with
High-Moisture and Dry Grain as Part of Their Rations .(1969)

Treatments

Item : I(a) II(b) III(c) IV(d)
Feed (dry basis)/cwt. gain
Forage sorghum silage 184 211 171 194
Shelled corn 562 -- -- --
Sorghum grain --- 645 ---
High-moisture corn --- --- 514
High-moisture sorghum grain --- --- 588
Concentrate supplement 49 57 46 52
Total 795 913 731 834
Feed (dry basis)/animal/day, lb.
Forage sorghum silage 4.4 5.1 4.4 4.6
Shelled corn 13.5 .. -
Sorghum grain 15.5 --
High-moisture corn -- 13.3
High-moisture.sorghum grain -- -- --- 13.8
Concentrate supplement 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.3
Total 19.1 22.0 18.9 19.7
(a) Treatment I shelled corn + forage sorghum silage + concentrate supplement
(protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(b) Treatment II sorghum grain + forage sorghum silage,+ concentrate
supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(c) Treatment III high-moisture corn + forage sorghum silage + concentrate
supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.
(d) Treatment IV high-moisture sorghum grain + forage sorghum silage +
concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) in drylot.






Table 5


Dry Matter Feed Data of Beef Steers Finished in Drylot Comparing Grains and
Moisture Content of Grain as Variables in Their Total Rations (1969)

Grain Moisture Cdntent
Item Corna) Sorghumb) Dryc) High-moisture(d)
Feed (dry basis)/cwt. gain
Forage sorghum silage 177 203 198 183
Grain 538 616 604 551
Concentrate supplement 48 55 53 49
Total 763 874 855 783
Feed (dry basis)/animal/day, lb.
Forage sorghum silage 4.4 4.8 4.8 4.5
Grain 13.4 14.7 14.5 13.6
Concentrate supplement 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.2
Total 19.0 20.8 20.6 19.3
(a) One-half of the animals received shelled corn (9.29% moisture) and one-half of
the animals received high-moisture corn (21.60% moisture) in their ration.
(b) One-half of the animals received sorghum grain (10.97% moisture) and one-half
of the animals received high-moisture sorghum grain (24.27% moisture) in their
ration.
(c) One-half of the animals received shelled corn (9.29% moisture) and one-half of
the animals received sorghum grain (10.97% moisture) in their ration.
(d) One-half of the animals received high-moisture corn (21.60% moisture) and
one-half of the animals received high-moisture sorghum grain (24.27% moisture)
in their ration.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs