Group Title: WFES mimeo report - West Florida Experiment Station ; 69-3
Title: Performance of beef calves grazing summer annual grasses
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053571/00001
 Material Information
Title: Performance of beef calves grazing summer annual grasses
Series Title: WFES mimeo report
Physical Description: 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bertrand, J. E. ( Joseph Ezel ), 1924-
West Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: West Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Jay Florida
Publication Date: [1969]
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Grasses -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. Bertrand.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May 1969."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053571
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62301900

Full Text


loo

ULJFS G -3 WEST FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Jay, Florida
Say, 1969,

WFES Mimeo Report 69-3 -

PERFORMANCE OF BEEF CALVES GRAZING SUMMER ANNUAL GRASSES -

J. E. Bertrand 2


According to the Florida Department of Agriculture, only about one-fourth of
the fed beef consumed in Florida is produced by feedlots in the state. A problem
facing the feeding industry in the state is the lack of a year round supply of 600
to 800 lb, feeder calves to furnish the 150,000+ head fattened yearly in feedlots.

Many fall-weaned calves, after being conditioned through the winter on
different growing regimes, are still not large enough in the spring to be placed
in the feedlot for finishing. Millet and some of the sorghum X Sudangrass hybrids
have a potential for producing an abundant amount of forageper acre during the
summer in the panhandle area of Florida. Therefore, a study was initiated in the
spring of 1968 at the West Florida Experiment Station to evaluate the performance
and return per acre from supplemented and unsupplemented growing beef calves
grazing two different summer annual grasses (Gahi-1 millet and Grazer A --- a
sorghum X Sudangrass hybrid).


PROCEDURE ....

Sixty-four medium-weight (average 500 lb.):, good quality Hereford, Angus, and
crossbred (Angus X Hereford) calves were weighed and allowed as equally aspossible
to eight experimental groups of eight calves (six steers and two heifers) each.
The eight experimental groups were assigned to a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial experiment as
follows:

1. Gahi-l millet (two 1.25 acre plots, total 2.5 acres, for each experimental
.group of eight calves).

a. Supplemented (a 12% crude protein high-energy supplement fed at the
level of 1% of bodyweight).
(1) Control
(2) Diethylstilbestrol (24 mg. ear implants to each of the six
steers).
b. Unsupplemented
(1) Control
(2) Diethylstilbestrol (24 mg. ear implants to each of the six
steers).



1/ Presented at the 1969 Beef Cattle Short Course, University of Florida,
Gainesville.
2 / Associate Animal Scientist.







-2-


2. Grazer A (two 1.25 acre plots, total 2.5 acres, for each experimental
group of eight calves).

a. Same as 1. a. above. .
(1) Same as 'a. 1) above.
(2) Same as 1. a. (2) above.
b. Same as 1. b. above.
(1) Same as 1. b. (1) above.
(2) Same as 1. b. (2) above.

The two summer annual grasses were planted with a grain drill starting during
the middle of April and finishing early in the month of May. The seeding rate was
25 Ib. of seed per acre for Gahi-l millet andi35 Ib. ofseed per acre for Grazer A.
A complete fertilizer (8-24-24) was applied at planting time at the rate of 250 lb.
per acre. Additional applications of 100 ib of 'ammonium nitrate per acrewwre
made twice during the grazing season. '

The trial was initiated in the latter part of May and terminated when the
forage for each individual experimental group was :completely grazed out :

After an overnight shrink (fast from feed and waterr, individual animal weights
were taken at the beginning and at the end of the trial periods.G..Group weights
were obtained on all experimental groups every 28 days during the trial;at ,approxi-
mately the same time of day on each weighing date. The feed allowances, which were
fed once daily, for the groups receiving a supplement for the next 28 days were
determined on a basis of these 28-day vwights.

Additional test animals were added and removed asanededed, to keep the forage
uniformly grazed. In 'all:cases-, individual animal weights were taken after an
overnight shrink (fast from feed and'water) ., .

Each experimental group of calves was rotated between the two pasture plots
of the grass species assigned to it as required for best utilization of good
quality forage."' .

The composition and cost of the pasture supplemental ration are presented in
Table 1. Certain proximate components- of the pasture supplemental ration and the
two summer annual grasses consumed during the trial, period are listed in Table 2.


RESULTS

The performance and economic data for the different experimental treatments
are listed in Tables 3, 4, 5, and 6.

It can be noted in Table 3 that the average daily gain and the total gain per
acre daily for both supplemented and unsupplemented animals grazing Grazer A were
larger than those of animals grazing Gahi-l millet. The cost of gain was lowest
for the unsupplemented animals grazing Gahi-1 millet and highest for the, supple-
mented animals grazing Gahi-1 millet. The profit per acre was highest for the
supplemented animals grazing Grazer A and lowest fqSgthe supplemented animals
grazing Gahi-l millet. This was due to the low gain and low feed efficiency of
supplemented animals grazing Gahi-l millet.








-3-


It can be noted in Table 4'that the over-all performance of the animals grazing
Grazer A was better than-that of the animals grazing Gahi-l millet.

A highly significant increase in average daily gain resulted when the animals
were supplemented while grazing the two different summer annual grasses (Table 5).
The supplemented animals had a higher cost of gain, but due to,the much larger gain
per animal they were more profitable.

Implanting the steers in half of the experimental groups (sic steers and two
heifers per group) with 24 mg. of diethylstilbestrol each produced a significant
increase in gain. The groups in which the steers were implanted had a lower cost
of gain 4nd were more profitable. Under the conditions of this trial, it appears
that implanting supplemented and unsupplemented medium-weight (average 500 lb.
initially) growing steers grazing summer annual grasses each with 24 mg. of
diethylstilbestrol should be a standard practice.








Table 1

Composition and Cost of the,Pasture Supplemental Ration,.

Ingredients % Lb./ton Cost(b)
:Ground corn 89.1 .1782 .$38..31
Soybean meal (44% protein) 8.0 160 7.01
Urea 45% N 0.3 6 0.31
Salt (trace-mineralized) 0.5 10 0.23
Defluorinated rock phosphate 2.0 40 1,8Q,,
Vitamin A supplement(c) + + 0.18
Zinc bacitracin supplemented) 0.1 :2 0.90
100.0' 2000 $48.74
NMark-up 7:00
: .... : . $55 .74
(a) Ration fed on pasture at the level of 1% of bodyweight.
(b) Based on the following prices: ground corn = $43.00/ton,
soybean meal (44% protein) = $87.50/ton, urea 45% N =
$104.00/ton, salt (trace-mineralized) = $2.27/cwt.,
defluorinated rock phosphate = $90.00/ton, Perma-Dual 30A
(vitamin A supplement containing 30,000 I.U./gm.) =
$0.40/lb., and Baciferm 10 (zinc bacitracin supplement
containing 10 grams of the antibiotic per pound) =
$0.45/lb,
(c) Added at the level of 6 million I.U./ton or 3,000 I.U./lb.
of pasture supplemental ration.
(d) Zinc bacitracin added at the level of 20 gm./ton or 10
mg./lb. of pasture supplemental ration.
(e) Mixing, milling, overage, storage, etc. --- $7.00/ton.



Table 2

Certain Proximate Components of the Pasture Supplemental
Ration and Forages Consumed During the Trial Period

Components Pasture supp.(a) Millet(b) Grazer A(c)
Dry matter, % 90.01 17.19 20.83
Crude protein, % 12.44 3.36 3.57
Crude fiber, % 3.82 4.59 6.01
(a) Pasture supplemental ration (average of five samples collected
at intervals during the trial).
(b) Gahi-1 millet (average of five hand plucked samples collected
at intervals during the trial).
(c) Sorghum X Sudangrass hybrid (average of five hand plucked
samples collected at intervals during the trial).








Table 3


Evaluation of;Two Different Summer Annual Grasses (Supplemented
and Unsupplemented) for Growing Beef Calves


Millet


Item


Initial no. of animals
Av. length of grazing, days.
Av. initial wt., lb.
Gain/acre, lb.
Animal days/acre
Av. daily gain, lb.
Stocking rate/acre(e)
Gain/acre/day, lb.


Feed/cwt. gain(f)
Feed/animal/day, lb.(f)
Feed cost/ctt.; gain
Pasture Supplement(g)
Pasture(h)
Total (i)
Feeder cost/acre J)
Feed cost/acre
Total cost/acre(i)
Animal net sales/acre(k)
Profit per acre(i) .


Supp.()
16(d)
115.0
505.9
770.0
400.0
1.93
3.48
6.72


320.9
6.18


$ 8.95
$ 6.10
$ 15.05
$456.33
115.89
$572.22
$586.-82
$ 14.60


(a) Grazer A(b)
Unsupp. Supp, () Unsupp.
16 (d) 16(d) 16(d)
105.5 111.0 96.0
511.3 499.1 495.9
487.0 817.0 458.0
345.4 365.6 307.2
1.41 2.24 1.49
3.28 3.29 3.20
4.62 7.36 4.77
S.-----.- 277.2---
----- 6.19 ----


$ 9.64
$ 9.64

$434.69
46.95
.$481.64
, $501.85
$ 20.21


$ 7.73
$ 5.75
$ 13.48
$425.62
110.13
$535.75
$570.24
$ 34.49


$ 10.25
$ 10.25
$411.32
46.95
$458.27
$474.21
$ 15.94


(a) Gaht-l, millet, two 1.25 acr'eplots (total 2.5 acres) for each group
initially containing eight calves.
(b) Sorghum X Sudangrass hybrid, two 1.25 acre plots (total 2.5 acres) for
each group initially containing eight calves.
(c) Supplemented with a 12% crudeprotein high-energy supplement fed at the
level of 1% of bodyweight.
(d) Two groups of eight animals (six steers and two heifers) each. The six
steers in one group were each given a 24 mg. diethylstilbestrol ear
implant at the beginning of the trial.
(e) Additional test animals were added and removed as needed to keep the
forage uniformly grazed. tn all cases individual animal weights were
taken after an overnight shrink (fast from feed and water).
(f) Does not include pasture.
(g) Pasture supplemental ration = $55.74/ton.
(h) Pasture cost $46.95/acre for both Gahi-1 millet and Grazer A.
(i) Does not include labor,
(j) Feeder cost = $25.92/cwt. (includes cost of animals, hauling, veterinary
costs, etc.).
(k) Animals sold at auction for a net return of $23.19/cwt.


---


I I I I I


-~----~


L-








'Table.'4


Performance of Beef Calves.Grazing Two Different
Suma;er Annual Grasses


Item Millet(a) Grazer A(b)
Initial no. of animals 32(c) 32(c)
Av. length of grazing, days 110.3 103.5
Av. initial wt., lb. 508.6 497.5
Gain/acre, lb. 628.5 6' 37.5
Animal days/acre 372.7 336.4
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.69 1.90
Stocking rate/acre(d) 3.38 3.25
Gain/acre/day, lb. 5.71 6.18
Feed cost/cwt. gain
Pasture supplement(e) $ 5.48 $ 4.95
Pasture(f) $ 7.47 $ 7.37
Total(g) $ 12.95 12.32
Feeder cost/acre(h) $445.58 $419.09
Feed cost/acre $ 81.39 $ 78.54
Total cost/acre(g) $526.97 $497.63
Animal net sales/acrei $544.41 $522.80
Profit per acre(g) $ 17.44 $ 25.17
-_7
(a) Gahi-i millet, two 1.25 acre plots (total 2.5 acres), for each,
groupinitially containing eight calves.
(b) Sorghum X Sudangrass hybrid, two 1.25 acre plots (total ,2.5
acres),for each group initially containing eight calves.
(c) Four groups of eight animals (six steers atd two heifers) each.
The sixsteers in each one of two groups were each given a
24 mg. diethylstillestrol ear implant at the beginning of the
trial. Two groups (an implanted and a non-ipilanted) were
also supplemented on pasture with a 12% crude protein high-
energy supplement fed at the level of 12 of bodyweight.''
(d) Additional test animals were added and removed as needed to
keep the forage uniformly grazed. In all cases individual
animal: weights.were taken after an overnight shrink (fast from
feed and water).
(e) Pasture supplemental ration $ $55,74/ton.
(f) Pasture cost = $46.95/acre for both Gahi-l millet and' Grazer A.
(g) Does not include labor.
(h) Feeder ;cost = $25.92/cwt. (includes cost of animals, hauling,
veterinary costs, etc.)
(i) Animals sold at auction for. a net return of $23.19/cwt.








OTable 5


The Effect of Supplementation on: 'the Performanc.e of
'Beef Calves Grazing Summer Annuale Grasses:

Item Supplemented(a) Unsupplemented
Initial no. of animals. 32(b) 32(b
Av. length of grazing, days 113.0 10.8
Av. initial wt., lb. 502.3 '"503.6
Gain/acre, lb. 793.5 472.5
Animal .days/acre 382.8 326.3
Av. daily gain, lb. 2.07 1.45
Stocking rate/acre(/ 3.39 3.24
Gain/acre/day, lb. 7.02 4.76
_ g. af-in.' ~~ 29 8.4 ---


Feed/cwt. gain) 2984 ----..--
Feed/animal/day, lb.(d) 6.18 ----
Feed cost/cwt. gain,
Pasture supplemented) $ 8.32--
Pasture(f) $ 5.92 .. 9.94
.Toltal(g) $ 14.24 $ 9.94
Feeder cost/acre(h) $441.54 $422.93
Feed cost/acre $112.99 $ 46.95
Total cost/acre(g) $554.53 $469.888
Animal net sales/ cre() $579.05 $487.96
Profit per acre(g) $ 24.52 $J8.08

(a) Supplemented with a 12% crude protein high-energy supplement
fed at the level of l%.of bodyweight.
(b) Four groups df eight animals (six steers andtwo heifers)
each. The steers in two.groups (a group grazing 2.5 acres of
Gahi-1 millet and one grazing 2.5 acres of Grazer A -
sorghum X Sudangrass hybrid) were each given a 24 ,mg.
didthylstilbestrol earimplant at the beginning of the trial,
while the steers in the two other similar treatment groups
were not implanted.
(c) Additional test animals were added and removed as needed to
keep the forage uniformly grazed. In all cases individual
animal weights were taken after an overnight shrink (fast
from feed and water),; .
(d) Does not includepasture. .
(e) Pasture supplemental ration = $55.74/ton.
(f) Pasture cost = $46.95/acre for both Gahi-1 millet and Grazer
A.
A o ; "' ,;" ;: '... .....
(g) Does not include labor,.
(h) Feeder cost = $25.92/cwt. (includes cost,of animals, hauling,
veterinary costs, etc.).
(i) Animals sold at auction for a net return of $23.19/cwt.
** Significant at P<0.01.








Table 6


The Effect of Diethylstilbestrol on:the Performance
of Beef Calves Grazing SummerAnnual Grasses

Item : ... .. Control DES(a)

Initial no. of animals 32(b), 32(b)
Av. length of grazing, days 107.5-'' 106.3
Av. initial wt., lb. 505.2 '500.9
Gain/acre, lb. 599.5 1 ; '666.5
Animal days/acre 355.9 353.2
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.68 1.89*
Stocking rate/acre(c) 3.31 3.32
Gain/acre/day, lb. 5.56 6.27
Feed cost/cwt. gain
Pasture supplement" $ 5.46 :5.00
Pasture(e) $ 7.83 7.04
Total(f) $ 13.29, $ 12,04
Feeder cost/acre(g) $433.44 $431.05
Feed cost/acre $ 79.67 $'80.25
Total cost/acre(f) $513.11 $511.30
Animal net sales/acre(h) $526.81 $540.21
Profit per acre(f) $ 13.70 $ 28.91
(a) b'iethylstilbestrol.ear implants (24 mg.) were administer-
ed to each of the steer calves.
(b) Four groups of eight animals (six steers and two heifers)
each. Two groups (a group grazingi2.5 acres of Gahi-1
millet and one grazing 2.5 acres of Grazer A,- sorghum X
Sudangrass hybrid) were supplemented on pasture with a
12% crude protein high-energy supplement fed.at the level
of 1% of bodyweight, while two groups (a group grazing
2.5 'acres of millet and one grazing 2,5 acres of Grazer
A) were unsupplemented.
(c) Additional test animals were added and removed as needed
to keep the forage uniformly grazed.. In all cases,
individual animal weights were taken after an overnight
shrink (fast from feed and water).-
(d) Pasture supplemental ration = $55.74/ton.
(e) Pasture cost = $46.95/acre for both Gahi-l millet and
Grazer A. ., .
(f) Does not include labor..
(g) Feeder cost = $25.92/cwt. (includes cost of animals,
.hauling, veterinary costs, etc.).
(h) Animals sold at auction for a net return of $23.19/cwt.
* Significant at P<0.05.




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