Group Title: WFES mimeo report - West Florida Experiment Station ; 70-2
Title: Summer annual grasses for growing stocker beef calves in northwest Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053565/00001
 Material Information
Title: Summer annual grasses for growing stocker beef calves in northwest Florida
Series Title: WFES mimeo report
Physical Description: 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bertrand, J. E. ( Joseph Ezel ), 1924-
Dunavin, Leonard Sypret, 1930-
West Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: West Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Jay Fla
Publication Date: [1970]
 Subjects
Subject: Grasses -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. Bertrand and L.S. Dunavin.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1970."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053565
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62301300

Full Text



WEST FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Jay, Florida
May, 1970

WFES Mimeo. Report 70-2

SUMMER ANNUAL GRASSES FOR.GROWING STOCKER BEEF CALVES

IN NORTHWEST FLORIDA
2/
J. E. Bertrand and L. S. Dunavin --


Millet and some of the sorghum x sudangrass hybrids have a potential for
producing an abundant amount of forage per acre during the summer in the panhandle
area of Florida. These forages can be utilized advantageously by growing beef
calves prior to being finished in drylot. Studies were conducted in 1968 and 1969
at the West Florida Experiment Station near Jay to evaluate the performance and
return per acre from supplemented and unsupplemented growing beef calves grazing
two different summer annual grasses (Gahi-1 millet and Grazer A sorghum x
sudangrass).

PROCEDURE

Each year (1968 and 1969) sixty-four medium-weight .(above 500 lb.), good
quality calves were weighed and allowed as equally as possible to eight experimental
groups of eight calves (six steers and two heifers) each. The eight experimental
groups were assigned to treatments as follows:

1. Gahi-1 millet (two 1.25 acre plots, total 2.5 acres, for each experimental
group initially containing eight calves). i

a. Supplemented (12% crude protein high-energy-supplement at 1% of
bodyweight) --- 2 groups of 8 calves each.
b. Unsupplemented --- 2 groups of 8 calves each.

2. Grazer A (two 1.25 acre plots, total 2.5 acres, for each experimental group
initially containing eight calves).

a. Supplemented --- same as 1. a. above.
b. Unsupplemented --- same as 1. b. above.

The two summer annual grasses were planted with a grain drill in late April or
early May each year. The seeding rate was 25-30 lb. of seed per acre for Gahi-l
millet and 35-37 lb. of seed per acre:for.Grazer A. A complete fertilizer (4-12-12)
was applied at planting time"at the rate of 500 lb. per acre. Additional
applications of 100 lb. of ammonium nitrate per acre were made twice during the
grazing season. The trials were initiated during late May or early June each year
and terminated when the forage for each experimental group was completely grazed
out.

-'Presented at-the 1970 Beef Cattle Short Course, University of Florida,
Gainesville.
--Associate Animal Scientist and Associate Agronomist, respectively.







2 -

After an overnight shrink (fast from feed and water), individual animal weights
were taken at the beginning and at the end of the trial periods. Group weights were
obtained on all experimental groups every 28 days. The feed allowances, which were
fed once daily, for the groups receiving a supplement for the next 28 days were
determined on a basis of these 28-day weights.. Additional test animals were added
and removed as needed to keep the forage uniformly grazed. In all cases, individual
animal weights were taken after an overnight shrink.

Each experimental group of calves was rotated between the two pasture plots of
the grass species assigned to it as required for best utilization of good quality
forage.

The composition and cost of the pasture supplemental rations are presented in
Table 1.

.. RESULTS

The performance and economic data for the different experimental treatments in
both years (1968 and 1969) are listed in Tables 2 and 3.

It can be noted in Table 2 that the over-all performance in 1968 of the animals
grazing Grazer A was better than that of animals grazing Gahi-l millet. Animals
grazing Grazer A had an average daily gain of 1.90 lb. compared to 1.69 lb. for
animals grazing Gahi-1 millet. This difference was not statistically significant
due to the large variation in individual gain within treatment groups. The total
animal gain per acre, the animal gain per acre daily, and the cost of gain between
the two grass species did not differ considerably. However, the profit per acre
($25.17.and $17.44, respectively) was somewhat higher for the animals grazing
Grazer A when compared to Gahi-l millet. This higher profit per acre for animals
grazing Grazer A was due mainly to the higher stocking rate per acre and lower
average daily gain on Gahi-1 millet.

The over-all performance in 1969 of the animals grazing Gahi-1 millet was very
similar to that of animals grazing Grazer A (Table 2). Animals grazing Grazer A
had an average daily gain of 1.36 lb. compared to 1.28 lb. for animals grazing
Gahi-1 millet. Due to heavy continuous rain in 1969 during the course of the trial,
the animal performance on both grass species was unsatisfactory. When the animals
were initially placed on trial,, the forage grew so fast that they could not keep up
with it. Consequently, a large amount of animal trampling and lodging of plants
occurred and the subsequent regrowth was poor.

A highly:significant increase in average daily gain resulted in 1968 when the
animals were supplemented while grazing the two.different summer annual grasses
(2.07 and:1.45 lb./head/day) (Table 3). -The supplemented animals, however, had a
higher cost of gain ($14.24 and $9.94/cwt.) when compared to that of unsupplemented
animals. Due to the much larger gain per acre produced by the animals supplemented
on pasture,..when compared-to that of unsupplemented animals, the profit per acre
($24.52 and $18.08) was higher for the animals supplemented on pasture.

A highly significant increase in average daily gain.resulted again in 1969
when animals were supplemented while grazing the two different summer annual grasses
(1.70 and 0.90 lb./head/day) (Table 3). The supplemented animals produced more.
gain per acre (441.5 and 216.5 lb.) and had a 16wer cost of gain ($21.39 and $23.54/
cwt.) when compared to unsupplemented animals. The profit per acre was $14.53 for








-3-


supplemented animals grazing summer annual grasses, while similar unsupplemented
animals had a loss of $2.23 per acre. The poor performance of unsupplemented
animals probably resulted from a deficiency in the quantity and quality of forage
available for grazing. The increased performance of supplemented animals grazing
a similar quality forage.was due to .the supplemental feeding.

Under the conditions of these trials, it appears that Gahi-1 millet and Grazer
A can both be profitably grazed by growing beef calves. The performance of beef
calves grazing each of these summer annual grasses is quite similar. Supplemental
feeding (12% crude protein high-energy ration at the level of 1% of bodyweight) of
growing beef calves grazing summer annual grasses (Gahi-1 millet and Grazer A)
increases gain and profit per acre.





Table 1
(a)
Composition and Cost of the Pasture Supplemental Rations

1968 1969
Ingredients % Cost(b) % Cost(b
Ground corn 89.1 $38.31 92.1 $41.45
Soybean meal (44% protein) 8.0 7.01 5.0 5.00
Urea 45% N 0.3 0.31 0.8 0.74
Salt (trace-mineralized) 0.5 0.23 0.5 0.23
Defluorinated rock phosphate 2.0 1.80 1.5- 1.38
Vitamin A supplement(c) + 0.18 + 0.18
Zinc bacitracin supplemented) 0.1 0.90 0.1 0.90
100.0 $48.74 100.0 $49.88
Mark-up(e) 7.00 7.00
$55.74 $56.88

(a) Rations fed on pasture at the level of 1% of bodyweight.
(b) Based on the following prices: ground corn = $43.00/ton (1968) and $45.00/
ton (1969), soybean meal (44% protein) = $87.50/ton (1968) and $100.00/ton
(1969), urea 45% N = $104.00/ton (1968) and $92.00/ton (1969), salt
(trace-mineralized) = $2.27/cwt., defluorinated rock phosphate = $90.00/ton
(1968) and $92.00/ton (1969), Perma-Dual 30A (vitamin A supplement contain-
ing 30,000 I.U./gm.) = $0.40/lb., and Baciferm 10 (zinc bacitracin supple-
ment containing 10 grams of the antibiotic per pound) = $0.45/lb.
(c) Vitamin A added at the level of 6 million I.U./ton or 3,000 I.U./lb. of
pasture supplemental ration.
(d) Zinc bacitracin added at the level of 20 gm./ton or 10 mg./lb. of pasture
supplemental ration.
(e) Mixing, milling, storage, overage, etc. --- $7.00/ton.








Table 2


Performance of Beef Calves Grazing Two Different Summer Annual Grasses

Millet(a) Grazer A(b)
Item 1968 1969 1968 1969
Initial no. of animals 32(c) 32(c) 32(c) 32(c)
Av. length of grazing, days 110.3 76.5 103.5 69.3
Av. initial wt., lb. 508.6 530.3 497.5 537.2
Gain/acre, lb.. 628.5 335.0 637.5 323.0
Animal days/acre 372.7 262.2 336.4 237.8
Av. daily gain, lb 1.69 1.28 1.90 1.36
Stocking rate/acre d) 3.38 3.43 3.25 3.43
Gain/acre/day, lb. 5.71 4.39 6.18 4.66
Feed cost/cwt. gain
Pasture supplement(e) $ 5.48 $ 6.76 $ 4.95 $ 6.45
Pasture(f) $ 7.47 $ 15.25 $ 7.37 $ 15.74
Total(g) $ 12.95 $ 22.01 $ 12.32 $ 22.19
Feeder cost/acre(h) $445.58 $495.66 $419.09 $502.11
Feed cost/acre $ 81.39 $ 73.73 $ 78.54 $ 71.67
Total cost/acre(g) $526.97 $569.39 $497.63 $573.78
Animalnet sales/acre(i) $544.41 $576.18 $522.80 $579.30
Profit per acre(g) +$ 17.44 +$ 6.79 +$ 25.17 +$ 5.52
(a) Gahi-l millet, two 1.25 acre plots (total 2.5 acres) for each group initially
containing eight calves.
(b) Sorghum x sudangrass hybrid, two 1.25 acre plots (total 2.5 acres) for each
group initially containing eight calves.
(c) Four groups of eight animals (six steers and two heifers) each. Two groups
were supplemented on pasture and two similar groups were unsupplemented.
(d) Additional test animals were added and removed as needed to keep the forage
uniformly grazed. In all cases, individual animal weights were taken after
an overnight shrink (fast from feed and water).
(e) Pasture supplemental ration = $55.74 (1968) and $56.88 (1969).
(f) Pasture cost = Gahi-l millet $46.95/acre (1968) and $51.09/acre (1969), and
Grazer A $46.95/acre (1968) and $50.85/acre (1969).
(g) Does not include labor.
(h). Feeder cost = $25.92/cwt. (1968) and $27.25/cwt. (1969)-- includes cost of
animals, hauling, veterinary costs, etc.
(i) Animal value at end of trial = $23.19/cwt..(1968) and $26.75/cwt. (1969).








Table 3


The Effect of Supplementation on the Performance of Beef Calves
Grazing Summer Annual Grasses

Supplemented(a) Unsupplemented
Item 1968 1969 1968 1969
Initial no. of animals 32(b) 32(b) 32(b) 32(b)
Av. length of grazing, days 113.0 75.5 100.8 70.3
Av. initial wt., lb. 502.5 532.0 503.6 535.5
Gain/acre, lb. 793.5 441.5 472.5 216.5
Animal days/acre 382.8 259.0 326.3 241.0
Av. daily gain, lb. 2.07** 1.70** 1.45 0.90
Stocking rate/acre(c) 3.39 3.43 3.24 3.43
Gain/acre/day, lb. 7.02 5.83 4.70 3.09
Feed/cwt. gained) 298.4 346.3 ----- -----
Feed/animal/day, lb.(d) 6.18 5.90------ ----
Feed cost/cwt. gain
Pasture supplement(e) $ 8.32 $ 9.85 ----- -------
Pasture(f) $ 5.92 $ 11.54 $ 9.94 $ 23.54
Total(g) $ 14.24 $ 21.39 $ 9.94 $ 23.54
Feeder cost/acre(h) $441.54 $497.25 $422.93 $500.52
Feed cost/acre $112.99 $ 94.44 $ 46.95 $ 50.96
Total cost/acre(g) $554.53 $591.69 $469.88 $551.48
Animal net sales/acre(i) $579.05 $606.22 $487.96 $549.25
Profit per acre(g) +$ 24.52 +$ 14.53 +$ 18.08 -$ 2.23
(a) Supplemented with a 12% crude protein high-energy supplement at the level of
1% of bodyweight.
(b) Four groups of eight animals (six steers and two heifers) each. Two groups
grazed Gahi-l millet and two similar groups grazed Grazer A.
(c) Additional test animals were added and removed as needed to keep the forage
uniformly grazed. In all cases individual animal weights were taken after
an overnight shrink (fast from feed and water).
(d) Does not include pasture.
(e) Pasture supplemental ration = $55.74/ton (1968) and $56.88/ton (1969).
(f) Pasture cost = Gahi-l millet $46.95/acre (1968) and $51.09/acre (1969), and
Grazer A $46.95/acre (1968) and $50.85/acre (1969).
(g) Does not include labor.
(h) Feeder cost = $25.92/cwt. (1968) and $27.25/cwt. (1969) --- includes cost of
animals, hauling, veterinary costs, etc.
(i) .Animal value at end of trial = $23.19/cwt. (1968) and $26.75/cwt. (1969).
** Significant at P<0.01 (when comparing gain obtained within each year).




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