Group Title: ARC research report - Jay Agricultural Research Center ; 74-3
Title: Silage for growing beef calves
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053552/00001
 Material Information
Title: Silage for growing beef calves
Series Title: Jay, ARC research report
Physical Description: 8 leaves : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Bertrand, J. E ( Joseph Ezel ), 1924-
Dunavin, Leonard Sypret, 1930-
Lutrick, M. C ( Monroe Cornealous )
Agricultural Research Center, Jay
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Jay Fla
Publication Date: [1974]
 Subjects
Subject: Silage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. Bertrand, L.S. Dunavin, and M.C. Lutrick.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1974."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053552
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62320137

Full Text



> 7' r ? AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
Jay, Florida
s : i s ? '" i
SJAY, ARC RESEARCH REPORT 74-3 MAY, 1974

SILAGE FOR GROWING BEEF CALVES!/ iN2 5 174

J. E. Bertrand, L. S. Dunavin, and M. C. Lutrick/
nf Fioidal
Grain crop (corn and sorghum) silage is a feed that has a great potential
for growing beef calves. This silage is a good source of energy and can make up
the major portion of the ration for beef calves. A concentrate supplement,
containing protein (the major portion as natural protein), calcium, phosphorus,
trace minerals, salt, vitamin A, and a low-level antibiotic, should be used to
balance silage or silage plus grain rations for growing beef calves.

Results and Discussion of Data Obtained in Six
Trials at the Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Jay

1967-68 Trial:

The feeding of three pounds of high-moisture corn per head daily to growing
beef calves receiving forage sorghum silage and a concentrate supplement in dry-
lot during a 173-day feeding period increased gain by 0.23 pound per head daily
(1.77 vs. 1.54 lb./head/day) (Table 1). The calves receiving the additional
energy from high-moisture corn had a higher cost of gain, but because of the
increased gain they were more profitable.

1968-69 Trial:

Beef calves fed corn silage and a concentrate supplement during a 171-day
feeding period gained significantly (P(0.05) faster than calves fed forage sorghum
silage and a concentrate supplement (1.59 vs. 1.30 lb./head/day) (Table 2). This
was partially due to the higher content of grain (34 vs. 20%) on a dry matter
basis in the corn silage than in the forage sorghum silage. The calves receiving
the corn silage ration had a lower cost of gain and a higher net return per head
than those receiving the forage sorghum silage ration.

1969-70 Trial:

During a 154-day feeding period, beef calves fed corn silage and a concen-
trate supplement in drylot gained 0.23 pound per head daily more than those fed
grain sorghum silage and a concentrate supplement (1.56 vs. 1.33 lb./head/day)
(Table 3). The grain sorghum silage contained more grain (36 vs. 34%) on a dry
matter basis than the corn silage. However, it appeared that the stalk and the
grain in the corn silage were more highly digestible than those contained in the
grain sorghum silage. Because of a higher gain and a better conversion of feed
to gain, the calves receiving the corn silage had a lower cost of gain and a
higher net return per head than calves receiving the grain sorghum silage ration.


1/Presented at the 1974 Beef Cattle Short Course, University of Florida,
Gainesville.
2/Associate Animal Scientist, Associate Agronomist, and Associate Soils Chemist,
respectively, Agricultural Research Center, Jay.







1970-71 Trial:

During a 140-day feeding period, beef calves fed rolled corn silage and a
concentrate supplement gained significantly (P40.05) faster than those fed
unrolled corn silage and a concentrate supplement (1.40 vs. 0.99 lb./head/day)
(Table 4). Calves fed rolled grain sorghum silage and a concentrate supplement
gained slightly faster than those fed unrolled grain sorghum silage and a
concentrate supplement (1.11 vs. 1.06 lb./head/day). Calves fed the corn silage
rations (unrolled and rolled) had a lower cost of gain and a higher net return
per head than calves fed the grain sorghum silage rations (unrolled and rolled).
This was mainly due to the better conversion of feed to gain by the calves receiv-
ing the corn silage rations.

1971-72 Trial:

During a 168-day feeding period, beef calves fed corn silage (unrolled and
rolled) and a concentrate supplement gained significantly (P<0.01) faster than
calves fed forage sorghum silage (unrolled and rolled) and a concentrate supple-
ment (1.85 and 1.89 vs. 1.15 and 1.23 lb./head/day, respectively) (Table 5).
Feed consumption was very similar for all treatments, but calves receiving the
corn silage rations were somewhat more efficient in converting feed to gain than
calves receiving the forage sorghum silage rations. The cost of gain was lowest
for calves receiving the unrolled corn silage ration, followed in order by the
cost of gain for calves receiving the rolled corn silage ration, the cost of gain
for calves receiving the rolled forage sorghum silage ration, and the cost of
gain for calves receiving the unrolled forage sorghum silage ration. The net
return per head in all cases was substantially higher for calves receiving the
corn silage rations.

1972-73 Trial:

Animal performance and economic data with corn and forage sorghum silage
rations formulated for maximum gain with growing beef calves are presented in
Table 6. Calves fed the forage sorghum silage ration gained significantly (P<0.05)
faster than calves fed the corn silage ration (2.08 vs. 1.89 lb./head/day). The
gain of calves fed both the corn and forage sorghum silage rations exceeded the
gain predicted for such rations in the National Research Council (NRC) publication
(Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, No. 4, Fourth Revised Edition, 1970).
Apparently, the compositions of both the silages were higher than the average
values given for such feeds in the NRC publication. This was particularly true for
the forage sorghum silage, since the rations were formulated by the addition of
ground corn and a concentrate supplement to contain the same nutrient composition
using the values listed for each feed ingredient. Larger amounts of ground corn
and concentrate supplement were used to formulate the forage sorghum silage ration
than the corn silage ration. The cost of gain was lower and the net return per
head was higher for calves receiving the corn silage ration than for calves
receiving the forage sorghum silage ration.

Under the conditions of these six trials, it appears that the following
statements are justified:

1. Corn silage has a higher nutritional value for growing beef calves than
sorghum (forage or grain) silage. The stalk and grain in corn silage are
more digestible than those found in sorghum silage.


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2. The addition of grain (three pounds of high-moisture corn) to a forage
sorghum silage ration for growing beef calves will substantially increase
gain. Forage sorghum silage does not contain enough energy for maximum
gain by calves.

3. The rolling of corn or sorghum silage, crushing the grain prior to
feeding, improves the feeding value for growing beef calves.

4. The gain of growing beef calves fed both corn and forage sorghum silage
rations formulated for maximum gain, by the addition of ground corn and
a concentrate supplement, exceeds that predicted for such rations.

Table 1

Sorghum Silage, with and without Additional Grain, for
Growing Beef Calves (1967-68) ARC, Jay
Item Control(a) Corn(b)
No. of animals 16(c) 15(c)(d)
Length of trial, days 173 173
Avg initial wt, lb. 331 329
Avg final wt, lb. 597 636
Avg gain/animal, lb. 266 307
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.54 1.77
Feed/cwt gain 2471 2050
Forage sorghum silage 2362 1779
Concentrate supplement 109 103
High-moisture corn ---- 168
Feed/animal/day, lb. 38.1 36.3
Forage sorghum silage 36.4 31.5
Concentrate supplement 1.7 1.8
High-moisture corn ------ 3.0
Feed cost/cwt gain $ 17.18 $ 17.67
Forage sorghum silace(e) $ 11.81 $ 8.90
Concentrate supplement(f) $ 5.37 $ 5.07
High-moisture corn(g) ---- $ 3.70
Net return/head(h) +$ 18.43 +$ 20.35
(a) Forage sorghum silage (95.6%) + concentrate supplement (protein, minerals,
and vitamins) (4.4%) in drylot.
(b) Forage sorghum silage (86.8%) + concentrate supplement (protein, minerals,
and vitamins) (5.0%) + high-moisture corn (8.2%) in drylot.
(c) Two pens of eight calves each per treatment.
(d) One animal broke a leg during the course of the experiment; the data for
that animal were eliminated.
(e) Forage sorghum silage cost = $10.00/ton.
(f) Concentrate supplement cost = $98.53/ton.
(g) High-moisture corn cost = $44.00/ton.
(h) Initial calf cost = $26.62/cwt and final feeder animal value = $25.50/cwt;
does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the calves.


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Table 2


Corn and Forage Sorghum Silages for Growing
Beef Calves (1968-69) ARC, Jay
Forage sorghum Corn
Item silage(a) silage(b)
No. of animals 16(c) 15(c)(d)
Length of trial, days 171 171
Avg initial wt, lb. 394 402
Avg final wt, lb. 616 674
Avg gain/animal, lb. 222 272
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.30 1.59*
Feed cwt gain 2665 2278
Forage sorghum silage 2548 ---
Corn silage --- 2178
Concentrate supplement 117 100
Feed/animal/day, lb. 34.6 36.3
Forage sorghum silage 33.1 ---
Corn silage ---- 34.7
Concentrate supplement 1.5 1.6
Feed cost/cwt gain $ 19.09 $ 17.40
Forage sorghum silage(e) $ 12.74 --------
Corn silage(f) ------ $ 11.98
Concentrate supplement(g) $ 6.35 $ 5.42
Net return/head(h) +$ 21.75 +$ 30.84
(a) Forage sorghum silage (95.6%) + concentrate supplement (protein, minerals,
and vitamins) (4.4%) in drylot.
(b) Corn silage (95.6%) + concentrate supplement (protein, minerals, and
vitamins) (4.4%) in drylot.
(c) Two pens of eight steer calves each per treatment.
(d) One animal was removed from experiment due to sickness; the data for that
animal were eliminated.
(e) Forage sorghum silage cost = $10.00/ton.
(f) Corn silage cost = $11.00/ton.
(g) Concentrate supplement cost = $108.47/ton.
(h) Initial calf cost = $27.50/cwt and final feeder animal value = $28.00/cwt;
does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the calves.
* Significant at PF0.05.


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Table 3


Corn and Grain Sorghum Silages for Growing
Beef Calves (1969-70) ARC, Jay
Grain sorghum Corn
Item ..... silage(a) silage(b)
No. of animals 16(c) 16(c)
Length of trial, days 154 154
Avg initial wt, lb. 398 402
Avg final wt, lb. 602 643
Avg gain/animal, lb. 204 241
Avg daily gain, lb... 1.33 1.56*
Feed/cwt gain 2679 2353
Grain sorghum silage 2545 ---
Corn silage --- 2235
Concentrate supplement 134 118
Feed/animal/day, lb. 35.6 36.8
Grain sorghum silage 33.8 ---
Corn silage -- 35.0
Concentrate supplement 1.8 1.8
Feed cost/cwt gain $ 20.73 $ 17.65
Grain sorghum silage(d) $ 14.00 ------
Corn silage(e) -------- $ 11.73
Concentrate supplement(f) $ 6.73 $ 5.92
Net return/head(g) +$ 10.95 +$ 21.72
(a) Grain sorghum silage (95%) + concentrate supplement (protein, minerals, and
vitamins) (5%) in drylot.
(b) Corn silage (95%) + concentrate supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins)
(5%) in drylot.
(c) Two pens of eight steer calves each per treatment.
(d) Grain sorghum silage cost = $11.00/ton.
(e) Corn silage cost = $10.50/ton.
(f) Concentrate supplement cost = $100.39/ton.
(g) Initial calf cost = $32.00/cwt and final feeder animal value = $30.00/cwt;
does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the calves.
* Significant at P?0.05.


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Table 4


Rolled Silages for Growing Beef Calves
(1970-71) ARC, Jay
Grain sorghum silage (a)


Corn silage(b)


Item Unrolled Rolled(c) Unrolled Rolled(c)
No. of animals 16(d) 16(d) 16(d) 16(d)
Length of trial, days 140 140 140 140
Avg initial wt, lb. 397 397 386 391
Avg final wt, lb. 545 553 524 587
Avg gain/animal, lb. 148 156 138 196
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.06a,b* 1.1la,b 0.99b 1.40a
Feed/cwt gain 2777 2645 2463 2015
Silage 2638 2513 2340 1914
Concentrate supplement 139 132 123 101
Feed/animal/day, lb. 29.4 29.6 24.2 28.2
Silage 27.9 28.1 23.0 26.8
Concentrate supplement 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.4
Feed cost/cwt gain $ 21.67 $ 21.25 $ 18.62 $ 15.73
Silage(e) $ 14.51 $ 14.45 $ 12.29 $ 10.53
Concentrate supplement(f)$ 7.16 $ 6.80 $ 6.33 $ 5.20
Net return/head(g) +$ 11.58 +$ 13.02 +$ 14.87 +$ 27.98
(a) Grain sorghum silage (95%) + concentrate supplement (protein, minerals, and
vitamins) (5%) in drylot.
(b) Corn silage (95%) + concentrate supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins)
(5%) in drylot.
(c) The silages were rolled in order to crimp (crush) the kernels of grain.
(d) Two groups of eight steer calves each per treatment.
(e) Grain sorghum silage (unrolled) cost = $11.00/ton, grain sorghum silage
(rolled) cost = $11.50/ton, corn silage (unrolled) cost = $10.50/ton, and
corn silage (rolled) cost = $11.00/ton.
(f) Concentrate supplement cost = $103.00/ton.
(g) Initial calf cost = $32.25/cwt and final feeder animal value = $31.50/cwt;
does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the calves.
* Denotes statistical significance at the 5-percent level. Means followed by
the same letter are not significantly different from each other.


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Table 5


Rolled Silages for Growing Beef Calves
(1971-72) ARC, Jay
Forage sorghum silage(a)


Corn silage(b)


Item Unrolled Rolled(c) Unrolled Rolled(c)
No. of animals 16(d) 16(d) 16(d) 16(d)
Length of trial, days 163 168 168 168
Avg initial wt, lb. 412 409 408 411
Avg final wt, lb. 605 615 719 728
Avg gain/animal, lb. 193 206 311 317
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.15b** 1.23b 1.85a 1.89a
Feed/cwt gain 2956 2846 1897 1878
Silage 2808 2704 1802 1784
Concentrate supplement 148 142 95 94
Feed/animal/day, lb. 34.0 34.9 35.2 35.4
Silage 32.3 33.2 33.4 33.6
Concentrate supplement 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8
Feed cost/cwt gain $ 21.76 $ 21.61 $ 14.42 $ 14.71
Silage(e) $ 14.04 $ 14.20 $ 9.46 $ 9.81
Concentrate supplement(f) $ 7.72 $ 7.41 $ 4.96 $ 4.90
Net return/head(g) +$ 19.31 +$ 21.42 +$ 51.90 +$ 51.96
(a) Forage sorghum silage (95%) + concentrate supplement (protein, minerals,
and vitamins) (5%) in drylot.
(b) Corn silage (95%) + concentrate supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins)
(5%) in drylot.


(c) The silages were rolled in order to crimp (crush) the kernels of grain.
(d) Two groups of eight steer calves each per treatment.
(e) Forage sorghum silage (unrolled) cost = $10.00/ton, forage sorghum silage
(rolled) cost = $10.50/ton, corn silage (unrolled) cost = $10.50/ton, and
corn silage (rolled) cost = $11.00/ton.
(f) Concentrate supplement cost = $104.32/ton.
(g) Initial calf cost = $38.00/cwt and final feeder animal value = $36.00/cwt
for animals fed forage sorghum silage and $35.00/cwt for animals fed corn
silage; does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the
calves.
** Denotes statistical significance at the 1-percent level. Means followed by
the same letter are not significantly different from each other.


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Table 6

Silage Rations Formulated for Maximum Gain with
Growing Beef Calves (1972-73) ARC, Jay
Forage sorghum Corn silage
Item silage ration(a) ration(b)
No. of animals 32(c) 27(c)(d)
Length of trial, days 146 146
Avg initial wt, lb. 329 330
Avg final wt, lb. 633 606
Avg gain/calf, lb. 304 276
Avg daily gain, lb. 2.08* 1.89
Feed/cwt gain 1282 1501
Silage 856 1286
Ground corn 344 144
Concentrate supplement 82 71
Feed/animal/day, lb. 26.8 28.4
Silage 17.9 24.3
Ground corn 7.2 2.7
Concentrate supplement 1.7 1.4
Feed cost/cwt gain $ 25.95 $ 21.07
Silage(e) $ 5.24 $ 8.52
Ground corn(f) $ 12.04 $ 5.04
Concentrate supplement(g) $ 8.67 $ 7.51
Net return/head(h) +$ 56.84 +$ 63.76
(a) As-fed basis---66.8% forage sorghum silage, 26.8% ground corn, and 6.4%
concentrate supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins).
(b) As-fed basis---85.7% corn silage, 9.6% ground corn, and 4.7% concentrate
supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins).
(c) Four groups of eight calves each.
(d) Five calves had to be removed during the course of the trial due to sick-
ness; the data for these animals were eliminated.
(e) Forage sorghum silage cost = $12.25/ton and corn silage cost = $13.25/ton.
(f) Ground corn cost = $70.00/ton.
(g) Concentrate supplement cost = $211.41/ton.
(h) Initial calf cost = $53.50/cwt and final feeder animal value = $49.25/cwt;
does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the calves.
* Significant at P<0.05.


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