Group Title: ARC research report - Jay Agricultural Research Center ; WF74-1
Title: Growing lightweight calves during the cool season in northwest Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053551/00001
 Material Information
Title: Growing lightweight calves during the cool season in northwest Florida
Series Title: Jay, ARC research report
Physical Description: 5 leaves : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Bertrand, J. E ( Joseph Ezel ), 1924-
Dunavin, Leonard Sypret, 1930-
Lutrick, M. C ( Monroe Cornealous )
Agricultural Research Center, Jay
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Jay Fla
Publication Date: [1974]
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. Bertrand, L.S. Dunavin, and M.C. Lutrick.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "March, 1974."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053551
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62320112

Full Text


.. HUME LIBRARY
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CE ER
Jay, Florida APR 1974
JAY, ARC RESEARCH REPORT WF74-1 MARC, 1974

GROWING LIGHTWEIGHT CALVES DURING THE COOL SE AS .NC E7 gyPFgi ,1/

J. E. Bertrand, L. S. Dunavin, and M. C. Lutrick2/

There is a year-round demand for Florida lightweight calves and feeder
cattle, However, the supply of calves in Florida is largest in the fall and
the price of these calves is normally lowest at that time. The price for all
weights of cattle is normally highest in the spring. This situation favors
the growing of lightweight calves in the state during the cool season of the
year. These calves can then be marketed as feeders in the spring when the
price is highest,

Small grain crops (triticale, wheat, rye, and oats) produce quality grazing
when rotationally grazed by growing calves during the cool season in northwest
Florida. Beef production with calves grazing small grain crops varies considerably
from year to year, depending largely upon weather conditions (cold, moisture,
sunlight, etc.).

A mixture composed of a small grain crop, ryegrass, and crimson clover for
rotational grazing by growing calves offers a longer grazing period than a pure
stand of a small grain crop and a good potential for beef production in northwest
Florida. The small grain crop, if planted early enough in the fall, should be
ready for grazing early in November, while the ryegrass and crimson clover should
extend the grazing period into late spring or early summer.

Grain crop silage (corn and sorghum) is a feed that has a good potential
for growing calves in northwest Florida. When grain crop silage is supplemented
with a concentrate mixture containing protein (the major portion as natural pro-
tein), vitamin A, minerals, salt, and a low-level antibiotic, good gains with
growing calves can be obtained. Even though good grain crop silage is a good
source of energy, the addition of grain will substantially increase gain. Corn
silage has a higher nutritional value for growing calves than forage or grain
sorghum silage.

Small Grain Crops, Alone and in Mixtures with Ryegrass and
Crimson Clover, for Growing Beef Calves ARC, Jay
(1972-73)
The over-all performance of growing beef calves grazing pure stands of
triticale and wheat was better than that of calves grazing a pure stand of rye
(Table 1). The average daily gain per head daily for calves grazing triticale
was 1.85 lb. compared with 1.70 and 1.50 lb. for calves grazing wheat and rye,
respectively. However, due to a higher stocking rate, calves grazing wheat
produced more gain per acre than calves grazing triticale (392 and 382 lb.,
respectively). Calves grazing rye had a high stocking rate, but due to a short
grazing period and a low daily gain they produced the lowest gain per acre
(260 lb.).


1/Presented at the Beef Cattle Field Day, Agricultural Research Center, Jay,
Florida, March 7, 1974.
2/Associate Animal Scientist, Associate Agronomist, and Associate Soil Chemist,
respectively.







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Growing beef calves grazing a mixture of triticale, ryegrass, and crimson
clover gained faster than similar calves grazing a mixture of rye, ryegrass,
and crimson clover (1.90 vs. 1.72 lb./head/day) (Table 1). Calves grazing the
mixture containing triticale also produced more gain per acre (554 and 469 lb.).

The addition of ryegrass and crimson clover in a mixture with a small grain
crop (triticale or rye) for grazing by growing beef calves produced a longer
grazing period, increased the average daily gain and beef gain per acre, increased
the stocking rate, reduced the cost of gain, and increased the net return per
acre over that obtained from a pure stand of triticale or rye.

Unrolled and Rolled Corn and Forage Sorghum Silage
Rations Formulated for Maximum Gain with Growing
Beef Calves by the Addition of Ground Corn and
a Concentrate Supplement ARC, Jay (1972-73)

Growing beef calves fed forage sorghum silage rations formulated for
maximum gain by the addition of ground corn and a concentrate supplement (protein,
minerals, and vitamins) gained significantly (P<0.05) more than calves fed corn
silage rations (2.08 vs. 1.89 lb./head/day) (Table 2). The gain of calves fed
both the corn and forage sorghum silage rations exceeded the gain predicted for
such rations in the NRC (National Research Council) publication (Nutrient Require-
ments of Beef Cattle, No. 4, Fourth Revised Edition, 1970). Larger amounts of
ground corn and concentrate supplement were used to formulate the forage sorghum
silage rations than the corn silage rations. This was done in order that each
ration would have the same nutrient composition using the values listed for each
feed ingredient. The cost of gain was lower and the net return per head was higher
for calves receiving the corn silage rations

Calves fed rolled corn and forage sorghum silage rations gained slightly
faster than those fed unrolled corn and forage sorghum silage rations (2.01 vs.
1.97 lb./head/day) (Table 3). The feed required per unit of gain and the cost of
gain were lower for calves receiving the rolled silage rations. Therefore, calves
receiving the rolled silage rations had a higher net return per head.







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Table 1

Performance of Growing Beef Calves Grazing Small Grain
Crops, Alone and in Mixtures with Ryegrass and Clover ARC, Jay (1972-73)
Treatments
Triticale Wheat Rye Triticale Rye
+ +


Item alone(a) alone(b) alone(c) mixture(d) mixture(e)
Initial no. of calves 12(f) 12(f) 12(f) 12(f) 12(f)
Avg length of grazing, days 130 125 99 147 145
Avg initial wt, lb. 377 380 378 382 377
Gain/acre, lb. 382 392 260 554 469
Animal days/acre 207 231 173 292 272
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.85a** 1.70a,b 1.50b 1.90a 1.72a,b
Stocking rate/acre(g) 1.60 1.85 1.75 1.99 1.88
Gain/acre/day, lb. 2.96 3.15 2.63 3.78 3.23
Pasture cost/cwt gain(h) $ 16.02 $ 13.86 $ 22.65 $ 11.08 $ 12.22
Calf cost/acre(i) $322.71 $376.11 $353.90 $406.70 $379.19
Pasture cost/acre(h) $ 61.40 $ 54.32 $ 58,93 $ 61.39 $ 57.36
Total cost/acre(j) $383.91 $430.43 $412.83 $468.09 $436.55
Final animal value/acre(k) $485.21 $539.29 $453.84 $647.23 $580.05
Net return/acre(j) +$101.30 +$108.86 +$ 41.01 +$179.14 +$143.50
(a) Rotational grazing of a pure stand of triticale (South Blend).
(b) Rotational grazing of a pure stand of Wheat (Wakeland).
(c) Rotational grazing of a pure stand of rye (Wren's abruzzi).
(d) Rotational grazing of a triticale (South Blend), ryegrass (Gulf), and crimson
clover (Dixie) mixture.
(e) Rotational grazing of a rye (Wren's abruzzi), ryegrass (Gulf), and crimson
clover (Dixie) mixture.
(f) Two groups of six steer calves each. Three 1.25 acre plots (3.75 acresfof
the respective pastures for each group initially containing six calves.
(g) Additional grazer animals were added and removed as needed to keep the
forage uniformly grazed.
(h) Pasture cost $61.20/acre for triticale; $54.32/acre for wheat; $58.93/
acre for rye; $61.39/acre for the triticale, ryegrass, and crimson clover
mixture; and $57.36/acre for the rye, ryegrass, and crimson clover mixture.
(i) Calf cost $53.50/cwt (includes cost of calves, hauling, veterinary costs,
etc.).
(j) Does not include labor involved in caring for the calves.
(k) Based on an animal value of $49.25/cwt at the end of the trial.
** Denotes statistical significance at the 1% level. Means followed by letter
"a" are significantly different from those means not having "a" and those
followed by "b" are significantly different from those not having "b".









Table 2


Corn and Forage Sorghum Silage Rations Formulated
for Maximum Gain by Growing Beef Calves ARC, Jay (1972-73)
Corn silage Forage sorghum
Item ration(a) silage ration(b)
No. of calves 27(c)(d) 32(c)
Length of trial, days 146 146
Avg initial wt, lb. 330 329
Avg final wt, lb. 606 633
Avg gain/calf, lb. 276 304
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.89 2.08*
Feed/cwt gain 1501 1282
Silage 1286 856
Ground corn 144 344
Concentrate supplement 71 82
Feed/calf/dayi lb. 28.4 26.8
Silage 24.3 17.9
Ground corn 2.7 7.2
Concentrate supplement 1.4 1.7
Feed cost/cwt gain
Silage(e) $ 8.52 $ 5.24
Ground corn(f) $ 5.04 $ 12.04
Concentrate supplement(g) $ 7.51 $ 8.67
Total $ 21.07 $ 25.95
Avg cost/head(h) $ 176.55 $ 176.02
Avg feed cost/head $ 58.15 $ 78.89
Total cost/head(i) $ 234.70 $ 254.91
Final animal value/head(j) $ 298.4 $ 311.75
Net return/head(i) .+$ 63.76 56,84
(a) As-fed basis---85.7% corn silage, 9.6% ground corn, and 4.7% concentrate
supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins).
(b) As-fed basis---66.8% forage sorghum silage, 26.8% ground corn, and 6.4%
concentrate supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins).
(c) Four groups of eight calves each.
(d) Five calves had to be removed during the course of the trial due to sick-
ness; the data for these animals were disregarded.
(e) Corn silage cost $13.00/ton unrolled and $13.50/ton rolled; forage
sorghum silage cost = $12.00/ton unrolled and $12.50/ton rolled.
(f) Ground corn cost $70.00/ton.
(g) Concentrate supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins) cost $211.41/ton.
(h) Calf cost = $53.50/cwt (includes cost of calves, hauling, veterinary costs,
etc.).
(i) Does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the calves.
(j) Based on an animal value of $49.25/cwt at the end of the trial.
* Significant at the 5% level.






* #


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Table 3


Evaluation of Rolled Corn and Forage So'ghum Silages
for Growing Beef Calves ARC, Jay (1972-73)


Item Unrolled Rolled(a)
No. of calves 30(b)(c) 29(b)(d
Length of trial, days 146 146
Avg initial wt, lb. 328 331
Avg final wt, lb. 618 624
Avg gain/calf, lb. 290 293
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.97 2.01
Feed/cwt gain 1403 1350
Silage 1069 1028
Ground corn 255 246
Concentrate supplement 79- 76
Feed/calf/day, lb. 27.9 27.2
Silage 21.2 20.7
Ground corn 5,1 5.0
Concentrate supplement 1.6 1.5
Feed cost/cwt gain
Silage(e) $ 6.68 $ 6.68
Ground corn(f) $ 8.93 $ 8.61
Concentrate supplement(g) $ 8.35 $ 8.03
Total $ 23.96 $ 23.32
Avg cost/head(h) $ 175.48 $ 177.09
Avg feed cost/head $ 69.48 $ 68.33
Total cost/head(i) $ 244.96 $ 245.42
Final animal value/head(j) $ 304.37 $ 307.32
Net return/head(i) +$ 59.41 +$ 61.90
(a) The silages were rolled in order to crimp (crush) the kernels of grain.
(b) Four groups of eight calves each.
(c) Two calves had to be removed during the course of the trial due to sickness;
the data for these animals were disregarded.
(d) Three calves had to'be removed during the course of the trial due to sick-
ness; the data for these animals were disregarded.
(e) Corn silage cost = $13.00/ton-unrolled and $13.50/ton rolled; forage sorghum
silage cost = $12.00/ton unrolled and $12.50/ton rolled.
(f) Ground corn cost $70.00/ton.
(g) Concentrate supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins) cost = $211.41/ton.
(h) Calf cost = $53.50/cwt (includes cost of calves, hauling, veterinary costs,
etc.). .
(i) Does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the calves.
(j) Based on an animal value of $49.25/cwt at the end of the trial.


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