Group Title: ARC research report - Jay Agricultural Research Center ; 73-1
Title: Small grain crops, alone and in mixtures with ryegrass and clover, for growing beef calves
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 Material Information
Title: Small grain crops, alone and in mixtures with ryegrass and clover, for growing beef calves
Series Title: Jay, ARC research report
Physical Description: 3, 4 leaves : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Bertrand, J. E ( Joseph Ezel ), 1924-
Dunavin, Leonard Sypret, 1930-
Agricultural Research Center, Jay
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Jay Fla
Publication Date: [1973]
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. Bertrand and L.S. Dunavin.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1973."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053548
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62320027

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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
73- Jay, Florida

Jay, ARC Research Report 73-1 May, 1973

SMALL GRAIN CROPS, ALONE AND IN MIXTURES
WITH RYEGRASS AND CLOVER, FOR GROWING BEEF CALVES1/

J. E. Bertrand and L. S6 Dunavin2/

INTRODUCTION AND AGRONOMIC INFORMATION

Small grain crops (wheat, oats, rye, and triticale) produce quality forage
for grazing during the cool season of the year in the panhandle area of Florida.
A mixture composed of a small grain crop, ryegrass, and clover for rotational
grazing by growing beef calves offers a long grazing period and a good potential
for beef production. The small grain crop, if planted early enough in the fall,
should be ready for grazing early in November, while the ryegrass and clover
should extend the grazing period into late spring or early summer.

The small grain crops are usually planted with a grain drill. The dates of
planting will depend on moisture conditions of the soil and the availability of
the land after harvest of the warm-season crop. It is desirable to plant half
of the acreage 2 to 3 weeks before the other half and rotate the calves between
the two pastures as required for best utilization of good quality forage. If
ryegrass and clover are desired, these can be planted over the small grain with
a cultipacker-seeder. The seeding rates will depend on the germination of the
seed and the mixture used. The important thing is to get an adequate stand.
Normally, the seeding rates per acre for pure stands of small grain are 3 bu for
oats and 2 bu for wheat, rye, or triticale. In mixtures, the seeding rates per
acre are normally 1.25 bu for wheat, rye, or triticale (oats has not been recent-
ly tested in mixtures), 12 lb. for ryegrass, 8 lb. for crimson clover, and 4 lb.
for arrowleaf clover. A complete fertilizer (analysis and amount depending on a
soil test) is applied at planting time. Additional applications of 100 lb. of
ammonium nitrate per acre are made about three times during the growing season as
needed.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .O1~AA OBTAINED IN FOUR TRIALS

The performance and economic(,ta of e ed and unsupplemented growing
beef calves grazing small grain crps during t 96-69 growing season are
presented in Table 1. The'yerage da3ly ,ain of ca es grazing wheat was 2.16
lb., compared to 1.95 Ib'."IfoScalves grazi{ rye, nd 1.84 lb. for calves grazing
oats. Calves grazing wheat gained significantly ore than calves grazing oats.
Because of a higher stocking rate per Pcre and longer grazing period, the beef
gain per acre (513 lb.) was highest for/~ .ves razing rye. The beef gain per
acre (413 lb.) was lowest for calves ga', ats. The cost of gain was highest
for calves grazing rye and lowest for calv~ /grazing wheat. In interpreting these
results, it should be kept in mind that half of the calves on each one of the
three small grain crops received a 12% protein high-energy ration on pasture at
the level of 1% of body weight daily. Feeding a supplement to growing beef calves
grazing small grain crops increased gain, but also increased the cost of gain.



l/Presented at the 1973 Beef Cattle Short Course, University of Florida,
Gainesville.
2/Associate Animal Scientist and Associate Agronomist, respectively, Agricultural
Research Center, Jay.








-2-


The performance and economic data of supplemented and unsupplemented grow-
ing beef calves grazing small grain crops during the 1969-70 growing season are
presented in Table 2. The average daily gain of calves grazing wheat was 1.70
lb., compared to 1.60 lb. for calves grazing oats, and 1.47 lb. for calves graz-
ing rye. These differences were not statistically significant due to the large
variation in individual gain within treatment groups. The beef gain per acre
was 433 lb. for calves grazing wheat, 410 lb. for calves grazing oats, and 370
lb. for calves grazing rye. The cost of gain was lowest for calves grazing wheat
and highest for calves grazing rye. It should be kept in mind that half of the
calves on each one of the three small grain crops were supplemented as in the
earlier study reported. Feeding a supplement to growing beef calves grazing
small grain crops significantly increased gain.

The performance and economic data of growing beef calves grazing mixtures of
cool-season annual grasses and legumes during the 1970-71 growing season are
presented in Table 3. Beef calves grazing mixtures of rye, ryegrass, and clover
(crimson and arrowleaf) performed better than calves grazing wheat in similar
mixtures. The average daily gain was 1.97 lb. for calves grazing rye and ryegrass
with crimson clover and 2.05 lb. for calves grazing rye and ryegrass with arrow-
leaf clover. By comparison, the average daily gain was 1.94 lb. for calves
grazing wheat and ryegrass with crimson clover and 1.83 lb. for calves grazing
wheat and ryegrass with arrowleaf clover. The beef gain per acre was very good
for all treatments. Beef calves grazing crimson clover in mixtures with a small
grain crop (rye or wheat) and ryegrass performed only slightly better than calves
grazing arrowleaf clover in similar mixtures. The average daily gains were 1.97
and 1.94 lb. where crimson clover was used in the mixtures and 2.05 and 1.83 lb.
where arrowleaf clover was used.

The performance and economic data of growing beef calves grazing small grain
crops, alone and in mixtures with ryegrass and crimson clover, during the 1971-72
growing season are presented in Table 4. When comparing the results obtained with
the three small grain crops in pure stands, the calves grazing triticale had the
highest daily gain (1.36 lb.) and the largest beef gain per acre (322 lb.). The
calves grazing the pure stand of rye had the lowest daily gain (1.14 lb.) and the
smallest beef gain per acre (252 lb.). The low performance of calves grazing the
pure stand of wheat may have been partially due to rust which infested the wheat.
The even lower performance of calves grazing the pure stand of rye may have been
partially due to warm weather late in the fall, which allowed a lush growth of
forage, followed by a sharp freeze and some winter kill. Growing beef calves
grazing the mixture of triticale, ryegrass, and crimson clover outperformed those
grazing the mixture of rye, ryegrass, and crimson clover. It appeared that a
better stand of ryegrass and crimson clover occurred in the mixture with triticale
than in the mixture with rye. Perhaps, triticale did not compete as much as rye
with the ryegrass and crimson clover. This may have been due to poor germination
of seed and to a low seeding rate for triticale. It can be noted that the addi-
tion of ryegrass and crimson clover in a mixture with a small grain crop (triti-
cale and rye) increased the average daily gain (0.17 lb.) and the beef gain per
acre (60 lb.) over those obtained with a pure stand of a small grain crop
(Triticale and rye).

Under the conditions of these four trials, it appears that the following
statements are justified:

1. The beef production with beef calves grazing small grain crops, alone and
in mixtures with ryegrass and clover, varies considerably from year to
year, depending largely upon weather conditions (cold, moisture, sunlight,
etc.).








3 -

2. In pure stands, wheat is a better small grain crop than rye or oats for
grazing by growing beef calves.

3. Supplemental feeding of growing beef calves grazing small grain crops is
not always profitable; however, supplemental feeding does allow a heavier
stocking rate per acre, which may be beneficial during grazing periods
when forage growth is slow.

3. A mixture composed of a small grain crop, ryegrass, and clover for grazing
by growing beef calves offers a longer grazing period, increases the
average daily gain, and produces more beef ber acre than the small grain
crop alone. Rye is better than wheat in such a mixture and crimson clover
is only slightly better than arrowleaf clover.

5. The use of triticale, alone and in a mixture with ryegrass and clover,
for grazing by growing beef calves is worthwhile and should be further
investigated.







Table 1


Performance of Supplemented and Unsupplemented Growing
Calves Grazing Small Grain Crops (1968-69)

Agricultural Research Center, Jay

Item Wh1 eat'(a) oatss(b) Rye(c) Supp.(d) Unsupp.
Initial no. of animals 16(e) 16(e) 16(e) 24(f) 24(f)
Avg length of grazing, days 133 134 142 144 129
Avg initial wt, lb. 386 394 389 390 389
Gain/acre, lb. 500 413 513 540 410
Animal days/acre 231 224 263 261 217
Avg daily gain, lb. 2.16a* 1.84b 1.95a,b 2.07 1.89
Stocking rate/acre(g) 1.74 1.67 1.85 1.81 1.68
Gain/acre/day, Ib. 3.76 3.07 3.61 3.75 3.18
Feed cost/cwt gain
Pasture supplement(h) $ 3.53 $ 3.33 $ 3.73 $ 6.24 -------
Pasture(i) $ 9.28 $ 10.63 $ 10.71 $ 8.96 $ 11.80
Total(J) $ 12.81 $713. 96 $ 14.44 $ 15.20 $ 11.80
Calf cost/acre(k) $174.63 $171.07 $187.11 $183.53 $169.92
Feed cost/acre $ 64.05 $ 57.65 $ 74.08 $ 82.08 $ 48.38
Total cost/acre(j) $238.68 $228.72 $261.19 $265.61 $218.30
Final animal value/acre(l) $310.48 $283.81 $326.65 $330.16 $281.83
Profit/acre(j) +$ 71.80 +$ 55.09 +$ 65.46 + 64,.55 +$ 63.53

(a) Wakeland wheat, two 2.5 acre plots (total 5 acres) per group of calves.
(b) Florida 500 oats, two 2.5 acre plots (total 5 acres) per group of calves.
(c) McNair Vita-Graze rye, two 2.5 acre plots (total 5 acres) per group of
calves.
(d) Supplemented with a 12% protein high-energy ration at the level of 1% of
body weight.
(e) Two groups of eight calves (four steers and four heifers) each. One group
was supplemented while one group was not supplemented.
(f) Three groups of eight calves each. One group grazed 5 acres of wheat, one
group grazed 5 acres of oats, and the other group grazed 5 acres of rye.
(g) Additional test animals were added and removed as needed to keep the forage
uniformly grazed. In all cases individual animal weights were taken after
an overnight shrink (fast from feed and water).
(h) Pasture supplemental ration cost = $52.71/ton.
(i) Pasture cost = $46.40/acre for wheat, $43.90/acre for oats, and $54.96/acre
for rye.
(j) Does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the calves.
(k) Calf cost = $26.00/cwt (includes cost of calves, hauling veterinary costs,
etc.).
(1) Animal value at end of trial = $26.50/cwt.
* Denotes statistical significance at the 5% level (for the small grain crop
comparison only). Means followed by letter "a" are significantly different
from those means not having "a" and those followed by "b" are significantly
different from those not having "b".








Table 2


Performance of Supplemented and Unsupplemented Growing
Calves Grazing Small Grain Crops (1969-70)

Agricultural Research Center, Jay


Item Wheat(a) Oats(b) Rye(c) Supp.() Unsupp.
Initial no. of animals 16(e) 16(e) 16(e) 24(f) 24(f)
Avg length of grazing, days 147 154 147 156 142
Avg initial wt, lb. 317 318 309 317 313
Gain/acre, lb. 433 410 370 515 293
Animal days/acre 254 256 251 275 232
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.70 1.60 1.47 1.87** 1.26
Stocking rate/acre(g) 1.73 1.66 1.71 1.76 1.63
Gain/acre/day, lb. 2.94 2.66 2.51 3.29 2.05
Feed/cwt gain
Pasture supplement(h) $ 4.24 $ 4.19 $ 4.63 $ 6.81 -
Pasture(i) $ 10.92 $ 11.72 $ 12.16 $ 9.08 $ 15.95
Total(j) $ 15.16 $ 15.91 $ 16.79 $ 15.89 $ 15.95
Calf cost/acre(k) $176.86 $170.24 $170.41 $179.93 $164.54
Feed cost/acre $ 65.64 $ 65.23 $ 62.12 $ 81.83 $ 46.73
Total cost/acre(j) $242.50 $235.47 $232.53 $261.76 $211.27
Final animal value/acre(l) $294.42 $281.36 $269.52 $321.88 $240.96
Profit/acre(j) +$ 51.92 +$ 45.89 +$ 36.99 +$ 60.12 +$ 29.69


Wakeland wheat, two 2.5 acre plots (total 5
Florida 501 oats, two 2.5 acre plots (total


acres) per group of calves.
5 acres) per group of calves.


(c) Wren's abruzzi rye, two 2.5 acre plots (total 5 acres) per group of calves.
(d) Supplemented with a 12% protein high-energy ration at the level of 1% of
body weight.
(e) Two groups of eight calves (seven steers and one heifer) each. One group
was supplemented while one group was not supplemented.
(f) Three groups of eight calves each. One group grazed 5 acres of wheat, one
group grazed 5 acres of oats, and the other group grazed 5 acres of rye.
(g) Additional test animals were added and removed as needed to keep the forage
uniformly grazed. In all cases individual animal weights were taken after
an overnight shrink (fast from feed and water).
(h) Pasture supplemental ration cost = $55.85/ton.
(i) Pasture cost = $47.23/acre for wheat, $47.98/acre for oats, and $45.01/acre
for rye.
(j) Does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for calves.
(k) Calf cost = $32.25/cwt (includes cost of calves, hauling, veterinary costs,
etc.).
(1) Based on an animal value of $30.00/cwt at the end of the trial.
** Significant at P<0.0O (applies to the supplemented versus unsupplemented
comparison only).








Table 3


Performance of Growing Beef Calves Grazing Mixtures of
Cool-Season Annual Grasses and Legumes (1970-71)

Agricultural Research Center, Jay


Mixture of rye, Mixture of wheat,
ryegrass, and .ryegrass, and -
Crimson Arrowleaf Crimson Arrowleaf
Item clover(a) clover(b) clover(c) clover(d)
Initial no. of animals 12(e) 12(e) 12(e) 12(e)
Avg length of grazing, days 147 148 146 148
Avg initial wt, lb. 338 338 335 332
Gain/acre, lb. 539 535 521 497
Animal days/acre 274 261 269 272
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.97 2.05 1.94 1.83
Stocking rate/acre(f) 1.86 1.76 1.84 1.84
Gain/acre/day, lb. 3.66 3.61 3.57 3.37


Pasture cost/cwt gain(g)
Calf cost/acre(h)
Pasture cost/acre
Total cost/acre(i)
Final animal value/acre(j)
Profit/acre(i)


$ 9.20
$214.38
$ 49.59
$263.97
$338.63
+$ 74.66


$ 9.39
$202.85
$ 50.24
$253.09
$327.67
+$ 74.58


$ 9.53 $ 10.11
$210.19 $208.31
$ 49.65 $ 50.25
$259.84 $258.56
$329.85 $321.29
+$ 70.01 +$ 62.73


(a) Rotational grazing of a mixture of rye (Wren's abruzzi), ryegrass (Gulf),


and crimson clover (Dixie).
(b) Rotational grazing of a mixture of
and arrowleaf clover (Amclo).
(c) Rotational grazing of a mixture of
crimson clover (Dixie).
(d) Rotational grazing of a mixture of
arrowleaf clover (Amclo).


rye (Wren's abruzzi), ryegrass (Gulf),

wheat (Wakeland), ryegrass (Gulf), and

wheat (Wakeland), ryegrass (Gulf), and


(e) Two groups of six calves (five steers and one heifer) each. Three 1.25 acre
plots (total 3.75 acres) of the respective pastures for each group initial-
ly containing six calves.
(f) Additional test animals were added and removed as needed to keep the forage
uniformly grazed. In all cases individual animal weights were taken after
an overnight shrink (fast from feed and water).
(g) Pasture cost = $49.60/acre for the rye, ryegrass, and crimson clover mix-
ture; $50.28/acre for the rye, ryegrass, and arrowleaf clover mixture;
$49.60/acre for the wheat, ryegrass, and crimson clover mixture; and
$50.28/acre for the wheat, ryegrass, and arrowleaf clover mixture.
(h) Calf cost = $34.10/cwt (includes cost of calves, hauling, veterinary costs,
etc.).
(i) Does not include labor involved in caring for the calves.
(j) Based on an animal value of $29.00/cwt at the end of the trial.


~








Table 4


Performance of Growing Calves Grazing Small Grain Crops,
Alone and in Mixtures with Ryegrass and Clover (1971-72)

Agricultural Research Center, Jay


Treatments


Item
Initial no. of animals
Avg length of grazing, days
Avg initial wt, lb.
Gain/acre, lb.
Animal days/acre
Avg daily gain, lb.
Stocking rate/acre(g)
Gain/acre/day, lb.
Pasture cost/cwt gain(h)
Calf cost/acre(i)
Pasture cost/acre
Total cost/acre(j)
Final animal value/acre(k)
Profit oer acre(J)


Triticale
alone(a)
12(f)
135
309
322
236
1.36a,b*
1.75
2.38
$ 17.49
$205.49
$ 56.32
$261.81
$310.59
+S 48.78


Wheat
alone(b)
12(f)
126
317
302
225
1.34a,
1.79
2.40
$ 16.42
$215.62
$ 49.59
$265.21
$312.99
+$ 47.78


Rye
alonic)
12(f)
125
315
252
222
b 1.14b
1.78
2.03
$ 19.75
$213.07
$ 49.77
$262.84
$292.57
+$ 29.73


Triticale
+
mixture(d)
12(f)
148
323
387
256
1.51a
1.73
2.61
$ 14.29
$212.34
$ 55.30
$267.64
$340.48
+$ 72.84


Rye
+
mixture(e)
12(f)
131
320
357
233
1.53a
1.78
2.72
$ 14.66
$216.45
$ 52.34
$268.79
$333.58
-$ 64.79


(a) Rotational grazing of a
(b) Rotational grazing of a
(c) Rotational grazing of a
(d) Rotational grazing of a
clover (Dixie) mixture.
(e) Rotational grazing of a
clover (Dixie) mixture.
(f) Two groups of six steer


pure stand of triticale (Fasgro 208).
pure stand of wheat (Wakeland).
pure stand of rye (Wren's abruzzi).
triticale (Fasgro 208), ryegrass (Gulf), and crimson

rye (Wren's abruzzi), ryegrass (Gulf), and crimson

calves each. Three 1.25 acre plots (total 3.75 acres)


of the respective pastures for each group initially containing six calves.
(g) Additional test animals were added and removed as needed to keep the forage
uniformly grazed. In all cases individual animal weights were taken after an
overnight shrink (fast from feed and water).
(h) Pasture cost = $56.33/acre for triticale; $49.60/acre for wheat; $49.78/acre
for rye; $55.27/acre for the triticale, ryegrass, and crimson clover mixture;
and $52.28/acre for the rye, ryegrass, and crimson clover mixture.
(i) Calf cost = $38.00/cwt (includes cost of animals, hauling, veterinary costs,
etc.).
(j) Does not include labor involved in caring for the calves.
(k) Based on an animal value of $36.00/cwt at the end of the trial.
* Denotes statistical significance at the 5% level. Means followed by letter "a"
are significantly different from those means not having "a" and those follow-
ed by "b" are significantly different from those not having "b".


J


Profit t)er acre(j)




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