Group Title: Jay, ARC research report ;, WFES75-4
Title: The production of slaughter calves on forages in northwest Florida
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 Material Information
Title: The production of slaughter calves on forages in northwest Florida
Series Title: Jay, ARC research report
Physical Description: 10 leaves : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Bertrand, J. E ( Joseph Ezel ), 1924-
Agricultural Research Center, Jay
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Jay Fla
Publication Date: [1975]
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. Bertrand.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "March, 1975."
Funding: ARC, Jay research report ;
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Bibliographic ID: UF00053533
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62311260

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/<'I

4k ? AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
/ Jay, Florida

JAY, ARC RESEARCH REPORT WFES 75-4 MARCH, 1975

THE PRODUCTION OF SLAUGHTER CALVES ON FORAGES IN KORT;IST IDA

J. E. Bertrand


HAY BE APPLICABLE. .p '. /
The area of northwest Florida covered by this repda includess the co ties
of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Holmes, Washikton, and part of
Jackson, Calhoun, and Bay. '' f

2. PROGRAMS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FORAGE BEEF (LIGHT BEEF) 6000 POUNDS
LIVEWEIGHT, 12 TO 15 MONTHS OF AGE, AND CONTAINING ENOUGH FINISH\yOR SLAUGHTER.
a. Grain Crop Silage.
(1) Description and General Information on Handling of Calves Prior to
Placing Them on Trial.
Beef calves used in the silage research studies at the Agricultural
Research Center, Jay, were of British breeding (Angus, Hereford, and
Angus X Hereford crosses) and weighing 250 to 400 pounds when purchased
at local auctions in the fall. At that time, these calves were recently
weaned, about 7 months of age, and a representative sample of the
calves available in large numbers in northwest Florida. Upon arrival
on the farm, the calves were vaccinated for blackleg, injected with
1 million IU of vitamin A, wormed, given an antibiotic shot, branded,
and castrated or dehorned when needed. Death losses were between 0.5%
and 1.5%. The calves were grazed on late planted, young millet for a
few weeks before being placed on trial. They normally gained a small
amount of weight on this summer annual grass.
(2) Comments and Suggestions on Grain Crop Silage Programs.
(a) Grain Crop Silage Without Additional Grain. -- Performance data on
the use of grain crop silage plus a concentrate supplement (protein,
minerals, and vitamins) for growing beef calves in drylot are listed
in Tables 1, 2, and 3. The rations were mixed and fed ad libitum
once daily in fence-line feed bunks with a transit mixer-feeder
wagon. Corn silage had a higher nutritional value for growing calves
than did either grain sorghum or forage sorghum silage. Results
varied from year to year depending on the quality (amount of grain
on a dry matter basis) of the silages. Gains ranged from 1.20 pounds
to 1.87 pounds per head daily for calves receiving the corn silage
rations; whereas, gains ranged from 1.09 pounds to 1.54 pounds per
head daily for calves receiving the sorghum silage rations. Calves
receiving the corn silage rations were more efficient in converting
feed to gain.
(b) Grain Crop Silage With Additional Grain. -- Performance data on the
use of grain crop silage, grain, and a concentrate supplement
(protein, minerals, and vitamins) for growing beef calves in
drylot are listed in Tables 1 and 4. The rations were mixed and fed
ad libitum once daily in fence-line feed bunks with a transit
mixer-feeder wagon. The addition of 3 pounds daily of high-moisture
corn per head to the forage sorghum silage ration of growing beef
calves increased gains from 1.54 pounds to 1.77 pounds per head
daily (Table 1). The data obtained from feeding silage rations


/Associate Animal Scientist, Agricultural Research Center, Jay, Florida 32565.







-2-


formulated for maximum gain by the addition of ground corn for
growing beef calves are listed in Table 4. Calves receiving the
corn silage ration gained 1.89 pounds per head daily while calves
receiving the forage sorghum silage ration gained 2.08 pounds per
head daily. Larger amounts of ground corn and concentrate supplement
were used to formulate the forage sorghum silage ration than the
corn silage ration. The gains of calves fed both the corn and
forage sorghum silage rations exceeded the gains predicted for such
rations in the National Research Council (NRC) publication
(Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, No. 4, Fourth Revised
Edition, 1970). Apparently, the compositions of both the silages
were higher than the average values given for such feeds in the
NRC publication. This was particularly true for the forage sorghum
silage. Calves receiving the corn silage ration were again more
efficient in converting feed to gain.
b. Grazing Small Grain Crops.
(1) Description and General Information on Handling of Calves Prior to
Placing Them on Trial.
The beef calves were similar in description and handled as
mentioned previously.
(2) Comments and Suggestions on Programs for Grazing Small Grain Crops.
(a) Unsupplemented Calves Grazing Small Grain Crops. -- The small grain
crops (wheat, oats, rye, and triticale) were planted with a grain
drill in rows 7 inches apart in the fall. The planting date
depended on moisture conditions of the soil and availability of the
land after harvest of the warm-season crop. It is desirable to
plant half of the acreage 2 to 3 weeks before the other half and
rotate the calves between the two pastures as required for best
utilization of good quality forage. Performance data of
unsupplemented growing beef calves rotationally grazing pure
stands of small grain crops are listed in Tables 5, 6, 8, and 9.
The gains varied from year to year depending largely upon weather
conditions (cold, moisture, sunlight, etc.). Average daily gains
ranged from 2.01 pounds per head for calves grazing wheat
(1968-69) for a period of 123 days to 0.88 pound per head for
calves grazing rye (1969-70) for a period of 139 days. Total beef
gains per acre ranged from 462 pounds for calves grazing rye
(1968-69) to 201 pounds for calves grazing rye (1969-70). As far
as over-all production was concerned, wheat seemed to be the most
desirable small grain crop for grazing in pure stands and oats
seemed to be the least desirable.
(b) Supplemented Calves Grazing Small Grain Crops. -- Performance data
of supplemented beef calves rotationally grazing pure stands of
small grain crops are listed in Tables 5 and 6. The supplement was
a 12% protein high-energy ration and was fed once daily on pasture
at the level of 1% of bodyweight. Supplemental feeding on pasture
increased daily gain, total gain, length of grazing period, and
carrying capacity (stocking rate) per acre. On the average,
supplemental feeding of beef calves grazing small grain crops
increased the gain by 176 pounds per acre (528 versus 352 pounds
per acre). However, supplemental feeding was not always profitable.







-3-


c. Grazing Mixtures of Small Grain Crops, Ryegrass, and Clover.
(1) Description and General Information on Handling of Calves Prior to
Placing Them on Trial.
The beef calves were similar in description and handled as
mentioned previously.
(2) Comments and Suggestions on Programs for Grazing Mixtures of Small Grain
Crops, Ryegrass, and Clover.
(a) Unsupplemented Calves Grazing Mixtures of Snail Grain Crops,
Ryegrass, and Clover. -- A mixture composed of a small grain crop,
ryegrass, and clover for rotational grazing by growing beef calves
offered a longer grazing period and increased beef production when
compared with grazing a small grain crop in a pure stand. The small
grain crop was planted as mentioned previously. The ryegrass and
clover were seeded over the small grain with a cultipacker-seeder.
It is desirable to plant half of the acreage 2 to 3 weeks before the
other half and rotate the calves between the two pastures for best
utilization of good quality forage. Performance data of
unsupplemented growing beef calves rotationally grazing mixtures of
small grain crops, ryegrass, and clover are listed in Tables 7, 8,
9, and 10. Average daily gains ranged from 2.05 pounds per head for
calves grazing a mixture of rye, ryegrass, and arrowleaf clover
(1970-71) for a period of 148 days to 1.51 pounds per head for
calves grazing a mixture of triticale, ryegrass, and crimson clover
(1971-72) for a period of 148 days. Total beef gain per acre ranged
from 590 pounds for calves grazing a mixture of triticale, ryegrass,
and crimson clover (1973-74) to 357 pounds per acre for calves
grazing a mixture of rye, ryegrass, and crimson clover (1971-72).
Triticale, rye, or wheat, with ryegrass and crimson clover, were
good mixtures to use.
(b) Supplemented Calves Grazing Mixtures of Small Grain Crops, Ryegrass,
and Crimson Clover. -- Performance data of supplemented growing beef
calves receiving energy feeds while grazing a mixture of triticale,
ryegrass, and crimson clover are listed in Table 10. Calves
supplemented with a 12% protein high-energy ration on pasture at the
level of 1% of bodyweight had an average daily gain of 2.10 pounds
per head and produced 696 pounds of gain per acre. Calves
supplemented on pasture with corn silage fed ad libitum had an
average daily gain of 1.73 pounds per head and produced 741 pounds
of gain per acre. The carrying capacity (stocking rate) per acre on
pastures where the calves received the supplemental ration was 2.06
compared with 2.66 for pastures where the calves received corn
silage fed ad libitum. Unsupplemented calves on the same type of
pasture gained 1.89 pounds per head daily and produced 590 pounds
of gain per acre. Unsupplemented calves on pasture produced the most
economical gain.
d. Grazing Summer Annual Grasses.
(1) Description and General Information on Handling of Calves Prior to
Placing Them on Trial.
A few fall-weaned, light-weight (250 pounds) calves of British
breeding (Angus, Hereford, and Angus X Hereford crosses), after being
grown through the winter on silage or cool-season annual pastures,
were still not large enough in the spring to be slaughtered as forage
beef or light beef (600 to 800 pounds liveweight). These calves weighed
approximately 520 pounds prior to grazing summer annual grasses.







-4-


(2) Comments and Suggestions on Programs for Grazing Summer Annual Grasses.
(a) Unsupplemented Calves Grazing Summer Annual Grasses. -- Summer
annual pastures, millet and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids, were planted
with a grain drill in rows 7 inches apart during May following winter
small grain crops for grazing. As with winter pastures, it is
desirable to plant half of the acreage 2 to 3 weeks before the other
half and rotate the calves between the two pastures. Performance data
of unsupplemented growing beef calves rotationally grazing summer
annual grasses are listed in Tables 11 and 12. The gains varied
considerably from year to year depending largely upon rainfall. The
average daily gain of unsupplemented calves grazing summer annual
grasses was 1.18 pounds per head for an average grazing period of 86
days. The average gain per acre was 346 pounds. These forages were
high in moisture, were low in energy, and had a short growing season.
(b) Supplemented Calves Grazing Summer Annual Grasses. -- Feeding a 12%
protein high-energy ration at the level of 1% of bodyweight to
growing beef calves grazing summer annual grasses had a beneficial
effect on their performance (Tables 11 and 12). The average daily
gain for supplemented calves on pasture was 1.90 pounds per head for
an average grazing period of 95 days. The average gain per acre was
621 pounds. Supplemental feeding on pasture increased gain, carrying
capacity (stocking rate) per acre, and usually the net return per
acre.

3. REFERENCES ON THESE PROGRAMS.
References can be obtained which will give more detailed information on
these programs. They can be obtained by writing J. E. Bertrand, Agricultural
Research Center, Jay, Florida 32565, or calling 904-994-5215 and asking for them.
a. List of References.
(1) Bertrand, J. E. 1969. Programs for growing stocker beef calves using
sorghum silage, fescue, wheat, and rye. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. WFES
Mimeo. Rept. 69-1.
(2) Bertrand, J. E. 1969. Performance of beef calves grazing summer annual
grasses. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. WFES Mimeo. Rept. 69-3.
(3) Bertrand, J. E., and L. S. Dunavin. 1969. Small grain crops grazed by
supplemented and unsupplenented growing beef calves. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:203.
(4) Bertrand, J. E. 1970. Feeding programs for developing weaned calves
to feedlot weight in north Florida. 27th Fla. Nutr. Conf.,
Gainesville, November 5, 1970.
(5) Bertrand, J. E., and L. S. Dunavin. 1970. Summer annual grasses for
growing stocker beef calves in northwest Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. WFES Mimeo. Rept. 70-2.
(6) Bertrand, J. E., L. S. Dunavin, and M. C. Lutrick. 1972. Corn and grain
sorghum silages (unrolled and rolled) for growing stocker beef
calves in northwest Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. WFES Mimeo. Rept.
72-1.
(7) Bertrand, J. E., and L. S. Dunavin. 1973. Small grain crops, alone and
in mixtures with ryegrass and clover, for growing beef calves.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. ARC (Jay) Res. Rept. 73-1.
(8) Bertrand, J. E., and L. S. Dunavin. 1973. Triticale, alone and in a
mixture, for grazing by growing beef calves. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 33:48.
(9) Bertrand, J. E., F. S. Baker, Jr., D. W. Beardsley, H. L. Chapman, Jr.,
T. J. Cunha, J. F. Hentges, Jr., and W. K. Mathis. 1974. Growing
calves in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 761.







-5-

(10) Bertrand, J. E., L. S. Dunavin, and M. C. Lutrick. 1974. Growing
lightweight calves during the cool season in northwest Florida.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. ARC (Jay) Res. Rept. 74-1.
(11) Bertrand, J. E., L. S. Dunavin, and M. C. Lutrick. 1974. Silage for
growing beef calves. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. ARC (Jay) Res. Rept.
74-3.
(12) Bertrand, J. E., L. S. Dunavin, and M. C. Lutrick. 1975. Production
of "forage beef". Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. ARC (Jay) Res. Rept. 75-3.







-6-


Table 1. -- Forage sorghum silage, with and without high-moisture corn,
for growing beef calves (1967-68) ARC, Jay.
Item With Corn Grain(a) Without Corn Grain(b)
Length of feeding, days 173 173
Avg initial wt, lb. 329 331
Avg final wt, lb. 636 597
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.77 1.54
Feed/cwt gain
Forage sorghum silage 1779 2362
Concentrate supplement 103 109
High-moisture corn 168
Total 2050 2471
Feed/animal/day, lb.
Forage sorghum silage 31.5 36.4
Concentrate supplement 1.8 1.7
High-moisture corn 3.0
Total 36.3 38.1
(a) Forage sorghum silage (86.8%) + concentrate supplement (protein, minerals,
and vitamins) (5.0%) + high-moisture corn (8.2%) in drylot.
(b) Forage sorghum silage (95.6%) + concentrate supplement (protein, minerals,
and vitamins) (4.4%) in drylot.



Table 2. -- Corn and forage sorghum silages for growing beef
calves ARC, Jay.
Corn Silage Forage Sorghum Silage
Item 1968-69(a) 1971-72(b) 1968-69(a) 1971-72(b)
Length of feeding, days 171 168 171 168
Avg initial wt, lb. 402 409 394 410
Avg final wt, lb. 674 723 616 610
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.59 1.87 1.30 1.19
Feed/cwt gain
Silage 2178 1793 2548 2756
Concentrate supplement 100 95 117 145
Total 2278 1888 2665 2901
Feed/animal/day, lb.
Silage 34.7 33.5 33.1 32.8
Concentrate supplement 1.6 1.8 1.5 1.7
Total 36.3 35.3 34.6 34.5
(a) Silage (corn or forage sorghum) (95.6%) + concentrate supplement (protein,
minerals, and vitamins) (4.4%) in drylot.
(b) Silage (corn or forage sorghum (95%) + concentrate supplement (protein,
minerals, and vitamins) (5%) in drylot.







-7-


Table 3. -- Corn and grain sorghum silages for growing
beef calves ARC, Jay.
Corn Silage(a) Grain Sorghum Silage(a)
Item 1969-70 1970-71 1969-70 1970-71
Length of feeding, days 154 140 154 140
Avg initial wt, lb. 402 388 398 397
Avg final wt, lb. 643 556 602 549
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.56 1.20 1.33 1.09
Feed/cwt gain
Silage 2235 2127 2545 2576
Concentrate supplement 118 112 134 135
Total 2353 2239 2679 2711
Feed/animal/day, lb.
Silage 35.0 24.9 33.8 28.0
Concentrate supplement 1.8 1.3 1.8 1.5
Total 36.8 26.2 35.6 29.5
(a) Silage (corn or grain sorghum) (95%) + concentrate supplement (protein,
minerals, and vitamins) (5%) in drylot.



Table 4. -- Silage rations formulated for maximum gain with growing
beef calves (1972-73) ARC, Jay.
Item Corn Silage Ration(a) Forage Sorghum Silage Ration(b)
Length of feeding, days 146 146
Avg initial wt, lb. 330 329
Avg final wt, lb. 606 633
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.89 2.08
Feed/cwt gain
Silage 1286 856
Ground corn 144 344
Concentrate supplement 71 82
Total 1501 1282
Feed/animal/day, lb.
Silage 24.3 17.9
Ground corn 2.7 7.2
Concentrate supplement 1.4 1.7
Total 28.4 26.8
(a) As-fed basis---85.7% corn silage, 9.6% ground corn, and 4.7% concentrate
supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins) in drylot.
(b) As-fed basis---66.8% forage sorghum silage, 26.8% ground corn, and 6.4%
Concentrate supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins) in drylot.







-8-


Table 5. -- Supplemented and unsupplemented growing beef calves
grazing small grain crops (1968-69) ARC, Jay.


Item
Length of grazing, days
Avg initial wt, lb.
Avg final wt, lb.
Avg daily gain, lb.
Gain/acre, lb.
Stocking rate/acre
Feed/cwt gain


Wheat(Wakeland)
Supp.(a) Unsupp.
143 123
388 384
715 631
2.29 2.01
605 395
1.85 1.60
221 ----


Oats(Florida 500)
Supp.(a) Unsupp.
138 130
395 394
654 628
1.88 1.80
452 374
1.74 1.60
231 ---


Rye(McNair
Supp.(a)
151
388
693
2.02
564
1.85
257


Vita-Graze)
Unsupp.
133
390
640
1.88
462
1.85


Feed/animal/day, lb. 5.1 ---- 4.4 ------ 5.2 ------
(a) Supplemented with a 12% crude protein high-energy ration at the level of 1%
of bodyweight.



Table 6. -- Supplemented and unsupplemented growing beef calves
grazing small grain crops (1969-70) ARC, Jay.
Wheat(Wakeland) Oats(Florida 501) Rye(Wren's Abruzzi)
Item Supp.(a) Unsupp. Supp.(a) Unsupp. Supp.(a) Unsupp.
Length of grazing, days 154 139 160 147 154 139
Avg initial wt, lb. 315 319 313 324 322 297
Avg final wt, lb. 617 511 583 545 624 419
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.96 1.38 1.69 1.50 1.96 0.88
Gain/acre, lb. 550 315 457 364 537 201
Stocking rate/acre 1.82 1.64 1.69 1.65 1.78 1.64
Feed/cwt gain 239 ----- 269 ----- 229 ----
Feed/animal/day, lb. 4.7 ------ 4.6 ------ 4.5 ------
(a) Supplemented with a 12% crude protein high-energy ration at the level of 1%
of bodyweight.



Table 7. -- Mixtures of cool-season annual grasses and legumes for
growing beef calves (1970-71) ARC, Jay.(a)
Wheat, Ryegrass, and- Rye, Ryegrass, and-
Crimson Arrowleaf Crimson Arrowleaf
Item clover clover clover clover
Length of grazing, days 146 148 147 148
Avg initial wt, lb. 335 332 338 338
Avg final wt, lb. 618 603 628 641
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.94 1.83 1.97 2.05
Gain/acre, lb. 521 498 539 534
Stocking rate/acre 1.84 1.84 1.86 1.76
(a) Wheat (Wakeland), rye (Wren's abruzzi), ryegrass (Gulf), crimson clover
(Dixie), and arrowleaf clover (Amclo).


I







-9-


Table 8. -- Small grain crops, alone and in mixtures with ryegrass
and crimson clover, for growing beef calves (1971-72) ARC, Jay.(a)
Triticale Wheat Rye Triticale Rye
Item Alone Alone Alone Mixture Mixture
Length of grazing, days 135 126 125 148 131
Avg initial wt, lb. 309 317 315 323 320
Avg final wt, lb. 493 486 458 546 520
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.36 1.34 1.14 1.51 1.53
Gain/acre, lb. 321 302 254 387 357
Stocking rate/acre 1.75 1.79 1.78 1.73 1.78
(a) Triticale (Fasgro 208), wheat (Wakeland), rye (Wren's abruzzi), ryegrass
(Gulf), and crimson clover (Dixie).



Table 9. -- Small grain crops, alone and in mixtures with ryegrass
and crimson clover, for growing beef calves (1972-73) ARC, Jay.(a)
Triticale Wheat Rye Triticale Rye
Item Alone Alone Alone Mixture Mixture
Length of grazing, days 130 125 99 147 145
Avg initial wt, lb. 377 380 378 382 377
Avg final wt, lb. 618 593 527 661 626
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.85 1.70 1.50 1.90 1.72
Gain/acre, lb. 385 393 260 556 469
Stocking rate/acre 1.60 1.85 1.75 1.99 1.88
(a) Triticale (South Blend), wheat (Wakeland), rye (Wren's abruzzi), ryegrass
(Gulf), and crimson clover (Dixie).



Table 10. -- Energy feeds for growing beef calves grazing
winter annual pastures (1973-74) ARC, Jay.
Pasture Pasture Pasture
Item Alone(a) and Grain(b) and Silage(c)
Length of grazing, days 161 161 161
Avg initial wt, lb. 371 367 372
Avg final wt, lb. 676 705 650
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.89 2.10 1.73
Gain/acre, lb. 590 696 741
Stocking rate/acre 1.94 2.06 2.66
Feed/cwt gain
Corn silage ------ ---- 793
Pasture supplemental ration ------ 250 --
Feed/animal/day, lb.
Corn silage ------ --- 13.7
Pasture supplemental ration ------ 5.3 ------
(a) Mixture of triticale (South Blend), ryegrass (Gulf), and crimson clover
(Dixie).
(b) Same mixture as above supplemented with a 12% crude protein high-energy
ration at the level of 1% of bodyweight.
(c) Same mixture as above supplemented with corn silage fed ad libitum.







- 10 -


Table 11. -- Supplemented and unsupplemented growing beef calves
grazing summer annual grasses (1968) ARC, Jay.
Hillet(Gahi-1) SXSG Hybrid (Grazer A)
Item Supp.(a) Unsupp. Supp.(a) Unsupp.
Length of grazing, days 115 106 111 96
Avg initial wt, lb. 506 511 499 496
Avg final wt, lb. 728 660 748 639
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.93 1.41 2.24 1.49
Gain/acre, lb. 772 490 818 458
Stocking rate/acre 3.48 3.28 3.29 3.20
Feed/cwt gain 321 ----- 277 ----
Feed/animal/day, lb. 6.2 ------ 6.2 -----
(a) Supplemented with a 12% crude protein high-energy ration at the level of 1%
of bodyweight.


Table 12. -- Supplemented and unsupplemented growing beef calves
grazing summer annual grasses (1969) ARC, Jay.
Millet(Gahi-l) SXSG Hybrid (Grazer A)
Item Supp.(a) Unsupp. Supp.(a) Unsupp.
Length of grazing, days 79 75 73 66
Avg initial wt, lb. 526 534 533 537
Avg final wt, lb. 666 591 658 606
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.77 0.76 1.64 1.05
Gain/acre, lb. 480 196 412 238
Stocking rate/acre 3.43 3.43 3.44 3.44
Feed/cwt gain 335 ------ 360 -----
Feed/animal/day, lb. 5.9 ------ 5.9 ------
(a) Supplemented with a 12% crude protein high-energy ration at the level of 1%
of bodyweight.




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