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Group Title: Jay, ARC research report ;, WF 75-3
Title: Production of "forage beef"
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053532/00001
 Material Information
Title: Production of "forage beef"
Series Title: Jay, ARC research report
Physical Description: 9 leaves : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Bertrand, J. E ( Joseph Ezel ), 1924-
Dunavin, Leonard Sypret, 1930-
Lutrick, M. C ( Monroe Cornealous )
Agricultural Research Center, Jay
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Jay Fla
Publication Date: [1975]
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. Bertrand, L.S. Dunavin, and M.C. Lutrick.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "March, 1975."
Funding: ARC, Jay research report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053532
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62311197

Table of Contents
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Table 1. Composition and cost of the concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) and the pasture supplemental ration
        Page 6
    Table 2. Proximate analyses of the corn silage, concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin), and pasture supplemental ration consumed during the trial period
        Page 6
    Table 3. Performance data of growing beef calves receiving six different cool-season feeding regimes in Northwest Florida (1973-74)
        Page 7
    Table 4. Economic data of growing beef calves receiving six different cool-season feeding regimes in Northwest Florida (1973-74)
        Page 8
    Table 5. Performance and economic data of growing beef calves grazing winter annual pastures overseeded on frosted bahiagrass sod (1973-74)
        Page 9
Full Text


10 v
-' /L AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
/ 5 Jay, Florida
SJAY, ARC RESEARCH REPORT WF75-3 IIARCH, 1975

PRODUCTION OF "FORAGE BEEF"1/

J. E. Bertrand, L. S. Dunavin, and M. C. Lutrick2/

"Forage beef", also called "grass-fed beef", is beef f~nm animals to
months of age which have been fed on forage or grass to weights'6f 600 tdP900 IMe
A large volume of beef with little or no grain finishing is goig'lo market/
because of the rapid buildup in cow numbers during recent years 'an igh fe
costs. In fact, beef supplies have increased all over the world at the very time
that consumer demand is faltering. The marketing of "forage beef" ap to be
one of the ways to relieve the present beef situation.

This report presents the results of two experiments conducted at the
Agricultural Research Center, Jay, during the cool season of 1973-74 on the
production of 600 lb. or heavier forage-fed steers from light-weight steers (400
lb. or less).

Experiment 1. Cool-Season Feeding Regimes for Growing Fall-Weaned Beef Calves

The main purpose of this experiment was to evaluate six different cool-
season feeding regimes for growing fall-weaned calves (300-400 lb.) to
heavier weights (600 lb. or more). Also, (1) the value of energy feeds (corn
silage and grain) for growing beef calves grazing winter annual pastures needed
to be determined and (2) a comparison of sulfur-coated urea with ammonium nitrate
as sources of nitrogen for winter annual pastures was considered important.
Ninety-six light-weight (average 371 lb.), good quality calves of British
breeding, each treated with a 36 mg ear implant of RALGRO (Zeranol a protein
anabolic agent), were weighed and allotted as equally as possible to 12 experi-
ment groups of eight animals each. The 12 experimental groups, utilizing two
groups per treatment, were assigned to the six feeding regimes as follows:

1. Treatment I a corn silage (95%) + concentrate supplement (protein,
mineral, vitamin) (5%) ration fed ad libitum in drylot.

2. Treatment I! rotational grazing of a triticale (Fasgro variety "South
Blend"), ryegrass (Gulf), and crimson clover (Dixie) mixture (unsupple-
mented)---three applications of 100 lb./acre each of ammonium nitrate
during the grazing season. Four 1.25 acre plots (total 5 acres) for each
group initially containing eight calves.

3. Treatment III same forage mixture, acreage, and number of unsupplemented
calves as 2 above---one application of sulfur-coated urea equivalent to
300 lb./acre of ammonium nitrate.

4. Treatment IV same forage mixture, acreage, and number of unsupplemented
calves as 2 above---three applications of 200 lb./acre each of ammonium
nitrate during the grazing season.


1/Presented at the Beef Cattle Field Day, Agricultural Research Center, Jay,
March 6, 1975.

2/Associate Animal Scientist, Associate Agronomist, and Associate Soils Chemist,
respectively.







-2-


5. Treatment V same forage mixture, acreage, ammonium nitrate, and number
of calves (supplemented with a 12% crude protein high-energy ration at
at the level of 1% of bodyweight) as 2 above.

6. Treatment VI same forage mixture, acreage, ammonium nitrate, and number
of calves (supplemented with corn silage fed ad libitum) as 2 above.

The triticale was planted in rows 7 inches apart with a grain drill at the
rate of 121 lb./acre. The ryegrass and crimson clover were seeded over the triticale
with a cultipacker-seeder at the rates of 10 and 8 lb./acre, respectively. The
first and second rotational pastures for each treatment were planted on October
30, 1973; while the third and fourth rotational pastures for each treatment were
planted on November 7, 1973. A complete fertilizer (8-24-24) was applied at
planting time on all pastures at the rate of 250 lb./acre. The ammonium nitrate
and sulfur-coated urea were applied as stated previously.

The corn silage was made from Pioneer variety "3369A" hybrid corn, which
yielded 13.5 tons per acre of 33% dry matter forage. On a dry matter basis, 48%
of the corn silage was grain.

The trial was initiated on December 18, 1973, and terminated when the forage
was completely grazed out (May 28, 1974). After an overnight shrink (fast from
feed and water), individual animal weights were taken at the beginning and at the
end of the trial period. Additional test animals were added to and removed from
the pasture groups as needed to keep the forage uniformly grazed. In all cases,
individual animal weights were taken after an overnight shrink. Each experimental
group of calves was rotated between the four pasture plots assigned to it as
required for best utilization of good quality forage.

The supplemental ration fed on pasture to two groups was given once daily at
the level of 1% of body weight. The feed allowances for the groups for the next 28
days were determined on the basis of the previous 28-day weights. The corn silage,
which was fed to two groups on pasture, was fed ad libitum. The calves fed in
drylot on the corn silage and concentrate supplement ration were fed once daily
in an amount of feed that they would clean-up between feedings. Feed data were
recorded daily.

A mineral mixture (consisting of two parts defluorinated rock phosphate and
one part trace-mineralized salt), plain salt, and clean drinking water were
available to the animals at all times.

The composition and cost of the concentrate supplement and the pasture
supplement ration are presented in Table 1. The proximate analyses of the corn
silage, concentrate supplement, and the pasture supplemental ration are listed in
Table 2.

The performance data of growing beef calves receiving six different cool-
season feeding regimes are listed in Table 3. The over-all performance on all
treatments was considered to be better than average. Beef calves on Treatment V
had the largest daily gain (2.10 lb./head), followed in order by the daily gain
(1.89 lb./head) of beef calves on Treatment II, the daily gain (1.82 lb./head) of
beef calves on Treatment III, the daily gain (1.81 lb./head) of beef calves on
Treatment IV, the daily gain (1.73 lb./head) of beef calves on Treatment VI, and
the daily gain (1.73 lb./head) of beef calves on Treatment I. Beef calves
supplemented with a 12% crude protein high-energy ration on pasture at the level
of 1% of body weight (Treatment V) gained significantly (P<0.01) faster than
calves which received all other feeding regimes except the unsupplemented calves on







-3-


pasture which received three applications of 100 lb./acre each of ammonium nitrate
during the grazing season (Treatment II). The daily gain (1.73 lb./head) of beef
calves fed corn silage and a concentrate supplement ration in drylot (Treatment I)
was identical to the daily gain (1.73 lb./head) of beef calves fed corn silage
ad libitum on pasture (Treatment VI).

The beef gains per acre varied from 740 lb. for calves fed corn silage ad
libitum on pasture (Treatment VI) down to 524 lb. for unsupplemented calves on
pasture which received an application of sulfur-coated urea equivalent to 300
lb./acre of ammonium nitrate (Treatment III) (Table 3). The beef gains per acre for
calves receiving the supplemental ration on pasture (Treatment V), unsupplemented
calves on pasture which received three applications of 100 lb./acre each of ammonium?
nitrate during the grazing season (Treatment II), and unsupplemented calves on
pasture which received three applications of 200 lb./acre each of ammonium nitrate
during the grazing season (Treatment IV) were 695, 590, and 534 lb., respectively.
Calves fed corn silage ad libitum on pasture (Treatment VI) had the highest
stocking rate per acre (2.66), while unsupplemented calves grazing the pasture
mixture which received one application of sulfur-coated urea equivalent to 300
lb./acre of ammonium nitrate (Treatment III) had the lowest stocking rate per
acre (1.79) (Table 3).

The economic data of growing beef calves receiving six different cool-season
feeding regimes are listed in Table 4. The lowest cost of gain ($15.39/cwt)
occurred with calves on Treatment II, followed in order by the cost of gain
($17.90/cwt) with calves on Treatment III, the cost of gain ($18.74/cwt) with
calves on Treatment IV, the cost of gain ($20.20/cwt) with calves on Treatment VI,
the cost of gain ($23.33/cwt) with calves on Treatment V, and the cost of gain
($27.50/cwt) with calves on Treatment I. These costs were not excessively high
considering the inflationary prices which had to be paid for feed ingredients,
fertilizer, seed, fuel, equipment, etc. The large losses per head and per acre
were due to the large negative margin ($19.70/cwt) which occurred between the
price ($55.70/cwt) paid for the light-weight calves prior to placing them on
experiment in the fall of 1973 and the value ($36.00/cwt) of the heavier animals
at the end of the trial (late spring of 1974).

Under the conditions of this trial, it appeared that the following statements
were justified:

1. Feeding a 12% crude protein high-energy ration at the level of 1% of body
weight to calves grazing a mixture of triticale, ryegrass, and crimson
clover increased gain, but also increased the cost of gain.

2. Feeding corn silage ad libitum to calves grazing a mixture of triticale,
ryegrass, and crimson clover increased the carrying capacity (stocking
rate) and beef production per acre, but reduced average daily gain per
animal.

3. Feeding corn silage ad libitum as the energy feed to calves grazing winter
annual pastures compared to feeding a 12% crude protein high-energy ration
at the level of 1% of body weight increased the beef production per acre,
decreased the average daily gain per animal, increased the carrying
capacity (stocking rate), and decreased the cost of gain.

4. The application of sulfur-coated urea equivalent to 300 lb./acre of ammonium
nitrate as a source of nitrogen for winter annual pastures did not provide
forage for the production of as much beef per acre as three applications of
100 lb./acre each of annonium nitrate during the grazing season.







-4-


5. Three applications of 200 lb./each of ammonium nitrate to winter annual
pastures did not increase beef production over that produced from three
applications of 100 lb./acre each of ammonium nitrate during the grazing
season.

Experiment 2. Winter Annual Pastures Overseeded on Frosted Bahiagrass Sod

The purposes of this experiment were (1) to determine the feasibility of over-
seeding winter annual pastures on frosted bahiagrass sod and (2) to compare two
methods of overseeding winter annual pastures on frosted bahiagrass sod in terms
of animal performance and economic data. The two methods of overseeding were as
follows:

1. Treatment I light disking the sod and seeding Wren's abruzzi rye in rows
7 inches apart with a grain drill at the rate of 67 lb./acre, followed by
a cultipacker-seeder which seeded 13 lb./acre of Gulf ryegrass and 8 lb./acre
of Dixie crimson clover over the rye (two 2.5 acre pastures rotationally
grazed by a group initially containing eight steer calves of British
breeding).

2. Treatment II seeding with a pasture renovator (56, 13, and 12 lb./acre
of Wren's abruzzi rye, Gulf ryegrass, and Dixie crimson clover, respectively)
without breaking the sod (two 2.5 acre pastures rotationally grazed by a
group initially containing four steer calves of British breeding).

The first rotational pasture for each treatment was planted on November 15 and
the second on November 19, 1973. A complete fertilizer (8-24-24) was applied at
planting time on all pastures at the rate of 250 lb./acre. Three applications of
ammonium nitrate at the rate of 100 lb./acre each were made during the grazing
season. The grazing was initiated on January 16, 1974, and terminated when the
forage for each treatment was grazed out.

After an overnight shrink (fast from feed and water), individual animal weights
were taken at the beginning and end of the trial periods. Additional test animals
were added and removed as needed to keep the forage uniformly grazed. In all cases,
individual animal weights were taken after an overnight shrink. Each experimental
group of calves was rotated between the two pasture plots assigned to it as
required for best utilization of good quality forage.

A mineral mixture (consisting of two parts defluorinated rock phosphate and
one part trace-mineralized salt), plain salt, and clean drinking water were
available to the animals at all times.

The performance and economic data of growing beef calves grazing winter annual
pastures overseeded on frosted bahiagrass sod are listed in Table 5. The over-all
performance of calves grazing the pastures where light disking of the sod was
followed by seeding with a grain drill and cultipacker-seeder (Treatment I) was
better than that of calves grazing pastures seeded with a pasture renovator without
breaking the sod (Treatment II). Calves on Treatment I had an average daily gain
of 1.70 lb. per head and produced 444 lb. of beef per acre over a period of 132
days; while calves on Treatment II had an average daily gain of 1.52 lb. per head
and produced 242 lb. of beef per acre over a period of 120 days. The much larger
gain per acre by calves on Treatment I compared to Treatment II was also due to a
better stand of forage and better carrying capacity (stocking rate) of these
particular pastures (1.98 versus 1.32 calves/acre).







5 -

The cost of gain ($16.15/cwt) was much lower for calves on Treatment I than
the cost of gain ($28.71/cwt) for calves on Treatment II (Table 5). The cost of
gain for calves on Treatment I was not excessively high considering the infla-
tionary prices which had to be paid for fertilizer, seed, fuel, equipment, etc.
The large losses per acre were due to the large negative margin ($19.70/cwt) which
occurred between the price ($55.70/cwt) paid for the light-weight calves in the
fall of 1973 and the value ($36.00/cwt) of the heavier animals at the end of the
trial (late spring of 1974).

Under the conditions of this trial, it appeared that light disking of the sod
followed by seeding with a grain drill (rye) and cultipacker-seeder (ryegrass and
crimson clover) was a much better method for overseeding winter annual pastures on
an established stand of frosted bahiagrass than seeding with a pasture renovator
(rye, ryegrass, and crimson clover) without breaking the sod.







-6-


Table 1


Composition and Cost
Vi4tamini


of the Concentrate Supplement (Protein, Mineral,
and the Pasture Supplemental Ration


Concentrate supplement(a) Pasture supplemental ration(b)
Ingredients % Lb./ton Cost(c) % Lb./ton Cost(c)
Soybean meal (44% protein) 84.793 1696 $161.12 ---- ---
Ground sorghum grain -- --- ------- 96.94 1939 $67.87
Urea 45% N 3.756 75 3.00 0.50 10 0.40
Salt (trace-mineralized) 3,756 75 2.25 0.50 10 0.30
Defluorinated rock phosphate 7,511 150 7.50 2.00 40 2.00
Zinc bacitracin supplement 0.118 2.4(d) 3.84 0.04 0.8(f) 1.28
Vitamin A supplement 0.066 1.3(e) 0.52 0.02 0.4(g) 0.16
100.000 1999.7 $178.23 100.00 2000.2 $72.01
Markup(h) 10.00 10.00
$188.23 $82.01
(a) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) fed in the corn silage ration
in drylot.
(b) Supplemental ration fed on pasture at the level of 1% of body weight.
(c) Based on the following prices: soybean meal (44% protein) = $190.00/ton, ground
sorghum grain = $70.00/ton, urea 45% N = $80.00/ton, salt (trace-mineralized)
= $3.00/cwt., defluorinated rock phosphate = $100.00/ton, Baciferm 40 (zinc
bacitracin supplement containing 40 grams of the antibiotic per pound) = $1.60/lb..
and Perma Dual 30A (vitamin A supplement containing 30,000 I.U./gm.) = $0.40/lb.
(d) Zinc bacitracin added at the level of 96 gm./ton or 48 mg./lb. of concentrate
supplement.
(e) Vitamin A added at the level of 17.7 million I.U./ton or 8,850 I.U./lb. of
concentrate supplement.
(f) Zinc bacitracin added at the level of 32 gm./ton or 16 mg./lb. of pasture
supplemental ration.
(g) Vitamin A added at the level of 5.4 million I.U./ton or 2,700 I.U./lb. of pasture
supplemental ration.
(h) Mixing, milling, overage, storage, etc.---$10.00/ton.

Table 2

Proximate Analyses of the Corn Silage, Concentrate Supplement
(Protein, Mineral, Vitamin), and Pasture Supplemental Ration
Consumed During the Trial Period
Corn Concentrate Pasture
silage(a) supplement(b) supplemental
Item ration(c)
Moisture, % 66.67 10.19 10.88
Crude protein, % 2.84 44.53 11.57
Ash, % 1.25 15.92 4.34
Ether extract, % 1.31 1.60 2.53
Crude fiber, % 8.90 6.17 2.98
Nitrogen-free extract, % 19.03 21.59 67.70
(a) Corn silage (average of five samples collected at intervals during the trial).
(b) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) fed in corn silage rations in
drylot (average of five samples collected at intervals during the trial).
(c) Pasture supplemental ration (average of five samples collected at intervals
during the trial).







-6-


Table 1


Composition and Cost
Vi4tamini


of the Concentrate Supplement (Protein, Mineral,
and the Pasture Supplemental Ration


Concentrate supplement(a) Pasture supplemental ration(b)
Ingredients % Lb./ton Cost(c) % Lb./ton Cost(c)
Soybean meal (44% protein) 84.793 1696 $161.12 ---- ---
Ground sorghum grain -- --- ------- 96.94 1939 $67.87
Urea 45% N 3.756 75 3.00 0.50 10 0.40
Salt (trace-mineralized) 3,756 75 2.25 0.50 10 0.30
Defluorinated rock phosphate 7,511 150 7.50 2.00 40 2.00
Zinc bacitracin supplement 0.118 2.4(d) 3.84 0.04 0.8(f) 1.28
Vitamin A supplement 0.066 1.3(e) 0.52 0.02 0.4(g) 0.16
100.000 1999.7 $178.23 100.00 2000.2 $72.01
Markup(h) 10.00 10.00
$188.23 $82.01
(a) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) fed in the corn silage ration
in drylot.
(b) Supplemental ration fed on pasture at the level of 1% of body weight.
(c) Based on the following prices: soybean meal (44% protein) = $190.00/ton, ground
sorghum grain = $70.00/ton, urea 45% N = $80.00/ton, salt (trace-mineralized)
= $3.00/cwt., defluorinated rock phosphate = $100.00/ton, Baciferm 40 (zinc
bacitracin supplement containing 40 grams of the antibiotic per pound) = $1.60/lb..
and Perma Dual 30A (vitamin A supplement containing 30,000 I.U./gm.) = $0.40/lb.
(d) Zinc bacitracin added at the level of 96 gm./ton or 48 mg./lb. of concentrate
supplement.
(e) Vitamin A added at the level of 17.7 million I.U./ton or 8,850 I.U./lb. of
concentrate supplement.
(f) Zinc bacitracin added at the level of 32 gm./ton or 16 mg./lb. of pasture
supplemental ration.
(g) Vitamin A added at the level of 5.4 million I.U./ton or 2,700 I.U./lb. of pasture
supplemental ration.
(h) Mixing, milling, overage, storage, etc.---$10.00/ton.

Table 2

Proximate Analyses of the Corn Silage, Concentrate Supplement
(Protein, Mineral, Vitamin), and Pasture Supplemental Ration
Consumed During the Trial Period
Corn Concentrate Pasture
silage(a) supplement(b) supplemental
Item ration(c)
Moisture, % 66.67 10.19 10.88
Crude protein, % 2.84 44.53 11.57
Ash, % 1.25 15.92 4.34
Ether extract, % 1.31 1.60 2.53
Crude fiber, % 8.90 6.17 2.98
Nitrogen-free extract, % 19.03 21.59 67.70
(a) Corn silage (average of five samples collected at intervals during the trial).
(b) Concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamin) fed in corn silage rations in
drylot (average of five samples collected at intervals during the trial).
(c) Pasture supplemental ration (average of five samples collected at intervals
during the trial).







-7-


Table 3

Performance Data of Growing Beef Calves Receiving Six Different
Cool-Season Feeding Regimes in Northwest Florida (1973-74)

Item II(a) II(b) III(c) IV(d) V(e) VI(f)
Initial no. of animals 15(g)(h) 16(g) 16(g) 16(g) 16(g) 16(g)
Length of trial, days 161 161 161 161 161 161
Avg initial wt., lb. 376 371 367 371 367 372
Avg final wt., lb. 654 676 660 662 705 650
Avg gain/animal, lb. 278 305 293 291 338 278
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.73b** 1.89a,b J..82b 1.81b 2.10a 1.72
Gain/acre, lb. ----- 590 524 534 695 740
Animal days/acre ------ 312 288 295 331 428
Stocking rate/acre(i) ----- 1.94 1.79 1.83 2.06 2.6(
Gain/acre/day, lb. ------ 3.67 3.26 3.31 4.33 4.6C
Feed/cwt. gain(j)
Corn silage 1837 ------ --- ---- 793
Concentrate supplement 97 ---- --- --- ---- ---
Pasture supplemental ration ---- ---- ---- --- 250 ---
Feed/animal/day(j)
Corn silage 31.7 --- -- ---- --- 13.7
Concentrate supplement 1.7 ---- ---- -- -- --
Pasture supplemental ration ---- ---- ---- ---- 5.3 ---
(a) Treatment I corn silage (95%) + concentrate supplement (protein, mineral,
vitamin) (5%) in drylot.
(b) Treatment II rotational grazing of a triticale, ryegrass, and crimson clover
mixture (unsupplemented)---three applications of 100 1l./acre each of ammonium
nitrate during the grazing season.
(c) Treatment III rotational grazing of a triticale, ryegrass, and crimson
clover mixture (unsupplemented)---one application of sulfur-coated urea equi-
valent to 300 1b./acre of amnonium nitrate.
(d) Treatment IV rotational grazing of a triticale ryegrass, and crimson
clover mixture (unsupplemented)---three applications of 200 lb./acre each of
ammonium nitrate during the grazing season.
(e) Treatment V rotational grazing of a triticale, ryegrass, and crimson clover
mixture (supplemented with a 12% crude protein high-energy ration at the level
of 1% of body weight)---three applications of 100 IL./acre each of ammonium
nitrate during the grazing season.
(f) Treatment VI rotational grazing of a triticale, ryegrass, and crimson clover
mixture (supplemented with corn silage fed ad libitum)---three applications of
100 lb./acre each of ammonium nitrate during the grazing season.
(g) Initially, two groups of eight steer calves each.
(h) One calf was removed from experiment due to sickness; the data for that
animal were eliminated.
(i) Additional test animals were added and removed as needed to keep the forage
uniformly grazed. In all cases individual animal weights were taken after an
overnight shrink (fast from feed and water).
(j) Does not include pasture.
** Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 1%
level of probability.







-8-


Table 4

Economic Data of Growing Beef Calves Receiving Six Different
Cool-Season Feeding Regimes in Northwest Florida (1973-74)
Treatments
Item ICa) TT(h) TTT(r) TV(d) V() VT(f)
Feed cost/cwt. gain
Corn silage(g) $ 18.37 ------- ------------------- $ 7.93
Concentrate supplement(h) $ 9.13----- --------------------------
Pasture supplemental ration (i) --------------------- ------- $ 10.27 -------
Pasture(j) ------- $ 15.39 $ 17.90 $ 18.74 $ 13.06 $ 12.27
Total(k) $ 27.50 $-5.T 39$ 17.90 $ 18.74 $ 23.33 $ 20.20
Avg cost/head of feeder(l) $209.43 $206.65 $204.42 $206.65 $204.42 $207.20
Avg feed cost/head of feeder $ 76.45 $ 46.94 $ 52.45 $ 54.53 $ 78.86 $ 56.16
Total cost/head of feeder(k) $285.88 $253.59 $256.87 $261.18 $283.28 $263.36
Final value/head(m) $235.44 $243.36 $237.60 $238.32 $253.80 $234.00
Net loss/head(k) -$ 50.44-$ 10.23-$.19.27-$ 22.86-$ 29.48-$ 29.36
Net loss/acre(k) .--- ..$- 14.85-$ 34.49-$ 41.83-$ 60.73-$ 78.10
(a) Treatment I corn silage (95%) + concentrate supplement (protein, mineral, vitamir
(5%) in drylot.
(b) Treatment II rotational grazing of a triticale, ryegrass, and crimson clover mix-
ture (unsupplemented)---three applications of 100 lb./acre each of ammonium nitrate
during the grazing season.
(c) Treatment III rotational grazing of a triticale, ryegrass, and crimson clover
mixture (unsupplemented)---one application of sulfur-coated urea equivalent to 300
lb1.acre of amzonium nitrate.
(d) Treatment IV rotational grazing of a triticale, ryegrass, and crimson clover
mixture (unsupplemented)---three applications of 200 lb./acre each of ammonium
nitrate during the grazing season.
(e) Treatment V rotational grazing of a triticale, ryegrass, and crimson clover
mixture (supplemented with a 12% crude protein high-energy ration at the level of
1% of body weight)---three applications of 100 lb./acre each of ammonium nitrate
during the grazing season.
(f) Treatment VI rotational grazing of a triticale, ryegrass, and crimson clover
mixture (supplemented with corn silage fed ad libitum)---three applications of
100 Ib./acre each of ammonium nitrate during the grazing season.
(g) Corn silage cost = $20.00/ton.
(h) Concentrate supplement cost = $188.23/ton.
(i) Pasture supplemental ration cost = $82.01/ton.
(j) Pasture cost = $90.79/acre for the pastures receiving 300 lb./acre of ammonium
nitrate, $93.79/acre for the pastures receiving one application of sulfur-coated
urea equivalent to 300 lb./acre of ammonium nitrateand $100.09/acre for the
pastures receiving 600 lb./acre of annonitm nitrate.
(k) Does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the animals.
(1) Calf cost = $55.70/cwt. (includes cost of animals, hauling, veterinary costs,
etc.).
(m) Based on an animal value of $36.00/cwt. at the end of the trial.







-9-


Table 5

Performance and Economic Data of Growing Beef Calves Grazing
Winter Annual Pastures Overseeded on Frosted Bahiagrass Sod (1973-74)
Treatments
Item I(a) II(b)
Initial no. of animals 8(c) 4(d)
Length of trial, days 132 120
Avg initial wt., lb. 378 366
Gain/acre, lb. 444 242
Animal days/acre 261 159
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.70 1.52
Stocking rate/acre(e) 1.98 1.32
Gain/acre/day, lb. 3.37 2.01
Pasture cost/cwt. gain(f) $ 16.15 $ 28.71
Calf cost/acre(g) $416.88 $269.10
Pasture cost/acre $ 71.71 $ 69.47
Total cost/acre(h) $488.59 $338.57
Final animal value/acre(i) $429.28 $261.04
Net loss/acre(h) -$ 59.31 -$ 77.53
(a) Treatment I light disking the sod and seeding with a grain drill (rye)
and cultipacker-seeder (ryegrass and crimson clover).
(b) Treatment II seeding with a pasture renovator (rye, ryegrass, and crimson
clover) without breaking the sod.
(c) Initially, one group of eight steer calves grazing two 2.5 acre pastures.
(d) Initially, one group of four steer calves grazing two 2.5 acre pastures.
(e) Additional test animals were added and removed as needed to keep the forage
uniformly grazed. In all cases individual animal weights were taken after
an overnight shrink (fast from feed and water).
(f) Pasture cost = $71.71/acre for Treatment I and $69.47/acre for Treatment II.
(g) Calf cost = $55.70/cwt. (Ancludes cost of animals, hauling, veterinary
costs, etc.).
(h) Does not include labor involved in caring for the calves.
() Based on an animal value of $36.00/cwt. at the end of the trial.




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