• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Explanations
 A few suggestions for planting
 Part I
 Part II: Lists of plants for special...
 Glossary
 Index






Group Title: In Florida gardens: suggested planting material both native and cultivated for Florida gardens
Title: In Florida gardens
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053497/00001
 Material Information
Title: In Florida gardens suggested planting material both native and cultivated for Florida gardens
Physical Description: xiii, 194 p. : front., plates. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wilson, Millar
Ferguson, Mary Harrover ( joint author. )
Publisher: The authors
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Publication Date: 1924
 Subjects
Subject: Gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants, Cultivated -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Mrs. Millar Wilson, and Mrs. John A. Ferguson. With an introduction by H. Harold Hume.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053497
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01472644
lccn - 24031977

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Frontispiece
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Dedication
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page ix
        Page x
    Explanations
        Page xi
        Page xii
    A few suggestions for planting
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    Part I
        Page 1
        Conifers
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
        Grasses and bamboos
            Page 16
            Plate
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
        Palms
            Page 22
            Plate
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
        Bulbs
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
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            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Plate
        Broad-leaved Evergreen trees
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
        Broad-leaved evergreen shrubs and small trees
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Plate
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
        Deciduous trees and shrubs
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
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            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Plate
        Vines
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Plate
    Part II: Lists of plants for special purposes
        Page 157
        Native Plants
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
        Hardy plants for northern Florida
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 166
            Page 167
            Trees and shrubs that bloom in spring
                Page 168
                Page 169
            Trees and shrubs that bloom in summer
                Page 170
            Trees and shrubs that bloom in autumn and winter
                Page 171
            Autumn and winter coloring of leaves
                Page 172
                Page 173
            Trees and shrubs with colored fruits
                Page 174
            Plants for hedges
                Page 175
                Page 176
            Plants for shade
                Page 177
                Page 178
            Plants for the seashore
                Page 179
                Page 180
    Glossary
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Index
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
Full Text
















IN FLORIDA GARDENS





















4'


Entrance to a Florida Garden










In Florida Gardens



SUGGESTED PLANTING MATERIAL
BOTH NATIVE AND CULTIVATED
FOR FLORIDA GARDENS




BY
MRS. MILLER WILSON
MRS. JOHN A. FERGUSON


WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY
H. HAROLD HUME


PUBLISHED
BY THE AUTHORS


































COPYRIGHT 1924
MRS. MILLER WILSON
MRS. JOHN A. FERGUSON


























Amount Iltatant frelr
J. Horace McFarland Company
Harrisburg, Pa.











CONTENTS


Introduction . .
Explanations . . ..
A Few Suggestions for Planting .


PART I
Conifers . . .
Grasses and Bamboos . ...
Palm s . . ... .
Bulbs . . . .
Broad-leaved Evergreen Trees .


16
. . 1
.......... 16
... .. 22
. .... . 30
. . 57


Broad-leaved Evergreen Shrubs and Small Trees .
Deciduous Trees and Shrubs . .
Vines . . ........ .


66
100
139


PART II
LISTS OF PLANTS FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES
Native Plants.. ...... . . 157
Hardy Plants for Northern Florida . .... 163
Trees and Shrubs that Bloom in Spring . 168
Trees and Shrubs that Bloom in Summer . 170
Trees and Shrubs that Bloom in Autumn and Winter. 171
Autumn and Winter Coloring of Leaves . ... 172
Trees and Shrubs with Colored Fruits . 174
Plants for Hedges ................ .175
Plants for Shade .. . . . 177
Plants for the Seashore... . .179
Glossary ..... .. ...... .. 181
Index . . ....... .. . .183
(\ii)


PAGE
. ix
XI
. x i
. . . x iii











INTRODUCTION
PARADOXICAL as it may seem, Florida is an easy
place in which to develop a beautiful garden, and it is
also an exceedingly difficult one in which to secure
satisfactory results from a planting. It is easy because the
growing season is long-many times as long as in latitudes
farther north where many plants adapted to Florida are also
grown. Indeed, in a single season as much growth may be
added in Florida as can be secured in those more northerly
regions in three or four. It is easy because the rainfall
throughout most of the year is ample and the periods during
which plants have to be watered or irrigated are compara-
tively short. It is easy because there is a wealth of adapted
plant material with which to work. Nowhere else can a
greater variety of broad-leaved evergreen plants be used, and
if proper selections are made, the everblooming garden is
possible almost anywhere in the state.
On the other hand, the making of a garden in Florida-is
difficult and attempts often end in failure. Many garden-
makers fail in Florida because they plant at the same season
they planted in northern latitudes. Early autumn and spring
are there the favorite, and, in some cases, the only planting
seasons, while in this state the best season is midwinter-the
months of December, January, February in particular-and
the sooner deciduous plants are transplanted after they drop
their leaves in late fall the better. It is a difficult task because
the importance of good drainage is not appreciated. Drainage
may be quite sufficient at one season of the year and totally
inadequate at another. It is difficult because many soils on
which gardens are established have to be enriched, and
fertilizers of various kinds must be applied judiciously and
liberally to maintain plant-food in the soil in optimum
amounts. It is difficult, because water must be applied at
(ix)







IN FLORIDA GARDENS


certain seasons of the year, and few appreciate the necessity
for and the value of copious and timely watering. It is
difficult, because the attempt is so often made to apply,
without modification, a knowledge of plants and of gardening
gained under totally different soil and climatic conditions.
It is difficult, because the knowledge of plant adaptations on
the part of the planter is not exact. People associate with
certain kinds of plants in one part of the country and when
they plant a garden in a new region they yield to the desire
to use them; or they observe plants in other regions and add
them to their plantings without thought for their suitability
to soil and climate. Perhaps, after all, this lack of definite
knowledge of the behavior of plants under given conditions
is the largest failure factor.
Practical, dependable information on plants adapted to
Florida or to parts of the state has been scattered and in-
complete. To the novice in Florida, it has been inaccessible.
Mrs. Millar Wilson and Mrs. John A. Ferguson have brought
together in this volume, "In Florida Gardens," information
on plant materials of great value to garden-makers in
Florida. To the results of painstaking research and investi-
gation they have added their own knowledge of gardening
gained in many. years of practical work under Florida condi-
tions. The result will be that the making of good gardens
with the help of this book will be easier and more certain.
H. HAROLD HUME
Glen Saint Mary, Florida.
July 17, 1924


x











EXPLANATIONS
For the nomenclature and botanical description pf all
native plants, the "Flora of the Southeastern United States,"
by Prof. J. K. Small, has been used, and his system of classi-
fication of the orders has been followed throughout, so that
the reader may readily find the relation between the native
and cultivated species.
For the cultivated and exotic plants, the family, genus,
and species are those established by Prof. L. H. Bailey in
his Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, his "Manual
of Cultivated Plants," and his "Cultivated Evergreens."
No attempt has been made to give further botanical
authorities.
There are many interesting plants under observation
throughout Florida. Some of these, without doubt, will be
brought under general cultivation and greatly enlarge the
number of species in use. The authors have endeavored in
this volume to give only such plants as have been thoroughly
tested for Florida conditions.
Annuals, perennials, ferns, and water-plants are not
included.
The terms "hardy," "semi-hardy," "tender," "deciduous,"
and "evergreen," "time of bloom," and descriptions of like
nature are for northern Florida; variations will be found
between plants grown in the coastal regions and those in the
interior. The word "plant" is used in its broadest sense to
refer to any subject from tree to herb.
Initial letters are used for genus names when repeated
under the subtitle "Species."
Wherever there has been any doubt in regard to common
names, the authors have used the name preferred in "Stand-
ardized Plant Names" by the American Joint Committee on
Horticultural Nomenclature.
(xi)










A FEW SUGGESTIONS FOR PLANTING
Evergreens are more or less dormant during the winter and
may be moved at any time between December and March.
Deciduous plants should be moved while bare of leaves
and before the new growth appears-December to March.
Palms begin their spring growth by forming new roots
from the rootstalk, and if moved when these new roots are
just starting-February to March-the plant will continue
to grow with little or no loss of time. Later in the season new
roots will not be formed, and the roots cut off will not be
renewed until the next season, leaving the palm in a pre-
carious condition for the intervening time.
Potted plants, if grown in the shade or partial shade,
should be "hardened off" by placing them in full sun for some
time before setting out. If this is done they may be trans-
planted at a much wider range of time than plants taken
from open ground.
Broad-leaved plants (not conifers), if moved with bare
roots, should be closely pruned and largely defoliated. The
roots should be carefully pruned and all broken and bruised
parts removed. The amateur should study carefully the
proper use of the pruning shears.
Beds should be prepared well in advance of planting-time
and lists scrutinized, with exposure and soil-preferences of
plants in view. Plants with widely different characteristics
should not be placed in the same bed.
Bulbs that are lifted each season, and plants that require
constant cultivation, should not be placed with plants such
as the heaths, that must not be disturbed.
SEASONS IN FLORIDA
Winter-January and February.
Spring-March, April, May.
Summer-June, July, August, September.
Autumn-October, November. December.
(xiii)
















































A Kiver-Uarden










IN FLORIDA GARDENS

PART I

CONIFERS
There sighed from the pinetops
A music of seas far away.-BAYARD TAYLOR
Conifers need very careful study in any part of the world,
their necessities as to soil and climate being almost individual.
Northern Florida is most fortunate in having so many va-
rieties which thrive with little effort. The greater number
need porous, well-drained sandy loam, and very few thrive in
clay or heavy soil. Full sunlight is necessary for a well-
rounded specimen, as few conifers will develop in shade or
even partial shade. The exceptions are the pines (hi variety);
Sabina virginiana, redcedar, and Cephalotaxus drupaceu,
Japanese yew. The native cedar, S. barbadensis, is very
beautiful and will endure more abuse than any other conifer;
growing in the poorest soil, its roots may be either wet or
dry. It will develop into a beautiful formal tree if given sun
and ample space; it may also be crowded, growing well and
developing on the side exposed to light and air. Its dense,
dark green mass forms an admirable contrast in broad-
leaved evergreen planting.
Conifers are so varied in shape, in size, and coloring that
the infinite ways of using them, in groups, singly, for speci-
mens, for accent in formal gardens, or for foundation plant-
ing, make them of great artistic value.
Many suggestions should be taken from Italian garden
craft-the permanent green-independent of flowers-the
blending of water and marble, with the skillful placing of
conifers make a charm that Florida gardeners might well
imitate.
(1)










IN FLORIDA GARDENS

PART I

CONIFERS
There sighed from the pinetops
A music of seas far away.-BAYARD TAYLOR
Conifers need very careful study in any part of the world,
their necessities as to soil and climate being almost individual.
Northern Florida is most fortunate in having so many va-
rieties which thrive with little effort. The greater number
need porous, well-drained sandy loam, and very few thrive in
clay or heavy soil. Full sunlight is necessary for a well-
rounded specimen, as few conifers will develop in shade or
even partial shade. The exceptions are the pines (hi variety);
Sabina virginiana, redcedar, and Cephalotaxus drupaceu,
Japanese yew. The native cedar, S. barbadensis, is very
beautiful and will endure more abuse than any other conifer;
growing in the poorest soil, its roots may be either wet or
dry. It will develop into a beautiful formal tree if given sun
and ample space; it may also be crowded, growing well and
developing on the side exposed to light and air. Its dense,
dark green mass forms an admirable contrast in broad-
leaved evergreen planting.
Conifers are so varied in shape, in size, and coloring that
the infinite ways of using them, in groups, singly, for speci-
mens, for accent in formal gardens, or for foundation plant-
ing, make them of great artistic value.
Many suggestions should be taken from Italian garden
craft-the permanent green-independent of flowers-the
blending of water and marble, with the skillful placing of
conifers make a charm that Florida gardeners might well
imitate.
(1)








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


CONE PLANTS

COONTIE. ST. JOHNS COONTIE
COMPTIE. COMFORT ROOT

ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Cycadales t Cycadaceae* Zamia
Cycas
SPECIES
ZAMIA integrifolia (Z. floridana).t Hardy. High pinelands of
Florida.
Leaves: Fern- or palm-like, pinnately compound, somewhat
twisted; dark green. Leaflets 14-20 pairs, with scattered hairs
beneath.
Trunk: Low or subterranean.
Flowers: Dioecious.
Cones: Staminate ones, oblong-cylindrical; pistillate, oblong;
5-6 in. long, with stout projection in center.
Fruit: A bright red, berry-like drupe 1 in. long.
Height: 1-2 ft.

Z. umbrosa (Z. pumila).t Hardy. Hammocks of northeastern
Florida.
Leaves: Leaflets shorter and broader than in Z. integrifolia, less
twisted, not so erect or rigid.
Cones: Shorter than in Z. integrifolia, without the projection in
center; seed-bearing scales thinner.

Z. media.t Hardy. Western coast of Florida.
Low hammocks as far south as Dade County.

Z. angustifolia.f Wet prairie hammocks of Cape Sabel region.
(The above species are commonly listed by horticulturists as Z.
integrifolia. They are valuable plants for border or foundation planting
and grow well in either sun or shade.)


2








CONIFERS 3

SAGO PALM. SAGO CYCAS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Cycadales t Cycadaceoe* Cycas
SPECIES Cycas
CYCAS revoluta.* Hardy. Java.
Leaves: Stiff, fern-like, growing in a dense, symmetrical crown;
2-7 ft. long. Pinnae numerous, narrow, with a spine-like tip.
Trunk: Simple or branched, covered with persisting bases of
old leaves.
Flowers: Diaecious; staminate ones cylindric, usually 1Y-1%
ft. long; pistillate, a semi-globose head.
Fruit: Ovate, compressed; red; about 1 in. long.
Height: 6-10 ft.

YEW. PODOCARPUS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Pinales f Taxacese* Podocarpiis
SPECIES Yew
PODOCARPUS macrophylla.* Hardy evergreen tree. Japan.
Leaves: Alternate; narrow, acute; bright green, pinkish when
young; 3-4 in. long.
Branches: Horizontally spreading.
Bark: Gray.
Flowers: Moncecious or dioecious.
Fruit: Fleshy purplish violet.
Height: 50 ft.

JAPANESE PLUM-YEW
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Pinales t Taxaceae* Cephalotaxus
SPECIES Yew
CEPHALOTAXUS drupacea.* Hardy evergreen tree. Japan.
Leaves: Sharp-pointed, narrow, straight, often up-pointed;
1 in. long.
Branches: Spreading, stiff; usually light green when young.
Habit: Low-growing.








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


HARRINGTON PLUM-YEW
C. drupacea, var. harringtonia* (C. pedunculata). Hardy evergreen
tree. Japan.
Leaves: Sharp-pointed; dark green and shining;up to 2 in. long.
Branches: Spreading, somewhat pendulous.
Flowers: Dioecious.
Fruit: Ovoid, rarely globular; reddish or greenish brown.
Height: 25 ft.

FLORIDA YEW
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Finales t Taxaceet Taxus
Yew
SPECIES
TAXUS floridana. t Hardy evergreen tree. Western Florida.
Leaves: Narrowly linear, sharply pointed; dark green; %in.
Fruit: A bright red drupe.
Habit: Spreading.
Height: 25 ft.
Florida nurserymen hope to bring this interesting native into culti-
vation.

MAIDENHAIR TREE. GINKGO
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Ginkgoales t Ginkgoaceae* Ginkgo
SPECIES
GINKGO biloba.* Hardy deciduous tree. China.
Leaves: Large, wedge-shaped, more or less divided; turn yellow
in autumn; 2-4 in. across.
Flowers: Dioecious; staminate ones catkin-like; fertile ones
long-stalked.
Fruit: Drupe-like; outer coat fleshy, inner one bony; pulp ill-
smelling; kernel sweet and edible.
Height: 75-100 ft.
"The ginkgo is a single species remaining from an important group of
gymnosperms. Jurassic remains have been found in every country.
"Staminate trees should be planted in order to escape the annoyance
from the falling disagreeable smelling fruit."*


4








CONIFERS


STINKING CEDAR
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Pinales t Taxacese t Tumion
Yew
SPECIES
TUMION taxifolium. t Hardy evergreen tree. Florida.
Leaves: Linear, firm-tipped; dark or yellowish green, with
shallow white band beneath; ill-smelling when bruised; %-1i
in. lofg.
Bark: Brown, tinged with orange.
Fruit: Obovoid; dark purple; 1-112 in. across.
Height: 40 ft.
A spreading tree with rather pendulous branches, forming an open
pyramidal head.*


COMMON JUNIPER
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Pinales t Pinaceae* Juniperus
Pine
SPECIES
JUNIPERUS communis.* Hardy evergreen conifer. North America,
Europe, and northern Asia.
Leaves: Linear or linear-lanceolate, concave, sharp-pointed;
broad white band above; 2-4in. long.
Branches: Spreading, forming upright tree.
Fruit: Dark blue, glaucous; M-1in. across.
Height: 40 ft.

CREEPING JUNIPER

J. sabina, var. cupressifolia.* Hardy, spreading shrub. Europe
and western Asia.
Leaves: Scale-like, bluish green.
Branches: Spreading, procumbent.
Fruit: Dark, with bloom.
Height: 10 ft.


5








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


PLUM JUNIPER
J. macrocarpa.* Hardy shrub or small tree. Mediterranean region.
Leaves: Crowded, linear-lanceolate, sharp-pointed, spreading,
small; two narrow white bands above.
Fruit: Dark brown; /in. across.
Height: 12 ft.
J. pendula.* ,7 p r
J. pendula. Varieties of J. communis.
J. oblonga.
CHINESE JUNIPER
J. chinensis.* Hardy evergreen tree. China and Japan.
Leaves: Opposite or whorled, linear, pointed and spreading, or
appressed, rhombic-obtuse, scale-like; two white bands above.
Fruit: Globular; brownish violet, bloomy; 1- in. across.
Very variable in habit.*

REDCEDAR. SAVIN
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Pinalest Pinaceae* Sabinat
Taxaceset Juniperus*
Pine
SPECIES
SABINA virginiana.t Hardy evergreen tree. Throughout tem-
perate North America.
Leaves: Opposite, 4-ranked, acute, very small, spreading or
scale-like; dark green.
Fruit: Berry-like; blue or brownish violet, with bloom.
Height: 60-90 ft.
SOUTHERN REDCEDAR
S. barbadensist (Juniperus lucayana*). The common Redcedar or
Pencil Cedar of northern Florida. Hardy evergreen tree.
Southern Georgia to Florida.
Leaves: Closely appressed, ovate, sharp-pointed; rich green.
Fruit: Globose; blue, with bloom; about yin. across.
Height: 50 ft.
Southern redcedar is recommended as being the finest of the native
cedars in form and color.


6








CONIFERS


ITALIAN CYPRESS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Pinales t Pinacee* Cupressus
Pine
SPECIES
CUPRESSUS sempervirens.* Hardy evergreen conifer. Southern
Europe and western Asia.
Leaves: Closely appressed, ovate, obtuse; dark green.
Branches: Erect or horizontal.
Cones: Oblong or nearly globose.
Height: 80 ft.

COLUMNAR ITALIAN CYPRESS
Var. stricta. The classical Cypress of the Greek and Roman writers.
Branches: Form a narrow columnar head.

SPREADING ITALIAN CYPRESS
Var. horizontalis. Branches horizontally spreading, forming a
broad pyramidal head.

PORTUGUESE CYPRESS
C. lusitanica.*
Leaves: Ovate, acutish.
Branches: Spreading. Branchlets more or less pendulous.
Cones: About %in. across, with glaucous bloom.
Height: 50 ft.

KNIGHT CYPRESS
C. benthami, var. knightiana.*
Leaves: Ovate, acute, or obtuse.
Branches: Horizontal. Branchlets slender, regularly arranged,
fern-like, drooping.
Specimens of C. benthami have been found in prehistoric asphalt beds
at Los Angeles, Calif.


7








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


WHITE CEDAR. RETINOSPORA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Finales t Pinacese* Chamsecyparis
Juniperaceaet
Pine
SPECIES
CHAMAECYPARIS thyoides.t Hardy evergreen conifer. Maine
to Florida.
Leaves: Opposite, scale-like; in 4 rows; light green; fragrant.
Branches: Spreading, erect. Branchlets irregularly arranged,
not pendulous, very thin, slender, flattened.
Cones: Bluish purple, with bloom; Yin. long.
Height: 70-80 ft.

SAWARA CYPRESS
C. pisifera.* Japan.
Leaves: Slightly spreading; dark green above, white beneath.
Branches: Somewhat pendulous.
Cones: Brown: Y4-yin. long.
Height: To 100 feet.
This species "runs to many varieties, the most common being"
(*) the following:

THREAD RETINOSPORA
Var. filifera.* A tall, slender tree with thread-like branches, graceful
and pendulous.

PLUME RETINOSPORA
Var. plumosa.* "Of dense conical habit, the almost erect branches
with slender feathery branchlets and light green foliage."*

MOSS RETINOSPORA
Var. squarrosa.* Habit "densely branched with spreading feathery
branchlets and spreading leaves."*


8








CONIFERS


INCENSE-CEDAR
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Pinales t Pinacese* Libocedrus
Pine
SPECIES
LIBOCEDRUS decurrens.* Hardy evergreen conifer. Oregon to
California and Nevada.
Leaves: Oblong-ovate; dark green.
Branches: Short, erect, spreading, forming a narrow feathery
head. Branchlets much flattened; bright green.
Bark: Bright cinnamon-red.
Cones: Bright reddish brown; 3-1 in. long.
Height: To 100 ft.

AMERICAN ARBORVIT&E
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Pinales t Pinacee* Thuja
Pine (Thuya, Thuia;
Biota)
SPECIES
THUJA occidentalis.* Hardy evergreen shrub or tree. North
America.
Leaves: Oval, acute, appressed; bright green.
Branches: Short, horizontal, forming a narrow pyramidal head.
Branchlets flattened, frond-like.
Cones: Oval to oval-oblong; brownish yellow; 2in. long.
Height: To 60 ft. or more.
"There are about fifty garden forms in cultivation."*
ORIENTAL ARBORVITAE
T. orientalis.* Hardy evergreen shrub or tree. Persia to eastern
Asia.
Leaves: Rhombic-ovate, acute; bright green.
Branches: Spreading or ascending, forming a pyramidal or
bushy tree. Branchlets thin, in a vertical plane.
Cones: Globose-ovate; 2-1 in. long.
Height: 25 ft.
"There are many garden varieties."*


9








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


CYPRESS-PINE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Finales t Pinacese* Callitris
Pine
SPECIES
CALLITRIS robusta.* Hardy evergreen conifer. Australia.
Leaves: Small, acute, scale-like, in whorls of 3 or 4.
Branchlets: Short, erect, crowded.
Cones: Solitary or a few together; about 1 in. across.
Height: To 100 ft.
A tree resembling the redcedar; little known in cultivation. In
Florida it makes good specimens, reaching a height of 10-15 ft. in five
years.
DROOPING CYPRESS-PINE
C. cupressiformis* (C. rhomboidea).
Branchlets: Slender, angular, often drooping.
Cones: Often clustered; about 1 in. across.


CYPRESS. BALD CYPRESS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Finales t Pinaceve* Taxodium
Juniperacelet
Pine
SPECIES
TAXODIUM distichum. t Hardy deciduous conifer. Delaware to
Florida.
Leaves: Narrowly linear, acute, thin; light green, turning rusty
yellow in autumn; Y--3in. long.
Trunk: Buttressed, with thin, relatively smooth bark.
Branches: Erect or spreading, forming a narrow pyramidal head.
Cone: Almost globose; 1 in. long.
Height: 150 feet.
POND CYPRESS
T. ascendens. t A smaller tree than T. distichum, with less abundant
knees.


10








CONIFERS


COMMON CRYPTOMERIA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Pinalest Pinacese* Cryptomeria
Pine
SPECIES
CRYPTOMERIA japonica.* Hardy evergreen conifer. Japan. A
single species that runs to many varieties.
Leaves: Spirally arranged, narrow, pointed.
Trunk: Straight and slender.
Bark: Reddish brown.
Branches: Whorled and spreading.
Cones: Reddish brown; %-1 in. long.
Height: To 150 ft.
LOBB CRYPTOMERIA
Var. lobbi.* "Has a more compact habit and dark green leaves."*
SLENDER CRYPTOMERIA
Var. elegans.* "A low form with pendulous branchlets and longer
leaves which turn bronze-red in autumn."*

CHINESE FIR. CHINA FIR
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Pinales t Pinacee* Cunninghamia
Pine
SPECIES
CUNNINGHAMIA lanceolata.* Hardy evergreen tree. China.
Leaves: Linear-lanceolate, sharply pointed, densely spirally ar-
ranged, in 2-rowed direction; bright green, with two broad
white bands beneath.
Flowers: Monoecious, both sexes in small clusters on the ends of
the branches.
Cone: Roundish ovate; 1-2 in. long.
Height: 80 ft.
A rare tree, resembling the araucaria. Thrives in the latitude of
Jacksonville.
C. konishi.* Formosa. A tree very similar to the above. The
leaves are shorter and not as pointed, the cones are slightly
smaller, and the tree may grow taller.


11








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


MONKEY-PUZZLE-TREE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Pinalest Pinacese* Araucaria
Pine
SPECIES
ARAUCARIA araucana* (A. imbricata). Semi-hardy evergreen.
Western slope of the Andes Mountains, Chile.
Leaves: Persisting, even on the trunk, very stiff, leathery, and
sharp-pointed; bright green; 2 in. long on branches, 1 in. on
branchlets.
Branches: In whorls of 5, horizontal, upcurving, sometimes
down-curving, making a striking pyramidal effect. Branchlets
in opposite pairs, curved upward when young.
Cones: Globose-ovoid; 5-8 in.. diameter.
Height: To 100 ft.

BUNYA-BUNYA PINE
A. bidwilli.* Hardy evergreen conifer. Australia.
Leaves: In 2 rows, lance-ovate, very sharp-pointed, thick, firm,
shining.
Branches: Simple, narrow in growth; in whorls of 10 to 15.
Cones: Globose-ovoid; about 9 in. long and 7 in. through.
Height: To 150 ft.
Very fine specimens of this tree are to be found in Orlando, Fla.

NORFOLK-ISLAND-PINE
A. excelsa.* Semi-hardy evergreen conifer. Norfolk Island.
Leaves: Curved, sharp-pointed, rather soft, densely placed; j.-
2in. long.
Branches: Frond-like, in whorls of 4-7. Branchlets horizontal,
drooping.
Cones: Subglobose, broadest at base; 4-6 in. across.
Height: To 200 ft.


12








CONIFERS


DAMMAR-PINE. AUSTRALIAN DAMMAR-PINE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Pinales t Pinaceae* Agathis
SPECIES Pine
AGATHIS robusta.* Hardy evergreen conifer. New Zealand.
Leaves: Ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, obtuse to short-
acuminate; 2-3, rarely 4 in. long.
Branches: Nearly whorled.
Cones: Globose-ovoid; 3-4 in. long.
Height: To 100 ft.

CEDAR-OF-LEBANON
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Pinales t Pinaceae* Cedrus
SPECIES Pine
CEDRUS libani.* Hardy evergreen conifer. Lebanon, Taurus
Mountains, southern Anatolia.
Leaves: Broader than thick; dark or bright green, sometimes
bluish or silvery; 1 in. or longer.
Branches: Wide-spreading, horizontal, forming a broad head;
leading shoot nodding.
Cones: Brown; 3-4 in. long.
Height: To 120 ft.
DEODAR CEDAR
C. deodara.*
Leaves: As thick as broad, rigid; dark bluish green; 1-2 in. long.
Branches: Pyramidal, pendulous.
Cones: Obtuse; reddish brown; 3-5 in. long.
Height: To 150 ft.

HIMALAYAN PINE
GENUS
SPECIES Pinus
PINUS excelsa.* Hardy evergreen conifer. Himalaya Mountains.
Leaves: Slender, drooping, flaccid; greenish or bluish green; 6-8
in. long.


13








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


Branches: Spreading, slightly ascending, forming a broad, open
pyramid. Branchlets greenish.
Cones: Cylindric, on 1-2-in. stalks; 6-8 in. long.
Height: To 150 ft.

FLORIDA PINES
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Pinales Pinace* t Pinus
Pine

GEORGIA, YELLOW, OR LONG-LEAF PINE
SPECIES
PINUS palustris.t Hardy evergreen conifer. Southern states and
Florida.
Leaves: In groups of 3; dark green; 8-18 in. long.
Branches: Ascending, forming an oblong, open head. Branchlets
orange-brown.
Bark: Brown, in large plates.
Cones: Dull brown, with recurved spines; 6-10 in. long.
Height: 100-120 ft.

P. teda.t LOBLOLLY OR OLDFIELD PINE
Leaves: Slender, stiff, acute, in 3's; bright green; 6-9 in. long.
Branches: Horizontally spreading, forming a round-topped com-
pact head. Branchlets yellowish brown, sometimes slightly
bloomy.
Bark: Dark, rough, deeply furrowed, plates coarse.
Cones: Conic-oblong, spine small; light reddish brown; 3-5 in.
long.
Height: 100-120 ft.

P. serotina.t BLACK OR POND PINE
Leaves: Slender, in 3's; dark green; 6-8 in. long.
Branches: Short, irregular, numerous near the base. Branchlets
dark orange-brown.
Bark: Flaky.
Cones: Very broad when open; light yellow-brown; 2-2/% in.
long.
Height: 50 ft.


14








CONIFERS


SLASH PINE
P. caribaea. t
Leaves: Acute, in 2's or 8's; dark lustrous green; 8-12 in. long.
Branches: Horizontally spreading, forming a round-topped
compact head. Branchlets orange-brown.
Cones: Dark brown, shining; 3-6% in. long.
Height: 100-120 ft.

SPRUCE, CEDAR, WHITE OR WALTERS PINE
P. glabra.t
Leaves: Very slender, in 2's.
Branches: Spreading near base.
Bark: Smooth.
Cones: Spines almost obsolete; e in. long.
Height: 100-120 ft.

SHORT-LEAF OR YELLOW PINE
P. echinata. t
Leaves: Slender, acute, in 2's or 3's; dark bluish green; 3-5 in.
long.
Branches: Slender, often pendulous, in regular whorls.
Bark: In large, irregular scales.
Cones: Conic-oblong; dull brown; 1-1% in. long.
Height: 100-120 ft.

SAND PINE
P. clausa. t
Leaves: Slender, flexible, acute; dark green; 2-3 in. long.
Branches: Slender, spreading.
Bark: Relatively smooth.
Cones: Conic-ovate; dark reddish brown; 2-38 in. across.
Height: 70 ft.
The Florida pines have been, perhaps, the greatest source of prosperity
and beauty in the state. Nature gave prodigally and man has taken
prodigally. The great forests are rapidly disappearing and the remain-
ing trees show the effect of their disastrous treatment. Unless the
pines are to be lost, they must be replanted and preserved.


15










GRASSES AND BAMBOOS
The grasses are among the plants most important to
mankind. When we consider that wheat, rice, barley, oats,
maize and sugar-cane are grasses, we shall appreciate their
wide range. In their various forms they are found in every
sort of soil in every part of the world.
The botanists have divided the grasses into four classes:
(1) bamboos, (2) cereal grains, (3) agricultural grasses, (4)
ornamental grasses.
The following varieties belong to the bamboos and orna-
mental perennial grasses. Bamboos make wonderful hedges
and screens, are very beautiful in clumps, as a background
in shrubbery, and planted among large shrubs. They require
considerable space to develop and must be used sparingly
in small gardens.
The bamboos in India and eastern Asia are put to in-
numerable uses, such as house-building and the manufacture
of furniture and wearing apparel. The young shoots of some
varieties are eaten like asparagus, and the berries of other
species are used as rice. It is said the bamboos have often
saved India from famine.
Ornamental grasses lend grace and lightness to shrubbery
and garden beds, and with the numerous forms and sizes,
plantings may be made of grasses alone. The pampas grass,
with its lovely plumes of pink and creamy white, the palm
grass, the umbrella grass, and the variegated sorts may be
grouped most interestingly. There are also many of the
native grasses well worth cultivating. They are not all listed
in catalogues but are to be found in fields and swamps. Only
two of them are, mentioned in this book-both swamp-loving
species but some of the beach grasses might be utilized in
seashore planting and others found for use in the garden.


(16)





























't


ii


Grasses and Bamboos








GRASSES AND BAMBOOS


GIANT BAMBOO. HEMP BAMBOO
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Poales t Graminese* Dendrocalamus
Grass
SPECIES ,
DENDROCALAMUS latiflorus.* Semi-hardy. Formosa, Burma,
and Cochin-China.
Leaves: Deep green; 7-10 in. long by 1-2 in. broad.
Stems: Erect, very straight; 4-5 in. in diameter.
Height: 60-70 ft.


GOLDEN-STEMMED BAMBOO. YELLOW BAMBOO
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Poales t Graminee* Phyllostachys
Grass
SPECIES
PHYLLOSTACHYS aurea.* Hardy. China and Japan.
Leaves: Serrate on one border; light green, sheaths purplish;
2-6 in. long.
Stems: Yellowish, often brightly colored.
Height: 10-15 ft.


FERN BAMBOO
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Poales t Gramines* Bambusa
Grass
SPECIES
BAMBUSA disticha.* Semi-tender.
Leaves: 2-2% in. long, 12in. or less broad.
Stems: Branching; green, tinged with purple.
Height: 2-3 ft.

FEATHERY BAMBOO
B. vulgaris. Very tender. Height, 50-80 ft.


17








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


BAMBOO. NINGALA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Poalest Gramineme* Arundinaria
SPECIES Grass
ARUNDINARIA falcata.* Hardy, erect annual or perennial grass.
Himalayas.
Leaves: Fern-like; light green; 4-6 in. long, %in. wide.
Stems: Slender, not more than in. in diameter.
Height: 10-20 ft.
DWARF BAMBOO
A. nitida.* Hardy. China.
Leaves: Shining green above, sheaths purple; 2-3 in. long,
2in. wide.
Stems: Slender; black-purple.
Height: 6-10 ft.
ARROW BAMBOO
A. japonica* (Bambusa metake). Hardy. Japan.
Leaves: Smooth, shining above; 4-8 in. or more long, 1-2 in. wide.
Stems: Covered by the persistent sheaths.
Height: 5-10 ft.

SOUTHERN CANE. LARGE CANE. CANE REED
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Poales Gramineve* Arundinaria
Poaceaet
SPECIES Grass
ARUNDINARIA macrosperma.*f Hardy. Virginia to Florida.
Leaves: Rather smooth; 4-8 in. long, 1-2 in. broad.
Stems: Numerous, with short divergent branches.
Flowers: Feathery plumes, resembling bamboo plumes, pro-
duced only at long intervals.
Height: 15-25 ft.
SMALL CANE
A. tecta.t Hardy. Maryland to Florida. Height, 2-12 ft. A lower
growing species with slender stems and small, rough leaves.
The last two native canes are suggested for cultivation.


18








GRASSES AND BAMBOOS


PLUME GRASS. RAVENNA GRASS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Poales Graminese* Erianthus
Grass
SPECIES
ERIANTHUS ravennae.* Hardy perennial grass. Southern Europe.
Leaves: Long and pointed; about Y2in. wide.
Flowers: Plume-like, soft, silky, shining; 1-2 ft. long. Resembles
pampas grass.
Height: 12 ft.

MISCANTHUS. EULALIA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Poalest Gramineem* Miscanthus
Grass
SPECIES
MISCANTHUS sinensis.* Hardy perennial grass. China and
Japan.
Leaves: Linear; green; 2-3 ft.
Flowers: White; produced in spring in tall, feathery, fan-shaped
panicles 6-12 in. long.
Fruit: A seed.
Height: 4-9 ft.
Var. variegatus.* Leaves striped with white and green.

ZEBRA GRASS
Var. zebrinus.* "Leaves banded at intervals with white."*

LEMON GRASS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Poales t Graminee* Cymbopogon
Grass
SPECIES
CYMBOPOGON citratus.* Perennial grass. One of the oil grasses
of India.
Height: 5-6 ft.


19









IN FLORIDA GARDENS


ORDER
Poales t


PALM GRASS
FAMILY
Graminee*
/~i ....


GENUS
Setaria


SPECIES rass
SETARIA palmifolia* (Panicum palmifolium). Semi-hardy, palm-
like grass. East Indies.
Leaves: Arching; bright green; 1-2 ft. long; resemble the seed-
leaves of palms.
Height: 6 ft.
There is a variegated variety.


ORDER
Poalest


PAMPAS GRASS
FAMILY
Gramineme*
dG


GENUS
Cortaderia


SPECIES as
CORTADERIA argentea.* Hardy, perennial, ornamental grass.
Chile.
Leaves: Long, narrow, reed-like; numerous.
Flowers: Dioecious; white or pink; pistillate panicles 1-3 ft.
long, silky, plumy, and fluffy. Borne in summer.
Fruit: Dry seeds.
Height: 3-15 ft.

GIANT REED


ORDER
Poales t


FAMILY
Gramineve*
rP-..


GENUS
Arundo


SPECIES
ARUNDO donax.* Hardy perennial reed. Southern Europe.
Leaves: Flat; 1-3 in. broad, 1-2 ft. long.
Flowers: Showy, in erect panicles 1-2 ft. long.
Height: 6-20 ft.

GARDENERS GARTER. STRIPED GIANT REED
Var. variegata.* Similar to above, with variegated leaves.
These reeds resemble bamboo and can be used in the same way.


20








GRASSES AND BAMBOOS 21

UMBRELLA PLANT. UMBRELLA SEDGE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Poales .Cyperaceae* Cyperus
Sedge
SPECIES
CYPERUS alternifolius.* Semi-hardy. Africa.
Leaves: Palm-like, linear, spreading, drooping, in a tufted head;
4-8 in. long.
Stem: Simple, straight.
Height: 1-4 ft.

PAPYRUS. EGYPTIAN PAPER REED. MOSES BULRUSH
C. papyrus.* Tender. Southern Europe, Syria, and Africa. The
paper plant of the Egyptians.
Leaves: Reduced to short-pointed sheaths; umbel terminal,
comprising 50 to 100 filiform rays; 10-20 in. long.
Height: 5-8 ft.











PALMS
Florida has a wide and beautiful flora, but to her palms
she owes her greatest charm. Tall, graceful, and picturesque,
the Sabal Palmetto, growing in profusion all along the
coast, is one of the most attractive trees of the country.
The scrub and saw palmettos, with their thick heads and
tangled masses of stems and leaves, are the chief objects
which give to the hammocks and swamps their peculiar
atmosphere. Add to these the cacti, century plants, Spanish
bayonets, and Spanish moss, and the secret of the tropical
aspect of the state is largely disclosed.
Unfortunately, certain varieties of these are so common
that they have been disregarded. Interests other than that
of the gardener have caused them to be destroyed, and they
have not found the place they deserve in cultivation.
Plantings that combine these natives with the imported
species of the same families are most desirable in enhancing
the tropical atmosphere of the country.
In its native habitat, the Sabal Palmetto is found in
dense groves irregular in outline and height. It is this very
irregularity, coupled with the straight stems and plume-
like leaves, that gives the picturesque effect of the tree. In
the past the Sabal Palmetto has been largely used for street
planting, but for this purpose, where shade is so important,
the broad-leaved evergreens should be preferred, leaving
the palms, both native and foreign, for group and mass
planting in parks or private grounds. Variety in color and
inflorescence may be secured, as well as in height, outline,
and texture. Where there is space in a garden or park, a
portion devoted to palms alone will lend interest, allowing the
beauty and eccentricities of the individual to be studied in
contrast with other species and without the distraction of
widely dissimilar plants.
(92)























































Sabal Palmettos on Fort George Island, Florida








PALMS


RHAPIS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Arecalest Palmacese* Rhapis
Palm
SPECIES
RHAPIS flabelliformis.* Hardy. China and Japan.
Leaves: Fan-shaped; 5-parted; segments linear.
Stems: Reedy, clothed with the remains of the leaf-sheaths.
Flowers: Dioecious; yellow; in spathes.
Height: 1-4 ft.
R. humilis.* Almost stemless, but producing a few short reed-like
stems. Leaves semicircular, with 7 to 10 segments.


WASHINGTON PALM
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Arecales Palmacee* Washingtonia
Palm
SPECIES
WASHINGTONIA filifera.* Hardy. California, Arizona, and
Mexico.
Leaves: Fan-shaped, cut nearly in the middle; petiole 2-5 ft.,
prolonged into the blade in an acute point; armed to middle or
farther; bears many long filaments; grey-green; 3-5 ft. across.
Trunk: Stout, smooth, and ringed below, but bearing an immense
mane of old leaves above.
Flowers: Bisexual; white; in long paniculate spadices among the
foliage.
Height: 20-40 ft.
Var. robusta.*
Leaves: Blades cleft two-thirds to the base; petiole armed
throughout; concave on upper surface; bright green.
Trunk: Stouter than W. filifera.
Height: 40-60 ft.


23








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


CHINESE FAN PALM
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Arecales t Palmaceve* Livistona
Palm
SPECIES
LIVISTONA chinensis* (Latania borbonica). Semi-hardy. China.
Leaves: Many; kidney-shaped; petiole equaling the blade and
covered with brown spines 1 in. long; segments deeply forked;
threads or filaments on the segments. 4-6 ft. in diameter.
Trunk: Thick, gray, with rings; clothed with dead leaf-sheaths.
Flowers: Greenish; spadices long, loosely branched; branches
slender.
Height: 4-6 ft.
L. australis.*
Leaves: Orbicular, divided to or below the middle into 40 to 50
narrow segments; 3-4 ft. in diameter; borne in a dense crown.
Trunk: Slender, with circular scars; clothed above with dead
leaf-sheaths.
Height: 40-80 ft.

THATCH PALM
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Arecales t Palmacece* Thrinax
Arecaceet
Palm
SPECIES
THRINAX floridana.t Tender. On sandy shores and coral ridges
of Florida.
Leaves: Ample; rather longer than broad; yellowish green,
lustrous above, silvery white beneath.
Trunk: Slender, tapering; partially clothed with old leaf-sheaths.
Branches: White becoming yellow-green.
Flowers: Perfect, pungent-aromatic.
Height: Up to 25 ft.
T. microcarpa. t
T. keyensis. t


24








PALMS


HAIR PALM. EUROPEAN FAN PALM
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Arecales t Palmaceve* Chamerops
Palm
SPECIES
CHAMIEROPS humilis.* Hardy. Mediterranean region.
Leaves: Fan-shaped, deeply cut, with narrow, spreading seg-
ments; leaf-stalks slender and usually spiny.
Fruit: Globose; yellow.
Height: To 6 ft.
This is the only palm native to Europe.
"There are variations under several horticultural names."*

WINDMILL PALM
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Arecales t Palmacese* Trachycarpus
Palm
SPECIES
TRACHYCARPUS excelsa.* Hardy. Japan.
Leaves: Many, at top of trunk; nearly orbicular; dull, divided to
about the middle; segments stiff; 2-4 ft. across.
Stem: Stout; clothed with old leaves.
Height: 10-25 ft.
Var. fortunei* Hardy. China. Mostly more robust, leaves shining,
leaf-stalk shorter, segments broader and more drooping than T.
excelsa.
SILVER PALM
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Arecales t Palmacete* Coccothrinax
Arecacemet
Palm
SPECIES
COCCOTHRINAX garberi. t Tender. Low shrub, with pale leaves
and purple berries.
C. jucunda. t A tree 15-20 ft. high, with pale green leaves and brown
edible seeds.


25








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


DWARF PALMETTO. BLUE STEM
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Arecales t Palmaceae* Sabal
Arecaceaef
SPECIES Palm
SABAL glabra. Hardy. Southern states and Florida.
Leaves: Fan-shaped, shallowly cleft; leaf-stalks sharp edged;
pale green; 2-3 ft. long.
Stem: Subterranean; several feet long.
Flowers: White, on long stems; numerous.
Fruit: A small black berry.
Height: 3-6 ft.
SCRUB PALMETTO
S. megacarpa. t Hardy. Florida. Similar to the above, with leaves
deeply cleft and filaments on the leaves.

CABBAGE PALMETTO
S. palmetto.t Hardy. North Carolina to Florida.
Leaves: Widely spreading or drooping; 5-8 ft. long; segments
deeply cleft, with long filaments.
Stem: Erect.
Flowers: Creamy white; numerous; on long, drooping stalks.
Fruit: A black berry.
Height: 20-80 ft.
GIANT PALMETTO
S. blackburniana.* Flower-stalks much branched; fruit 1 in. long;
stem thickened in the middle.

SAW PALMETTO
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Arecales t Palmacee* Serenoa
Arecaceset
SPECIES Palm
SERENOA arborescens. Hardy. Florida.
Leaves: Half-orbicular, spreading; yellowish green above, blue-
green beneath; leaf-stalk shorter than the blade and armed
with flat orange teeth.


26








PALMS


Stem: One or several, erect or reclining.
Flowers: Yellowish green; few in a cluster on a long drooping
spadix.
Fruit: Globose, black, lustrous.
Height: 30-40 ft.
S. serrulata.t
Leaves: Erect or ascending; light green; leaf-stem spiny.
Stem: Horizontal or creeping.
Flowers: Numerous; white; fragrant; spadix erect or spreading.
Shorter than the leaves.
Fruit: Black.
Height: 4-8 ft.

BLUE PALMETTO. NEEDLE PALM
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Arecalest Palmacele* Rhapidophyllum
Arecaceaef
SPECIES Palm
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM hystrix.t Hardy shrub. South Carolina to
Florida.
Leaves: Suborbicular; blue-green; 3-4 ft. across; segments
numerous, 2-4 toothed; petiole triangular, rough.
Stem: Dwarf, erect or creeping, clothed with remains of leaf-
sheaths and with erect black spines often 1 ft. long.
Flowers: Minute, yellow; staminate and pistillate on different
plants; spadix 6-12 in. long.
Fruit: A small woolly drupe; 12 to 1 in. across.
Height: 3-4 ft.

COCOANUT PALMS. DWARF COCOS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Arecales t Palmaceem* Cocos
Palm

SPECIES PINDO PALM
COCOS australis.* Hardy. Paraguay.
Leaves: Linear, curved, compact; segments linear, rather rigid;
gray-green; 9-12 ft. 16ng.


27








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


Trunk: Erect, columnar, ringed.
Flowers: Yellowish, on erect, finally drooping spadices.
Fruit: Sweet, edible, as large as a pigeon's egg.
Height: 30 ft.
Dwarf hardy varieties Tall hardy varieties
C. alphonsei.* C. datil.*
C. bonneti.* Bonnet Palm. C. flexuosa.*
C. campestris.* Field Palm. Tender varieties
C. eriospatha.* Apricot Palm. C. botryophora.
C. gaertneri.* C. coronata.*
C. odorata. C. plumosa.*
C. pulposa. C. romanzoffiana.*
C. yatay.*
These are very beautiful palms, well adapted to northern Florida.
After our native species they are among the hardiest that are suited to
the section.

CANARY DATE PALM
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Arecales t Palmacee* Phoenix
Palm
SPECIES
PH(ENIX canariensis.* Hardy. Canary Islands.
Leaves: Pinnate, long, curving; bluish green; leaf-stalks and
spines greenish yellow.
Stem: Erect and large.
Fruit: 1-2 in. long.
Height: 50-100 ft.
P. tenuis.* Hardy. Canary Islands. Leaves gray-green; more
slender than P. canariensis.
SENEGAL DATE PALM
P. reclinata.* Tender. South Africa.
Leaves: Recurved, soft, 2-ranked; bright-green; leaflets scarcely
spiny.
Trunk: Very slender; 4-5 in. in diameter. Although it suckers it
is really a 1-stemmed species.
Height: 25-30 ft.


28








PALMS


P. spinosa.* Tender.
Leaves: Vigorous, recurving, intensely spiny; deep green; leaf-
lets terminating in a sharp spine.
Trunk: Massive, rough; 9-10 in. in diameter; suckers freely.
5 to 6 or more stems forming a large group.

CLIFF DATE
P. rupicola.* Very tender. India.
Leaves: Smooth, curving to all sides horizontally on one plane;
bright green, glossy; 10 ft. long; leaflets 2-ranked, soft, 1-2 ft.
long.
Trunk: Solitary, slender, naked.
Fruit: Oblong; shining yellow.
Height: 15-20 ft.
ROEBELIN PALM
P. roebelini.* Tender. Assam to Cochin-China.
Leaves: Dark green, shining; soft, not spiny; 1 ft. or more long;
leaflets 5-7 in. long.
Height: 2-8 ft.

DATE PALM
P. dactylifera.* Semi-hardy. Africa to Arabia.
Leaves: Arching; bluish green; leaflets linear-lanceolate; 8-16
in. long; lower 4-ranked, upper 9-ranked.
Fruit: Orange-yellow; often produced in large bunches; juicy
but rather bitter.
Height: 100 ft. or more.

INDIA DATE PALM
P. sylvestris.* Hardy. India.
Leaves: Grayish green; 10-15 ft. long; crown very large; leaflets
1-2 ft. long; 2-4-ranked; stalk spiny.
Trunk: Solitary; stout; clothed with the persistent bases of the
leaf-stalks.
Fruit: Orange-yellow.
Height: 25-40 ft.


29











BULBS
The soil of Florida seems to be particularly suited to
many of our most beautiful bulbs.
These bulbs ire easy to grow and are free from insect
pests and disease, and some of them may be left in the
ground for several years without replanting.
When they are lifted each year a succession of bloom may
be secured by planting at different times during the season.
The following statement, made by Dr. L. H. Bailey, is
the explanation to the oft-repeated question as to why some
bulbs will not thrive in the South:
"South of the freezing belt, hardy spring-flowering bulbs
are not very successful, there being no sufficiently cool
weather to deter top-growth and force root-action-without
which the flowers and foliage will not develop beyond such
sustenance as the bulb can supply, and this sustenance is
usually exhausted by the time the flower-spikes are half
grown."
It is most important to understand the cutting of leaves
and blossoms-if the leaves are removed soon after flowering,
the bulbs will not develop. When cutting the blossoms leave
as much of the stems as possible to nourish the bulb.


ELEPHANTS EAR
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Arales t Araceae* Colocasia
Arum
SPECIES
COLOCASIA esculentum.* Tender tuberous plant. Hawaii and the
Fiji Islands. Showy plants with enormous, halberd-shaped
bright green leaves.
The edible dasheen belongs here.
(30)








BULBS


XANTHOSOMA


GENUS


SPECIES Xanthosoma
XANTHOSOMA bataviensis.* Tender. West Indies. Leaves
arrow-shaped; dark green, with purple on the undersurfaces.


CALLA


GENUS


SPECIES Zantedeschi:
ZANTEDESCHIA aethiopica.* Tender perennial herb. Africa.
Leaves: Large; halberd-shaped; shining green.
Flowers: Showy, solitary; white; fragrant.
Time of bloom: Spring or summer.
Fruit: An inconspicuous berry.
Height: 312 ft.


a


GOLDEN CALLA
Z. elliottiana.*
Leaves: More or less mottled; 1-2 ft.
Flowers: Golden yellow.
Nurserymen list many named varieties of calla which may be planted
in the open ground in protected places.

SPIDERWORT


FAMILY
Commelinaceaef
S :A


GENUS
Tradescantia


SPECIES pl erwor
TRADESCANTIA hirsuticaulis. t Georgia, Alabama, and Florida.
Leaves: Narrowly linear, hairy; bright green; 8-12 in. long.
Flowers: In cymes; pink-purple or bright blue; 1-2 in. across.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: An inconspicuous capsule.
Height: 12-15 in.
T. longifolia.
T. foliosa.
T. virginiana. The garden variety.
A native plant easily cultivated. Much used in the North and should
be in Florida.


ORDER
Xyridales t


31








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


SCILLA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Liliales t Liliaceme* Scilla
,Lily
SPECIES
SCILLA sibirica.* Hardy bulb. Russia and southwestern Asia.
Leaves: Narrow, blunt, appearing with the flowers; 1-6 in. long.
Flowers: Small, in an open raceme; deep blue; about in. across.
Time of bloom: Early spring.
Fruit: A capsule.
Height: Scape 1-6 or 3-6 in. tall; slightly longer than the leaves.
There are several species of scilla with red, white, pink, purple, or
flesh-colored flowers, and varying in height from 1-20 in.

SOUTHERN LILIUMS
SOUTHERN RED LILY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Liliales t Liliacese* Lilium
Lily
SPECIES
LILIUM catesbei. Hardy bulb. North Carolina, Florida, and
Alabama.
Leaves: Linear, (er.,:t; I-1i in. long.
Flowers: Solitary; erect; scarlet, spotted with purple and yellow.
Time of bloom: Summer.
Fruit: A dry capsule.
Height: 1-2 ft.
CAROLINA LILY
L. carolinianum.t Virginia to Florida.
Leaves: In whorls or scattered; 1%--6 in. long.
Flowers: Nodding; orange-red, spotted with crimson; very
showy; fragrant.
Time of bloom: Summer.
Height: 2-3 ft.
WILD YELLOW LILY
L. canadense. Nova Scotia to Georgia.


32








BULBS


ORANGE-CUP LILY
L. philadelphicum. t Maine to North Carolina.

TURKS-CAP LILY
L. superbum. t Maine to Georgia.
Liliums thrive in Florida and should be used in every garden.

A PARTIAL LIST .OF CULTIVATED LILIUMS
GOLDBAND LILY
GENUS
SPECIES Lilium
L. auratum.* Japan.
Leaves: 3-6 in. across.
Stem: 3-6 ft. tall; tinged with purple.
Flowers: Several, in a terminal raceme; bell-shaped; white,
spotted with crimson and banded with yellow; fragrant; 6-12
in. across.
BATEMANN LILY
L. elegans, var. batemanniae.* Japan.
Leaves: Narrow; very numerous.
Flowers: Orange-red or apricot, sometimes tinged with pink;
unspotted.
MADONNA LILY
L. candidum.* Southern Europe and southwestern Asia.
Leaves: 6-9 in. long, growing smaller toward the inflorescence.
Flowers: Several, in a raceme; bell-shaped; waxy white with
yellow anthers; 2-3 in. long; very fragrant.

CANDLESTICK LILY
L. dauricum.* Siberia.
Leaves: 3-5 in. long.
Flowers: Several; orange-red, prominently spotted with purplish
black.
HENRY LILY
L. henryi.* China.
Leaves: 3-5 in. long.
Flowers: Bright orange-yellow, slightly spotted brown, with
a green band at base of each segment; not fragrant.


33









IN FLORIDA GARDENS


WHITE TRUMPET LILY. EASTER LILY. BERMUDA LILY
L. longiflorum.* Japan.
Leaves: Many; scattered.
Stem: 1-3 ft.; green tinged with red.
Flowers: Few to several; clear waxy white tinged with green;
4-5 in. across.
ROYAL LILY
L. regale.* Western China.
Leaves: Many; linear, long.
Stem: Slender; purplish; 4-6 ft.
Flowers: Several; white and yellowish inside, lilac and purple
outside; 4-6 in. long; fragrant.

SPECIOSUM LILY (Sometimes listed as L. lancifolium)
L. speciosum.* Japan.
Flowers: Several; white suffused with pink in the center, spotted
blood-red, with a green stripe at the base; 3-6 in. in diameter;
fragrant. Robust; easily grown.

TIGER LILY
L. tigrinum.* China and Japan. The common Tiger Lily.
Many more species and horticultural varieties of this genus are listed,
and most of them are very interesting for Florida gardens. The liliums
are well adapted to southern conditions and seem to have few enemies
or diseases.

DARWIN TULIP
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Lilialest Liliacese* Tulipa
Lily
SPECIES
TULIPA gesneriana, var. darwinia.* Hardy bulb. Russia and Asia.
Leaves: Ovate-lanceolate; dull green; 3-4 at base of stem.
Flowers: Solitary; cup-shaped; red, crimson, purple; showy; not
fragrant.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A capsule.
Height: 6-12 in. Sometimes stemless under adverse conditions.


34









BULBS


CANDY-STICK TULIP
T. clusiana. Hardy bulb. Portugal to Persia.
Leaves: Linear; 4-5 at base of stalk.
Flowers: Bell-shaped; white with red stripe outside, purplish
center; very fragrant; 2 in. across.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A capsule.
Height: 12-18 in.
These bulbs will probably need to be treated as annuals.


WILD HYACINTH
FAMILY
Liliaceve*


GENUS
Quamasia
(Camassia)*


SPECIES
QUAMASIA hyacinthina.t Hardy bulbous plant. Northern States
to Georgia.
Leaves: Basal, narrow; 8-20 in. long.
Flowers: Small, in a terminal raceme 4 to 10 inches tall; blue.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A dry capsule, with black seeds.
Height: Scape 1-%I ft.
CAMASSIA esculenta.* Western states.
Leaves: Narrow, lower than the scape.
Flowers: Dark blue to purple and almost white; 2 inches across;
10 to 40 in a loose raceme.
Height: 1-3 ft.
There are several horticultural varieties of Camassia which vary in
color. This bulb was formerly used by the Indians for food.

AFRICAN LILY. LILY-OF-THE-NILE


FAMILY
Liliaceae*
Lily


GENUS
Agapanthus


SPECIES
AGAPANTHUS africanus.* Hardy evergreen lily. Cape of Good
Hope.


ORDER
Lilialest


ORDER
Liliales t


35








36 IN FLORIDA GARDENS

Leaves: Thick, narrow; 2 ft. long.
Flowers: In an umbel, bearing 10-30 blooms; blue to white.
Time of bloom: Summer.
Fruit: A many-seeded pod.
Height: Scape 2-3 ft.

CLIMBING LILY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Liliales t Liliacese* Gloriosa
Lily
SPECIES
GLORIOSA superba.* Lily-like plant. Africa and Asia.
Leaves: Ovate-lanceolate; 2-3 in. long.
Flowers: Numerous; showy; yellow changing to scarlet.
Time of bloom: Summer and fall.
Fruit: A capsule
Height: 6-10 ft.


AFRICAN BOWSTRING-HEMP
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Lilialest Liliaceae* Sansevieria
Lily
SPECIES
SANSEVIERIA thyrsiflora* (S. guineensis).t Tender fiber plant.
Africa.
Leaves: Few in a cluster; flat, lanceolate, acute; mottledwith
pale green; 1-2 ft. long, 3 in. broad.
Flowers: Greenish white; %in. across; 2-6 together in a raceme;
fragrant.
Fruit: A berry.
Height: 1-2 ft.

CEYLON BOWSTRING-HEMP
S. zeylanica, var. laurenti* has leaves striped with yellow.









BULBS


DAYLILY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Lilialest Liliacee* Hemerocallis
Lily
SPECIES YELLOW DAYLILY
HEMEROCALLIS minor.* Hardy bulb. Eastern Siberia and
Japan.
Leaves: Very narrow; 12-20 in. long.
Flowers: Yellow; 4 in. long; 3-6 on each scape; fragrant.
Time of bloom: Early spring.
Height: 2-6 ft.
H. dumortieri.* Siberia and Japan.
Leaves: 34inch broad; 1-112 ft. long.
Flowers: Yellow; 2Y in. long; 2-3 on each scape; fragrant.
H. middendorffi.* Eastern Siberia.
Leaves: 4-1 in. broad; 1-112 ft. long.
Flowers: Yellow; 3-4 in. long; 2-4 on each scape; fragrant.
COMMON YELLOW DAYLILY
H. flava.* Early flowering. Eastern Siberia and Japarn.
Leaves: 2-y in. broad; 1-2 ft. long.
Flowers: Yellow; 3-4 in. long; 5-9 on each scape; fragrant.
H. thunbergi.* Late-blooming. Japan.
Leaves: Narrow; 2 ft. long.
Flowers: Lemon-yellow, 3 in. long; 8-10 on each scape.

ORANGE DAYLILY
H. aurantiaca.* Japan.
Leaves: 1 in. or more broad, 2-3 ft. long.
Flowers: Bright orange; 3-4 in. long; 6-8 on each scape;
fragrant.
COMMON ORANGE DAYLILY
H. fulva.* Summer-blooming. France to Japan.
Leaves: 1 in. broad; 9 ft. or more long.
Flowers: Orange-red; 3-5 in. long; 6-12 on each scape; not
fragrant.
A very interesting genus for Florida growers, with many horticultural
varieties which have been hybridized from the older species.


37









IN FLORIDA GARDENS


ASPIDISTRA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Liliales t Liliacese* Aspidistra
Lily
SPECIES
ASPIDISTRA elatior* (lurida). Hardy evergreen plant. Asia.
Leaves: Oblong-lanceolate; stiff, shiny; 1-2 ft. long.
Flowers: Inconspicuous.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A globose berry.
Height: 1-Y2 ft.
Var. variegata.* Same as A. elatior, but with variegated leaves.

SNAKEBEARD
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Liliales t Liliaceve* Ophiopogon
Lily
SPECIES
OPHIOPOGON japonicus.* Hardy, tufted, stoloniferous perennial.
Japan.
Leaves: Many, grass-like, more or less curved; rather rigid.
Flowers: Drooping, few to several in a scape; violet or bluish;
ysin. long.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Inconspicuous.
Height: 6-15 in.
Snakebeard is often used for ground-cover in shaded places and under
trees where it is difficult to grow grass, and for edging garden borders.

POKER PLANT. TORCH FLOWER
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Liliales t Liliaceae* Kniphofia
SPECIES
KNIPHOFIA uvaria.* Hardy. South Africa.
Leaves: Many; 2-3 ft. long.


38











Flowers: Scarlet and yellow in a dense spike-like raceme.
Height of flower stalk: 4 ft.
K. foliosa.*
Leaves: 2-3 ft. long, in a dense tuft.
Flowers: Small, in elongated racemes.


SPANISH BAYONET
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Liliales t Liliacese* Yucca
Dracsenaceset
Yucca
SPECIES
YUCCA aloifolia.t Hardy evergreen plant. Southern states to
Florida.
Leaves: Sharp-pointed, stiff, numerous; green; 1-3 ft. long,
212 in. wide.
Flowers: Numerous, hanging, in racemes or panicles; white,
tinged with purple; showy; 3-4 in. across.
Time of bloom: Summer.
Fruit: A pulpy, black-purple capsule; 3-4 in. long.
Height: 3-6 ft.
"There are species with striped and colored leaves."*

COMMON YUCCA. BEAR-GRASS
Y. filamentosa.f A low-growing species with long, hair-like fila-
ments growing on the margins of the leaves. Flowers white
or cream-colored.
Var. variegata* has striped leaves.

SPANISH DAGGER. MOUND-LILY YUCCA
Y. gloriosa. t
Leaves: Numerous; linear, sharply pointed; tip red; often show
a few hairs when old.
Flowers: Showy, in tall panicles.
Height: 6-8 ft.


BULBS


39








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


BELLADONNA-LILY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidalest Amaryllidacese* Amaryllis
Amaryllis
SPECIES
AMARYLLIS belladonna.* Semi-hardy bulbous plant. South
Africa.
Leaves: Appear after the flowers; strap-shaped.
Flowers: Several in an umbel; purple, rose-red, white, striped,
and other variations; fragrant; 3 in. long or more.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A capsule.
Height: Flower-stalk 1-2 ft. or more.

JACOBEAN-LILY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidales Amaryllidacese* Sprekelia
,Amaryllis
SPECIES
SPREKELIA formosissima.* Semi-hardy bulbous plant. Mexico.
Leaves: Narrow, about as long as the flower-stalk.
Flowers: On an erect, 2-toothed spathe; bright red; 3-4 in.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A capsule.
Height: 1-3 ft.

AMARYLLIS. BARBADOS-LILY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidalest Amaryllidaceoe* Hippeastrum
Amaryllis
SPECIES
HIPPEASTRUM vittatum.* Semi-hardy bulbous plant. Peru.
Leaves: Long, green, appearing with or after the flowers; not
showy.
Flowers: Showy; 2 or more on the leafless stalk; red and white
striped; 4-6 in. long.
Time of bloom: Spring.


40











Fruit: A capsule.
Height: Of flower-stalk, 1-2 ft.
H. regina.* Mexico, West Indies, South America.
Leaves: Appear after the flowers.
Flowers: Bright red, with white in the throat; 4-5 in. long.
H. reticulatum.* Brazil.
Leaves: Few, thin, appearing with the flowers.
Flowers: Rose-pink, barred with darker rose; 4 in. long.
H. puniceum.* Mexico to South America.
Leaves: Fully developed after the flowers.
Flowers: Red or salmon-red, lighter to green toward base;
4-5 in. long.
Most of the hippeastrums now cultivated are hybrids of the above
species. They are beautiful and interesting plants and are particularly
adapted to Florida.
The whole order of Amaryllidales is recommended to the attention
of Florida gardeners.
CRINUM
FLORIDA SWAMP LILY. FLORIDA CRINUM. ST. JOHNS LILY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidales t Amaryllidacese* Crinum
Leucojaceset
Amarvlli


SPECIES
CRINUM americanum. t Tender evergreen bulb. So
and Florida.
Leaves: Linear; green; 2-4 ft.
Flowers: In a large scape; white; fragrant; showy.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A capsule.
Height: 2-4 ft.
POISON BULB
C. asiaticum.*
Leaves: Light bluish green; 3 ft. long.
Flowers: Pure white; very fragrant.
Time of bloom: Continuous.
Fruit: Large green seeds.
Height: A large, impressive clump.


uthern states


BULBS


41








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


FRAGRANT CRINUM
C. giganteum.*
Leaves: Bluish green; 3 ft. long.
Flowers: Creamy white in bud; vanilla-like scent; 6-8 in an
umbel.
Time of bloom: Summer.
Fruit: In capsules.
Height: Tall.
COLOMBIAN CRINUM
C. kunthianum nicaraguense.* Short, has white flowers with a faint
pink band in center and purplish on the outside.

MILK-AND-WINE LILY
C. sanderianum.* Very common in Florida gardens. Flowers white,
keeled with red.

C. scabrum.* White, banded with crimson; very showy.
C. variabile.* Night blooming. Very hardy. Flowers white, faintly
striped with pink; very showy; 15-20 on one umbel.
C. zeylanicum.* A very common variety. Deep crimson in bud,
white, striped with red when open; very fragrant.
Many other varieties may be secured.

RAINLILY. EVENING-STAR
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidalest Amaryllidacese* Cooperia
Amaryllis
SPECIES
COOPERIA drummondi.t Tender, bulbous plants. Texas, New
Mexico, and Mexico.
Leaves: Narrowly linear; 1 ft. long.
Flowers: Solitary; white tinged with red outside; fragrant.
Time of bloom: Summer.
Fruit: Inconspicuous.
Height: 6-12 in.
GREAT RAINLILY
C. pedunculata.* Flowers larger, of purer color, and remain open a
day or two longer than those of C. drummondi.


42








BULBS


SNOWFLAKE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidalest Amaryllidaceae* Leucojum
Amaryllis
SPECIES
LEUCOJUM verum.* Hardy. Small bulbous plant. Central
Europe.
Leaves: Linear; bright green; 6-9 in. long.
Flowers: In a small umbel; bell-shaped; white with a green dot;
%in. long.
Time of bloom: Winter and spring.
Fruit: Inconspicuous capsule.
Height: 6-12 in.
L. aestivum.* Flowers 2-8 on a scape. Leaves 1-1% ft. long.
Blooms a little later than L. vernum.
L. autumnale.* Flowers 1-3, white, tinged with red. Leaves very
narrow. Blooms late.
The leucojum is very commonly confused with the galanthus, to which
it is closely related. The plant commonly seen in Florida gardens is the
snowflake, L. astivum, and not Galanthus nivalis.


SNOWDROP
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidalest Amaryllidaceoe* Galanthus
Amaryllis
SPECIES
GALANTHUS nivalis.* Hardy evergreen bulb. Europe and
Western Asia.
Leaves: Strap-shaped; bright green.
Flowers: Bell-shaped; solitary; on a scape; white, green tipped.
Time of bloom: Late winter and spring.
Fruit: A papery capsule.
Height: 6-9 in.


43








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


FAIRY LILY. ZEPHYRLLY. ATAMOSCO LILY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidales t Amaryllidacewe* Atamosco t
Leucojacex t Zephyranthes*
Amaryllis
SPECIES
ATAMOSCO atamasco. Hardy evergreen bulbous plant. Florida
pine-lahds.
Leaves: Linear; deep green.
Flowers: Solitary; white to purple; 3 in. across.
Time of bloom: Early spring.
Fruit: Inconspicuous capsule.
Height: 6-12 in.
A. treatise. Flowers white, tinged with pink.
A. simpsoni. t Pale pink or white, tinged with pink.
GENUS
SPECIES Zephyranthes
ZEPHYRANTHES candida.* Autumn blooming. Flowers large,
white, tinged with pink. La Plata.
Z. carinata.* Largest rosy flowered variety. Jamaica.
Z. rosea* Autumn-blooming pink variety. Cuba.



AMAZONLILY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidales t Amaryllidaces* Eucharis
Amaryllis
SPECIES
EUCHARIS grandiflora.* Semi-hardy evergreen lily. Colombia.
Leaves: Broad-ovate, on a distinct petiole; 1 ft. or more long.
Flowers: White; in umbels, on a stout scape; showy; fragrant.
Time of bloom: Autumn to spring.
Fruit: 2-3 ovules.
Height: Scape 1-2 ft.


44








BULBS


SPIDERLILY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidalest Amaryllidaceee* Hymenocallis
Leucojaceoet
Amaryllis
SPECIES
LILYBASKET. (Peruvian Lily)
HYMENOCALLIS calathina.* Hardy bulbous plants. Peru and
Bolivia.
Leaves: Long, to 2 ft.
Flowers: White; 2-5 on a tall scape; fragrant.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Inconspicuous.
Height: 1-2 ft.
CARIBBEAN SPIDERLILY
H. caribsea. Florida and the West Indies.
H. rotata.t North Carolina to Florida.

NARCISSUS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidales* Amaryllidaceve* Narcissus
Amaryllis
Hardy bulb. Central Europe, Asia, China, and Japan.
Classification of narcissus as given in the Standard Cyclopedia of
Horticulture by Prof. L. H. Bailey:
1. TRUMPET DAFFODILS. Trumpet or crown as long as or longer
than the perianth-segments.
Yellow. Perianth and trumpet yellow.
White. Perianth and trumpet white.
Bicolor. Perianth white, trumpet yellow.
2. INCOMPARABILIS. Cup or crown not less than one-third but less
than equal to the length of the perianth-segments.
3. BARRI. Cup or crown less than one-third the length of the
perianth-segments.
4. LEEDSI. Perianth white, and cup or crown white, cream, or pale
citron, sometimes tinged with pink or apricot; embracing
different dimensions.


45








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


5. TRIANDRUS HYBRIDS.
6. CYCLAMINEUS HYBRIDS.
7. JONQUILLA HYBRIDS.
8. TAZETTA and TAZETTA HYBRIDS.
Poetaz. Hybrids between Poeticus and Polyanthus sorts.
9. POETICUS VARIETIES.
10. DOUBLE VARIETIES.
11. VARIOUS. To include N. bulbocodium, N. cyclamineus, N.
triandrus, N. juncifolius, N. jonquila, N. tazetta (sp.),
N. viridiflorus, etc.

CENTURY PLANT
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidales t Amaryllidaceoe* Agave
Leucojaceset
SPECIES Amaryllis
AGAVE americana.t Tender evergreen fleshy plant. Central
America.
Leaves: Thick, long, spiny, curving; on a thick crown close to
the ground.
Flowers: Bell-shaped; white; fragrant; on a scape 20-40 ft. high;
2-3 in. across.
Time of bloom: At long periods.
Fruit: A thickened oblong capsule.
Height: 5-6 ft.
Var. variegata. Similar to A. americana, with twisted leaves striped
with yellow.
A. densiflora. Flowers dense, reddish.
A. filifera. Leaves somewhat upcurved with a few marginal hairs.
A. macroacantha. Nearly trunkless. Leaves yellowish green.
SISAL HEMP
A. sisalana.t Hardy. 'Mexico. A fiber plant with straight sword-
like leaves.
This genus varies in habit of flowering; some species bloom once and
then die, others flower only at long periods, hence the name, Century
Plant. There are about 150 species native of the desert region of America.


46









BULBS 47

FLAG. BLUE FLAG. FLEUR-DE-LIS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidalest Iridacece* Iris
Ixiacease
Iris
*SPECIES
IRIS caroliniana. t Hardy bulb. Virginia to Florida.
Leaves: Narrow; bright greerf.
Flowers: Solitary; lilac, variegated with yellow-brown.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A dry capsule.
Height: 15-20 in.
DIXIE IRIS
I. hexagona.f Flowers violet-blue, variegated with yellow and
purple.
I. tripetala.t Flowers blue, variegated with yellow and purple.
Leaves very narrow.
The flowers are very large (3-4 in.) in the cultivated plants. Recom-
mended for use in all gardens having pools or bordering on rivers or lakes.

GERMAN IRIS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidalest Iridacese* Iris
Iris
SPECIES
IRIS germanica.* Hardy bulb. Central and southern Europe.
Leaves: Sword-shaped; 1-1% ft. by 1-112 in.; shorter than stem.
Flowers: Lilac, lilac-purple, to white; showy.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: An oblong capsule; many-seeded.
Height: Stem 2-3 ft.
The cultivated iris is considered very difficult to grow in Florida. The
German iris is grown by experienced gardeners and some very beautiful
specimens have been produced. The fact that the native iris is so abun-
dant and hardy would suggest that if suitable methods were employed
many of the cultivated species could be grown successfully.
The iris needs to be thoroughly established to produce perfect
specimens and should be placed where it can remain undisturbed for
a number of years.








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


WEEVIL PLANT
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidales Amaryllidaceae* Curculigo
Amaryllis
SPECIES
CURCULIGO capitulate* (C. recurvata). Tender ornamental plant.
Asia.
Leaves: 1-3 ft. long, 2-6 in. broad; the blade recurving.
Flowers: Inconspicuous; yellow; borne near the ground, where
nearly concealed by the foliage.
Height: Stemless.

MORLEA. MORE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidalest Iridacee* Morsea
Iris
SPECIES
MOR)EA iridioides.* Semi-hardy bulb, resembling iris. South
Africa.
Leaves: Linear, in fan-shaped clusters.
Flowers: White, marked with yellow and blue; 2 or more in
clusters; 3 in. or more across; fugitive.
Time of bloom: Periodic.
Fruit: Inconspicuous.
Height: 1-2 ft.

BLACKBERRY-LILY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidales t Iridaceae* Belamcanda
SPECIES
BELAMCANDA chinensis.* Hardy. China and Japan.
Leaves: Sword-shaped; 1 in. broad.
Flowers: Orange, spotted with red; 1-2 in. across; fugitive.
Fruit: A cluster of large, round, shining black seeds which
remain after the capsule splits.
Height: 2-4 ft.


48








BULBS


TRITONIA (Montbretia)
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidalest Iridaceae* Tritonia
Iris
SPECIES
TRITONIA crocosmneflora.* Hardy cormous plant. South Africa.
Leaves: Few; sword-shaped.
Flowers: In racemes; orange-crimson; 2 in. across.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A capsule.
Height: 2-4 ft.
Var. pottsi has bright yellow and red flowers with a very broad tube.

BANANA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Scitaminales t Musaceee* Musa
Banana
SPECIES
MUSA sapientum.* Tender, evergreen, tree-like herb. East Indies.
Leaves: Very large; oblong; bright green.
Flowers: In clusters on a long, showy spike.
Time of bloom: Summer.
Fruit: The edible banana of commerce.
Height: 18-20 ft.
DWARF BANANA
M. cavendishi.* Hardier than M. sapientum. Southern China.
Leaves: Spreading; 2-4 ft. long by 1-2 ft. broad.
Fruit: Very numerous on each spike; 4-5 in. long; fragrant;
seedless.
Height: Not over 6 ft.
ABYSSINIAN BANANA
M. ensete.* Abyssinia. A stout plant, growing to a single trunk.
Largest known species.
Leaves: Very large; 10-20 ft. long; 2-3 ft. broad.
Fruit: Small; dry; inedible.
Height: 20-40 ft.


49








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


IXIA. AFRICAN CORN LILY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidales t Iridacese* Ixia
Iris
SPECIES
IXIA maculata.* Hardy cormous plants. South Africa.
Leaves: Grass-like; 6-12 in. long.
Flowers: In a slender spike; yellow, with a dark spot in throat;
1-2 in. across.
Time of bloom: Summer.
Fruit: A dry capsule.
Height: 1-2 ft.
I. columellaris.* Flowers differ in color from I. maculata-lilac to
mauve-purple, throat blue.



CANNA. INDIAN SHOT

ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Scitaminalesf Cannacete* Canna
Canna
SPECIES
CANNA flaccida i Semi-hardy herbaceous plant. South Carolina
to Florida.
Leaves: Large, showy; green; 8-12 in.
Flowers: In panicles; showy; red or yellow.
Time of bloom: Spring to autumn.
Fruit: A capsule with a bristly coat.
Height: 3-6 ft.
C. indica. Naturalized from the tropics. Flowers not showy.
"The recent attractive orchid-flowered cannas spring largely from
the C. flaccida forms."


50








BULBS


GLADIOLUS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidalest Iridaceve* Gladiolus
Iris
A genus which has an enormous number of horticultural
varieties.
Below is the classification as given in the "Manual of Culti-
vated Plants" by Prof. L. H. Bailey, with a few desirable named
varieties of the modern hybrids and the name of the hybridizer.
These varieties can be secured from Florida growers.

GLADIOLUS primulinus. Flowers clear primrose-yellow.
G. gandavensis. Flowers red and yellow; hooded; late or summer
flowering.
G. lemoinei. Flowers white to bright yellow, red, and purple,
blotched with purple.
G. nanceianus. Flowers brilliant red and purple; wide open, spread-
ing; not hooded.
G. colvillei. Flowers scarlet, yellow, white; on short spikes; small;
early.
Alice Tiplady (Kunderd.) Yellow.
Augusta. (Hallock.) White, with pink.
Baron Hulot. (Lemoine.) Purple.
Mrs. Frank Pendleton. (Kunderd.) Rosy pink, with maroon
blotches.
America. (Childs.) Soft pink.
Niagara. (Banning.) Yellow.
Glory. (Kunderd.) Ruffled; creamy blush with carmine.
Pride of Goshen. (Kunderd.) Ruffled; salmon or flesh-pink.
Goliath. (Velthuys.) Rich dark purplish maroon.
L'Immaculee. (DeRuyter.) Pure white.
Maiden's Blush. (Grullemans.) Shell-pink.
Schwaben. (Pfitzer.) Yellow.
Halley. (Velthuys.) Salmon-pink.
Mrs. Francis King. (Coblentz-Vaughan.) Flame.
Panama. (Banning.) Pink.


51








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


FREESIA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Amaryllidales t Iridacese* Freesia
Iris
SPECIES
FREESIA refracta.* Tender cormous plant. South Africa.
Leaves: Linear; weak; green.
Flowers: Tubular; in loose spikes; white, yellow, or tinged with
pink, red, or purple.
Time of bloom: Early spring.
Fruit: Inconspicuous capsule.
Height: 1-1% ft.

ARROWROOT
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Scitaminalest Marantaceme* Maranta
Maranta or Arrowroot
SPECIES
MARANTA arundinacea.* Hardy evergreen herb. Naturalized
from the tropics.
Leaves: Large; ovate-lanceolate; green; 6-12 in. long; scapes
relatively slender.
Flowers: In racemes or solitary; white; small.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Inconspicuous.
Height: 3 ft.
Var. variegata. Leaves striped with white.
GENUS
Thalia
SPECIES
THALIA dealbata. f Southern states, Florida, and Texas. Swamps
and ponds.
Height: %-2 ft.
T. divaricata.f
"Relatively stout, scapose herbs, white-powdery, at least above....
Flowers rather numerous, in panicles; corolla tube wanting. .. Perianth
mainly purple."t


52








BULBS


AMOMUM
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Scitaminalest Zingiberaceve* Amomum
Ginger
SPECIES
AMOMUM cardamon.* Semi-hardy foliage plant. East Indies.
Leaves: Linear-lanceolate; 6-10 in. long.
Flowers: Yellow; in dense spikes; scapes 2-4 in. long.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Inconspicuous.
Height: 4-6 ft.

SHELLFLOWER
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Scitaminalest Zingiberacese* Alpinia
Ginger
SPECIES
ALPINIA nutans.* "Tender leafy plants with ginger-like rhizomes."*
Leaves: Long, lanceolate, glabrous; green; aromatic.
Flowers: Orchid-like, in racemes; yellow, with pink; fragrant.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A capsule.
Height: 10-12 ft.
"Foliage plants of doubtful botanical position."*

GINGERLILY. BUTTERFLYLILY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Scitaminales t Zingiberacese* Hedychium
Ginger
SPECIES
HEDYCHIUM coronarium.* Tender, leafy rhizomatous herbs
Asia and Madagascar.
Leaves: Canna-like; green; 8-24 in.
Flowers: Numerous; in spikes; white; fragrant; showy.
Time of bloom: Spring and fall.
Fruit: Inconspicuous.
Height: 3-6 ft.


5S








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


PRICKLYPEAR. INDIAN FIG
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Opuntiales t Cactaceae* Opuntia
Opuntiacee t
Cactus
SPECIES
OPUNTIA dilleni. t Hardy, evergreen, fleshy herb. Florida, West
Indies, and Central America.
Stem: Erect, oval, branching, with clusters of yellow spines.
Flowers: Solitary; yellow or reddish yellow; 2-3 in. across.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Pear-shaped; red; 1-2 in. long; edible.
Height: 2-3 ft.
0. inermis. t
Stem: Erect, with few spines.
Flowers: Large; yellow.
Fruit: Obovoid; red; edible.


NIGHTBLOOMING CEREUS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Opuntiales t Cactacese* Hylocereus
Opuntiaceaet
Cactus
SPECIES
HYLOCEREUS undatus* (H. triangularist). Semi-hardy, ever-
green, fleshy herb. West Indies and Central America.
Stem: Reclining, branched, 3-angled, with 1-3 small spines.
Flowers: White; very fragrant; 6-8 in. across and 1 ft. long.
Time of bloom: Spring; nocturnal.
Fruit: Ovoid; scarlet; 41% in. diameter; edible.
Height: 6-8 ft.
H. brockmanni similar to above with smaller flowers.


54








BULBS 55

DAHLIA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Carduales t Compositae* Dahlia
Composite
Tender, tuberous plant. Mexico.
"Practically all of the named varieties of dahlias have come from
one immensely variable species, usually known as D. variabilis, but
more properly as.D. rosea. For garden purposes, however, a second
form of great importance, D. juarezi, the parent of the cactus forms,
must be kept distinct."*
Classification of varieties from Standardized Plant Names
Anemone-flowered Dahlia Dwarf Dahlia
Cactus Dahlia Hybrid Cactus Dahlia
Collarette Dahlia Hybrid Peony-flowered Dahlia
Decorative Dahlia Single Dahlia
Duplex Dahlia Show Dahlia
The above can be grown in Florida with success and the culture is
extremely interesting. There is no doubt that the dahlia is rapidly
assuming an important place in Florida gardens. Pompon and Peony-
flowered dahlias have been omitted from the list until further information
can be secured.










EVERGREEN TREES AND SHRUBS
Florida is essentially a country of evergreens. So many
and varied are the species that will grow here, that there is
no excuse for having unsightly landscapes at any time of
year. Many plants, deciduous further north, become ever-
green here, or are so tardily deciduous that their new
leaves are out before the old ones have fallen.--Street, founda-
tion, and border plantings may be made with so wide a
range of evergreens that the beautiful deciduous plants of
the North need not be missed.
The plan followed in Washington, D. C., of planting a
street with a single species, could be carried out here entirely
with evergreens, and the result would be far more attractive
than if the present almost universal habit be followed of
allowing each property owner to plant in the parkway in
front of his house any tree or shrub he may fancy.
In the garden, evergreen and flowering shrubs should be
given greater prominence. The struggle to have annuals
blossoming during the winter has absorbed a great deal of
attention, and, while the success that often attends the
struggle is well worth the effort, yet a garden entirely de-
voted to annuals is sometimes a disappointment. Certainly,
the annuals can never be abandoned-they are too fascinat-
ing-but the garden should first be carefully planted with
hardy shrubs-shrubs which will withstand all the vicis-
situdes of Florida conditions-and the annuals so disposed
that their loss or failure will not disfigure the garden. Flower-
ing shrubs used in this way will prove a satisfactory sub-
stitute for the hardy perennials so much used in the North,
many of which are difficult or impossible to grow.
It is possible that, with the rapidly increasing knowledge
of horticulture in the South, a method may be discovered of
handling perennials, but these experiments are best left to
the experienced gardener.
(56)






































A Live-Oak








EVERGREEN TREES AND SHRUBS


BROAD-LEAVED EVERGREEN TREES
OAK
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Fagalest Fagacevet Quercus
Beech

LAUREL OAK
SPECIES
QUERCUS laurifolia.t Hardy evergreen or tardily deciduous
forest tree. Florida and southern states.
Leaves: Oblong to lanceolate; bristle-tipped; deep green.
Bark: Almost black.
Flowers: In aments; inconspicuous.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: An acorn; ovoid, short-stalked; cup, saucer-shaped.
Height: 120 ft.
This tree reaches full maturity in forty to fifty years.

WATER OAK
Q. nigra.t Evergreen or tardily deciduous tree. Florida and
southern states.
Leaves: Oblanceolate, sometimes with a dilated terminal lobe
or a 3-lobed apex; dark green.
Bark: Smooth; gray.
Fruit: Large; subglobose.
Height: 80 ft.
LIVE OAK
Q. virginiana.t Evergreen tree. Florida and southern states.
Leaves: Oblong, small; dark green, shining.
Bark: Furrowed, rough; pale gray.
Fruit: Ovoid or oblong, twice longer than the cup.
Height: 120 ft.
A wide-spreading tree which lives to a great age.


57








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


RUBBER TREE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Urticales* Moraceae* Ficus
Mulberry
SPECIES
FICUS elastica.* Tender evergreen tree. India.
Leaves: Leathery, oblong, shining; 5-12 in. long.
Flowers: Inconspicuous.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A greenish yellow fig Yin. long.
Height: 100 ft.
HIGH RUBBER TREE
F. altissima.* Very tender evergreen tree.
Ficus elastic should not be entirely discarded in northern Florida. for
while it will be injured occasionally by frost, it will come up again from
the root if it has become well established. It should be placed in a
protected location and masked by hardy shrubs, so that its periodic
absences will not injure the appearance of the garden.


MAGNOLIA. BULLBAY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Ranales t Magnoliacese Magnolia
Magnolia
SPECIES
MAGNOLIA foetidat (M. grandiflora*). Hardy evergreen forest
tree. Southern states and Florida.
Leaves: Oval, shining dark green above, brown beneath; 4-8
in. long.
Flowers: Solitary; creamy white; very fragrant; 7-8 in. across.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A pale cone with bright red seeds 3-4 in. long.
Height: 80-100 ft.
BIGLEAF MAGNOLIA
M. macrophylla.t A hardy native tree with rounded leaves and
pale bark; rarely reaches a height of over 40 ft. Flower petals
rounded; fruit rose-colored.


58








EVERGREEN TREES AND SHRUBS


M. virginiana.t A slender shrub or small tree; evergreen in the
South; deciduous in the North.
Flowers: White; fragrant; smaller than M. fotida.
Fruit: Oval; large; dark red.
Height: 6-8 ft.
The last two varieties are suggested for cultivation.


LOQUAT. MEDLAR. JAPAN PLUM
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Rosales ? Rosacese* Eriobotrya
Rose
SPECIES
ERIOBOTRYA japonica.* Hardy evergreen tree. Japan.
Leaves: Broad, rough; deep green; 6-10 in. long.
Flowers: Small, creamy white; in large panicles; fragrant.
Time of bloom: Early winter.
Fruit: An edible yellow pome.
Height: 15-25 ft.
Commonly planted for the fruit, this tree makes a beautiful subject
for specimen planting.

CHERRY-LAUREL
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Rosales t Rosacee* Laurocerasus
Amygdalaceve t
Plum
SPECIES
LAUROCERASUS caroliniana.t Hardy evergreen tree. Florida
and the southern states.
Leaves: Oblong-lanceolate; dark green, glossy; 2-4 in. long.
Flowers: Small; white; in racemes; fragrant.
Time of bloom: Winter and spring.
Fruit: An oblong or oval drupe; black and lustrous.
Height: 25-30 ft.
Adapted to well-drained soils.


59








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


HOLLIES
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Sapindalest Aquifoliaceeft Ilex
Holly

SPECIES DAHOON
ILEX cassine. Hardy, evergreen, small tree. Southern states and
Florida.
Leaves: Oblong or obovate; dark green above; 2-3 in. long.
Flowers: Dioecious; small; white; in clusters.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Drupes globose; red, or sometimes nearly yellow; solitary
or 3 in a cluster.
Height: 30-40 ft.
MYRTLE-LEAVED HOLLY
I. myrtifolia. t
Leaves: Small; linear; dark green; 1-2 in. long.
Flowers: Dioecious; solitary; white.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A red berry, sometimes yellow.
Height: 10-15 ft.
AMERICAN HOLLY. WHITE HOLLY
I. opaca.t
Leaves: Oval; spiny; dark green; 2-4 in. long.
Flowers: Dioecious; white; in clusters.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Red.
Height: 40-50 ft.
CASSINE. YAUPON
I. vomitoria. t
Leaves: Oblong; dark green; 1%-1 in. long.
Flowers: Dioecious; in clusters.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Red.
Height: 20-25 ft.
Hollies are usually dioecious, and care should be taken to secure
pistillate trees.


(i0








EVERGREEN TREES AND SHRUBS


LOBLOLLY BAY. TAN BAY. BLACK LAUREL
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Hypericales t Ternstroemiacee* Gordonia
Theaceaet
SPECIES Camellia
GORDONIA lasianthus.t Hardy evergreen tree. Florida and
southern states.
Leaves: Elliptic to oblanceolate; lustrous; 4-6 in. long.
Flowers: White; fragrant; 2-4 in. across.
Time of bloom: Summer.
Fruit: A winged capsule.
Height: 50-60 ft.

AUSTRALIAN SILK OAK. SILK OAK
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Protiales Proteaceoe* Grevillea
SPECIES Protea
GREVILLEA robusta.* Tender. Evergreen tree. Naturalized from
Australia.
Leaves: Pinnately divided, fern-like.
Flowers: Numerous; in racemes; showy; orange-yellow; 3-4 in.
long.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A capsule; 4in. long.
Height: 100-120 ft.

AVOCADO PEAR. AGUACATE. ALLIGATOR PEAR
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Thymeleales t Lauracese* Persea
SPECIES Laurel
PERSEA americana* (P. perseat). Semi-hardy evergreen tree.
Tropical America.
Leaves: Large; oblong to oval; sometimes anise scented.
Flowers: In panicles; greenish.
Time of bloom: Spring.


61








62 IN FLORIDA GARDENS

Fruit: A large edible green and purple pear.
Height: To 60 ft.
Varieties from West Indies, tender; Guatamala, semi-tender; Mexico,
quite hardy.

CAMPHOR TREE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Thymeleales t Lauraceae* Cinnamomum
Laurel
SPECIES
CINNAMOMUM camphora.* Hardy evergreen tree. Naturalized
from eastern Asia.
Leaves: Elliptic to ovate; shining bright green, green or pinkish
when young; aromatic.
Flowers: Inconspicuous; in cymes.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A globose, black, berry-like drupe.
Height: To 40 ft.


REDBAY. SWEETBAY. FLORIDA MAHOGANY
TISS WOOD. LAUREL TREE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Thymeleales t Lauracese t Tamala
Laurel
SPECIES
TAMALA borbonia. t Hardy evergreen tree. Florida and southern
states.
Leaves: Oblong-elliptic; lustrous bright green.
Bark: Broken in flat ridges.
Flowers: Inconspicuous; in cymes; greenish white.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A lustrous, black drupe.
Height: 25-40 ft.
SCRUB BAY
T. humilis. t A small tree with twigs, leaves, and inflorescence silky-
pubescent. Fruit black under bloom.








EVERGREEN TREES AND SHRUBS


SHORE BAY
T. littoralis.t Shrub or small tree. Foliage bright green. Fruit
purple-black with bloom.
SWAMP REDBAY
T. pubescens.t A woolly variety with dark blue fruit and sparse
bloom.
These varieties are suggested for experiment in native plantings.

CAJAPUT OR PUNK TREE. BOTTLEBRUSH
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Myrtalest Myrtaceae* Melaleuca
Myrtle
SPECIES
MELALEUCA leucadendron.* Tender evergreen tree. Australia.
Leaves: Oblong, narrow; 2-4 in. long.
Flowers: Creamy white, in spikes 2-6 in. long.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Capsules, Yin. across.
Height: Tall, slender.
"Closely related to callistemon."*

EUCALYPTUS


ORDER
Myrtalest


FAMILY
Myrtacese*
Myrtle

BROWN GUM


SPECIES
EUCALYPTUS robusta.* Tender evergreen tree
Leaves: Oval-lanceolate; dark green; 3-7 in.
Flowers: White or yellowish; in umbels.
Time of bloom: Winter.
Fruit: A capsule.
Height: 200 ft.
CREEK GUM. RED GUM
E. rostrata.* More hardy than E. robusta.


GENUS
Eucalyptus




. Australia.


63








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


DESERT GUM. FLOODED GUM
E. rudis.*
SLATY GUM. GREY GUM
E. tereticornis.*
Not recommended for northern Florida.

FERN TREE. GREEN EBONY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Polemonialest Bignoniacese* Jacaranda
SPECIES Bignonia
JACARANDA ovalifolia* (J. mimosefolia). Semi-tender evergreen
tree. Brazil.
Leaves: Compound, fern-like; leaflets many.
Flowers: White and blue; in panicles; showy; 2 in. long by 11I
in. across.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: An oblong capsule.
Height: 50 ft.

CULTIVATED CITRUS FRUIT TREES FOR
ORNAMENTAL PLANTING
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Geraniales t Rutacese* Citrus
Rue
SPECIES SOUR OR SEVILLE ORANGE
CITRUS aurantium.* Semi-hardy, evergreen tree. Naturalized
throughout peninsular Florida; probably from China. The
stock used for the sweet orange.
Leaves: Ovate-oblong; petiole broadly winged; 3-4 in. long.
Spines: Long but not very sharp.
Flowers: Medium size; white; solitary or in clusters; very
fragrant.
Time of bloom: Winter.
Fruit: Globose, slightly flattened at ends; 3 in. in diameter; acid
or bitter; core hollow.
THE SWEET ORANGE IN MANY VARIETIES
C. sinensis.*


64








EVERGREEN TREES AND SHRUBS


GRAPEFRUIT. SHADDOCK. PUMMELO
C. grandis. Asia. A strong glossy-leaved tree, with slender spines.
CALAMONDIN
C. mitis.* Small, somewhat spiny tree. Fruit depressed-globose,
about 1 inch in diameter.

MANDARIN. TANGERINE
C. nobilis, var. deliciosa.* Branches slender, spineless; fruit 2-3 in.
in diameter; with loose skin.

UNSHIU OR SATSUMA
Var. unshiu. Very hardy, low-growing tree. Flowers small and
numerous; fruit 2-3 in. in diameter, with loose skin.


ROUND KUMQUAT GENUS
Fortunella
SPECIES
FORTUNELLA japonica.* A small tree, nearly or quite spineless.
Flowers solitary or few in a cluster; fruit round, about 1 in.
in diameter.
OVAL KUMQUAT
F. margarita.*
MEIWA KUMQUAT
F. crassifolia.


TRIFOLIATE ORANGE
GENUS
SPECIES Poncirus
PONCIRUS trifoliata.* Hardy, deciduous, spiny tree. China.
Leaves: With 3 leaflets, on stiff, angled branches.
Flowers: White; fragrant; usually in advance of the leaves.
Fruit: Small, with scanty pulp.
Largely used as stock for citrus fruits, but is also very interesting
as a garden plant.
Citrus fruit trees being subject to insect pests, should be planted where
they can be sprayed conveniently. The gardener should not undertake
to grow them unless he is prepared to keep them in good condition.


65












EVERGREEN SHRUBS AND SMALL TREES

BAYBERRY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Myricalest Myricacetef Morella
Bayberry
SPECIES
MORELLA carolinensis.t Hardy evergreen shrub; sometimes
deciduous. Southern states and Florida.
Leaves: Oblong-oblanceolate; dark green; aromatic.
Stem: Ascending or straight.
Bark: Almost white.
Flowers: Inconspicuous.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A persistent gray drupe.
Height: 3-10 ft.
WAX MYRTLE
M. cerifera.t Evergreen, with ascending stem and pale bark.
Height, 30-40 ft.
M. pumila.t Low branching; ascending. Height, 1-3 ft.
M. inodora.t Stems often straight; bark nearly white. Height,
15-25 ft.
Morella may be used in several ways in the garden: As a windbreak,
a hedge, a background for lower shrubs, or as a specimen subject in
large plantings.

BANANA SHRUB
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Ranalest Magnoliaceze* Michelia
Magnolia (Magnolia)
SPECIES
MICHELIA fuscata.* Hardy evergreen shrub. China.
Leaves: Elliptic-lanceolate; bright green.
Flowers: Solitary; brown-purple; banana-like fragrance; 1-2 in.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A spike of leathery carpels similar to the magnolia.
Height: 10-15 ft.
(66)








EVERGREEN SHRUBS AND SMALL TREES 67

ALTERNANTHERA. GARDEN ALTERNANTHERA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Chenopodialest Amaranthacewe* Telanthera
SPECIES Amaranth
TELANTHERA amoena.* Small, tender, evergreen bedding plants,
with inconspicuous flowers and bright-colored leaves, Tropical
America.
T. bettzickiana.* Red to orange.
T. versicolor.* White to red.
T. ficoidea.* Copper to blood-red.

NANDINA. SACRED BAMBOO
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Ranales t Berberidaceae* Nandina
Barberry
SPECIES
NANDINA domestica* Hardy evergreen shrub. Japan.
Leaves: Compound; glossy green, red when young, bronze in
winter; leaflets 1-2 in. long.
Flowers: Small; white; in panicles.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A red berry which is retained through the winter.
Height: 6-8 ft.
A beautiful plant that should find a place in every Florida garden.

EAST INDIAN ANISE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Ranalest Magnoliacete* Illicium
Magnolia
SPECIES
ILLICIUM anisatum.* Hardy evergreen shrub or small tree. Japan.
Leaves: Elliptic; smooth; 3 in. long; strongly anise-scented.
Flowers: Solitary; small; yellow; not fragrant.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Drupe-like, with scent and flavor of anise.
Height: 10-15 ft.








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


ANISE TREE. STAR ANISE
I. floridanum.t Hardy evergreen shrub. Florida and Alabama.
An aromatic shrub with nodding purple flowers and narrow,
scented leaves.
I. parviflorum. t A low-growing, hardy evergreen shrub with yellow
flowers. Florida and Georgia.

LIFE-PLANT. LIVEFOREVER
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Rosalest Crasulaceae* Bryophyllum
SPECIES Orpine
BRYOPHYLLUM pinnatum.* Semi-hardy evergreen herb. East
Indies.
Leaves: Simple or pinnate; smooth; green, tinged with purple;
2-5 in. long.
Flowers: Purplish green; in panicles; 1-2 in. long.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Inconspicuous.
Height: 1-4 ft.
This plant, although often overlooked, is very attractive when in bloom.

ROSES
If, on Creation's morn, the King of Heaven
To shrubs and flowers a sovereign lord had given,
O beauteous rose, He had anointed thee
Of shrubs and flowers the sovereign lord to be.-Bonx.
There are, apparently, two methods of rose culture for
Florida. The first and older method is to plant in a bed
prepared as for any permanent shrub, prune not more than
is necessary to keep the bush within bounds, and fertilize
about twice a year. The second is an intensive culture. The
rose is placed in an especially prepared bed which has a
subsoil of clay and is heavily manured. The plant is kept
closely pruned and is forced by constant applications of
fertilizer and manure, as often, in some cases, as every two
months. It is watered, sprayed and cultivated constantly.
The first method will give large bushes which will live for


68








EVERGREEN SHRUBS AND SMALL TREES 69

years, bearing numerous more or less perfect blossoms. The
second will give the highest perfection of bloom on long stems,
with deeply colored leaves. To carry out this method re-
quires unremitting attention, and the plants may become
exhausted after a few years.
For the ordinary gardener a system between the two will
probably prove the most satisfactory; the grower must always
bear in mind that roses, in any case, require an enormous
amount of food, and also that no plant will perfect its flowers
if diseased or covered with insect pests.
Many species of native roses may be transplanted from the roadsides
and swamps into the garden.
MACARTNEY ROSE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Rosales Rosacee* Rosa
SPECIES Rose
ROSA bracteata.t Hardy, evergreen, scrambling shrub. Southern
China; naturalized in Florida.
Leaves: Compound, stiff; bright green; 2-4 in. long.
Flowers: Single; solitary or few together; white; fragrant; 2-3
in. across.
Time of bloom: Spring and summer.
Fruit: Globular; woolly; orange-red; 1 in. in diameter.
Height: 10-20 ft.
An intensely prickly plant, resisting cattle and insect pests.
CHEROKEE ROSE
R. lsevigata* (R. cherokeensis). Hardy, evergreen, climbing shrub.
China and Japan; naturalized in the South.
Leaves: Stiff; 3-foliate; glossy green.
Flowers: Solitary; single; white, rose-pink, red or yellow; very
fragrant; 2-3 in. across.
Time of bloom: Early spring.
Fruit: Obovoid, bristly.
Height: 10-20 ft.
A disease- and insect-resisting plant. Easily cultivated and very
satisfactory.








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


THE GARDEN ROSE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Rosales t Rosales* Rosa
Rose
It is impossible to find space in this volume for all the beautiful
varieties of roses which thrive in Florida. Below are given a few
horticultural varieties which are recommended to the beginner.
These varieties are free flowering, hardy, easy to grow, and disease-
and insect-resisting.
Red: Red Radiance, Louis Philippe, Maman Cochet.
Pink: Radiance, Duchesse de Brabant, Maman Cochet, Kil-
larney, Baby Rambler, Mrs. Charles Bell.
Yellow: Safrano (salmon), Etoile de Lyon.
White: Maman Cochet, Frau Karl Druschki, Killarney.
Climbers: Perle des Jardins, Reine Marie Henriette.

POTENTILLA. SHRUBBY CINQUEFOIL
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Rosales t Rosacee* Potentilla
SPECIES Rose
POTENTILLA fruticosa.* Hardy perennial herb or shrub. North
America.
Leaves: Compound; leaflets 3 to 7; small, oblong-linear.
Flowers: Numerous; bright yellow; showy; %-I4 in. across.
Time of bloom: Constant during the summer.
Fruit: Inconspicuous.
Height: 1-4 ft.
INDIAN HAWTHORN
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Rosales t Rosaceae* Raphiolepis
SPECIES
RAPHIOLEPIS indica.* Hardy evergreen shrub. India.
Leaves: Obovate to oblong-lanceolate; dark green; 2-3 in. long.
Flowers: Small; white or pinkish; in panicles; fragrant.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Subglobose; purplish black or blue.
Height: 5 ft.


70









EVERGREEN SHRUBS AND SMALL TREES 71

COTONEASTER
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Rosales Rosaceve* Cotoneaster
SPECIES Rose
COTONEASTER frigida.* Hardy evergreen shrub. Asia.
Leaves: Oblong; dull green; 1-2 in. long.
Flowers: Small; white; in clusters 21 in. in diameter.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A deep scarlet pome %in. long.
Height: To 25 ft.
The cotoneaster is a very interesting genus which is earnestly recom-
mended to the attention of Florida gardeners. It contains species
which are deciduous, half-evergreen, and evergreen. The flowers vary
from white, pink and white, to pink, and the fruit from brilliant scarlet
to nearly black. The height, which in some species is 6 ft., may reach
30 ft. in others.

COOTAMUNDRA WATTLE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Rosales t Leguminosve* Acacia
SPECIES Pea
ACACIA baileyana.* Semi-hardy evergreen shrub or small tree.
Australia.
Leaves: Compound; gray; arranged spirally around the branches.
Flowers: Yellow; in racemes; 2-3 in. long.
Time of bloom: January to February.
Fruit: A pod 1-4 in. long.
Height: 15-20 ft.
SYDNEY WATTLE
A. longifolia.* A willowy, branching tree. Yellow flowers in spikes;
leaves ashy green, oblong-lanceolate; pod 1-3 in. long, turning
black, persistent. Height, to 20 ft.

OPOPANAX. SWEET ACACIA
A. farnesiana.* Origin probably American. A thorny branching
shrub with quantities of yellow flowers in small, very fragrant
balls; leaves small, compound; pod small. Height, 6-10 ft.








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


MOUNTAIN EBONY. ORCHID TREE
BUDDHIST BAUHINIA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Rosalest Leguminose* Bauhinia
SPECIES Pea
BAUHINIA variegata.* Tender, semi-evergreen shrub or small tree.
India.
Leaves: Somewhat broader than long; cleft Y the length; 3-4
in. across.
Flowers: Rose-colored and variegated with red and yellow;
4 in. across; in racemes of about 7 each.
Time of bloom: Winter and spring.
Fruit: A flat pod 1-2 ft. long.
Height: 6-20 ft.
One variety has white flowers.
PURPLE BAUHINIA
B. purpurea.*

PITTOSPORUM. JAPANESE PITTOSPORUM
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Polygalales t Pittosporaces* Pittosporum
SPECIES Pittosporum
PITTOSPORUM tobira.* Hardy evergreen shrub. Japan.
Leaves: Obovate; dark green, shining; 2-3 in. long.
Flowers: Creamy white; in umbels; fragrant.
Time of bloom: Early spring.
Fruit: An inconspicuous capsule.
Height: 6-10 ft.
Var. variegatum.* Leaves variegated with white.
A most desirable plant for hedge and foundation planting. The
cottony cushion scale, to which it is sometimes subject, is easily con-
trolled by colonizing lady-bugs which may be secured from the State
Plant Board, Gainesville, Fla.
ORANGE PITTOSPORUM
P. undulatum. Semi-hardy. Leaves long, deep green, shining, un-
dulating. Height, to 40 ft.


72








EVERGREEN SHRUBS AND SMALL TREES 73

SCARLET FIRETHORN. FIERY THORN
EVERLASTING THORN. LALAND FIRETHORN
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Rosales t Rosaces* Pyracantha
SPECIES Rose
PYRACANTHA coccinea,* var. lalandi.* (Crategus lalandi.)
Hardy half-evergreen shrub. Asia.
Leaves: Oval-oblong; bright green; 2 in. long.
Flowers: Small; white; in corymbs.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A small bright orange-red pome.
Height: 8 ft.

PHOTINIA. LOW PHOTINIA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Rosalest Rosaceae* Photinia
SPECIES Rose
PHOTINIA serrulata.* Hardy evergreen shrub. China.
Leaves: Oblong; dark green, shining; 4-8 in. long.
Flowers: Small; white; in panicles.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A globose red pome.
Height: 10-20 ft.

CORAL TREE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Rosalest Leguminosse* Erythrina
Fabaceaet
SPECIES Pea
ERYTHRINA herbacea. t Hardy perennial herb. Florida.
Leaves: Compound; 2-4 ft. long.
Flowers: Deep scarlet; showy; in racemes.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A slender twisted pod; seeds scarlet.
Height: 2-4 ft.
"The roots of this plant may be stored after the manner of dahlias."*








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


SILVER THORN. OLEASTER. THORNY ELEAGNUS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Thymelealest Elveagnaceae* Elseagnus
Oleaster
SPECIES
ELAAGNUS pungens.* Hardy, spreading, spiny evergreen shrub.
Japan.
Leaves: Ovate to oblong; silvery beneath, with brown scales;
2-4 in. long.
Flowers: White; in clusters; fragrant.
Time of bloom: Spring and fall.
Fruit: A drupe, with silver and brown scales; %in. long.
Height: 6 ft.
BRONZE EL)EAGNUS
Var. reflexa.* A half-climbing variety.

AUTUMN ELEAGNUS
E. umbellata.* Flowers yellowish white, fragrant; fruit a red berry.
Height, 12 ft.


RICEPAPER-PLANT
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Ammialest Araliaceoe* Tetrapanax
Ginseng
SPECIES
TETRAPANAX papyriferum.* Tender shrub. Formosa.
Leaves: Rounded; 5-7-lobed; 1 ft. across; young leaves covered
with a felty down.
Flowers: Small; white; in many globular umbels, in a large
woolly panicle.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Small; globular.
Height: 5-7 ft.


74








EVERGREEN SHRUBS AND SMALL TREES 75

WILD LIME
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Geranialest Rutacee t Fagara
Rue
SPECIES
FAGARA fagara. f Hardy evergreen shrub or small tree. Coast of
Florida to Texas.
Leaves: Compound; leathery; obovate or oval; aromatic.
Leaflets 5-13; 3-4 in. long.
Flowers: Small; white or whitish; in cymes.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Seeds black, shining.
Height: To 30 ft.

SEVERINIA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Geraniales t Rutaceee* Severinia
SPECIES
SEVERINIA buxifolia.* Hardy, spiny, evergreen shrub or small
tree. Southern China.
Leaves: Oblong; small; dark green; 11 in. long.
Flowers: White; solitary; fragrant.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A small black berry.
Height: Low-growing.

CROWN-OF-THORNS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Euphorbiales t Euphorbiacee* Euphorbia
SPECIES Spurge
EUPHORBIA splendens.* Tender, half-climbing spiny shrub.
Madagascar.
Leaves: Few, mostly on the young growth; obovate; thin; bright
green; 1-2 in. long.
Flowers: In cymes having bright red bracts.








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


Time of bloom: Continuous.
Fruit: A capsule.
Height: Low, 3-4 ft.
POINSETTIA
E. pulcherrima.* Tender evergreen shrub. Tropical America.
Leaves: Large; oblong; bright green.
Flowers: Greenish yellow; bracts bright red; showy.
Time of bloom: Autumn and winter.
Fruit: Inconspicuous.
Height: 5-10 ft.
"There are forms in which the floral leaves are creamy white or
pink." *

REDBIRD-FLOWER. REDBIRD-CACTUS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Euphorbialest Euphorbiaceve* Pedilanthus
SPECIES Spurge
PEDILANTHUS tithymaloides.t Tender, fleshy shrub. Tropical
America.
Leaves: Ovate; dark green; 2-4 in. long; spreading.
Flowers: In cymes; bracts bright red; about 1 in. long.
Time of bloom: Continuous.
Fruit: Inconspicuous.
Height: 1-3 ft.
CROTONS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Euphorbiales t Euphorbiacese* Coditeum
Spurge
SPECIES
CODIUM variegatum.* Tender evergreen shrub. Tropics.
Leaves: Large; simple; milky; highly colored.
Flowers: In racemes; not showy.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: Inconspicuous.
Height: 1-12 ft.
Nurserymen list many varieties which differ in color and shape
of leaves.


76








EVERGREEN SHRUBS AND SMALL TREES 77

SNOWBUSH
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Euphorbiales t Euphorbiace-e* Breynia
SPECIES
BREYNIA nivosa.* (Phyllanthus nivosus.) Tender shrub of loose
habit with dark-red somewhat zig-zag branches. South Sea
Islands.
Leaves: 1-2 inches long, broadly ovate, obtuse, variegated white
and green.
Flowers: Small, greenish, hanging by long pedicels from the
leaf axils.
Fruit: A depressed berry %in. across.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Height: 6-8 ft.
Var. P. nivosus roseo-pictus: Leaves mottled pink and red as
well as green and white.

PALMA CHRISTI. CASTOR-OIL-PLANT. CASTOR-BEAN
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Euphorbiales t Euphorbiacese* Ricinus
SPECIES Spurge
RICINUS communis.* Semi-hardy evergreen tree-like herb. Africa.
Leaves: Large; showy; palmately lobed; 3 ft. across.
Flowers: In large racemes, without petals.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A spiny capsule; often red.
Height: 3-15 ft.

ACALYPHA. CHENILLE-PLANT
CHENILLE COPPER-LEAF
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Euphorbiales t Euphorbiaces* Acalypha
SPECIES Spurge
ACALYPHA hispida.* Tender evergreen shrub. Old-World tropics.
Leaves: Ovate; green; 4-8 in. long.
Flowers: In long red spikes, exceeding the leaves.
Time of bloom: Winter.








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


Fruit: In carpels.
Height: To 15 ft.
Var. alba.* Spikes creamy white.
PAINTED COPPERLEAF
A. wilkesiana.* Flowers red, inconspicuous; leaves ovate-acuminate,
bronze-green, mottled with red.

BOX
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Sapindales t Buxaceve* Buxus
SPECIES Box
BUXUS sempervirens.* Hardy shrub or small tree. Europe,
northern Africa, western Asia.
Leaves: Oval; dark green, shining above, pale beneath; Y2-l2Y
in. long.
Flowers: Pale green, with yellow anthers.
Time of bloom: Early spring.
Fruit: A capsule; seeds black.
Height: To 25 ft.
"Runs into many forms-dwarf, variegated-and with leaves varying
in size and shape."*
Box is well established in western Florida and is now being used in
eastern Florida with success.

INKBERRY. WINTERBERRY
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Sapindalest Aquifoliaceae* Rex
SPECIES Holly
ILEX glabra.f Hardy evergreen shrub. Florida and eastern
states.
Leaves: Obovate to oblanceolate; smooth.
Flowers: Small; white.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A black berry; numerous; persistent.
Height: 2-8 ft.
Plant sometimes dioecious.


78








EVERGREEN SHRUBS AND SMALL TREES 79

BLACK ALDER. WINTERBERRY. FEVERBUSH
I. verticillata. t
Leaves: Thick; elliptic to oval.
Flowers: Small; white.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A red berry.
Height: 10-15 ft.
CHINESE HOLLY
I. cornuta.* Hardy evergreen shrub. Northern China.
Leaves: Quadrangular-oblong; dark glossy green; 1~2-4 in.
long; 3 strong spines at apex.
Flowers: Dicecious; small; white; in clusters.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A scarlet berry; clustered.
Height: 10 ft. or more.

BRAZILIAN PEPPER TREE
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Sapindales t Anacardiaceae* 'Schinus
Cashew
SPECIES
SCHINUS terebinthifolius.* Tender evergreen shrub or small tree.
Brazil.
Leaves: Compound. Leaflets usually 7; 11-3 in. long.
Flowers: Small; white; in panicles.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A globose, scarlet drupe.
Height: 20 ft.
CATHA. KAT
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Sapindalest Celastracese* Catha
Stafftree
SPECIES
CATHA edulis.* Semi-hardy evergreen shrub. Arabia and Africa.
Leaves: Elliptic to oval; smooth; dark green.
Flowers: Small; white; in clusters.








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: An oblong capsule.
Height: 5-10 ft.

SPINDLE-TREE. EUONYMUS. EVONYMUS
WINTERCREEPER
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Sapindales t Celastracewa* Euonymus
Stafftree
SPECIES
EUONYMUS radicans.* Hardy, evergreen, climbing shrub.
Southern Japan.
Leaves: Ovate; dull green; 1-2 in. long.
Flowers: Inconspicuous; greenish white; in cymes.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A globose pink capsule; seldom produced.
Height: 20 ft.
E. japonica.* Upright shrub with smooth and slightly quadrangular
or striped branches. There are many varieties.with variegated
leaves.

TURKS-CAP. WAXMALLOW
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Malvales t Malvacewe* Malvaviscus
Mallow
SPECIES
MALVAVISCUS drummondi.* Tender evergreen shrub. Florida to
Texas and Mexico.
Leaves: Heart-shaped; 3-lobed; 2-4 in. long.
Flowers: Solitary, half opened; scarlet; showy; 1 in. long.
Time of bloom: Continuous.
Fruit: A red berry.
Height: 3-10 ft.
M. grandiflorus.* Flowers 2-22 in. long; leaves 3-4 in. long. The
improved variety most commonly seen in cultivation.
Malvaviscus springs up readily after being frosted and therefore
should be included in garden lists for northern Florida.


80








EVERGREEN SHRUBS AND SMALL TREES 81

HIBISCUS. CHINESE HIBISCUS
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Malvalest Malvaceae* Hibiscus
Mallow
SPECIES
HIBISCUS rosa-sinensis.* Semi-hardy evergreen shrub. Asia.
Leaves: Thin, large, broad-ovate; shining green; 3-4 in. long.
Flowers: Solitary; campanulate; large; yellow, pink, scarlet,
deep red; showy; 4-6 in. long.
Time of bloom: Early spring until frost.
Fruit: A dry capsule.
Height: 3-10 ft.
CONFEDERATE ROSE
H. mutabilis.* Semi-hardy evergreen shrub. China.
Leaves: Large; downy; somewhat heart-shaped; 4-8 in. across.
Flowers: Large; campanulate; white, pink, red; double or
single; 3-4 in. across.
Time of bloom: Continuous.
Fruit: A hairy capsule.
Height: 3-10 ft.
ALTHEA. ROSE-OF-SHARON
H. syriacus.* Hardy. Tardily deciduous evergreen shrub. Asia.
Leaves: Large; palmately lobed; pale green; 2-3 in. across.
Flowers: Showy; campanulate; pink, white, purplish; single or
double; 2-3 in. across.
Time of bloom: Spring.
Fruit: A large capsule.
Height: 6-12 ft.

SEA-ISLAND COTTON
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Malvales Malvacee* Gossypium
Mallow
SPECIES
GOSSYPIUM barbadense.* Tender annual or perennial shrub.
Central America.
Leaves: Large; palmately lobed.








IN FLORIDA GARDENS


Flowers: Campanulate; white, pink, yellow, magenta; showy.
Time of bloom: Continuous.
Fruit: A large green capsule. Seeds densely clothed with white
cotton.
Height: 3-6 ft.
Two species have been offered as ornamental plants:
G. davidsoni.* Flowers large; yellow, with purple base.
G. sturti.* Flowers large; purple, with dark center.

PINK BALL. SCARLET DOMBEYA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Malvales Sterculiacese* Dombeya
Sterculia (Assonia)
SPECIES
DOMBEYA wallichi.* Tender evergreen shrub. Madagascar.
Leaves: Large; velvety.
Flowers: Numerous; heads drooping; scarlet or pink; showy.
Time of bloom: Winter.
Fruit: Hairy.
Height: 30 ft.
D. natalensis.* Flowers white and fragrant.


CAMELLIA
ORDER FAMILY GENUS
Hypericales t Ternstrcemaceme* Camellia
Tea
SPECIES
CAMELLIA japonica.* Hardy evergreen shrub. Japan.
Leaves: Elliptic-oblong; green, shining; 2-4 in. long.
Flowers: Solitary; white to red and variegated; 3-5 in. across.
Time of bloom: Winter and spring.
Fruit: A woody capsule.
Height: To 30 ft.
Nurserymen list many varieties.
Readers are reminded of the very beautiful combinations of azaleas,
wisterias, and camellias in the Azalea Gardens, near Charleston, S. C.


82




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