,. t. D.,-bts
^ "-~B: f ar
^ r '* ^
CALVJ.WO T" YE
rfV ; A
They're So Different !
She was interning, in a second grade classroom,
and after the parent visitation night, early in the fall semester, she said in a sadly puzzled way:
"Well they keep saying how children have changed,
from what they used to be.
"But you know? ... The parents have changed a lot, too!"
And she described the evening.
So few parents bothered to come.
Those who did spared no glances at their children's work, so carefully displayed
on the walls and desks. They sat in the back of the room and talked among themselves
of things far removed from their children, and their children's school.
"That's not the way parents used to be!" she said.
And she was right.
We all fret and worry about how changed young people are, from the way they used to be.
That means from the way we were, or from the way our children were.
They do things so differently. They look different. They don't automatically respect their elders,
be they parents or teachers. They don't keep quiet. They keep insisting on their own opinions,
and they argue. They eat all the time instead of at mealtimes. They have no respect
for property, or prestige. They take things for granted. They aren't impressed
by today's technological marvels. They don't wear shoes. Their clothes are so strange.
They can't make up their minds what they want to do with their lives and, what's worse,
this doesn't worry them.
They get carried away with causes and candidates, and often their causes and candidates
aren't the same as ours.
It's a real problem. They're just not the same. They've changed, these young people.
Has anyone thought about "grownups" these days?
A glance backward reveals we've changed too.
FLORIDA SCHOOLS (October 1974, Volume XXXVII, No. 1) is an official publication of the Department of Education, Knott
Building, Tallahassee, Florida 32304. Issued four times a year: October, December, February and April. Second class postage paid at
Tallahassee, Florida 32301 and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Please send change of address notice to Florida
Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida 32304.
ADI&SON MIDDLE SCHOOL LIBRAB
ONE DAY CALVIN WANTED TO
LEARN HOW TO RIDE A MOTORCYCLE,
SO HIS FATHER BJUGLHT HIM A MOTOR-
CYCCE FOR HIS BIRTHDAY, BECAUSE
HE HAD BEEN A GOOD BOY.
HE FELL DOWN BUT HE WAS NOT
HE TRIED AGAIN.
HE FELL AGAIN TOO, BUT HE
KEPT ON UNTIL HE HAD LEARN HOW
CALVIN'S DADDY SAID "YOU
HAVE TO GET A JOB." "OK. I WILL."
SAID CALVIN. "I'LL O0 DOWN TO
THE NEWSPAPER MAN AND ASK I )M
CAN I GET A JOB."
WHEN CALVIN ASKED HIM, THE
MAN SAID "YES CALVIN, YOU CAN
HAVE A JOB HERE."
HE WORKED ALL DAY SATURDAY.
WHEN IT WAS TIME rTO CO HOME,
CALVIN GOT PAID AND MADE NINE
DOLLARS. WHEN HE DOT HOME, HE
GAVE HIS DADDY FOUR DOLLARS, TO
HELP PAY FOR HIS MOTORCYCLE.
HE ATE DINNER AND WENT TO
BED. HE WAS TIRED BUT HE WAS
that's title I
BY FRANCES MICKLER SANDERS
Mrs. Sanders is a school librarian and former Title I Reading teacher in
Madison Middle School, Madison
"--- and may I teach these children in any way I think will most
help them? Or must I follow a Federal or State 'Program'?"
"Oh no, Mrs. Sanders! There are no set rules for teaching in Title
I. We want our teachers to be innovative, and try new ideas. All
that these children have learned so far is that they're failures ---"
"Then these children will be the disciplinary problems of the
whole school, won't they?"
"Well ---" hedged my principal and county superintendent, as our
conference drew to a close. And thus began the most rewarding
year of my teaching career, because of course I accepted the
position of Title I Reading teacher for the Madison Middle School,
as it became evident that this position needed filling.
Humbled by the realization that these pupils had experienced
failure in Reading while in the classrooms of far better teachers
than I, my first step during pre-planning was a severe case of
self-examination coupled with my study of their cumulative
WRS. ANN IS A NICE LADY,
AND SHE MARRIED A MEN NAMED
What could I -- a white, middle-class, gently-reared (close to the
teachings of the Protestant faith by the world's best parents)
Southern lady -- offer my pupils? My pupils. Already I was
beginning to feel "Mother-hennish" as my eyes roved over the
school records of the 35 "under-achievers" assigned to me:
predominantly black and mostly boys. Words began leaping out at
me from the papers: "deserted by parents; living with
grandmother; suspicion of neglect; abuse; dyslexia; non-verbal."
No wonder these children couldn't comprehend textbook stories
about "circus clowns," "riding a sled in the snow" etc. Now, if
they could read a story about working in tobacco -- or -- I could
feel an idea struggling somewhere within my tired mind as my
thoughts began stripping gears.
I am expected to teach dyslexic children to read? Non-verbal
children to speak? What an extraordinary teacher this would
"Well, what makes a good teacher?" I asked myself. "Just a few
really basic ingredients," I answered. "A degree of intelligence."
(Guess I qualify here. Don't know how I could have gotten my
Master's Degree without it. O.K. So now I use it.) "A great
amount of compassion --- and a darned good memory!" (Guess I
qualify here, too. Is this why I almost never paddle and take them
outside the classroom even to "have a little talk?") I do remember
what it felt like to get "fussed at" --- to be embarrassed. The
sickening fear of being humiliated before my peers --- I do
But I've never been hungry.
Never been really cold.
Never been beaten by drunken parents.
q. ,. "Empathy!" That's the word I was groping for. I remember
hearing my doctor-brother address a graduating class of student
nurses with the words, "A really good nurse experiences empathy,
not sympathy. She becomes the patient in her mind. She thinks
jia what they think; fears what they fear; mentally feels the pain they
Feel -- if her ministry to them is effective." Empathy: I reached for
"The capacity for participating in, or a vicarious experiencing of,
-i another's feelings, volitions or ideas," .... said Mr. Webster.
I Yes! That's what a good teacher needs. (Do unto others as you
would have others do unto you. Have I heard this somewhere,
before?) Well then, if I were one of these, my pupils, what would
.. -,3 .
make me learn now, where I had failed before? First of all, I'd
have to feel that there was some hope for me. That maybe I could
learn. Someone would have to help me change my self concept. I
know that we learn through experience. My (their) experience up
to now has been failure --- D's and F's --- and shame. Shame that I
tried to conceal by saying, "I don't care," showing off and
becoming a discipline problem --- getting attention some way, any
way, if my grades couldn't do it for me.
Second, "things" would have to be different ... and fun. The
methods and manners of teaching heretofore had only taught me
that I couldn't ... and I hated it! My mind was closed to it. Who
Third, "things" would have to be pleasant. (I remember that I
could never learn in a strained, fussy, antagonistic atmosphere.
Produce, maybe, out of fear -- so as to make a good grade, but
QUESTION: O.K. -- so how do you give hope to the hopeless?
This county says we must grade.
SOLUTION: (Mine) The report cards we use in Madison County
now tell the level on which the student is being
taught, i.e. Above Average; Average; Below
Average. My pupils are all insulted every report
period by having Below Average circled. (Really
takes a lot of guts just to get up in the morning and
come back to school -- for more of this.)
Now, if this were me; would I work harder if I thought it were
possible to make an A on my report card? An A? Me? (If I had
never made one?)
My principal said "Yes, try it --" so I carefully explained to each
class exactly what they had to do, if they wanted an A on their
report card (hand in two story write-ups each week). This is called
Language Experience and involves using the English Language, not
just READING it. True, it is a subtle, sneaky way of involving the
student with such things as Capitalization, Punctuation, Indenting,
Paragraphing etc. but it works and I am a pragmatist at heart.
(Why not kill a covey of birds with one stone? We're way behind,
Most importantly, it forces a child to comprehend what he reads
--- for in his "Write-up" he must "tell what the story was about" ---
in as few lines, or paragraphs, as possible. And yes, you're right!
They're learning to condense their thoughts and practice their
eternal bug-a-boo, CURSIVE WRITING.
I 1LI. 18 Tl 110 W FuALMi TE L,, TO PIC NS
OLjA in&LUI TWN MD1.
M PlKa t PIW icOFLI IS M UE ID TBW TNT CM
mTr Lk. MI IO II .i* ULLT BI A aic.hu.
S1.UI.. U I AN IUUM AWMNT Iu BIIJ1.
a o1a DsA iu. mIA a iTs TO J asll. ir MvES u a
Jas L! K TWMl n 5.arL l& TA u IT uu I
682 TOW C1M1 51h =..
JSS O Bug FIST aE*" s alm. &Z XT DiAMIiL
LuI T MITn. ,M r.DuL FlUL TO ms w .210110U. 6
UU5M A LEO60, TW 11 IU i'I PAY TO BEL M LLU.
Jsu UM ", G.ou IV A IC TINS T rmTin TO
A IMUB # 'TO O TITIU TO sU A ULL,. I W LEN T1O U
10 M5 FRIA. Imi CA NAVE LOS r11 i1 S llEti
MS HMIA DMIA. up an THE KANX ISI. TU= TUPE BOE
MALMED WF TCOuTMAR.
D.aL MUIN TIM A M ILL! IU SU!U JRST -.
-E SIMON A FMS......
RESULT: Unbelievable effort. Every single student turned in
the required number of Write-Ups and received the
promised A. In fact, approximately 1/3 of them
turned in more than required, and took home their
"But I thought these children couldn't read," you say. "How
could they write about a story they'd read -- if they couldn't read?
Let me explain...
My students came to my classroom during their Reading Period,
from the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades, and no, they couldn't read well.
Not as well as others in their classes. Bad enough that they knew
that "they couldn't read. ." But they all could read some. and
this is where we started.
Drew up long-range-dream plans.
Studied Cumulative Folders.
Visited County Book Depository where I scrounged every old,
discarded, out-of-date 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade level reader I could
find. I have long since accepted John Dewey's tenet that we learn
by doing. I learned to swim by getting into the water, gurgling,
strangling, flailing, sinking -- over and over until one day I realized
that I was afloat -- and making headway! I learned to ride a bike
by sneaking my brother's to the end of the porch where I could
straddle the bar, push off and fall; over and over until I wobbled
upright to the end of the sidewalk! I learned to read by reading.
Road signs, can labels, funny papers, "Big Little Books" --
remember? -- books, books, books. Words. Over and over until I
recognized some, and put them together with others, thrilled when
they made sense! By holding a book in my hands. After school.
Soaking in the bathtub. Holding a flashlight under the covers in
bed. NOT JUST 45 MINUTES, 5 DAYS A WEEK, IN A
Heretofore, I had been admonished not to let my students take
their "Readers" home. They might lose them. But I wanted these
students to have their books with them at all times. On the bus. At
home. At school. Their Write-Up assignments were to be done out
of school. Classroom time was to be used for Reading, yes, but
other things, too. The chips were down this year. My students had
to establish the habit of "book holding."
At the Book Depository I also found an old Typing Teacher's
Manual, and latched on.
I 11.11 Visited the North Florida Junior College bookstore and purchased
,- 35 paperback, pocket-size Dictionaries for my students to carry
with them, or whatever. Two definitions of words "they didn't
'; ,- c" ''' know" from their Write-Up stories were due every week, too. This
S-. was my first purchase with my Title I funds. I promised a
"surprise" to every student who still had the Dictionary on the
last day of school. I've got to go into my life savings, because with
four days of school left now, as I write these notes, almost all of
I PUT 2 i-r or SELF- them have them! They didn't lose them. Indeed, after they
sco0. TN I UT Vt searched diligently for all the "bad" words that they knew, they'd 5
UIPA .AND ST IRE IT run across enough interesting ones that their lists 'far
0 i r F AS MIXED JUST out-numbered the two required weekly.
IIlT I PATTD THEM INTO BS3CUITS
PfW IEMM IN A IPIDER* AlN
mPUT _i THE OVEN. TEY Ordered THE NEW STREAMLINED ENGLISH SERIES materials,
n sometimes known as the Frank Laubach "Each One Teach One"
reading materials for which he is credited with establishing World
Literacy. (More about this later.)
FRm uMa. FIRST WEEK OF SCHOOL:
First things first! We used the English Language this week,
i verbally. We sat in a small circle every day and talked. Got to
know each other, and appreciate each other. Discovered what a
select group we were -- and how much we knew that many others
didn't. How smart we were! Jerome knew how to fish, and where
to find the best bait! Barbara knew how to bake biscuits;
Elizabeth could cook collard greens; Jackie, cakes. Calvin washed
his own clothes, and planted a garden every year. Leon knew how
his Grandmother made soap! Nearly everyone knew how to
"prime" and "string" tobacco. I learned most of all, mostly how
A4 little I really knew. (Like how to bake biscuits -- and that "Heah
go 'dat book" means "Here is the book we've been looking for.")
At the end of this first week, we resolved that before the year was
over we would share our knowledge with the world. How? We
WHLE TE SSBITS IrRE BAKJI c would write our own books! And with this Behavioral Objective
WANIA SET THE TABLE AND OiEND TO
CAS OF sour. so', Is oMo rFO defined, we promised to learn the words needed to accomplish this
SIUK PEOLE, AND EVERYBODY ELSE
LIKED IT. TOO. task.
SE PICKED VE(TIBLE-BEEF
BECAUSE HER VA'M LIKED IT BEST.
SECOND WEEK OF SCHOOL:
^ Using the opaque projector so that all could "read along", we
began Frances Burnett's classic tale of an unloved nine year old
English girl poignantly portrayed in "The Secret Garden." For 15
minutes thereafter, we experienced our first "Bibliotherapy"
sessions during classtime, and I thrilled seeing these, my little ones,
realize that others, too, had been unloved and ill treated -- some,
S- '; as in this case, because they were unloveable. That we could
EPIE'WY LJ4Tfl SISIER IN THE
Wf1te FUEttER 30DN, mD
l '.h OtALLY HELP OUTI OCTOBER 1974
, B au .1J-eT SAID," T ,
The Boy 'ho Mode Saap
change our futures, if we really tried, and that life really was,
pretty much, what we made of it! Seeing this realization spread
over their faces, along with the fantastic awareness that reading a
book was fun, made the week worthwhile!
The remainder of our class period was spent with the children
happily browsing through all of the reading materials I'd collected
while I gave each student an Informal Reading Inventory for
placement (and circled words on the Dolch List* that they didn't
6 know). The students were free this week to select their own book
and start on their first Write-Up. Again, I learned! Imagine my
surprise, when, after five years of college and thousands of dollars,
to discover that a child will select to read (if given a choice) what
he/she can read. For when I selected the book appropriate for
each student, (according to my painstaking diagnosis) I found that
the majority of my students had already selected that very one...
Reading Levels determined, I now took off a day and headed for
the State Surplus Depository at Starke, where for $258.60 (Title I
Funds), I purchased eight renovated typewriters, reams of typing
paper, ribbons, and fifty discarded children's library books. I sang
all the way home.
THIRD WEEK OF SCHOOL:
Immediate launching into our typing drills! The children could
hardly contain their happiness and excitement as we quickly
learned (oh, how quickly -- I couldn't believe it! These were
slow-learners, weren't they?) how to insert paper, lock keys for
capitals, and where our fingers should rest on the keys. (Blessed
old Typing Teacher's Manual!) After a few "j-u-g, space," etc.
drills, we felt familiar with the keys. I never insisted on proper
fingers on proper keys. This could wait until a real typing course.
Secure at our typewriters by Friday, we began to "keep our
promise." Mastery of the Dolch List. Learning the words we
needed to know to write our own book!
As each child took his/her personal Dolch List to the typewriter
with particular hang-ups circled, the room reverberated with
sounds. Voices chanted aloud, "w-a-s, was; t-h-e-m, them; t-h-e-r-e,
there; etc. as keys clicked and carriages returned, for each word
had to be typed ten times -- then used and underlined in a
*Dolch List: Listing of 220 basic words that should have been mastered by 4th grade -
and which, sadly, we had not.
L ON L t E blowv
IIB LXE go WCH rHJT ff &MOST CIDII'T AIR TPJ4
I0 WG8 EA ATOSMTE IoB PO"1 TO S II O T-.
STO T D ITO' B 10D L i ri. .
WRIa M r T TO MTHP "Aw ANJ VA Nd W1i-
CAME INTO TWE M00T AD SAID, 00 YU VANT TO
a w mO To 0W SOAP., JiF AIN J7T SIID,
B010 T AREWCIPE.
D"TIM no Arpa
t100 Hi 010AR0 TO MU1 TW SOAP. 1I
IS Wit IHE WAT B001 IT,
- -. bo ..u .mw ._I blW, -.
,', i f-i. w ', "I
NGP i6jq n as a& 404110.
,, ,i,; _
On DoT JT WAS Dom To win I Mi aUA.
SABA IN OMUWATUT,?SBM 0 GaOL ROOM
WAIT mUTI SCHOOL WAS 0771.
APTER SCHOOL 377 CAODATft Me so nWo .
WATM, DOMOUhh vM SIB GIRANNAf ULID.
WE, IDA ooo w It maw -r ila ya
WONW JayS1A OMR MD OK U *0lE Y IIDA,
OADAIIAWAI- JDFP RBA To WO OW GRAMNL
DS R AIT 'I HAlVE NOT BEEN YO11U IN A L0G
TUNT, OFT.- THEN JEFF WENT INTO TOW SDOU ADD
IUffCIOD MS SUITOASS.
I ALLOW OF WATOR
I C"? 0?, "M01
2 YAIAMfAIUSP Ln M BUZ
MI1 TWEO MUDOI 1701 TOGIN M AWO BOIL. AST
TIM L.11 HAS 'A r. mNN r -W. JMI AUG A LHITn VON
00111W UNTIL Irfl, FCA LBVT 1.17 I OW MTH
sOAP IS svppD Er I. THIE r'FA ITTILB G" 0 0 BO.
1010 AM D7 IF IT ID ISD" FIlW.
08 BUT, IV COL(D 6 MOL -RLY TOI M UP JINIFFM
SOAP DEWF AnD MAKE -WRY. mal ..a m77F9 BH
730005 DlOP M1110 Tzavu. N7Y~ DUU Jr tHU
roxim. = W Exams saftrer". somMM m
WASM 0 TO 7 6OUTRING flA *I% ,31 D0 ikMRUM XM
CLEAN) AlM ZOUIF : Fh.AT .,77L DAD MINOTWI
on D071 000 OLD SO*2
Students passing on the walk-ways stopped and peeped in, eyes
wide -- and when one little fellow exclaimed, "Mrs. Sanders, this is
where the smart children come, ain't it?" -- my students, to a man,
sat straighter, looked at each other -- and smiled.
Inevitably, the bell rang, and eight voices cried out, "Mrs. Sanders,
do we have to go?" "Can we come in before school tomorrow?"
Hope -- to the hopeless...
FOURTH WEEK OF SCHOOL:
Began using our Wall Charts and Skill Books ordered earlier. I
learned of this material through my Methodist Church. Its creator,
Frank Laubach, was one of our great contemporary Christians,
and designed the course to enable adult illiterates to be able to
read the Word of God -- quickly -- and teach others to do so. Since
it is highly phonetic, and begins with letter sounds reinforced with
a visual picture -- for quick remembering -- I decided to try it with
children. It is different. It is fun. It works!
FIFTH WEEK OF SCHOOL:
Began our Public Library visiting. Our school libraries are good,
but I wanted to introduce my students to our wonderful
Suwannee River Regional Library -- to make them feel
comfortable there so that they would continue to visit in the
summer and hold or raise their reading levels; not experience again
the slump inevitably produced by three months of "no reading."
They were so enchanted by the variety of books and records to
check out and tapes to enjoy there -- not to mention the
friendliness and helpfulness of the librarian -- that they counted
off the days on our calendar until time for our next visit! It seems
that this activity was doubly appreciated, for the Library honored
"Mrs. Sanders' classes" with a delightful program toward the end
of school, including three colored cartoons and a puppet show!
But the best of all, the families of the students were now so
carried away with the items their children were bringing home,
that they were planning to participate, and I heard over and over,
"Miz Sanners, my mama say can she get a book?" Or "My daddy
read two chapters of Black Beauty to me last night!"
SIXTH WEEK OF SCHOOL:
Our weekly "Spelling Game" was introduced! Our confidence was
boosted enough now, through our daily typing drills on the Dolch
List words, that we could prove to ourselves -- and the world --
that, indeed, we were learning. Every time we mastered ten new
words, we got our names tacked on the Bulletin Boards (over the
blackboards, around the room) to remain until the next "Spelling
Game." No tests. No grades. (Heavens, we had failed enough tests
to sicken us of school forever!) Just glory and honor, and prestige
and praise, and laughter and smiles, and back-patting and yes,
candy when we worked hard and "Won the Game."
According to the clenched hands, shiny white-toothed grins and
sparkly eyes -- I'm sure no Hollywood starlet was ever more
thrilled seeing her name in lights, than my pupils seeing their
8 names (emblazoned on a long thin strip of yellow poster paper)
hoisted into position with THE WINNERS, for the first time!
It was during these Spelling Games that I sneaked in most of my
"Values" teaching this year. I guess I gave the Rev. Billy Graham a
pretty good run for his money. Just about the last thing I
remember about my Language Arts instructor was his "farewell
advice" thrown at his class of new teachers, preparing to move
into classrooms throughout this country. He urged us to ".. .teach
Values! Teach Values! Ever since the Supreme Court ruling
concerning prayer in the schools, some teachers have backed off
from this area entirely. We can't do this. We must bring these
children up 'in the way that they should go'.. .and we're assuming
that their parents and/or their churches are doing it, and in many
cases this just isn't so. This is your responsibility now more than
ever. Do it!" Well, this year especially, I did it. Our Spelling Games
went something like this:
"As. As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he." (It has always been
my practice to use each word in a sentence, that I call for them to
"What 'dat mean, Miz Sanners?"
"Well, it means that we pretty much behave like we think we are.
If we think we're good then we behave good. We're friendly, and
kind, and honest, and work hard, and do good things. You know,
like even picking up paper on the school grounds sometimes.
Things like that. Loving and helping other people, too. And it
means that if you think that you can learn to spell these words,
then by golly, you can! 'Cause you'll get off in a corner at home,
and you'll write 'em over and over until you know 'em, right?"
"Even. Even a child is known by what he does."
"Whut 'dat mean, Miz Sannurs?"
"Well. .it means that everytime someone mentions your name,
the person who hears it thinks something. He might think, 'Oh, I
rut Co6 Wmi,
w, i *,, ra.,iV
JS'1 nM l;rhk I ra,
ONE DAY, THEY IRE PLAYING
IEN IT STARTED TO RAIN. SO SALLY
SmRTED TO CLP HER HANDS. "CLAP,
htP, CUAP."-" AD IT STOPPED
SALLY THE COOD WITCH HAD
SOME FRIENDS. THEIR NAMES IERE
JANE AND SAM.
Sk qj4 f
SALLY 1OIE YAM4 RIM THINCS
FOR PEOPLE. EVWVOm LOWED
SALLY, THE GOOD ITCY.
know him. He's a nice guy.' Or he might think, 'Yuk!' It's up to
us, though, whatever they think, isn't it?"
"Yas, maam." Giggles.
"Love. Let us love one another."
"I know whut 'dat mean!"
"Good! But do you know who said it? Did the principal tell us to
"Nawm! Jesus say 'dat!"
"Right! And did you ever notice just how he put it? He put it to
us? He didn't say, 'I think it would be nice if you loved one
another,' did He? Or, 'I recommend that you love one another,'
did He? He just said 'Love one another.' Do it. Sort of like orders
...and so on. With each word.
Began tape recording our oral reading:
I admit I had qualms about this. Their cultural dialect had a charm
of its own; was understood and accepted by them, and their
families. Yet, I reasoned, was this not my responsibility as their
teacher -- to prepare them for a better life -- and equip them with
the verbal tools needed to help them in a competitive society? Yet
how could I approach this without offending both them and their
parents, from whom they had learned their speech patterns?
Parents! A light. My own mother had long endured her
"smartalecky" children's teasing about her Southern drawl. Sure! I
could tell them about my mother's speech.
This unit, called "Hearing is Believing" proved to be one of our
most rewarding -- and was introduced something like this:
"Boys and girls, you know how important it is for me to
pronounce our spelling words clearly -- so that you can hear the
sounds of the letters, right?"
"Right on." "Yas, maam--"
"Well, we tease my mother because she doesn't always pronounce
her words the right way -- the way they're spelled!"
"What yo' mean, Miz Sannurs? Whut she say?"
"Well, let's see. Sometimes she says, 'Po me another cup of coffee,
honey --.' Now, spell 'Po'."
. .' ^'
Thi VL 1 aM I ThIE illU GA, Alu. I nVL
S u*LM. j.LAB. I IJDI BIALlG. A ib ALa LOVl
MT iaiJU. LIT l TIEL. y5OU alDT Ml..
"P-O, PO", they chanted in unison amidst their knee-slapping and
Glory! The point was made...
How I wished for a motion camera throughout the year to catch
their facial expressions as they struggled with the correct
enunciation of "pour", "yes", "shut", "looked", "going" etc. And
what pleasure registered on each face as they heard themselves, on
the playback, overcome a personal fault.
Title I enabled me, an ordinary teacher in a public school in a
small Southern town (a racial battleground, the newspapers say --
Ha!) to try some methods of teaching that I'd always thought
would work -- but had never before been permitted to try. A year
of research, really. There are still many ideas I'd like to try! Like,
why, if Johnny can't read. .why not increase reading instruction
time in the first, second and third grades? Why not Reading in the
morning and afternoons? Sure, it would double their Reading
Periods. It would also double their reading ability! Sure, I know
children need to play. I know, too, that they play when they get
home. Children go to school to learn to read! Maybe next year. ..
Meanwhile, I'm just thankful for my freedom in the classroom this
year; and especially thankful that my ideas worked.
"Did they?" you ask, "Really?"
Well, when all of my yearly evaluations were turned in to Mr. Bill
Roberts, our Madison County, Florida Title I Director, it was
discovered that not only had 89% of my pupils achieved 5 months
or more (our goal) gain in Reading Ability, but the Metropolitan
Test Scores verified that 19 of my 35 students had gained 12 to 19
I know that I saw tears in some eyes at school's closing (through
my own) as my students said goodby, clutching their originally
written and illustrated books; the words of which having been
thought of, spelled (most of 'em), and typed by themselves!
My dyslecticc" wrote the longest book -- and my non-verbal
student was talking. (I'll admit that my promising to give him a
dollar on future events -- like Carnival Day and Field Trip -- if he
would, helped relax his vocal chords a little! But why not? Like I
said, I'm a pragmatist at heart. If it works, do it!)
Hope -- to the hopeless. That's Title I.
m O IW aI i Va in i L.. man W iL
AW L. LABl AD L0 1 1 a I iU 1 ulC.
l uM uN uHAIR. GUE REYE &D uiil TAL.
I SLu. T" MiREAl NI 0 1 u..AM ,.
***D "* ** ***** i an ""--
IL Y NIIMT, I LumLin aD iw uI n a OTIIw
so aTAMuanam Tro ~M P I LMMfsf
ar aHar. s TLL LUB B haR 0m Zr 1R
ar ,G za a N ta M BU. 1-=m LW B M
IB 1 WWI
TAM noa LuArM = Mu 3I nI-M WINf TMB TOG u"
MYm. S. 5-
BY HOWARD JAY FRIEDMAN
Mr. Friedman is executive assistant for public
information to the Commissioner of Education.
The 1974 Legislature passed 50 bills dealing with education,
of which 49 became law. (One bill dealing with education
was vetoed by the Governor.) A total of 419 school bills (263
House, 156 Senate) were considered by the legislature during
the session (April 2 May 31).
AID TO SCHOOL DISTRICTS
The General Appropriations Bill contains $1,226,901,384 in
total aid to school districts. The basic FEFP stands at
$1,015,365,000 with $4 million for diagnostic and resource
centers and $635,000 for severely and profoundly retarded
programs ($745 per FTE base student cost with $5 per FTE
earmarked for inservice training). Other items include: career
education, $5 million; school lunch program, $4.1 million;
comprehensive health education, $1.1 million; leadership
training, $250,000; education broadcasting, $2.95 million;
and environmental education program, $300,000. K-12 funds
are based on the 8 mill cap.
The figure for community colleges is $145,837,011, with the
FTE capped at 138,667. In addition, there is $5,185,955
from CO&DS funds.
Recommendation for universities is $362,837,011. In
addition, the bill includes: IFAS, $32 million; Health Center
and Teaching Hospital, $45.8 million; Medical Center, $6.9
The state's scholarship and loan program is set at $16.7
FIXED CAPITAL OUTLAY
From revenue sharing: $75.2 million for comprehensive
school construction ($25 million earmarked for relocatables).
From higher education bonds: community colleges,
$31,648,700; vocational centers, $24,689,300; and universi-
ties, $26,512,000, to include acquisition of a branch campus
in Pinellas County. Also provided is $3,500,000 for
community college renovation and $16,884,600 for universi-
ty renovation and construction from General Revenue Funds.
AND FOR THE RECORD
Although the 1974 session had been billed in advance as a
"catch-up" session for education, with no broad new school
programs expected, several significant changes in law were
made which will have both immediate and long-range impacts
on Florida schools.
In the area of finance, the 8 mill cap on local ad valorem
taxes and other changes in the FEFP place the state on a
financial equalization level of an estimated 94 percent,
second highest in the nation, and legislative sentiment
appears locked-in on the concept of equalization. A new
thrust was made in school construction, continuing the
allocation of federal revenue sharing funds for buildings
($89.5 million in 1973-74, $75.2 million this session), and
giving the state more authority in local building decisions,
hopefully to speed-up school construction throughout the
Biggest impact from new legislation is expected from passage,
after many years of effort by the teaching profession and
others, of state procedures for collective bargaining. The new
administrative procedures act and the requirement for
financial disclosure on the part of elective officials and
selected state employees, will also require many administra-
tive changes in their implementation. In the area of
instruction, a new instructional materials statute was enacted
and a program of free enterprise and consumer education was
called for in the K-12 school program. In addition, a
non-contributory retirement system was established begin-
ning January 1 for persons in the Florida Retirement System
and a new board was authorized to license private vocational
As has become the pattern in recent sessions, the problems of
education financing continue to be a major legislative
activity, especially off the floor, in committee and
subcommittee sessions. And an education-knowledgeable
legislature continues to write and re-write school legislation
aimed at equalization, greater accountability, and more local
orientation. Although the next session will see a major
change in leadership in both the House and Senate, this trend
is expected to continue.
(FROM GENERAL REVENUE FUND & FEDERAL REVENUE SHARING)
Expenditures Appropriation Increase
1973-74 1974-75 (Decrease)
Florida Education Finance Program .............................$ 830,000,0001 $ 1,020,000,0002 $ 190,000,000
Textbooks ............... .................................. 11,188,442 12,581,299 1,392,857
Driver Education ............................................. 2,700,000 2,813,400 113,400
Community School Program .................................. 1,010,354 1,612,392 602,038
School Lunch Program ....................................... 3,525,795 4,175,377 649,582
Exceptional Child-Materials Resource Center .................... 112,000 120,000 8,000
Safe Schools ............. ............................... 1,850,000 1,850,000 -
Extended School Year ........................................ 637,000 (637,000)
Career Education Development Program ........................ 5,000,000 5,000,000 -
Environmental Education ...................................... 70,000 300,000 230,000
Comprehensive Health Education ............................... -1,176,511 1,176,511
Total General Revenue Contributions to District Schools ..........$ 856,093,5911 $ 1,049,628,9792 $ 193,535,388
Comprehensive School Construction and Debt Service ........... 89,500,0003 75,200,0003 (14,300,000)
Total Contributions to District Schools ..........................$ 945,593.591.3 $ 1,124,828,9792.3 $ 179,235,388
State Expenditures (from General Revenue and Federal Revenue Sharing) $ 2,181,511,918'3 $ 2,619,192,4782.3 $ 437,680,560
Approved by the Legislature-Including General Appropriations Act and Other
Percent for Contribution to District Schools ..................... 43.350 42.95% 40.9500
Community College Program ........................ ........... 121,229,334 145,837,011 24,607,677,
Fixed Capital Outlay ............................ .......... ....... 3,500,000 3,500,000
Adult Offender Education ............................. ...........-. 175,000 175,000
Total Contributions to Community Colleges ......................$ 121,229.334 $ 149.512,011 $ 28,282,677
State Expenditures (from General Revenue and Federal Revenue Sharing) $ 2,181,511,918'13 $ 2,619,192,47823 $ 437,680,560
Approved by the Legislature-including General Appropriations Act and Other
Percent for Contribution to Community Colleges ................. .. ., 5. ..,7% 6',46%,
Division ofUniversities .
Administered Funds:": % N -
First Acqredited Medical School.............................. 4S :. 4W A- 9 18.575
Regional Education ........................................ t ,598 1,;s550f 269,152
Southern Regional Council on Mental Health .................. 8,000 8,000 -
Institute on Higher Education ......... ...................... 10,000 10,000t
Community Hospital Education Program ....................... 738,000 2,500,000 1,762,000
Competitive Research Projects.......................... ........ 1,263,981 1,263,981
Public Service Projects ..................................... 99,599 99,599
Program Emphasis ........................... .......... ....... 285,754 285,754
Law Schools Supplement ...................................-. 300,000 300,000 -
Northwest Florida Medical Education ........................ 42,500 42,500
New College-Operating Costs ............................... 1,100,000 1,100,000
USF-Branch Campus, Lee County ...........................-. 305,202 305,202
Fixed Capital Outlay............................. ............. 11,500,000 18,232,880 6,732,880
University of Florida-Teaching Hospital and Allied Clinics ....... 9,971,697s 9,971,697
Educational and General Budgets............................... 166,401,259 190,098,084 23,696,825
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences...................... 22,987,150 27,559,893 4,572,743
University of Florida-Health Center ........................... 21,120,2354 17,582,6055 (3,537,630)
University of Florida-Veterinary Medicine ...................... 334,047 601,511 266,864
University of Florida-EIES ......................... .......... 750,000 750,000-
University of South Florida-Medical Center ..................... 3,558,273 6,950,449 3,392,176
Total Division of Universities.................................$ 231,829,587 $ 283,271,905 $ 51,442,318
State Expenditures (from General Revenue and Federal Revenue Sharing) $ 2,181,511,918'3 $ 2,619,192,4782-3 $ 437,680,560
Approved by the Legislature-Including General Appropriations Act and Other
Percent for Universities ............... ...................... 10.63% 10.82% 11.75%
Scholarships and Grants...................................... 3,827,291 4,665,800 838,509
Educational Leadership Training Act............................... 150,000 250,000 100,000
Educational Broadcast System ................................. 399,9976 2,950,000' 2,550,003
Teacher Education Centers ............................ -- ..... 60,000 60,000
Manpower Development Training ................................ 332,000 332,000
Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind ....................... 5,346,7917 5,883,754' 538,983
Other State Services .............................. .............. 13,424,753 14,f26,527 841,774
Total Other Programs and Services.............................$ 23,540,832 $ 28,408,081 $ 4,867,249
TOTAL FOR EDUCATION ...........................................$ 1,322,193,344 $ 1,586,020,976 $ 263,827,632
State Expenditures (from General Revenue and Federal Revenue Sharing) $ 2,181,511,918'3 $ 2,619,192,4782. $ 437,680,560
Approved by the Legislature-Including General Appropriations Act and Other
PERCENT FOR EDUCATION .................................... 60.61% 60.55% 00.28%
'Includes $2,500.000 paid from State School Trust Fund.
'Includes $4.075.065 appropriated from State School Trust Fund.
'Funding from Federal Revenue Sharing.
*UF-Teaching Hospital and Allied Clinics included in UF-
Health Center 1973-74 Appropriation
'UF-Teaching Hospital and Allied Clinics received separate
appropriation in 1974-75.
*Part of expenditure included in Other State Services.
'Includes 5929.525 appropriated for Fixed Capital Outlay.
'Includes $1,028.200 appropriated for Fixed Capital Outlay
lb m f
FLORIDA LEGISLATURE 1974
updating FEFP, with 8 mill cap, base student cost of
$745, $487 million local required effort, 10 percent
weighted FTE "hold harmless", listing specified
categorical programs and revising formula (CSHB
providing community college funds allocated by FTE
assigned by DOE to each college, with new
transportation formula (HB 3757)
providing different local required effort computation
when tax rolls are contested (SB 609)
paying full tuition fees for children of deceased
veterans (CSHB 2235)
providing additional 60 days for payment of
registration fees for veterans attending school under
federal education assistance act (HB 2621)
exempting admissions to certain public school events
from sales tax (HB 711)
requiring schools to offer programs in free enterprise
and consumer education (CSSB 77)
establishing school health services act, with HRS to
conduct health screening programs and diagnostic
followup, DOE and districts to provide in-service
health training, coordinate health education programs
limiting educational accountability program to
reading, writing, mathematics, testing of third and
sixth grades by 1974-75, all third through sixth by
1975-76, assessment to assure comparability with
national indicators of performance (HB 1145)
revising textbook selection and distribution process,
with new councils June 30, 1974, limit on number of
texts selected removed, districts to order direct from
depository only (CSSB 492)
defining community school programs to include
recreational, cultural, social, health and other shared
community needs (SB 887)
repealing law requiring physical for driver education
students (HB 2591)
establishing public employees relations act, setting
out procedures for collective bargaining by all public
employees, including school employees (HB 2028)
requiring financial disclosure of earnings and holdings
of public officials and candidates (CSCSHB 3418)
establishing standards of conduct commission to
administer code of ethics for state employees (HB
providing for non-contributory Florida Retirement
System, with state assuming 4 percent contribution
for state employees, community colleges, district
school boards, on January 1, 1975 (CSHB 3909)
removing principals and supervisors from definition as
instructional personnel, eliminating continuing con-
tract rights after July 1, 1977, setting out contract
conditions (CSHB 157)
establishing specific duties for school principals as
administrators (HB 1199)
authorizing district school boards to provide two days
personal, two days emergency leave, four days sick
leave on employment with one additional day per
month employed, without accrual leave, for all
personnel (SB 80)
including district school boards, community colleges
under employment compensation program (HB 4122)
authorizing all governmental agencies, including
schools, to enter into tax sheltered annuity programs
for employees (SB 941)
including university personnel as eligible for group
health, life and accident insurance (HB 1554)
commending James L. Casale of Naples, as Florida's
Teacher of the Year 1974 (SR 692, HR 3714)
commending Commissioner of Education Ralph
Turlington for twenty-four years legislative service
establishing new school construction program, office
of school facilities on staff of Commissioner,
outlining building codes, use of relocatables, proto-
type plant plans (CSHB 4026)
proposing constitutional amendment extending high-
er education bonds authority, permitting use for K-12
authorizing BOE to issue bonds up to $117 million
during 1973-74 under higher education bond
amendment (HB 3371), allocating proceeds
$31,648,700 to community colleges, $24,689,300 to
district school boards, $26,512,000 to universities
establishing standard building code for all public
buildings (HB 3231)
requiring all new construction, including schools, to
provide special facilities for handicapped persons
establishing procedures for adoption of rules and
regulations, holding of public hearings, public notice,
publication of planned rules (CSSB 892)
authorizing Commissioner of Education to eliminate
forms and reports, to reorganize Department of
Education (SB 1088)
changing requirements for admission to first grade,
permitting late entrance, taking of readiness test
requiring private training schools to purchase surety
bond to indemnify loss to student of prepaid tuition
requiring apparel, flags, belts and devices used by
school safety patrols and police directing school
traffic to be made from fluorescent materials (HB
requiring DOT to adopt uniform system of school
traffic controls (SB 267)
increasing private automobile travel reimbursement
from 10 cents to 14 cents per mile (HB 308)
requiring travel authorization form to include reasons
and benefits of travel (SB 255)
permitting district school superintendents to locate
office anywhere in the county (HB 1174)
restoring cut in salary of superintendents dropped
back to maximums in state salary schedule (CSHB
authorizing Board of Regents to own and administer
copyrights and patents developed by universities (HB
authorizing universities to accept credit cards for
payment of tuition, fees, and other services (HB
requiring district school boards to schedule routes to
eliminate standees while bus is in motion (HB 1782)
providing admission priority at vo-tech schools for
Vietnam veterans (HB 1990)
permitting insurers to invest in student loans
guaranteed by federal government (HB 611)
naming part of Florida Deaf and Blind School "The
Verle Allyn Pope Complex for the Deaf" (SB 1091)
establishing independent post-secondary vo-tech
board to set standards for licensing of vocational
schools (CSSB 56)
requiring at least one of seven trustees of Florida
School for Deaf and Blind to be a blind person, one
to be deaf (HB 1837).
STATE 'S TEXTBOOK
Florida's state textbook program has been
substantially revised by the 1974 Florida
Legislature, with passage of CSSB 492 which
amends or rewrites most of the existing
sections of Chapter 233, Florida Statutes,
pertaining to the program.
The Courses of Study Council has been
abolished and functions which were perform-
ed by that council have not been reassigned.
Former State Textbook Selection Councils
were abolished as of June 30 and are being
replaced by State Instructional Materials
Councils. Membership on each of these
councils is required to be nine persons
(formerly each council's membership was no
fewer than three, no more than nine).
(Exceptions, under the law, were elementary
and social science councils, whose member-
ships were 12 each.) Each council must
include: four classroom teachers, two lay
persons, one school board member, two
instructional supervisors (former requirements
did not specify number of classroom teachers,
did not specify how many lay persons, did
not require school board representation).
Under the new law, each lay member of any
council is entitled to $50 per day of service
for compensation (formerly all members
received $10 per day). Also, the new law
provides for reimbursement to the district
school board for actual cost of substitute
teachers needed while teacher members are
serving on a council. Professional members
will receive no additional compensation for
Members of the State Instructional Materials
Councils are not allowed to discuss any
matters relating to materials with any
publisher or manufacturer except during the
open, public sessions of the Councils.
Previously publishers' representatives were
entitled to specified time-length interviews
with council members during the year of
Increased local involvement is encouraged
under the new law, which provides for
District Instructional Materials Councils of six
members (three teachers, three lay members)
who must report their findings to the state
councils in a prescribed and uniform manner.
Adoption procedures include the new require-
ment that state councils give weighted
consideration to district recommendations
submitted according to full-time equivalent
student enrollment in each district.
Also, the former requirement that adoptions
in each grade and subject be limited to a
maximum of five is deleted, and unlimited
adoptions in any area are allowed.
A new condition of adoption is that the
publisher must provide written proof of the
use of learner verification and revision
process, during pre-publication development
and post-publication revision of the materials
Funding under the new law is changed from
state administration to direct district control.
Formerly, the Department of Education
purchased, requisitioned and inventoried the
materials, supplying the districts according to
their textbook allocations. Under the new
law, the Commissioner of Education notifies
each district of its allocation, funds are
distributed directly to the district and each
district makes its own purchases. Also, the
district makes its own determination as to
disposal of unsuitable materials, in accordance
with Regulations of the State Board of
"It was v
on" -- edi
THY OLIVIERI AND PANSY READ are actually dependent upon the continuation
of the science that has fostered one of the
ri is a business education teacher in St. most fascinating machines ever produced. Are
Senior High School and Mrs. Read teaches the young people in our schools being
location at Amos P. Godby High School in exposed to what such an invention of the
human mind can do? It was our contention
that they are not usually familiar with some
ie should be exposed to this of the more elementary workings of this
;e." machine and we welcomed the opportunity to
introduce a small computer presentation to a
it's amazing! I've never done limited number of students in a Tallahassee
like it before." high school.
ery educational and exciting." In a three-week period, we presented to
re comments from students "turned students in the Business Education Depart-
ucationally. ment of Amos P. Godby High School in
Tallahassee, one area of computer technology.
id us computers are beginning to do We were impressed with the reactions that we
More of the work that man can no obtained, and the degree of enthusiasm the
crnmnlish We hbelieve that nour lives \/nlunntrc Hrisnin rld at hnwinn harl tho nrnn
.--r- -- U V
IU IIU L 11 y U ZIIY IU ll YV
fortune to glimpse what may be ahead in the
way of solving complicated problems with a
Dr. Frank Banghart, Professor of Educational
Systems Analysis at Florida State University,
arranged for us to have the use of a computer
terminal -- teletype variety. The teletype
machine was connected to the main computer
at Florida State University by means of a
simple telephone hook-up that required no
change of wiring or other alterations. Each
student merely dialed the appropriate FSU
computer number, placed the telephone
receiver in a specially provided box with a
cradle and the computer terminal became
activated and ready for whatever ingenious
plan the student might attempt.
In preparation for instruction, we selected a
self-pacing booklet that would take the
student from innocence to confidence. A very
limited amount of time was devoted to
pre-operational instruction in the use of this
software, thus allowing the student ample
opportunity to experiment and work through
ideas of his own.
Although a great deal of leeway was given to
the types of problems they could work, the
following steps were taken by all students:
1. Activating the teletype machine.
2. Signing on by typing in an identification
3. Identifying the name of the program
to be attempted at the machine.
4. Inputting of a program into the terminal.
5. Running the program.
6. Signing off.
From the outset, our goal was not to attempt
to train any one student to become proficient
at computer programming but to expose
students to a computer and to impart a
limited degree of understanding to the
students in regard to how the computer can
be a useful tool in simplifying some of the
more complicated problems of everyday life.
Generally one student operated the terminal
while one to five others observed. Time on
the terminal was limited both to class time
available and the number of participants
involved. Occasionally it was necessary to use
a ten minute time interval for rotation.
One of the two teachers was always present,
but as a student became comfortable in the
terminal operation he or she was encouraged
to share his or her knowledge by becoming
Each student would sign on and begin with a
two line BASIC program. BASIC actually
means Beginners Allpurpose Symbolic
BASIC is a language used to communicate
with the computer just as French is the
language used to communicate with a
Most students were reluctant to relinquish the
coveted operator's chair to a fellow classmate
and would frequently find it necessary to
"sign off" and come back at a later time to
attempt to get a successful response to a
When an observer became the new operator,
he or she might be asked if they had been able
to see and follow the programs of the
previous operator; if so the new operator
could continue from where the previous
operator had finished. If the answer were
"no", the new operator would start from the
beginning of the manual.
When the computer replied with ILLEGAL
COMMAND because of an incorrect line
input, the student usually reacted more as if
he or she had been stimulated rather than
reprimanded. However, some students were so
eager to do a good job they just did not make
mistakes. In this instance it was necessary to
ask the student to make a deliberate typing
error in order to have an opportunity to learn
how to make corrections.
A log sheet was prepared as an on-going
information recording device. Each terminal
operator was requested to sign the sheet
indicating name, time in, time off, materials
covered and remarks. In this fashion, we have
been able to obtain instantaneous thoughts
from the operator that may assist us in the
future with similar undertakings.
Given the stimulation to learn through a new
medium, these high school youngsters experi-
mented with a variety of programs. Some
were of the sophisticated nature; some were
of a more practical value; and as always, some
were of a frivolous nature. We were working
with a group of students with a myriad of
backgrounds -- thus, they naturally displayed
a variety of interests in the types of
applications each would attempt.
Considering the fact that we also were
learning as we presented the concepts to our
students, it was necessary that we draw upon
the expertise of our own professor. Dr.
Banghart came to launch the project and in so
doing drew out of the computer's memory a
program for a floor plan of a school building.
As he supplied the necessary answers to
queries from the computer -- just by typing in
the required information that would fulfill
the desired plan -- a beautiful floor plan of a
school took shape on the paper. Although we
did not understand all his data, the final result
proved to be a motivating device for the
youngsters to see just what can be accom-
plished with this tool and the knowledge of
how to use it. We posted Dr. Banghart's floor
plan above the terminal for all to see.
Many of our students were able to progress
rapidly by using the series of tutorial lessons
on computer programming already stored in
the computer. Here there was no fear of
failure for others to see -- they were all on
their own. The students simply typed in the
identifying numbers for the desired lesson and
responded whenever there appeared a need
for an answer. When the student gave an
incorrect answer, the computer would polite-
ly prod the student with a clue to give
another response. The typist could go through
as many lessons as time would permit.
Most of the students began with a very simple
mathematical application and from there they
would progress to the more complicated. One
obstacle each had to surmount was to speak
to the computer to get it to do what was
intended. For example, each student had to
learn that if he were to type PRINT 7 + 5, the
computer would respond with the answer of
12; however, if the student gave the command
PRINT "7 + 5", the computer would print as
its answer 7 + 5 -- the difference being the
quotation marks which indicated to the
computer to reproduce what was within the
quotes and not to compute. When the student
learned the language, he usually would get as
far as raising a number to a large power with
the teacher -- then he was on his own to see
what he could attempt.
One young man, who had previously been
exposed to a computer terminal, worked for
several days to complete a mathematical
problem which involved the use of several
functions -- Sin, Cos -- dealing with an
hyperbole. His previously learned knowledge
of the terminal and his high degree of
mathematical skill made him the exception
and not the rule; however, his applications
proved to be a stimulus to others.
Most of the students chose a more practical
road. Many of them enjoyed attempting a
payroll problem in which they assumed the
role of a payroll clerk who calculated the
wages of ten workers. They were given the
regular rate of pay up to 40 hours and the
overtime rate for all hours over 40. After the
proper programming, instantaneously the
salaries for each of the ten workers were
computed and reproduced. The youngsters
readily saw some of the practical applications
of a computer after going through this
For the frivolous, we showed some of the
students how a program could be put into the
machine that would pick out random
numbers from .00000 to .99999. This was
compared to the toss of a coin. If a number
appeared that was greater than .5, it would be
considered "tails." If a number appeared that
was less than .5, it would be "heads." As the
number was picked at random by the
computer, the computer made the choice as
to "heads" or "tails" and printed the result.
This program could be set for as many tosses
as desired -- some wanted to see the results of
100 tosses, others were happy to pick just 10
In the planning that we did prior to the actual
implementation of this brief three-week
project, we agreed that if just one student
could really become excited about this mode
of technology we would feel that we had
spent our time and efforts wisely. We feel that
we have been successful! To illustrate, we
were amply rewarded to find, after a few days
of training, three senior boys competing for
the vacant seat in front of the terminal during
the lunch break. This display of interest and
initiative was a delight to observe.
It is also satisfying to reflect upon all the
student participants' enthusiastic involvement
as they tackled the computer, hungering for
as much grasp as could be obtained in a short
period of time. We recognize that the
students' initial enthusiasm -- given more time
-- would probably be reduced in many cases;
students are individuals and no one teaching
tool is perfect for all. However, we can
envision computer assisted instruction as a
valuable aid as education struggles to function
in this technological world.
The Sixth Annual Gallup Poll of Public Attitudes Toward
Education has been completed and its results published in the
September 1974 issue of Phi Delta Kappan magazine. The polls,
an established source of information concerning status and
trends of opinion about significant school questions, are used by
school officials throughout the nation as they study and
determine school programs and policies.
Topics covered include public attitudes toward major problems,
finance, crime, dealing with problem students, sports, prayers,
education goals, busing, and others.
Florida Schools reprints on this page, excerpts from the full
Major Problems Confronting Schools in 1974
Lack of discipline in the public schools again heads the
list of problems cited most often by survey respondents.
Discipline has, in fact, been named the number one
problem of the schools in five of the last six years. New
evidence of its importance comes from the special survey
of high school juniors and seniors. An even higher
percentage of this group names discipline as the leading
problem faced by the local schools.
Here, in order of mentions, are the first 10 for the year
1. Lack of discipline
2. Integration/segregation problems
3. Lack of proper financial support
4. Use of drugs
5. Difficulty of getting "good" teachers
6. Size of school/classes
7. Parents' lack of interest
8. School board policies
9. Poor curriculum
10. Lack of proper facilities
It is noteworthy that three of the top four problems
relate in various ways to the problem of student
behavior the kind of trouble that makes the front
pages of the newspapers. In fact, slightly more than half
of all mentions fall into this category, as opposed to
mentions of concerns traditionally associated with
education and the schools.
Students themselves name the same three problems:
discipline, racial problems and drug use.
Public's Perceptions of a 'Good' School
Educators often ask how the public reaches a judgment
that a school is "good." To shed light on the reasons,
this question was asked:
If you could send a child of yours to any school in this
area, to what school would you send him?
Those who responded were then asked to tell exactly
why they selected this school. Their answers,
summarized, can be stated as follows:
The good school has... teachers who are interested in
their work and in their students; teachers who make
their classes interesting; enough variety in the curriculum
to interest students who are not college-bound; good
discipline; respect for authority; good student/teacher
relationships; and good student-to-student relationships.
Many other things were mentioned: modern equipment,
small classes, good administration, up-to-date teaching
methods, religious training etc.
Most Important Things
When high school juniors and seniors are asked this
What do you feel are the most important things you are
getting out of school?
the answers that come up most frequently are "making
friends," and "learning to get along with people." These
reasons are cited even more often than "gaining a general
education" or "preparing for a job after high school."
Fourth in frequency of mentions is "preparation for
Very few students mention goals usually cited by
educators: "personal development," "acquiring a sense
of values," "widening one's outlook," "becoming more
mature." Some students say they have developed a
greater sense of responsibility, more self-reliance, and
that they have learned to cope better with people and
problems; but very few juniors and seniors say that the
most important thing they are getting out of school is
the development of their individual capabilities.
Copies of the Gallup survey may be ordered from Phi Delta
Kappa, Eighth and Union, Bloomington, Ind. 47401. Minimum
order is 25 copies for $3.50, additional copies are 10 cents each.
Florida's assessment program this year will broaden
its scope to provide for assessment of basic skills in
the areas of reading, writing and mathematics for
all students in grades three, six and nine.
Previous assessments, beginning in 1971-72, tested
samples of students. In the first year of operation,
a sample of second and fourth graders was tested
on reading-related skills. During 1972-73, testing
was conducted for a sample of students in third,
sixth and ninth grades on priority objectives in
reading, writing and mathematics. This past year's
assessment included a fourth area, science, with the
sample from grades six and nine.
The 1974 Legislature amended the Educational
Accountability Act of 1971 to provide for the
redirection of the assessment program. Implica-
Testing every student (census testing) is the
only means by which reliable information
may be gathered and reported on an
Temporary restriction of assessment to the
areas of reading, writing and mathematics
re-emphasizes Florida's commitment to the
major goals of providing the state's students
with competency in these essential categories.
When this year's assessment is completed, Florida
educators will receive reports on each student, each
school, and on districts and the state as a whole.
Results will be reported in terms of percentages of
moves to census
In an attempt to discover how well
Florida is doing in the field of
education compared to the rest of
the nation and the Southeast, the
Department of Education's Student
Evaluation Section is in the process
of replicating the National Assess-
ment of Educational Progress
(NAEP) in the areas of reading and
mathematics. The NAEP project is
a national survey of the knowledge,
skills, understandings, and attitudes
of young Americans conducted by
the Education Commission of the
States. Through its survey, NAEP
provides data on the educational
attainments of young Americans
and seeks to measure growth and
decline in these attainments in
various subject areas.
Since its inception in 1969, NAEP's
results have been reported in terms
of the achievement of the nation as
a whole and the various regions of
the nation and give no indication of
the performance of individual
states. The state's replication effort
will provide data which will enable
Florida educators to compare
educational progress in the state
with that of the region and nation.
In order that valid comparisons
may be made, the state project will
replicate the national assessment as
exactly as possible. As in the
national assessment, a sample of 9,
13, and 17 year olds will be tested
with approximately 80 schools at
each age level participating. Every
district will participate on at least
one age level, with between 20 and
50 students tested at each school
included in the sample. Testing will
be supervised at the district level by
the district coordinator of account-
Precisely the same items and the
same allotments of time to com-
plete the items will be used in the
state's replication. Tests will be
administered in one day with
maximum testing times of about 1
1/2 hours for 9 year olds and about
2 hours for 13 and 17 year olds.
Reading was last tested nationally
in 1970; mathematics in 1972. Care
has been exercised to assure that
the state's testing schedule closely
achievement of objectives at student, school,
district and state level (not by classrooms). Thus,
for the first time, educators at each level will have
reliable and valid assessment data on which to base
decisions concerning instruction and fund alloca-
With the move to census testing, more and more
teachers will become involved in the assessment
process, not only in administering tests but, more
importantly, in using the results of the assessment
to make important decisions affecting the quality
of instruction in their classrooms, schools,
counties, and state. It should be emphasized that
although Statewide Assessment is a vital measure
of program accountability, it is not appropriate as
a measure of teacher performance.
Students will be assessed between February 10 and
28. Prior to that time, a school coordinator will be
appointed for each school involved in assessment.
The school coordinator will supervise assessment
activities within the school, train test administra-
tors, and work with the district coordinator.
Statewide Assessment, as a part of the movement
toward accountability, is a means by which
decisions can be made based on hard data
concerning student progress. These data, combined
with cost information, will form the basis by which
exemplary programs can be identified and
cost-effective decisions can be made on the most
economical allocations of resources.
approximates that of NAEP during
those years. Thirteen year olds will
be tested in early December of this
year, while the two other age
groups will be tested early next
year: late January for 9 year olds
and late March for 17 year olds.
The testing schedule for the replica-
tion project does not overlap that
of the regular Statewide Assessment
Results will be reported in the form
of percentages of achievement of
both the specified reading and math
objectives and the particular items
used to assess those objectives. The
results will indicate only the per-
formance of the state as a whole,
not that of individual students,
schools, or districts. Results will be
analyzed by categories as well --
such as race, language, and sex --
and perhaps by the additional
categories of size and type of
community, family income, geo-
graphical regions of the state, and
In addition to the report of the
state's actual performance, a statis-
tically balanced report will also be
released. The results in this report
will be statistically balanced so as
to illustrate what the state's per-
formance would have been if
Florida's population were truly
representative of the nation as a
whole. In other words, the unique
demographic qualities of the state
(e.g., perhaps a greater rural popula-
tion) will be balanced so as to
provide a more reliable medium for
comparison to the nation.
Reports of results will be provided
to each district through their
superintendents and coordinators
of accountability. Another destina-
tion of the reports will be the
Florida House and Senate Educa-
BY JACK KELLY
Mr. Kelly is an information specialist
in the Department of Education.
By W.H. Roe and T.L. Drake
A textbook which explores special
problems of the principal in dual role as
instructional leader and executive man-
ager. Authors advocate the adoption of
the instructional role as the more
important, but recognize the trend
toward emphasis on the managerial role.
Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc.,
866 Third Avenue, NY 10022, c1974.
Energy: Less is More
Informational and objective approach to
inefficient use of energy and develop-
ment of an "energy ethic", with
emphasis on transportation, buildings,
appliances, and disposable products, and
the quest for alternatives. Other titles in
series are: Energy: The Dilemma;
Energy: The Nuclear Alternative; and
Energy: New Sources. 18 min., 16mm,
color, $250.00. Order from Churchill
Films, 662 N. Robertson Boulevard, Los
Angeles, CA 90069.
Set of 4 sound filmstrips, includes Our
Florida (13 min., covers basic geography
and economics), Our Florida History (16
min.), Our Florida Agriculture (15 min.)
and Our Florida Wildlife (16 min.).
Approach is one of inquiry, with
questions to viewers included on the
soundtrack. There is some repetition of
material between filmstrips. $80.00 set
with cassette, $70.00 with discs. Individ-
ual strips available separately. Order
from Beckley Films, Inc., Box 28,
Bradenton, FL 33506.
tion are the f
typical day i
Emphasis is on
Lost Pigeon satisfaction to
An injured racing pigeon presents a importance and
young boy with a problem of personal 22 min., 16mr
responsibility and rights of ownership. $35.00. Order f
For intermediate and middle school N. Las Palmas
pupils. 15 min., 16mm, color. $180.00, 90038.
$15.00 rental. Order from Arthur Barr
Productions, P. 0. Box 7-C, Pasadena,
Elementary Teacher's Art Ideas Desk
Book, by Gretchen S. Sanderson.
For the classroom teacher with some
basic knowledge of art materials and a
need for project ideas, here are over 400
simple art lessons, each including objec-
tives, materials and procedure. Materials
used are all inexpensive and readily
available. Parker Publishing Company,
West Nyack, NY 10994. $9.95.
Free to Learn
DOE sponsored film which explores the
roles of counselors, visiting teachers/
school social workers and school psy-
chologists in helping pupils, parents and
teachers. 12 minutes, 16mm, color.
Available from Don Darling, Pupil
Personnel Services, Florida Department
of Education, Tallahassee, FL 32304 on
cities in pre-school educa-
ocus of this look at a
n a pre-school center.
the rewards of personal
be gained from both the
I the nature of the work.
n, color, $290.00, rental
from Oxford Films, 1136
Avenue, Los Angeles, CA
Career Awareness Series
Set of 4 sound filmstrips aimed at giving
urban primary children an awareness of
the types of work done in familiar
community settings. Individual titles are
"School Workers", "Visit to an Air-
port", "Susan Goes to the Hospital",
and "Building a Building". $48.00 set.
Order from Educational Activities, Inc.,
Box 392, Freeport, NY 11520.
Pupil Personnel Services
in the Middle Schools
A guide for counselors, visiting teachers/
school social workers and school psy-
chologists in Florida middle schools to
assist them in developing, implementing
and evaluating their programs. Curricu-
lum Bulletin. Florida Department of
Education, Division of Elementary and
Secondary Education. Available from
Dr. Judy Lombana, Pupil Personnel
Services, Florida Department of Educa-
tion, Tallahassee, FL 32304.
flORIDl SCHOOL fACTS
BY ED R. ALLEN, JR.
S^ Administrator, Research Information and Surveys
Bureau of Research and Information
This ~ S puli doumn w s prm latda0n nulcoto.74535