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 Front Cover
 Main
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Summary and comparative statis...
 Teachers' summer schools
 Sample examination questions
 Statistical reports of county...
 Statistical reports of county...
 Special reports of county...
 State institutions
 Church and private schools of high...
 County graded and high schools
 Proceedings of the state convention...














Biennial report, Superintendant of Public Instruction, State of Florida
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053454/00002
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report, Superintendant of Public Instruction, State of Florida
Alternate Title: Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Florida for the two years ending ..
Portion of title: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Florida for the two years ending ..
Physical Description: : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: The Department.
Place of Publication: Tallahasee Fla. etc.
Creation Date: 1896
Frequency: biennial[-1964/66]
annual[ former 18 -]
biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Education -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -1964/66.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year irregular.
Issuing Body: Issued by the Superintendent of Public Instruction.
General Note: Title varies slightly.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001523501
oclc - 01569426
notis - AHD6734
lccn - 08010112
System ID: UF00053454:00002
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Report - Commissioner of Education, State of Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Introduction
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Summary and comparative statistics
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
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        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Teachers' summer schools
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
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        Page 57
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        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Sample examination questions
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
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        Page 72
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        Page 97
        Page 98
    Statistical reports of county superintendents
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
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        Page 123
        Page 124
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        Page 126
        Page 127
    Statistical reports of county superintendents
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
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        Page 162
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        Page 164
        Page 165
    Special reports of county superintendents
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
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        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
    State institutions
        Page 263
        Page 264
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        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
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    Church and private schools of high grade
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
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        Page 346
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        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
    County graded and high schools
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
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    Proceedings of the state convention of county superintendents
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
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Full Text











UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
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' YALLAHASSE, ELA., July4 1,4898. 3

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TABLE OF


CONTENTS.


PAGE.-


Register of State Superintendents.
State Board of Education........


Letter of


Transmittal... .......


. .. *. .. .. ...
. .. ..... .. .. .. .. 4
* CC ti S 9 *


Introduction..


CHAPTER I.


SUMMARY


AND COMPARATIVE -STATISTICS.


OBSERVATIONS OfM TRE STATISTICS.


RECOMMENDATION S


* S *9~.
* S 955


TO THE LEGISLA4t

CHAPTER II.


t TEACHERS' SUMMER SCHOOLS...


Report for 1897:to Dr. J.


L. M. Curry


Report for 1898'to Dr. J. L. M. Curry

CHAPTER III.


SAMPLE EXAMINE ION QUESTIONS..
Questions sed September
t -For Second or Third Grade
For First Grade Certificates.


7, 1897-
Certificates
* .* 5* 9


9* *
C S S S


Questions Used June


7, 1898-


For Second or Third Grade Certificates.


For First Grade Certificates..


Questions Used January, 1898, For State Certificates 92


CHAPTER IV.


STATISTICAL RE PORTS


OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS FOR


D...... .. . ....


1896-7, TABULATE










5

CHAPTER V.
STATISTICAL REPORTS OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS FOR
1897-8, TABULATED ............................ .129
CHAPTER VI.
-SPECIAL REPORTS OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS .........167
S From Alachua County................... ... 169
From Baker Couity.........................171
From Bradford County...................... 172
From Other Counties in Alphabetical Order.174- 261
CHAPTER VII.
:STATE INSTITUTIONS. ................ ............. 263
Report of-
Florida Agricultural College ................... 269
East Florida Seminary... .................. 281
The Seminary West of the Suwannee.......... 285
State Normal School...........................294
:State Normal and Industrial College for Colored
Students, ....... ........... .. ........ .301
Institute for Blind, Deaf and Dumb............. 307
South Florida Military and Educational Institute.. 313
CHAPTER VIII.
CHURCH H AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS OF HIGH GRADE....... 19
John B. Stetson University.................... 320
Rollins College............... ............ 328
Florida Conference College.................... 336
Jasper Normal Institute ....................... 338
Edward Waters' College (For Negroes) ......... 341
St. Joseph's Academy, St. Augustine ............ 343
St. Joseph's Convent, Jacksonville. ............ 345
St. Joseph's Academy, Mandarin ................ 3454
"Convent of Mary Immaculate, .................346




1-57 0











Florida Baptist College (For.Negroes) .... .....34T
Florida Institute (For Negroes) ................ 348
Cookman Institute (For Negroes) ............. 35(Y
Tampa Business College.. ........... .....352:

CHAPTER IX.

COUNTY GRADED AN)D HIGH SCHOOLS: ................. 35

Sketch and Cut of Union Academy (For Negroes). 35
Sketch and Cut of Bradford County High School.. 356
Sketch and Cut of Hampton Graded School...... 358
Cut of Titusville School No. 2....... 360
Sketch and Cut of Other Graded and High Schools
in Alphabetical Order of Counties in which lo-
cated ................................. 358-414-

CHAPTER X.

Proceedings of the State Convention of County Supts.... 415
Program ................... .............. 418
Address of Welcome......................... 423
Discussion of-
Teachers' Summer Schools ..................... 426
Assigning Teachers and Fixing Salaries .......... 433.
Compulsory Education ........................436,
City School Systems ................ .......... 439'
School Revenues............................442
Examination and Certification of Teachers........ 454
Text Books.................................. 465
Sub-District Schools and Laws Appertaining.... .471
County School Officers........................ 477
Miscellaneous Questions ........... .......... 482:
Amendments to the School Laws and Votes on
Resolutions.................. .............487




v- \











REPORT

OF T'1F.

TWENTY-NINTH AND THIRTIETH YEARS

OF THE

PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA.


IN TRO DIUCTION.

The close of a bi-ennial period in the administration of
school affairs is made by law the occasion of making a report
from the Department of Education, setting forth the condition
and the progress made in public education.
In submitting this, my third Bi-ennial Report, it is gratifying
to be able to show that an unbroken record of thirty years in.
reporting continuous improvement and growth remains un-
broken for the past two years, though the schools within this-
period have been affected by the unusual disasters of a freeze,
a cyclone, and a drouth, and, added to these, the excitements
of a war with armies passing through the State, and large
bodies of troops quartered at different points within its
bounds.
The statistics in this Report, and the comparisons with ten
years ago, are commended to careful consideration. Great
care and labor have been expended in making these statistics
complete and reliable. The cordial co-operation of County
Superintendents has made it possible to publish'the most com-
plete, credible and satisfactory set of Statistical Tables ever
presented in any report from this Department.
The apprehension was general with all entrusted with the
administration of the schools that each one of the above dis-
asters would decrease nateriilly the aggregate showing made
for public education. It was a gratifying surprise that with
reduced school revenues, instead of a decrease in the number of
schools, in enrollment, in average attendance, in buildings and
equipment, and in many other important items, there has been
an increase in all essential lines, particularly in professional
spirit among the teaching body, in awakened interest among-
school officers, and in greater appreciation of the publicr-








1










-schools by the masses. This appreciation manifests itself un-
mistakably in the greater cheerfulness with which school taxes
are paid, in the readiness by which sub-districts have been
voted upon themselves by the tax-payers in supplement of the
other means provided for the sustenance of the public schools,
in the efforts made to obtain better buildings and equipment,
and in the general demand, from every part of the State, for
Longer school terms and for more scholarly and professional
teachers. The people generally express greater appreciation
of the public schools, and give evidence of stronger faith in
the possibilities and the final outcome of public education..
If one will take the pains to examine the whole of.this Re-
port and does not come to the conclusion that the above
strong claims are not overdrawn, he would become of the
same opinion as the one making them, could he be possessed
of all the avenues of information not within the province of
this Report to put in evidence.
It was expected by no one that the Report for this bienni-
um would disclose even greater than the usual percentages of
growth in public education, since the climax in its establish-
ment was reached about ten years ago. Taxable values have
declined, but it will be seen under the sub-head Rate of
County Levy for Schools on page 20, that the county levies
have gone up, and the schools have not been permitted to de-
cline. Thirty-four counties levied the maximum limit of 5
mills in 1898, against only 7 in the year 1888; not on.e levied
the minimum 3 mills in 1898, against 12 in 1888.
The fable of Contents to this Report on page 4, shows that
it is divided into X. Chapters, from which may be seen the
subject-matter of each Chapter.
It was designed to make the county school officers produce*
the argument and become the witnesses, so to speak, and fur-
nish the evidence to sustain the wisdom of the recommenda-
tions made at the close of Chapter I., hence it will be seen that
very little space was reserved in that Chapter for Observations
on the Statistics and for Recommendations and arguments for
the necessity of the same, by the State Superintendent. Very
great space is given to County Superintendents' Special Re-
ports in Chapter VI., and to the Proceedings of State Conven-
Stions of County Superintendents in Chapter X. It being well-
known that the State Superintendent is regarded by some as
\ fanatical on the subject of public education, and that a few,
esteeming others or themselves better fitted for the responsi-
-ble duties of the office and for educational leaders, are dis-










posed to question the integrity and the ability of the pres-
ent incumbent, it was thought wise to merely state the
changes in the law that seemed imperative and to put in evi-
dence my co-workers, the County Superintendents and School
Boards who are charged with the duty of executing the law,
and are familiar with the workings of the same. No one.will
have the temerity to insinuate that interest, integrity, or wis-
dom is wanting in the combined voice of so large and reputa-
ble a body. The special attention of legislators is called to
the contents of these two Chapters.
The reasons for giving space to Chapters VIII., and IX., are
stated in the introduction to each.
Before closing this introduction I desire to apologize for the
volume of this Report. When formulating the plan of the
Report, it was supposed that it would make a book of about
400 pages. The calculations failed in that a great many more
than heretofore to whom space was accorded, accepted,
and quite a number transgressed upon the space allotted.
Reports and sketches of schools were limited, to a specific
number of pages, and the addresses in the last Chapter to a
specified number of minutes, which was thought sufficient to
keep the size of the Report within the bounds contemplated.
Those accorded space for reports and addresses either did not
consider the amount it would make upon the printed page, or
knowingly transgressed upon the limit prescribed. But
many of these reports, sketches and addresses have been in-
serted without curtailment, as I felt unwilling to mutilate the
pieces, especially when one had valuable ideas and expressed
them in an attractive manner. The promise is made to guard
against this mistake in future by limiting all space granted, to
a specific number of words, and to adhere strictly and abso-
lutely to the number prescribed. More than 100 pages have
been added to this Report by this means, but the matter will
be found to be pertinent and valuable.
The Report as a whole will give a complete and reliable
conception of the status and work of public education both in
the State and in each particular county, and is presented with
the hope that the labor in its preparation will be compensated
for by an awakened interest and an enlarged effort to cause
the public schools to measure up to the full standard of the
design which caused their establishment.












CHRfFTCR 1



Summary and Comparative Statistics, Observa-
tions Thereon, and Recommendations.



In the present age, progress in education is largely esti-
mated from statistics. That clearer and quicker perception
may be obtained, it is necessary to establish a view-point from
which comparisons may be drawn. Hence, in recording the
footings of the various Statistical Tables found in Chapters
IV. and V. of this report, where the reports of County Su-
perintendents for the school years 1896-7 and 1897-8 are tab-
ulated, in order that our present status may be more definitely
established, the same facts for the school year 1887-8 .are-
placed alongside, that the comparison may be made.
The summary statistics are given in the beginning of this
report for two reasons, both because they give all the infor-
mation that the casual investigator cares to know, and be-
cause they furnish the basis for the observations and recom-
mendations made in the closing pages of this chapter.
The statistics of the particular year 1887-8 were taken for
the comparison, that the progress in a full decade might be
shown. When the educational system of the State becomes
pretty thoroughly developed, the statistical changes for any
one or two years may be quite small, often too slight to fur-
nish reliable data to determine whether or not advancement
has been real and permanent. In partial illustration of this
point, the fact is cited that the era of greatest development in
public education in the State dates back from 1888 to 1878,
during which decade the number of schools grew from 992 to
2,249; the enrollment, from 36,961 to 82,323, both more.
than doubling in the ten years.
The era of greatest development having passed, and a
school having been placed within reach of all the educable
children of the State, in the next five years, embraced almost
'entirely within the same brilliant -administration of my im-
mediate predecessor, the Repo'rt in the Department shou











that the number o' schools, in.1893, had reached only 2,366,
an increase of 117 in the half decade, 102 of these schools be-
ing for negroes, and only 15 for whites. The percentage of
increase in the schools for negroes was larger because the
degree of development in education for that race was not so
advanced at the beginning of the quinquennium. During the
same five years the school enrollment advanced from 82,323 td
'95,728, the latter being the largest attained to that date,
and an increase of 13,405 in the five years.
The position being tenable that the greatest growth in
educational affairs is possible when the development is far-
thest removed from its utmost capability, it could hardly be
expected that statistics would show any very great growth in
the past five years, when a more perfect state of development
was being approached. But these questions will be further
discussed in the observations in this Chapter, where it is
claimed that the aim during the present administration has
not been to make large numerical counts, but to improve the
character of instruction given in the public schools.
In the interest of brevity, though the school year embraces
the latter and first half of two separate calendar years, in
the following exhibit the school year will be designated by
the calendar year in which the school year closed.
SUMMARY AND COMPARATIVE STATISTICS.
1888. 1897. 1898.
Number of Schools ......... 2,182 2,467 2,538
For Whites ............. 1,627 1,848 1,899
For Negroes .............. 555 619 639
POPULATION.
1888. 1898
U. S. Census of '90. State C-nsus of '95.
'Total Population ............ 391,422 *464,639
White. .................224,949 271,561
Negro ................... 166,180 193,039

(School (School
School Popula- Census of '88.) Census of '96.)'
tion (6 to 21) .. ........ .. .113,647 152.598
White .................... 60,310 .86,196
Negro ........ ......... 53,337 66,402
*39 Indians included.











SCHOOL 'ENROLLMENT BY SEX AND RACE.
1888. 1897. 1898.
Both Races ............... 83,343 105,519 108,455
White .......... ..... 50,452 66,007 67,65k
Negro ................. 32,891 39,512 40,798.

White Males ............25,668 34,170 35,116
Negro Males ............15,913 19,015 19,632
White Females ..........24,784 31,837 32,541
Negro Females .......... 16,978 20,497 21,166

0I Percentage of School population enrolled is omitted,
the school census being taken only quadrennially, these per-
centages are of little value only in the year in which the cen-
sus is taken. The enrollment oscillates between 65 and 75
per cent. of the School population, always increasing towards
the end of the quadrennium, because the enrollment in-
creases while the school population remains the same for the-
four years.
AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE BY SEX AND RACE.
1888. 1897. 1898.
Both Races ............... 53,130 69,477 74,004
White ........ ..... ... .. 43,623 46,329
Negro ................ ....... 25,854 27,675

White Males ................. 22,094 23,44a
Negro Males .................... 12,265 13,266
White Females .............. 21,529 22,886
Negro Females .... ........... 13,589 14,409'
*Whenever blanks occur the data could not be obta nel.
PERCENTAGE OF ENROLLED IN DAILY ATTENDANCE.
1888. 1897. 1898.
Both Races ................ 64 66 68
W white ................ ....... 66 68
Negro .......... .......... 65 68
AGGREGATE NUMBER OF DAYS' SCHOOLING GIVEN.

1888. 1897 1898
Both Races ........... ... 7,157,700 7,664,40a
White ......... ...... 4,622,524 4,926,882
,Negro ............. .... 2,535,176 2,737,520









14

AVERAGE LENGTH OF SCHOOL TERM IN DAYS.
1888. 1897. 1898.
Both Races .............. ...... 103 104
W hite .................. .... 106 106
Negro ........... ....... .... 98 99
.AVERAGE DAYS' SCHOOLING GIVEN FOR EVERY CHILD 6 TO 21.
1888. 1897. 1898.
Both Races .............. ...... 47 50
W hite ........... ... ...... 54 57
Negro .............. ........ 38 41
EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF YOUTH ENROLLED.
In Chart-- 1888. 1897. 1898.
Both Races ......... ... .. ... 12,827 13,237
W hite ................. ...... 5,144 5,165
Negro ................ ...... 7,683 8,072

In First Reader--
Both Races ........ ............. 0,831 20,707
W white .......... ...... ...... 10:957 10,696
Negro ..... ...... ....... 9,874 10,011

In Second Reader-
Both Races ............ ....... 18,106 18,634
White .......... ..... ...... 10,437 10,596
Negro ......... ..... ...... 7,669 8,038

In Third Reader-
Both Races .............. ...... 17,440 18,419
White ............. ... ...... 11,081 11,575
Negro .......... .... ....... 6,359 6,844

In Fourth Reader-
Both Races .... .......... ...... 18,097 18,669
W hite ........... ..... ...... 13,120 13,356
Negro ................ ...... .. 4,977 5,313

In Fifth Reader--
Both Races ........... ..... ...... 11,910 12,293
W hite ................. ...... 9,581 10,139
Negro ............. ... ...... 2,329 2,154











15

In Higher Branches-
Both Races .............. .. .... 5,954 6,228
W white ..... ...... ...... ...... 5,589 5,935
Negro ........ ........ ...... 365 293
ILLITERATES BETWEEN 6 AND 21 IN THE STATE.
Census Census
of 1888. of 1896.
Number unable to read............ .... 6,752
W hite ......................... .... 2,033
Negro ....... ................. ..... 4,719

Number unable to write........... .... 10,152
W hite ................... ...... .... 3,164
Negro ......... ................ .... 6,988
DEFECTIVE YOUTH IN THE STATE.
Census Census
of 1888. of 1896.
Deaf M utes ..... ..... ............ 87 105
W hite ..... ... ................. ... 61
Negro ........ ................. .... 44

Blind ........ .... ............... 83 41
W hite ............ .............. .... 17
egro ...... ........... ........ .... .24
NUMBER OF DIFFERENT TEACHERS EMPLOYED.

1888. 1897. 1898.
Both Races ............... 2,398 2,651 2,792
White ................. 1,775 2,010 2,108
Negro ... ... ......... 623 641 684

White Males ........... ...... 786 796
White Females ... ............ 1,224. 1,312
Negro Males ................ 304 325
Negro Females ......... ...... 337 359
GRADESS OF CERTIFICATES HELD BY TEACHERS EMPLOYED.
Life Certificates- 1888. 1897. 1898.
Both Races .:. ................ ..... 2
W hite ....... ......... ...... ..... 2
Negro ............... ... .. ..... 0













-State Certificates- 1888. 18,7. 1898.
Both 1 ,acE ............... 167 9 10
W hlitll,. .......... 16'6 9 10
Negro ..... ........... 0 0

Primary Life Certificates--
Both Races ... ......... ....... 12 10
White. ....... ....... ... .. 12 10
Negro ............ ........... 0. 0

First Grade County Certificates-
Both Races .......... ......... 530 512
White ...... .......... ...... 491 471
Negro ................ ..... 39 41

White Males ........... ...... 269 246
White Females ............... 222 225
Negro Males ........... ...... 32 33
Negro Females ............... 7 8

Second Grade County Certificates-
Both Races .............. ...... 1,341 1,460
White ...... ......... ...... 1,060 1,140
Negro ..... ........... ...... 281 320

White Male ................. 340 370
White Females ............... 720 770
Negro Males ................. 139 160
Negro Females ............... 142 160

*Third Grade County Certificates-
Both Races .............. ...... 780 820
W hite ....... ......... ....... 459 497
Negro ....... ......... ...... 321, 323

White Males ........... ...... 177 180
White Females ......... ....... 282 317
Negro Males .............. .... 133 132
Negro Females ........ ....... 188 191

Temporary Certificates-
Both Races .............. ...... 35 21
'W hite .............. .. ...... 31 19
Negro ..... .......... ....... 4 2













White Males .... .. 13 8
White Females ................ 18 11
Negro Males ........... ...... 2 1
Negro Females ......... ...... 2 1
Some of these were reported as "Permits" and "Spe-
cials,"not in legal phraseology, and, if without examination,
not lawful. In 1897, 18 of these were from Duval alone;
in 1898, a total of 9 teachers, not included in the above, was
reported from Duval, Madison, St. Johns and Volusia as
holding no certificates.
RESULTS OF STATE UNIFORM EXAMINATIONS.
1888. 1897. 1898.
Number of Examinees ........... 2,361 2,023
W hite ................. ...... 1,599 1,359
Negro ............... ....... 762 664

Number Obtaining Certifi-
cates ... ..... ......... ...... 1,651 1,240
White ..... ... ....... .. .. ... 1,237 967
Negro ..... ..... ....... 414 273

Number Failing ... ..... ........ 710 783
W hite ... ............. ...... 362 392
Negro ..... ........... ...... 348 391

Per Cent. Failing ......'. ...... 30 39
White .............. ....... 23 29
Negro ..... ........... ...... 46 59

First Grade Certificates Issued....... 197 169
To Whites ............. ...... 191 163
To Negroes ............ .... 6 6

To White Males .............. 91 82
To White Females ............ 100 81
To Negro Males ......... ...... 5 5
To Negro Females .............. 1 1

Second Grade Certificates Is-
sued ....................... 763 474
To Whites ..... ....... ...... 611 403
To Negroes ........ ... ...... 152 71
21













Iro White Males .... .... ... 210
-To White Females ...... ...... 401
To Negro Males ........ ...... 79
To Negro Females ...... ......73

Third Grade Certificates Issued .... 691
To W hites ............ ..... 435
To Negroes .... ... . ...... 256

'To White Males ......... .... ... 140
To WJhite Females ............. 295
To Negro' Males ........ ...... 107
To Negro Females ............ 149
OTHER FACTS REI.ATIVE TO TEACHERS EMPLOYED.
1888. 1897.


4i graduates of Normal Schools ......
W hite ......... ... ..... .....
Negro ..... ........... .....

White Males .... ....... ...
White Females ......... ... ..
Negro Males .......... .....
Negro Feiales ..............

..Attendants at Summer Schools ...
W white .....................
Negro ............... ......

White Males ........ .. .. .
White Females .... .. ...... ...
Negro Males ........ ..... .....
Negro Female.. ................

Attendants at State Associations ......
W hite ..... .............. ....
N egro ..... ................ ....

Subscribers to Iduic(tional Journals.. ...
White ..... ................. ....
N egro ..... .... .......... ...

Non-Residents of State .......... ....
White ........... ............
Negro .... ... ....... ..... ...


257
214
43


101
113
25
18

624
454
170

154
300
72
98

513
337
176

1,636
1,234
402

99
81
18


154
249
36
35

597
401
196

146
255
85
11l


1898.
317
258
59

108
150
31
28

973
712
261

211
501
90
171

488
303
185

1,672
1,255
417

106
94
12













Non-Residents of County Where
Taught ....................... ..... 276 33
White ........ .............. ..... 202 252
Negro ..... .... ................ 74 78

Average Age of Teachers-
All Teachers .................. ... 27 27
White ..... .................. 27 27
Negro ......... ..... .. ...... ..... 27 27

White Males ............... ..... 29 29
White Females ............... .... 26 25
Negro Males ................ .... 30 30
Negro Females .............. .... 25 25

Average Months Taught in Life-
-All Teachers........ ........ .... 39 39
White ..................... ...... 37 36
Negro ..................... .... 45 48

White Males ................ .... 41 43
White Females .................. 34 33
Negro Males ..... .......... ..... 56 58
Negro Females .................. 35 38

Average Monthly Salaries Paid Teachers-
.All Teachera ................. .... $34.52 $33.73
White ........... ........ .... 36.46 35.70
Negro ... ..... ............. .... 28.60 27.76

I White Males ............... .... 39.96 38.66
White Females ...... ......... ..... 34.36 33,96
Negro Males ................ .... 30.13 28.85
Negro Females .................. 27.13 26.73

Highest Monthly Salaries Paid Teachers-
White Males ..... ........... .... $175.00 $150.00
White Females .................. 100.00 100.00
Negro Maies ................ ..... 80.00 90.00
Negro Females ................... 50.00 50.00
AGGREGATE SALARIES PAID TEACHERS.
1888. 1897. 1898.
Both Races .s..... .$..i4,5~: Su $.1, l4.13.i8 $528,871.63













White ..... .... .........
N, egro ..... .... . ..

White Males .......... ...
White Females ..... ...
Negro Males ...............
Negro Females .... .........


41) 1i'. li
105,592.58

169,231.00
241,590.40
54,367.58
51,225.00


TAXATION FOR SCHOOLS.
1888. 1897. 1898.


Assessed property of 1888:
State ..... ..... $82,600,976
One-mill tax levied .........
One-mill tax col-
lected .... ... 74,807
Aggregate county lev-
ies .................. .
Aggregate collected 377,2381
Polls assessed ...... .........
Polls collected .... .........
-Per cent. one-mill
tax collected ... 90
Per cent. county tax
collected.... .... .........
f Sub district tax
levied .. ... ..........
f Sub-district tax col-
lected ..... .............


1897.
$95,389,966
95,533

89,595

444,827
326,745
67,341
33,478


1898
S$95,117,156
95,117

87,683:

462,006
3-1.>,!i)
68,068
31,721


* Cents are omitted.
t This not reported full enough to be of any value.
Including funds from all sources.
RATE OF COUNTY LEVY FOR SCHOOLS.
1888. 1897. 1898-


Number of counties levying 5 mills (max-
imum) .......... .................
Number of counties levying 4;/4 mills....
Number of counties levying 41/2 mills....
Number of counties levying. 41/4 mills....
Number of counties levying 4 mills....
Number of counties levying 34 iills....


29 34
2
4 2
1 1
8 4
1


4 -la 'S.t 6'
107,843.01

168,791.10
252,237.52
54.433. 'G
53,409.35













XNiumh.r of counties levying 31/2'riills.... .8 1
Number of counties levying 31/4 1iil ... 1
Number of co:uinlti,:.. levying 3 mills' (tiin-
"inium) ...... .. ... .. .. .. .'.. 12

'45' 45
RECEIPTS AND SOURCES OF SCHOOL FUNDS.
1888. 1897.
* Total receipts ...... ....$484,110 $691,970 *.
From cash o'i hand.............. 87,395


rrom inmeres~ on permanent
fund ................... 32,064
From one-mill apportionment. 74,807
From county levy.......... f377,238
From back taxes .................
From poll taxes ..... .. ..... .
From delinquent poll taxes...........
From examination fees ..............
From non-resident pupils ............
From sub-district taxes ...........
From all other sources ............


39,729
75,050
326,745
72,174
33,478
28,054
2,250
431
13,351
13,308


'-5

:1898.
,:3,568
57, 3'2

34,738
'97,267


31,721
7,541
1,973
546
18,254
24,847


$484,110 t$691,970 1$683,568
EXPENDITURES FOR SCHOOLS.


1888.
*Total Expenditures...... $484,110
For debts ..... ......... .......
For interest on debts ............
'For salaries of teachers .... .......
For salaries of County
Superintendents ....... .......
For traveling expenses
of County Superintendents.....'..
TFor commissions of Coun-
.ty Treasurers ........... ......
For mileage and per diem
of,County Boards............
.For incidental expenses of
County Supts. and Boards .......


1897. 1898.
. $713,443 $736,951
50,060 67,697
6,256 1-.516
516,413 .-.', 4 1

30,758 30,985

1,387 1,679

9,529 8,157

7,188 ,7151
5,080 3,752


*.Cents omitted in all numbers.
:tIDoul..tl,-- ini:lui. I: receipts fromall sources.
_ F t,,,ings .irr:-.,t with cents includi'c













For teachers'. -examinations ........ 2,795 2,39(P
For teachers' institutes
and Summer Schools ... ........ 2,267 918
For Lots ........................ 1,099 1,318
For new buildings .............. 31,252 22,399-
For repairs on buildings ......... 10,841 11,967
For furniture .................. 8,903 8,496
For apparatus .................. 4.,546 5,660'
For insurance ................ 1,837 1,56G
For rent ..... .......... .. ..... ,2,117 2,140
For janitors ....... ............. 3,377 3,634
For fuel ............... ....... 1,198 1,269'
For incidentals ......... ....... 6,958 4,714
For free text books ....... ....... 2,324 1,480
For county line pupils .... ....... 718 242
For all unclassified ex-
penses ................ ...... '6,530 7,135.

$484,110 f$713,443 f$736,951
*Cents omitted in all the above numbers.
fFootings correct with the cents included.
VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY OWNED BY COUNTY- BOARDS.
1888. 1897. 1898.
Value of all Property .... $456,625 $672,916 $755,824

For Whites ............. ....... 555,071 623,170
For Negroes ....... .... ...... 117,845 132,654
Sub-divided:
Value of Schoo:l Lots ....... .. $100,424 $107,396
For Whites .... .............. 75,424 82,193
For Negroes ........... ...... 25,000 25,203-
Value of School Buildings. ....... $450,671 $514,230
For Whites ...... ........ 37,506 82,193-
For Whites ..... ........... 376,506 427,781
Value of Furniture ....... $50,291 $90,254 $99,346
For Whites ........ ... ...... 76,559 83,243
For Negroes ........... ...... 13,695 16,103'
Value of Apparatus ..... .... .. $31,567 $34,852
For White's ............ ...... 26,582 29,953
For Negroes .......... ...... 4,985 4,899"
Totals same as above ...., $456,625 $672,916- $755,824


I _











23

CHlARACTER OF SCHOOL HUII.DIINGS OWVNE ID IY COUNTY .1OAEDS-


1888.
Number of Buildings ..... ......
For Whites .. ... ..
For Negroes .......... ....

Number of Brick Buildings. .......
For W whites ..... ....... ... ..
For Negroes ......... ...

Number of Frame Build-
ings ................ .......
For Whites ......... ... ..
For Negroes ........... ......

Number of Log Buildings.........
For Whites .......... .. ...
For Negroes .......... ..... .

Tot'ls as Above .......... ......

Number of rooms ............
For Whites ........ ... ......
For Negroes ........... ......
SCHOOLf FURNISHIINGS OWNED BIY
1888.
Whole Number Patent Desks ......
For W whites ............ .......
For Negroes ............ ......

Number Double Patent
Desks ............... .......
For W whites ............ .....
For Negroes ........... ....

Number Single Patent
D esks ................ .......
For W whites ........... ......
For Negroes ........... ......

Totals same as above .... .......

Number Square Yards Good
Blackboards .......... ........


1897.
1,907
1,456
451


1,663
1,276
387

232
171
61

1,907


i898.
2,121
1,638
483.


1,855
1,435
420,

252.
192
60

2,121


2,430 2,705.
1,855 2,075
575 63(0
COUNTY BOAnDIS.
1897. 1898.
18,127 22,441
14,809 18,404
3,318 4,037


13,707
11,096
2,611


16,694
13,405
3,289"


4,420 5,747
3,713 4,999,
707 748S,

18,127 22,441


37,245 35,42C('













For-W hites ....... ............ ,57- 2
F,.r Negroes ............ ...... 1,288 6,
T,.t l .... ................. ... $171,485. 6

EXPENDITURE FOR NEGRO SCHOOLS.

Above Itemized- 1888. 1898.
Salaries .of teachers ..... ........... .... 107,843.01
,Lots, buildings, furniture, etc........ .... 10,066.10
County Superintendents (prorated on
enrollment) ...... .. ... ............ .10,91228
County Boards (prorated on enroll-
ment)...... ...... ............... 4,066.91
Examinations and summer schools
(prorated on enrollment).... ........ 1,114.12
'Debt and interest (prorated on enroll-
ment) .................. ...... .... 28,300.59
All other purposes (prorated on enroll-
m ent) ............. ............. .... 9,182.55

Total same as above ................. $171,485.56
COST OF NEGRO EDUCATION. 1888. 1898.
Per negro inhabitant ................... ..... $ .89
Per negro youth of school age ............... .. 2.58
Per negro pupil enrolled ................. ...:. 4.20
Per negro pupil in daily attendance ........ ... 6.20
:.PER CAPITAL COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS INCLUDING BOTH RACES.
1888. 1897. 1898.
Per inhabitant ................ :$1.28 $1.54 $158
Per youth of school age .......... 4.26 4.68 4.82
Per pupil enrolled .............. 5.81 6.77 6.78
Per pupil in daily attendance ...... 9.11 10.27 9.96
ONE MILL TAX APPORTIONMENT.

*1897. ,1898.
Greatest amount received by any county for $1
paid (Gadsden) ...................... 2 .27 $3.00
Least amount received by any county for $1
paid (D ade) .............. ............ .
(Lee) .... ........................ ..... .31
(See tables XIX. of 1S96-97, ainl Xll. of,1S!':-s1













vrsMflk AN'' COAT 01 r1fE'nnTY 6U PC P INTL' DNDLKTS.
1897. 1898.


Number of visits made ..............
:Cost per ceiit. of .alt teachers..... .062
TLargest cost per cent; in any
county (Taylor) ............... ....
'(L ee) ................ ...... ....
Lowest cost per cent. in any
county (Duval) .............. ....


2,315
.130

.13


.062


.147


.037 1033


-* .FINANCIAL CONDITION OF COUNTY SCHOOL BOA Ds.


1888.
Total cash of all Boards, July 1......
Total indebtedness of all Boards,
July 1...... ............ ....
Net cash'of all Boards, July 1.......
Net indebtedness of all Boards,
July 1...... ............. ....
Net debt created during year. ....
Borrowed money of the year un-
paid, July 1 ..... ......... ....
Old debts unpaid, July 1....... .....
Warrants of the year unpaid,
July 1................. .. ....
Number of counties with net cash
balance, July 1 ......... .....
Number of counties with net in-
debtedness, July 1 .......... ....


1897.
$53,185

115,341
39,728

101,89.9


......14


1898.
$43,9,71

165,139
20,647

141,915
94,681

34,925
46,679



10


31 35


It was impossible to make a perfect balance sheet of the
financial reports filed from the several counties, so diverse
were the conditions reported in different counties, but enough
is shown to demonstrate that the tendency is to go ii debt.
For'information on this point relative to any p yrti,,ilar
county, see Tables XX. and XXIII. on pages 127 amn :164.
For any statistical fact pertaining to any county, see Chapters
IV. and V., beginning on pages 100 and I:l', r,-:' i vT.


:* Cents omitted.












-:}BSERVATAONS O'N 'I'AT1S'VICS:-


NU MBiER OF SCHOOLS.
S;'In reporting the number of schools, only those actually
taught are included in the count. The statistics show that
there was an increase of 71 schools during the past year, 51
for whites and 20 for negroes. There has been an increase
of 356 schools within the past decade. No special pride is
taken in calling attention to the increase, for the value of the
system is not measured by the number of schools. The policy
of this administration from the very first has encouraged
decreasing the number of schools as much as circumstances
would permit, by consolidating two or more weak schools
into a stronger one. Should the enrollment and average
attendance continue to grow, I would rejoice in seeing the
.number of schools decrease, and larger and better schools,
taught by better teachers and for longer terms, take the
*place of a great number of small schools. An
,examination of tlhe Report of two years ago, and
of the Special Reports of County Superintendents
.for the present biennium, will disclose the fact' that,
many county administrations have adopted the policy of
keeping down the number of schools, rather than multiply-
ing them. The want of courage to prevent their multipli-
cation is one cause o:i the deficit in funds, and is the best
evidence of weakness in some county administrations. It is
my deliberate opinion that had it not been for the advocacy
of this policy, the number of schools in the State would now
exceed 3,000, and the school system would have been weak-
ened in the same proportion. I as firmly believe that the
number now in existence, by judicious consolidation and lo-
cation, might be reduced at least 500, and the strength of the
educational system of the State, by-wise management, would
be enhanced equally with the percentage of decrease in num-
ber of schools. So long as the State remains sparsely settled
and comparatively poor, a wise policy would be to turn a deaf
ear .to many applications to subdivide and multiply small
schools. It would be folly to think of locating the schools
as near to each other as they are in the richer and more
populous States. Except for urgent necessity, schools should
not be located nearer than the three-mile limit prescribed
in the law. It would prove rather a benefit than an injury
for robust children to walk two, or even. two and a half
rinilh. t., reach'a school'under the ttiio0'n Of (e n.ll.-t.i:t 'in-












striction, rather thah that every child should attelid a school
oni the section of land upon which it lives-our fathers and
mothers, who walked two and three miles to school, were-
made more robust by the enforced exercise. Multiplication
of schools necessitates weaker teachers, shorter terms, and
poorer appliances.
So much is said upon this head with the desire to counter-
act the tendency prevalent in some sections, to grant every
request to establish another school, under the erroneous idea
that it manifests interest and advances the cause of educa-
tion. Our aim has not been to make large numerical counts,
but rather to consider the value of the things counted. Cases-
are reported where two schools for the same race, on ac-
count of some local sentiment or prejudice, are sustained in
a small town, while one good school would easily accommo-
date all the patronage, and permit the employment of better
teachers for longer terms. Since my attention has been
called to these violations of the statutes, the State Board of
Education will be called upon to act in the matter, unless the-
School Boards in such counties comply with the statute from
this time forward.
SCHOOL ENROLLMENT AND) AVERltA( ArTTENDANCE.
The total enrollment and average daily attendance in the-
public schools show healthy increase every year during the-
past decade. The increase in enrollment during the past
two years was 8,082, for the last year, 2,936. The increase-
in average attendance is even, proportionately, greater,
While it would seem that 29 of every 100. children of school'
age, not enrolling in the public schools during any one year,.
is too large a per cent. neglecting the privileges of education,
still, when we find that the percentage of enrollment in the-
public schools in this State, even when counting both races,.
is greater than the average in the United States, it occurs that
there is little cause to suspect that our public schools are
not appreciated. This favorable showing for the public-
schools is made despite the fact that the percentage of en-
rollment for the United States is calculated on. a basis of
youth between the ages of 5 and 18, while in Florida the
school age is from 6 to 21 years, the comparison slightly to
the disadvantage of the latter, because there is a less per
cent. of youth enrolled between 18 and 21 years of age than
during any other three years of their educable life.
In the whole United States, .by the' Commissioner's Report
for 1897, the per cent. of school population enrolled in the-












public schools i- 69.1/ per cept.; iinrlorida, for the year .1898,
c,'mntir; l.ti.h ria:., it ntasi'71? p:ir e.nt. ; iOunt6ing the whites
:alone, 78' per cent.; the tmgro.- alone, G61 per %cent. It is
,.further shown that' the number of 'youth of school age en-
rolling in the public schools in this St:ite i. larger than',in
the'combined North or South Atlantic, ..r .I th Cent~al,
Division of' .l it -:; and tlit it is greater tih.in :in 29 other
States in the Union.
The average attendance, as compared with eirilliinotriin
the United States, is 68.8 per cent.; in this State, for 1895,
it is a fraction over 68 per cent., which is greater than is
shown in either the South Atlantic or .Central Division of
States, and greater thaii is reported in 20 other States of the
Union. Hence, in the matter of school enrollment and at-
tendance, the facts show .that the condition in Floridi is at
least normal, and, considering that the count is somewhat
reduced by the lesser appreciation of the negroes, diminishing
the average, it appears that there is cause for satisfaction, if
no more, with school attendance and the interest that it 1.e-
speaks in public education.
AVERAGE LENGTH OF SCHOOL TERM.
That the school term is entirely too short to enable the
public schools to properly do the work of education, is ad-
mitted by every one giving the matter serious thought. Since
the State taxes itself to .prepare one -generation for better
citizenship in the next, it is certainly an unwise policy .to
make such a large outlay of money while stopping short of
accomplishing properly what is done only in part, but as this
question is treated under another subdivision, in the argu-
ment made for increasing school revenues, only the c..ii. i-a -
tive standing of this State with-others will be given nuniL-r this
head.
In the year 1897, the average length of school term in
.the whole United States was a fraction over 140 days, each
c'-i ro:l subdivision of States showing a greater average than
ti.- .St.Ile of Florida, except the South Central Divi-,n. in
which Florida is included. The average length of cl-ohn]
term in .Florida, il.,'l1in, both races, for 1898, v.i 104
,days; for whites alone, 106; for,blacks alone, 99., Tl.. g. n-
eral average for the 'North Atlantic Division was 17, :'for
the North Central and .Western Divisions,'151 and 111 i--
spectively, there being onl,.40 States .ain T,.-rritirki in the
,Union which iav'1 to their children a les nImlnr orf Jayv
'of education it tih. pibli. sI hlr-..-












In, demonstration of the fact that the school term is too
short, and that public education fiust be disappointing in
tihe end when compared -i h] other Stt.: in this respect;
the following facts are cited: The average number of days
schooling given for every youth of school age in the United
States, according to the Report of 1897, is 67. It must
be remembered that some get a great deal more, and some
none at all. Divided according to the general division of
Stilr-, the North Atlantic Division gave 86 days, the South
Atlantic Division 42, the South Central Division 38, the
North Central Division 81, the Western Division 77, and
Florida, in 1898, 50 days schooling, upon an average, to
every one of her educable youth; counting whites alone, 57
days; negroes alone, 41 days. If it is recognized as a fact
that every section of the,country is, in a sense, in compe-
tition with every other section, it becomes clear that the
youth reared in Florida and receiving such a small per cent.
of educational advantages, compared with those educated
where there are longer school terms and better school facili-
ties, will- be at a disadvantage in the competition. There
may be some consolation to those who are satisfied with pres-
ent conditions, in the fact that 15 States in the Union give-
an average of a less number of days schooling annually to
all of their educable youth. But to one who covets the very
best gifts for all the youth of the State, there is very little sat-
isfaction in knowing that 34 States and Territories appear
to be discharging their obligation to their coming citizens
better than his own State. These facts are stated, not to
complain at what the State has been doing, for under the
circumstances it has acted nobly towards its children, but by
calling attention to what others are doing, to stress the fact
that the duty point has not yet been reached in the matter
of public education. More will be said on this line in dis-
cussing other questions..
DEFECTIVE YOUTH OF THE STATE.
I feel that my duty would be but partially discharged in
'making this Report, if I neglected to call attention to the
number of defective youth in the State who are not taking ad-
vantage of the opportunities afforded at the Institute for the,
Blind, Deaf and Dumb. The Census of 1896 shows that
there are 146 blind and deaf-mutes between the ages of 6 and
21 in the State, while there is' less than one-half of that
numbi r on.the register of the Institute. It seems that every
possible thing has been done to acquairit parents and guar-












dians of this class of unfortunates with the advantages pre-
sented at this. State Institution. After the Census of 1896,
in which the address of the parent or guardian of-each of
-such youth was obtained, a list was printed containing the
race, name, age -and sex of each of these unfortunates, with the
address of the parent or guardian, and was sent to the county
school officers in each county, with the request that influence
be exerted to secure the attendance of every such youth at
the school provided for them. They were requested to make
known the fact that it was not an asylum, but a school, and
a kind and comfortable Christian home where the children
.of indigent parents were boarded and educated entirely at
State expense; to give all necessary information and assist-
ance to those wishing' to avail themselves of the advantages
- of the State's generous effort'to fit this class of citizens for
self-sustenance.
A number of these printed lists were sent to the Superin-
tendent of the Institute with instruction to issue a circular
letter and to address one to the parent or guardian of each
blind or deaf-mute in the State. Attention has been called
to this Institution at various times, through advertisements
and press notices. But with all these efforts only 62, counting
both white and colored, blind and deaf, have been induced to
:avail themselves of the advantages -of this Institution, the
only one in the State where they can be educated.
I have several times visited this Institution,. some times
spending two or three, days as an inmate, associatifig with
teachers and pupils, inspecting everything connected with it,
.and it gives me pleasure to say, that I have never seen a-hap-
pier family of children than those enjoying its advantages.
Many of them are looked after more carefully, as
to body, mind and morals, than they could possibly
be at their own homes; many are better fed, better clothed,
:and even better nursed in times of sickness, than their parents
:are able to do.
These facts are stated in order that parents who are un-
willing to risk such children away from the sacred precincts
,of their own home, may get right impressions in regard to the
-character of the Institution, and may give them the benefits
of an education which can not otherwise be obtained in this
State. They are also given to call the attention of the char-
itably disposed throughout the State to the character of this
Institution, and with the hope that they may exert influence
in inducing the attendance of all such youth at this school.
The plant is provided, the teachers and attendants are all












...i !-P,1. and with very little additional cost -the State
can provide for the whole of this class, and would gladly see
all of them enjoying the benefits offered.
PLENTY OF TEACHERS.
The statistics on the subject show that there are plenty of
teachers resident in the State, though, in some cases, not dis-
tributed as well as the requirements of the schools demand.
If a County Superintendent is industrious and will answer'
inquiries for positions (complaint has often reached me that
some do not), it would be an easy matter to obtain a sufficient
number of teachers to fill all the schools with
residents of the State as far as it is advisable to do so. I
fully believe that, all things else being equal, preference
should be given to home talent. The report is made from
many counties, that the teachers that have come under the
influences at work in our own State, as a rule, do better work,
manifest greater interest' and give better satisfaction, than
those that are brought from a distance, bearing overdrawn tes-
timonials. There certainly can be no opposition to a faith-
ful teacher, it matters not ivhence he comes, and he should
be welcome as he shows merit, interest, honesty and
skill. But it is believed to be the duty of those charged
with the employment of teachers, not to reject home talent
without first thoroughly investigating the character and
qualifications of those who are to take the places denied to
,certificated teachers residing within the State.
While speaking of teachers, I wish to commend the teach-
ing body of Florida for the co-operation given in the effort
to improve the character of the teaching force. Considering
the short term, and the small salaries received, the efforts
made to increase their own knowledge and skill by attend-
.ance upon Associations, County and State Institutes, Sum-
mer Schools, and all other means provided for their improve-
inent, for creating aspiration and inspiration, the teachers of
this State rank with those anywhere. They have made re-
niarkable growth in every respect since first it became
my duty to look into their work and condition as teachers.
I would feel that I had been derelict in my duty if I failed
to commend the efforts made at improvement, and to thank
them as a body for the co-operation which they have always
rendered me in instituting the examination system, and other
means to elevate the standard of teachers. All has not been
done that must be done, but the progress made and the spirit
with which efforts at progress have been received, deserve
commendation.












RESULTS OF TlER UNIFORM EXAMINATIONS.
Th' reports for the past two years show the li.l1.wnii num-
ber of examinees for teachers' certificates: 2,361 in 1897;
2,023 in 1898; of which 1,599 in 1897, and 1,359 in 1898,
ivwre successful in receiving some grade of county certificate.
While the. examinations, as a whole, I doubt not, were hon-
t:fl~,; conducted, and the papers faithfully graded, still, I am
.satisfied, from statistics that come from other sections of the
c,-u'rntfr. that too large a per cent. of persons seeking certifi-
cates,have been admitted into the profession. It cannot be
said how this was done, and will-not be said that any consid-
erable per cent. of it resulted from fraud, while it is be-
lieved that in a few cases fraud was practiced. Nor can it
be positively asserted that Grading Committees have been
too lenient, still, statistics and after experience with many
persons.employed as teachers, demonstrate that teachers were
made rather profusely.
In illustration of this last statement, only one compara-
tive instance will be cited, many others might be added. In
the great State of New York, with'all of her Colleges, Normal
Schools, Institutes, long terms of schools and general excel-
lence of educational facilities, where it is natural to suppose
that as large a per cent. of applicants for teachers' certificates
would be worthy to receive the same as in Florida, the facts
'show that in 1898, out of 17,457 examinees for the various
grades of county certificates, only 5,322 were successful. The
statement has often been made that the New York
Uniform Examination questions are not as difficult as those
given in Florida, being urged in complaint against
the Superintendent of this State for the rigidity of the
examinations. Whether there be any truth in that complaint,
I will not pretendto say, but now accept it as a fact, and in
turn ask some one to explain why it is that only 30 per cent.
of the applicants for certificates in New York obtained the
same, while upwards of 67 per cent. were successful in Florida,
both in the years 1897 and 1898. One of two things must be
tried; either that the' teachers in Florida are more scholarly
than those in New York, or that the examinations are con-
ducted with greater leniency in the State of Florida. In
the State of New York, there is an expert Committee to grade
all the papers. In this State, the Committees are too often
fnade up of young, i and possibly, persons illy-prepared to
keep the door that admits to the high profession of teaching.
It Way be due to knowledge of this fact that opposition to a
District or State Grading Committee exists in some
counties. I am satisfied that where this opposition exists, in
most cases at least, there is really greater necessity for a












Grading Committee removed further from local inflirne-'n
and from sympathy for their immediate friends in the profes-
sion. '
At any rate, the attention of the Legislature will be called
to the fact that it might be well to provide Grading Com-
mittees in a different way and to throw additional safeguards
around the conduct of the examinations, and I confidently ex-
pect that every truly professional and competent teacher res-
ident in this State will approve of the advised change.
RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE LEGISLATURE.
As stated in the Introduction to this Report, very little
space will be consumed by myself in arguing the necessity or
advisability of recommended changes in the law. It was de-
sired in this Report to put the County Superintendents, and
other school officers, in evidence, as they are more directly
connected with the execution of the law and it is likely that
their opinion will have more influence than the recom-
mendations of one man.
1. School Census:-
I recommend that the present law be changed so that' the
census shall be taken by the County Superintendeint or
School Board.
The present law is indefinite as to detail, places the re-
sponsibility upon too many to secure expedition and relia-
hility: it fails to state clearly who shall pay for the work, or
to provide any compensation for the one doing the clerical
part of it. It also requires the taking of the census of all
children "between the ages of 4 and 21" as well as between
6( and 21, the first being entirely superfluous work, as I know
of no earthly use made of that information,
It might be a good idea to place the responsibility of the
census upon the County Board of Public Instruction and to
require each one, or his agent, for whom he should be respon-
sible, to enroll ihe children in his own School Board District.
Should he take it himself, the better acquaintance with his
people and with the condition and needs of the schools which
he would acquire, might be an incalculable benefit to him in
the discharge of his official duties.
But the better plan would be to place the responsibility
upon the County Superintendent. This has been reconi-
mended by every State Superintendent from the first to the
present one, who had anything to do with the taking of a
census. My immediate predecessor recommended that the
duty be placed upon the County Superintendent and that he
be paid four cents for each child enrolled. Other Su.-
perintendents have recommended that the compensation of
a3 I










34

the County Superintendent be as much as five cents.
Section 260 of the Revised Statutes, or Section 76 of the
School Compilation of 1897, requires that this census shall
be taken again in 1900; I do most earnestly,insist that this
present Legislature will provide that it shall not be taken un-
der the present law, with all the delay, annoyance and unre-
liability that must attach to work done by so many incompet-
ent and irresponsible persons as are found among upwards
of 2,500 school Supervisors. The operations of this law in
taking the census in 1892 and 1896, was a clear illustration of
the old saying, "Too many cooks spoil the broth."
2. Teachers' Summer Schools:-
I recommend that the appropriation made for Summer
Schools for the past two years be made for the next two.
It is useless to argue the advisability of continuing this ap-
propriation. It is well known to almost every one that every
State and Territory now regard them as indispensable con-
comitants of the public schools, and liberal appropriations are
made for their support. with the view of insisting upon and
of improving a large class of public school teachers that cannot
and will not take a course in a good Normal School.
Dr. J. L. M. Curry, agent of the Peabody Fund, recently
wrote me as follows: "I shall be glad to renew the appropria-
lion for Teachers' Institutes to the extent of $1,200, provided
your Legislature will supplement it by an equal or greater
sum." You are referred to the reports of Summer Schools
for the past two years, being Chapter II. of this Report, and
also to the various allusions made to the same by the various
County Superintendents in their Special Reports, found in
Chapter VI., and to the discussion of Summer Schools by the
State Convention of County Superintendents, beginning on
page 426 of this Report. These Schools cannot be dispensed
with so long as inexperienced and poorly prepared persons
are permitted to play the role of teacher, and this will be the
case everywhere until every teacher becomes a normal grad-
uate or an expert in his profession-which means never.
3. Amendments to the Examination Law:-
I again recommend that Chapter 4331 of the Session of
1895, amending Chapter 4192, generally known as the Ex-
amination Law, be amended so as to limit the number of
Second and Third Grade Certificates that may be issued to
the same person; also, that Grading Committees be ap-
pointed differently from the plan now provided by law. It
is gratifying to witness the unanimity with which the good
*results of the general features of this law are commended,
both by school officers ad teacher., Itstead of diMeuinli,













here the necessity of the changes recommended, you are rt&
ferred to what is said on "The Results of the Uniform Ex-
amination" on page 32, and to the various recommendations
of County Superintendents in their Special Reports in Chap-
ter VI., and to the discussion of the County Superintendents'
Convention on this general topic, beginning on page 454 of
this Report, and to Resolution 1 under Topic 10, found on
page 487 of this Report.
4. Compulsory Education:-
The County Superintendents, at their recent State Con-
vention, adopted the following resolution:
"Resolved, That a compulsory education law be en-
acted in the State of Florida, requiring every child between
the ages of 6 and 14 to attend school at least 80 days in every
year; Provided, That such limitations shall be attached to the
law as will not make attendance a hardship upon any child.
I, myself, favor the enactment of some such law, provided
the provisions are not made too rigorous. The moral effect
of such a law will very nearly accomplish its purpose without
any costly machinery to enforce it. The fact that 27 States
in the Union have such a law in force is strong argument in
its favor. I am informed that the operation of the law
is commended wherever its. execution has been
wise and conservative., On this point I have not thoroughly
investigated. I am also informed that the Commissioner of
Education of the United States commends a conservative
and wisely executed law upon this subject. I have not taken
the trouble to ascertain positively his position in regard to it.
5. Sub-District Laws.
I recommend that Chapter 4336, Session Laws of
1895, be amended so as to simplify and make clearer all the
provisions necessary to establish a sub-district, and to levy
the tax; and that the duties and relations of Trustees to other
officers be clearly defined.
An examination of Chapter VI. will show that
nearly .every Superintendent, in Counties where sub-
districts are established, makes such a request. See also
the discussion of the Convention of County Superintendents
on this subject, beginning on page-471 of this. Report, and
a Resolution, found on the last page of the Report. In obedi-
ence to this Resolution, the bill submitted by Superintendent
Young, of Citrus County, will be revised by myself, and
it is hoped it will be enacted and all other laws on the subject
repealed as a whole.
6. Primary Certificates.
I recommend that a Special Certificate, leading up to a













.Primary Life CertificaTe, good only in the Primary Depart-
ment of Graded Schools, be provided for by law. For
Argument upon this subject, see page 24 of the Report of this
Department for 1896, also page 459 of this Report and Res-
olution 2 on page 487, adopted by the County Superintend-
ents in Convention assembled.
7. Course of Study.
I recommend that Penmanship be restored to the Course
of Study on which all teachers must be examined, and. that
Book-keeping be required in the examination for teachers'
First Grade Certificaies. The first part of this recommendation
was endorsed in Resolution 6 of the recommendations of the
County Superintendents' Convention,' found on page 488, but
the recommendation in. regard to Book-keeping was lost, as
will be seen by Resolution 7, found on the same
page. Nevertheless, I believe that the principles of all
leading Graded and High Schools should be prepared to
teach at least the elements of this science, hence the recom-
mendation made to the last Legislature is renewed.
8. Text-Book Law.
I recommend that a Text Book Law providing for County
Adoptions be enacted.
The State is entirely without any law upon the -ul,j."-_(.
since the law of 1893 %ui, left out in the cod-
iicjatil: of the Revised Statutes. After conference
with myself and others, Superintendent Buchholz,
of Hillsborough, prepared: awl -,tbliit.i to me, a bill pro-
viding for county adoptions, which, with some revisions will
be presented to the Legislature for action thereon.
There are many in the State favoring State Uni-
formity, others, the creation of a Book Commission whose
duty it shall be to examine books and to recommend two or
more texts on each subject from which County Boards shall
make adoptions. I am somewhat inclined to the latter course,
but make no such recommendation, as the text book question
is a very serious and complicated one, and any school officer
taking a decided stand upon this question is liable to have his
good name besmirched.
SNotwithstabiding the great amount of literature in opposi-
tion to State Uniformity, or State Advisory Committees, pro-
fusely and promiscouslv circulated by capital invested in
School book publication..I. am unable to see why such provi-
sion wisely, judiciously, c.in -.-rv.i ti', -ly and iicorruptably ad-
ministered would prove a detriment to the Statr. Sdch a law
seems necessary to throw some kind of safeguard ,ir:iund th.-













adoption of books, as well as to institute some degree of pro'g-
ress in the selection of books in many of the weaker counties,
and it might be made so flexible that the counties more capa-
ble of discharging this duty for themselves, may not be re-
tarded in progress. Every utterance on an educational platform
in opposition to any species of State Uniformity sems to be
more or less suggested by those engaged in the manufacture
of books. Such utterances, it matters not by whom made, bear
the marks of being, to a greater or less extent, a rehash of what
has already been published upon the subject; but when some
one else delivers himself, the essay or oration is
immediately printed and spread broadcast in the ter-
ritory which it is liable to affect. In the face of all this effort at
creating adverse sentiment, if it were possible to insure a pure
and wise execution of such a law, I am unable to see any argu-
ments against an Advisory Book Commission. But should a
mistake be made, I readily confess that with State adoption,
,or-i-ited State supervision under the provision of an Advis-
ory Committee, it would be far reaching in its consequences,
hence, as I could not insure such an administration, and as
the question is a mooted one, I abstain from recommending
more than a law providing for county adoption of books. l I
find in me a spirit that resists to the utmost a seeming effort
of organized apial to tutor te utterances of the educa-
tional press and speakers and to influence 'official recommen-
dation ,and action as though the administration of schools
were a partitive one, one factor being the book companies, the
other the officers legally charged with school government.
For the discussion upon this subject by the Superintend-
ents of the State, you are referred to page 465 of .this Report,
also to Resolution No. 8'bn page 48.
9. Collection of PolTTaxes.
I recommend that some law be enacted-that will insure bet-
ter collection of the poll taxes.
In consenting to the Constitutional Amendment taking fines
and forfeitures from the school fund, as the amount received
from that source was very small, and as the large fund
that should arise from this source was largely lost to every De-
partment of State, it was understood that compensation should
be made to the school fund by providing that poll taxes should
be more uniformly collected. An examination of the amount
of poll tax reported as colleefed, in this and previous Reports,
will diw.l,-,... the fact that no.such compensation has as yet
accrued in the aggregate to the school funds of the State. I
sincerely believe that the head of every family enjoying the
benefits of the public schools should be forced to contribute
at least l8 to,,ul, their support:.













10. Abolish the 5-3Mill Maximum and Give to County School
Boards the Undisputed Right to Fix the Levy.
For argument upon this subject see the recommendation,
direct or implied, in the Special Report of nearly every
County Superintendent, recorded in Chapter VI. of this
volume. See also the discussion upon this subject, begin-
ning on page 442, alao Resolutions 3 and 4 on page 488.
I must be permitted to make a short argument upon this al-
most unanimous endorsement of County Superintendents, and
of many of the School Boards in the strongest financial
counties in the State. It is claimed that in asking for this
amendment to the Constitution, it is only asking local op-
tion, or the right of voters of each county to tax them-
selves as they may desire for the support of public education.
In placing the authority to make the county levy in the
hands of a County School Board elected by the voters of
each county, every two years, is virtually placing in the
hands of the people the option to tax themselves. The cry
comes up from nearly every county that the school funds
are inadequate, though 34 counties are already levying the
maximum limit, and many are striving to provide better
school facilities through the vexing and often disappointing
sub-district system.
The opinion largely prevails that the public school
system has about attained its growth, and will
largely fail to meet public expectation in its results unless
more funds are provided. Meeting the demands for
larger and better adapted school buildings, which is impera-
tive and almost universal throughout the State, is out of the
question unless this restrictive limit, which is not placed
upon the taxes for any other purposes, be removed.
One epoch in the evolution of the public school system,
the most laborious and trying one, that of organization and
establishment, may be said to be now complete. Public
education is, and will be henceforth, recognized as one of the
fixed, best paying and most responsible functions of State
government. It is sincerely and heartily accepted by a ma-
jority of the voters that the obligation rests upon the State
to do the magum opus of public education. The school tax
may be truly said to be paid more cheerfully than any other.
The demand for longer terms and better schools is far be-
yond the ability of County School Boards to meet.
The opinion generally obtains among school offi-
cers, and is shared in by myself, that the limit
of public school development is about reached unless
more liberal provisions are made, under the State Constitu-
tion, for the support of education.












Absolute illiteracy has been reduced, but there exists a
large per cent. of comparatively illiterate, whose education
is of such a character that they are lifted but a slight de-
gree above the absolutely illiterate, if breadth of comprehen-
sion be taken into account. It is an old truism that "A little
learning is a dangerous thing;" education, to be beneficial,
must be of a kind and to a degree that broadens, develops
judgment, and forms the foundations of character. This
education must be of a different type to that usually acquired
in a four months school, and it must be received through the
medium of a better grade. teacher than can often be secured
for a large proportion of the public schools with the funds
at command. The educational system of this State ranks
well with other Southern States, where conditions are similar
to our own, but if satisfied with the present status, the ideal
of public education is altogether on too low a plane, and the
public schools will prove in the end rather a curse than a
blessing.
The assumption of the State to do the work of edu-
cation has almost completely paralyzed private and individual
efforts in that direction. Then, the State must rise equal to
the demand, or retrogression in the average intelligence of
the body politic will be the inevitable result. It is, then, a
duty to make the public schools better, or it will be found
that the Commonwealth has relatively lost by giving the
many but a smattering of an elementary education, less
profound an intense than was acquired by the few before the
inception of State education. The institution of the public
school produced a kind of leveling in education, and
unless the general standard is.elevated by longer terms and
more skillful teaching, it will be found that the average of
intelligence was greater when the few educated themselves
to a high degree, and the many were practically in ignorance.
The present is in many respects a superficial age, in which
sham and pretense have largely usurped the throne that
should be occupied by worth and genuine interest. The en-
thronement of superficiality in places fit to be held only
by the scholarly and profound, has everywhere been the con-
comitant of the introduction of universal education.
The pettifogger usurps the prerogative of the jurist,
the demagogue holds the seat of the patriot and statesman,
the real teacher is supplanted by the boorish and more pre-
tentious professor. This retrogression may proceed until
every phase of life becomes thoroughly saturated with super-
ficiality. Education may multiply while scholars diminish
in number pnd in influence, It is time to call a halt #i the












progress of the superficial, the sham and the pretentious.
This condition has largely come through the introduction of
an inadequate public school provision. As the retrogression
largely came through the introduction of public education,
the reformation should come through the public schools, by
the establishing of longer terms and by providing and in-
sisting upon more scholarly and professional teachers.
If any one will stop to consider the matter for a moment, he
must know that it is but the pretense of an education that
can be given to the youth of the State by an annual term of
80 days, which obtains in most of the counties. The State
must be honest and not practice deception upon its
coming citizens by deluding them with the.notion that they
are being better educated and prepared for honorable and
responsible citizenship when it provides for them but a four-
months school term under the tuition, to say the least, of a
poorly qualified and indifferent instructor. If space per-
mitted, I would like to say more upon this subject, but will
add but one other point.
The change is in the organic law, and must be voted upon
by the people of the S.ti:-; and I fail to see how any one,
(l,iiriiic, to be a Democrat, will refuse to submit to the people
the right to say whether or not they shall be allowed to tax
themselves more liberally for the education of their own
children.
11. A free Scholarship in the .\tat Normal.
.I recommend that a free scholarship be given in the State
N"Normal School perpetually, good for two years to the same
individual, for each county in the State. In support of this
recommendation, the fact is cited that the State is now edu-
cating one military man for each county. It seems not an
unreasonable thing that the teacher be put upon an equal
footing with the soldier. Attention is called to a Resolution
on this subject, found on page 489, adopted by the recent
State Convention of County Superintendents.
Other recommendations on minor questions might be made,
but they can be communicated otherwise to the Legislature.













CHFAPTeR II,


Teachers' Summer Schools.


Section 3, of Chapter 4566-"An Act to Provide for Teach-
ers' Summer Schools and to make Appropriations therefore "
reads as follows: "It shall be the duty of the State Superin-
tendent of Public Instruction to submit a report to the next
General Assembly, showing where and the number of such
Summer Schools conducted, the number of teachers attending
each by sex and race, the number of conductors of each
school, the number of days service rendered by each, and
submit vouchers for every dollar of the fund paid out."
A part of the fund supporting these schools was contributed
by Dr. J. L. M Curry, Agent of the Peabody Fund, to whom
report also was required to be made. This was made to con-
form to the statutory provisions, so that the same report
would answer both for the Agent, or Trustees of the Peabody
Fund, and for the State Legislature.
The reports made to Dr. Curry for the years 1897 and
,1898 will both be submitted here without material change, it
being understood that wherever the name of Dr. J. L. I.
Curry occurs, or reference is made to him, the General Assem-
bly also is meant.



EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT, STATE OF FLORIDA,
OFFICE OF W. N. SIIEATS, SUPERINTENDENT,
TALLAHASSEE, Oct. 19, 1897.
Dr. J. L. 1. Curry, Agent Peabody Fun/l,
1736 X. St., N. WV., lI: ./,;,,jy,, D. C.:
DEAR SIR-The report of the Teachers' Summer Training
Schools held in this State during the past summer is so de-
layed from various causes that I am almost ashamed to pre-
sent it, especially after so many direct promises on my part to
report with promptness. But I will not encumber the report
with the many valid excuses for my tardiness,












SUMMER SCHOOLS, "NOT INSTITUTES."
As this summer work among the teachers usually continues
for two months in this State, and is not confined chiefly to
lectures by alleged experts while their benighted hearers look
on with admiration at their wonderful exhibition of knowl-
edge, but actual recitations are interlarded with lectures and
model lessons, these institutions in Florida are called "Teach-
ers' Summer Training Schools." Our condition is yet such
that the necessity still exists for teaching the what as well as
the how.
THE FUNDS.
You were notified last spring that the direct result of your
address to our Legislature, on the 29th of April, was an ap-
propriation of $3,000 annually to be added to and to co-op-
erate with the donation of the Peabody Trustees for the
prosecution of this work. The amount of funds placed at
my command this year was $1,200 by the Peabody Trustees
and $3,000 by the State Legislature, a total of $4,200.
NECESSARY DELAY IN OPENING THE SCHOOLS.
The legislative appropriation on which your donation was
based was not approved until June 5th, thereby requiring all
of the preliminary work in establishing these schools, such as
advertising for locations easy of access and securing cheap and
ample boarding accommodations, selecting sites and faculties,
and giving publicity to the same, had all to be done after that
data. It was impossible to do this preliminary work success-
fully and open the schools earlier than July 12th.

ATTENDANCE CREDITABLE. g
It was so late before definite information could be given in
regard to the Summer Schools, that several counties, having
caught the inspiration that had gone out from this work from
previous years, became restless with waiting for something
definite and proceeded to hold institutes of several weeks'
duration under county auspices, all of which were, well at-
tended; other counties, having given up all hope of Summer
Schools, had arranged to open their regular public schools,
some in July, others in August: All of this militated against
the largest attendance. This can be avoided in the future,
for the first time, as it will be known before the opening of
the new year that Teachers' Summer Training. Schools are
provided for and will be held. Notwithstanding these disad-













vantages the attendance reported further on speaks for itself.
Another year the schools will be advertised and opened ear-
lier, and doubtless will be still more largely attended.

NUMBER OF SCHOOLS AND LENGTH OF TERMS.
.In the advertising circular issued on the 25th of June and
extensively circulated, 12 schools were proposed; 8 exclusively
for white teachers, 6 of these to continue eight weeks; 2, one
each at Mayo and Perry, designed to reach principally the
teachers of the counties wherein located, were to continue for
onlyfour weeks; 3 were for the patronage of negroes alone;
one, at Monticello, was arranged for the instruction of both
whites and blacks, in separate departments. The negro popu-
lation is so concentrated in certain sections of the State that
the unequal number of schools is no injustice, nor bar to negro
attendance, as the report of attendance will indicate.
REASON FOR CURTAILMENT OF TERM OF CERTAIN SCHOOLS.
On account of small attendance at White Springs, the
school was closed at the end of the first month; the Brooks-
ville school closed at the end of six weeks, as many of the
teacher-pupils were under contract to begin their public
schools before the Summer School would close; the same
reason caused the school at Marianna to close at the end of
the seventh week, while the other schools were all conducted
for full the term of eight weeks.
NO FICTITIOUS ATTENDANCE REPORTED.
Attendance at all of the schools was restricted to actual
teachers, and to persons qualifying to teach over sixteen years
of age. Visitors and occasional attendants upon the popular
lectures are not reported to swell the count, or to create ex-
aggerated impressions of the magnitude of Summer School
work.
Registers and blank forms for weekly reports were furnished
to the principal of each school, who was required to call the
roll and note absentees daily, and to make a full report to the
State Superintendent at the close of each week, the correct-
ness of which was required to be certified to both by the
principal and his assistants. The statistics thus obtained and
submitted should be worthy of credence.
ACTUAL ATTENDANCE.
The Grand Total in the following. Table shows that there
was a total enrollment of 717 actual and prospective teachers;











44'

218 of these were males, 499 females. In 1896, there were
2,500 teachers, 1,929 white, 579 negro, employed in the whole
State. The enrollment in the Summer Schools was upwards
of 28 per cent. of the whole number; about 20 per cent. of
the whole number of white teachers, and upwards of 57 per
cent. of the whole number of negro teachers.,
The total average daily attendance of 497, out of an en-
rollment of 717, gives an average daily attendance of over 69
per cent., which i,; above the average school attendance in the
State.
Again, a total of 148 male and 313 female teachers, mak-
ing a total of 461 actual teachers, is demonstration that the
attendance upon Teachers' Summer Training Schools is.not
confined to children, as has been falsely asserted.
In further evidence that bona fide teachers attended these
schools, attention is directed to Table II.












46

TABLE I-SHOWING, (1) THE LOCATION OF SUMMER, SCHOOLS; (2) EN-
ROLLMENT; (3) AVERAGE NUMBER IN DAILY ATTENDANCE; (4) THE
NUMBER WHO HAVE, AND HAVE NOT TAUGHT.

WHITE SCHOOLS.


In Daily Who
Enrollment. have
Attendance. taught


Location of Schools.

; 5t r-4 i .
K1 n Irio 1- A
I1a ^ iI a is.A


M
M
M
P

B
O
P


ilton......... .......i 1 16 32
onticello. ........ i 8 26
ayo....... ....... 16 8
rry........... ... 15 8
Thite Springs.. 7 17
alatka.... ........ 16 35
rooksville......... 10 29
rlando.......... 17 82
unta Gorda....... 20 23
Total White...... 15 20


1 8 21
.;1 4 18
24' 14 8
?:: 12 6
*4 5 11
.'., 8 20
.:~ 8 21
f':ei 12 61
4.l' 14 11
3851 85 177


29 12
22 5
22 10
1i 7
Iii 4
n 12
- 4
.'; 9
25 14

62' 77


20
14
6
4
8
21
17
71
11
172


Who
have not
Taught.







S 12
3 12


-3 --8
6 2
8 4
3 9
4 14
6 12
8 11
6 18

48 88


NEGRO SCHOOLS.


Marianna ........... 29 13 42 20
Monticello ........ 25 27 52 12
Jacksonville. ....... 23 122 145 17
Ocala............ .. 16 77 93 9

Total Negro...... 93 239 332 58
Total Whie ....... i1-2 2601 385 85
Grand Total ..... 218 499 717 143


2-i 20 7 9 6
*2,: 20 19 5 8
121! 19 74 4 48
57 12 41 4 36

235 71 141 22 98
26 77 172 48 88

497! 148 313 70 186


--


------~---


i














l'ABLE II-SHOWING THE GRADES OF TEACHERS' CERTIFICATE
HELD BY THE STUDENTS IN SUMMER SCHOOLS.


WHITE SCHOOLS.


First Second Third No Certifi-

Grade. Grade. Grade. cate.
Name of
School.
I 3 aj "5

______ __ _1 a I a


Milton.......... 6 2 8 4 1 4 12
Monticello.. ........ 2 7 1 4 11
Mayo......... 5 3 2 3 4 1
Perry.... ...... ...... .... 3 1 4 2; 8 5
White Springs 1 1 6 1 2 3 9
Palatka.. .... 2 5 15 5 1 4 9
Brooksville.... 5 1 8 0 3 4 9
Orlando...... 1 5 3 3 1 8 82
Punta Gorda... 5 33 4 3 5 4 6 13

Total White.l 25 23 28 84_ 25 53 45 101

NEGRO SCHOOLS.


Marianna.. ................ 7 13 71 9 4
Monticello...... 2 .... 8 9 18 6 9
Jacksonville.. 8 7 9 42 4 48
Ocala.... ........... .. 0 171 3 24 7 85

Total Negro. 5 5 28 52 84 86 26 96
Total White. 25 23 28 84 25 53 45 101

Grand Total. 30 28 56 1 59 139 71 197
*One pupil held a State Cdrtificate.












47

TABLE III.-SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF ATTENDANCE BY
COUNTIES AND RACE.



CouNTIEs.



Alachua.... ....... ........ ...... 1 ..... 1
Brevard........................... .........1 ..... 1
Calhoun ............. ..................... 3 ...... 3
Citrus ............... ..................... 1 ..... 1
Clay......... .. ............. ......... .......... 1 1
Colum bia...... .. ... ........ .. ........ .. 8 ..... 3
DeSoto............................ ... ...... 34 ..... 34
Duval........................... ....... 1 138 139
Escambia........ .......... ..... .... ... 1 ...... 1
Franklin ........... ............... ...... 2 ..... 2
Gadsden................ .......... .... ..... 1 1
H am ilton........ ....................... 14 ..... 14
Hernando ................. ...... ......... 26 ..... 26
Hillsborough .......................... ....... 3 1 4
Holmes ..... ........... ................ 2 ...... 2
Jackson......... .... .. ..... ........... ..... 40 40
Jefferson..................................... 28 39 67
Lafayette.................................... 21 21
Lake .......................... ....... 3 1 4
Le......................... ......... ... ...... 1 1
Leon....... ............. ....... ........... ..... 2 1 3
Lev .... ................. ..... ...... ..... 1 1 2
Madison.................................. 5 7 12
Manatee ............... ...... ........ ...... 3 ..... 3
Marion ...... ....................... ........ 7 83 90
Monroe.................... ....... ...... ... .... 2 2
Nassau............................ .............. 2 2
Orange........................ ......... 93 2 95
Osceola.... ....... ........ ....... .. ..... 4 1 5
Pasco .......... ................................ 3 ....... 3
Polk ....................................... 5 1 6
Putnam................................... 45 6 51
Santa Rosa.......... ........... ... ...... 4 .. ...... 43
Sum ter ............ ........................ 2 ........ 2
Suwannee ............... ..... ........... 5 ...... 5
Taylor. ........... .... .. ................. 19 ...... 19
'Vakulla. .......... ... .................. 1 1
W alton .. .......... ....... ................... 1 .... 1
Washington ......................... .. 1 1 2
Vrom Other States........ ................ 1 3 4

Totals .......... ..... ...... .. .... .... 885 332 717












Table 1 shows that an aggregate of 499 teachers' certifi-
cates were held by students in the Summer Schools, divided
as to grade as follows: One State, 58 First Grade, 192 Sec-
ond Grade, 198 Third Grade. Their division as to sex and
race may be seen from the Table. Thisis refutation of the al-
legation, that "the majority of the students attend Summer
Schools to prepare them to obtain certificates, not to become
more scientific teachers."
Table III shows that 39 out of the 45 counties in the State
had some representation in one or more of these schools, though
the attendance was small from nearly every county except
from those in which a school was located. This fact may sug-
gest the necessity, in order that the best results may be ob-
tained, of abandoning the system of sending out the instruc-
tors by couples and of seeking to group the attendance of sev-
eral counties at one school, substituting in lieu thereof, ,a
school for each county and providing one strong instructor for
each school. I would gladly receive suggestions from your-
self and other eminent sources on the advisability of adopting
this latter plan.

CHARACTER OF INSTRUCTORS EMPLOYED.
If variety and mixing of ideas are desirable, such has been
the educational importation into this State that it is most for-
tunate in being able to obtain resident instructors representing
many different States and educational institutions. The fac-
ulty given below is, as a whole, as strong as could be obtained
within this State, and possibly in most other States; and hardly
no two are natives of the same State, and, I believe, no two
received their education at the same institution.
The work of the General Lecturer, Supt. L. W. Buchholz, a
German by birth and education, a teacher both in Germany
and the United States, now for many years an enthusiastic
Superintendent of one of the most progressive counties in this
State, was an attractive feature of each school for one week.
Seldom have our teachers received so much practical instruc-
tion in the true art of teaching in the same length of time.'
Mr. Buchholz is purely scientific and psychological in his
methods.
Speaking of them as a whole, we are proud of the Summer
School instructors that Florida is able to produce.
The following Table gives the names of the instructors in
each school, the number of days service rendered by each, and
the actual amount of money each received;











49

TABLE IV.-Showing,. (1) The Instructors in Each School; (2) The .
Number of Days Taugl t; (3) The Amount of Traveling Expense-
ard Salary Pa'd to Each.

:j Amount Paid Each for
Name of School Name of Instructors. i ad Each for
ea r I Saltary. Total.

IB. C. Graham, Principal... 40 $19 10 $200 00i 219 II
Milton.......... I W. S. Cawvthon. Assistant. 40 390 150 10 52 3.
1. T. Limes, Principal...... i40 5 5 200 00i 205 5,-
Monticello...... 'I hos. R. Baker, Assistant. 40 8 75 150 00 158 77 /
SJohn J. Farle, Assistant .... 40 ( 70 15000 156 '70'
Mayo........... W. A. Little, Principal.... 20 1 '75 7500, 76 75, -.
'erry....... W. A. Little. Principal..... 20 6 55 75 00 81 o-
hite Srings.. j W. E. Knibloc, PIrincilal... 20 3 75 1O0 00' 303 7
i i os. B. Kirk, Assistarnt.... 2 ....75 00' 75 01 O
I alatk. J. II. Fulks, Principal..... 40 1 25 200 00: 204 2
S .. ...... 'i Mis Madge 1). Ice, Assisnt lO ....... 120 00 120 00
Broolksille i. 1M. Guilliams. Principal. :30 6 45 150 00 156 45
Sro c..... rs Bcullh I. Warner, Ass't 30 1 00 0000 91 60
Orlndo .r WI '. Yocum, PIrincpal. 40 2 45 200 00 202 45;
..... F. I. P hipp. Assistant...... 0 70 150(00! 150 70
ntn (or. J Arthur Williams. Principal. 401 360 2C 00; 20360
ta ord ... Miss ellal)avenortsst 40 8 90 12000: 128 0(
iM.ariInna II. W. Dfemilly, Principal .. 35 2 75 131 25 134 00
anna... I E. AW. ljarrington,Assistant ;51 1 75 105 00 10675
Jacksoi.v.. t ,i reonm Mclica'h prircipl' 41 2(000 200 (00
JacksoniMlle. W. L. Floyd. A ...r ,,r i' -* 15000 15280
Ocala....... Ilery ien.n, i I, n .. I', 1 1 5' 1500C 151 i6
........... J siah Varn, ., .. ,.i I "- 14625 150 3t
(knrl Lecturer 1.. W. Biuclihhlz I .I lI' 2CO CO 306 2;.
: 201 70' ,4S7 50 e3, 3,69 2'

COMPLETE FINANCIAL STATEMENT.
W~T N. SEATS TO SUIMMEI SCHOOL FUND.
Dii.
To State Appropriation . . $3,000 0(r
To Peabody Donation . 1,200 0W,
CR.
Dy printing Course of Study, etc. 0 31 00
By exjensfs (1f J. H. Fulks in picparation of
Course df Study ... . 8 20
By expenses of Dr. \V. F- Yocum in prepara-
tion of Course of Study ...... 22 30
IBy expenses of L. WV. Buchllolz in preparation
of Course of Stu y . .. ?2 00
Pry one half traveling expenses of the State-
Superintendlnt . . 50 00
By balance due .I. I, lines for Summer
School of 1893 . ..... 25 00
By balance due O. P. Steeves for Summer
School of 1895 . . 25 00
By balance due J. B. Parkinson for Summer
School of 1895 . . .. 37 50,
By cost of Instructors itemized above 3,689 20

Total .............. $3,914 20'
Balance to credit of the Fund . .. 285 80

$4,200 00 $4,200 00,












| (The above balance is due to the fact that it was found ex-
pedient to close certain schools earlier than had been ar-
ranged. It will be applied to the schools of next year.
Vouchers are filed in my office, with duplicate receipts, for
every dollar paid out.
I send you herewith $1,200 in receipts for the amount of
the Peabody Donation.
APPRECIATION OF THE WORK.
I believe that every Summer School, without exception, be-
fore closing its exercises, adopted resolutions expressing great
gratitude to the Trustees of the Peabody Fund, and to your-
self in particular, for the impetus which you have given to
,"Teachers' Institutes" through the instrumentality of your
fund, and they beg for a continuance of these opportunities.
No opposition will be found to Teachers' Summer Training
Schools on the part of those who participate in them; if any
is expressed, it is by those who do not attend them and who
do not manifest enough interest in their profession to make
efforts to progress therein.
MAgain, thanking you personally and, through you, your
Board of Trustees, for the assistance rendered me in my work
and the courteous treatment I have always received at your
Aands, I beg to remain
Yours most sincerely,
WM. N. SEATS,
State Superintendent of Public Instruction.


EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT,
STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE,
TALLAHASSEE, FLA., Sept. 1, 1898.
Dr. J. L. M. Curry, Agent Peabody Fund,
1736 M. St., N. TV., Washington, D. C.
DEAR SIR-It is.my pleasing duty to report to you, for this
year, the largest enrollment ever recorded in the Teachers'
Summer Training Schools of this State, the same being in ex-
cess of the enrollment of 1897 by 43 per cent., of 1896 by 69
per cent., of 1895 by 102 per cent.
CAUSES OF INCREASE IN ATTENDANCE.
This large increase in attendance was due to three princi-
pal causes: Firstly, The fact being known that Legislative
Appropriation had been made and that your donation was












promised, removed all doubt that the schools would be held,
and induced teachers to begin savings to enable them to at-
tend, it also rendered it possible to make definite arrange-
rnents to open the school for each section at the most favorable
time for insuring good attendance.
Secondly, The number of schools was increased from 12
separate schools last year to 18 this year, thereby bringing
them within easier reach of a greater number of teachers. The
12 schools of last year comprised 9 departments for the in.
struction of white teachers and 4 for negroes; the 18 schools
of this year provided 16 departments for whites and 8 for ne-
groes, thus practically affording 24 schools. Two of these
schools, one each at Quincy and Palatka, were for negroes
alone; 6 others contained departments for both races, con-
ducted by the same corps of teachers alternating between sep-
arate buildings fol the two races.
Thirdly, The prime cause for the large attendance consis-
ted of a greater appreciation of the advantages to be obtained
at the Summer Schools, demonstrated by past experience of
their actual and practical results. Not only is the methodol-
ogy of the attendants upon these schoolsperceptibly enhanced,
but their scholarship is improved, and those teachers who
have made a practice of attending ,are constantly raising the
grade of their certificates, besides being quickened and enrich-
~edin every way as teachers. They become more successful,
have created within them loftier ideals, and acquire more self-
confidence as well as art in the work of their profession.
THE GROWTH HEALTHY, AND TO WIIOM DUE.
The assertion cannot and will not be denied that the teach-
ers of Florida have made rapid advancement, in every respect,
during the past six years, and the thanks of both teachers and
'patrons of our public schools are justly due to you and to the
Trustees of the Peabody Fund for your donations, which ren-
tdered possible the success of a movement that has given new
impetus to the work of education. You inaugurated this no-
ble work six years ago through a donation of $1,400, giving an
almost equal amount yearly since that date, the value of which,
in potential results, at first, was but indifferently appreciated;
now, the Teachers' Summer Schools have become a necessity
to the successful administration of the educational system of
the State, and they are, happily, so regarded, by both teachers
.and patrons.
Largely through your personal efforts our State Legislature
last year, supplemented the customary donation from your
fund with an appropriation which went far towards insuring












the success of the schools. Besides this, the conditions of the
Peabody donations prescribed by your wisdom and fore-
thought, resulted in additions for several years to the sums you
donated, from School Boards and communities, which, with
the legislative appropriation, make an average of $2 contribu-
ted within the State for the prosecution of these schools, for
every one donated by your Board. It is needless to add, that
the supplements made to your generous gifts have resulted in
an increased appreciation, on the part of the people contribut-
ing these supplements, of the benefits of the system thus so
successfully inaugurated. The true friends of the sacred
cause of popular education will never cease to render hearty
thanks to the wise and liberal assistance rendered this State-
from the Peabody Fund.
CHANGED CIIAIACTER OF THE SCHOOLS.
At the beginning of this movement, the Sum'mer Schools
were confined almost exclusively to the work of improving the
scholarship of the teachers, but year by year the instruction
has embraced more and more the "7,Iow to .Teach;" while this
year there was rnore of the method, the science and the art of
teaching in the work of the schools than ever before.. This
was possible because the scholarship of the teachers had been
constantly improving through the work of the Summer
Schools and the influence of the State Uniform Examinations.
INCREASE IN N LMIIIERI OF SCHOOLS AN EXPERilME:NT.
The fact having been noted in previous years that the bulk
of the attendance was from the counties in which the schools.
were located, and that it was difficult to induce a considerable
number of the teachers of any county to attend a school loca-
ted in another at a distance, many pleading want of ability
from scant earnings, it was determined to try the experiment
of increasing, the number of schools so as to place one within
easy reach of as many teachers as possible, and thus ascer-
tain if they really desired to enjoy the benefits of the system..
The largely' increased attendance of this year abundantly
demonstrates the success of the experiment, and, assures the
existence of a genuine appreciation of the advantages offered,
as well as a promise of future increased interest in the work.
DISADVANTAGES OF THE INCREASE IN SCHOOLS.
While the attendance was increased 43 per cent. over that
of the past year, the experiment of -increasing the number of
schools encountered one disadvantage, or drawback, which
can only be overcome in the future by an increase in the re--













sources of the system, either through a larger appropriation
by the Legislature or an increase in the amount of the Pea-
body donation, or both.' It was found to be impossible to
-continue all of the schools for the full term of two months, as
originally contemplated, as will appear from the Statistical
"Tables appended to this Report (Table IV Appendix). The
terms varied in length from /bur to eight weeks, according to
the progress and attendance developed in each. It was deem-
ed bett6e to give the teachers of two counties each, the benefits
of one month's instruction, rather than to continue for two
months a school reaching, practically, the teachers of but on,
C 0Iountty.
You will observe from the Tables that no school lasted for
a shorter term than four weeks, several continued for fioe
weeks, some for six, one for seen, and one for the full term
of ei./ht weeks. Several schools in which the attendance and
;interest manifested was very gratifying had to be closed at
the end of four weeks in order that the funds might hold out,
the schools with the largest attendance, in, proportion to the
total number of teachers within easy access, being granted
the longest terms.

DISPARITY IN RA :E )DE'ARTMENTS.
One unacquainted with the conditions in this State, and no-
ticing that there were 16 departments for the instruction of
white pupils and only 8 for negroes, might conclude that there
was discrimination against the latter. Such was not the case,
for while the white population is not quite double that
of the negro, still the negro population is not so well dis-
tributed over the State, the great majority of them residing in
.about 11 of the 45 counties. Reference to the last Bi-ennial
Report of this Department will disclose the fact that some
counties failed to report a single school for negroes, while in
many others the number of negro schools is very small, and in
these the teachers often have their permanent homes in the
counties most largely populated by their race.
With this explanation it will be readily seen that the 8
schools, or departments, for the instruction of negro teachers,
located judiciously, afforded facilities for the teachers of that
race quite equal in all essential respects to those enjoyed by
the whites. For one fact I am unable to account, that the at-
tendance of negro teachers last year, with only 4 schools, was
332, over 57 per cent. of all the negro teachers in the State,
while with 8 schools this year the attendance reached only 293.
. It may be dlue to one, or in part to all, of the following sup-













posed conditions: Worse financial condition, a greater num-
ber being in possession of Teachers' Certificates, decreased in-
terest, or to the fact that some Schdol Boards opened their
regular schools while the Summer Training Schools were in
operation.
CO-OPERATION OF -CIIOOL BOARDS WILL BE REQUIIJ:,I.
This year several School Boards, after the location of Sum-
mer Schools had been determined, decided to begin the Coun-
ty Schools, thereby preventing the attendance of some who
desired and would have attended the Teachers' Schools. Anv
School Board asking the location of a Teachers' Sumniel-
Training School in its county in the future, will be required
to make a pledge not to open the public schools until the-
Teachers' School is closed. If this contract be broken, the
Teachers' School will not be held, or will be promptly closed
if in operation. It does not admit of question that the at-
tendance of many teachers was prevented by want of proper"
co-operation on the part of a few School Boards.
ATTENIDANCE ONA FIDE.
As was stated in my Report of last year, the attendance at
all of the schools was restricted to actual teachers. and to per-
sons over 16 years of age q<,alifjin to teach. Visitors and'
occasional attendants upon the popular lectures of the school
are not reported to sicell the count, orto create exaggerated
impressions of the magnitude of the Summer Schools. The-
principal of each school was required to kebp a register of the
daily attendance and to report in detail, on blanks furnished,
to the State Superintendent at the close of each week. Each
report was certified to by the principal and his assistants. A
sample blank report required to be made weekly by the in-
structors in each school is appended to this Report as Table
V.
ANALYSIS OF TABLES.

Included in an Appendix to this Report will be found the-
following .'.,.';.' ..f.' Tabtes, giving in detail the facts of the
several schools, as they are required, in the act making the-
Summer School appropriations, to be reported to the Legisla-
ture:
Table I. Shows the location of each school, the enrollment
and average attendance by sex and race.
Table IL Shows the grade of certificate held by those at-
tending the schools by sex and race.












Table III Gives the distribution of attendance by coun-
ties and by, races.
Table IV. Shows the instructors employed in each school,
the number of days' service rendered and the amount paid
each.
Table V. Contains a sample blank report required to be
made weekly by the instructors of each school.
Table VI. Gives a complete financial exhibit to be accom-
panied by vouchers.

OBSERVATIONS ON TABLES.

Table I. From this we gather the following facts: That the
total enrollment in all the schools was 1022; that the enroll-
ment consisted of 729 white teachers and 293 negroes, the-
former being 36 per cent., the latter 46 per cent. of all the-
teachers employed in the State for the year 1897.
The average daily attendance upon all the schools was 671,.
of whom 477 were whites and 194 negroes. The number of
actual teachers was 682, of whom 487 were whites and 195'
were negroes. Those expecting to become teachers numbered
340, ofwhom 242 were whites and 98 were negroes.
Table II. This Table discloses the fact that 91 white-
teachers and 9 negroes held First Grade Certificates; 291
whites and 75 negroes held Second Grade Certificates; 117
whites and 85 negroes held Third Grade Certificates; 2301
white students and 124 negroes held no certificates, but were
preparing for the autumn examinations with the intention of
becoming teachers. Six of those rated as holding First
Grade, held Life Certificates. The distribution of the certifi-
cate holders as to sex may be gleaned from the Table, if
desired. The fact that over, 65 per cent. of the students en-
rolled were already in possession of legal authority to teach,.
demonstrates two things: 1st, That attendance upon these
schools is based upon the desire to get professional training,
and not merely to be assisted in getting a teacher's license;
2d, That the practical value of the schools goes immediately to-
the pupils in the public schools, through the advantages de-
rived therefrom by the actual teachers of the State.
Table III It will be seen from this Table that every
countyin the State, save two, was represented in the Summer
Schools. It may be added that the influence of these schools
is felt beyond the counties in which they are located, and has
served to establish and maintain, under county auspices, for
several weeks, Institutes or Training Schools; in counties not
directly reached by the general ,State movement. It is not,












.- -ithis direction grew out of the influence set to work by the
:Summer Schools inaugurated with donations from the' Peo-
".'.ly Fund.
Table If. This Table gives the names of the instructors
!employed in each school, the number of days taught, and the
-amount paid to each. The fact that all the schools were not
taught at the same time, rendered it possible to secure the scr-
-vices of the same instructor in more than one school, which
was an advantage.
This body of teachers, as a whole, is as strong as could be
.*obtained in this State, and, possibly, in most any other single
:State. In nativity, hardly more than two of them would rep-
.resent the same State; a like diversity obtains in the educa-
,tional institutions from which they were graduated.
Table V This simply presents a blank form of the report
,required to be made weekly to my office from each Summer
,School.
Table TVI This exhibit shows the whole amount of money
* put at my disposal, the sources from which it was received, for
what and to whom it was disbursed. Vouchers attesting the
facts accompany this Rleport. I have credited myself with
:-a portion of my traveling expenses in connection with the
Summer Schools, because it was impossible to purchase mile-
books from the railroads in this State, and the uniform rate
.of four cents a mile had to be paid for all the travel so large
a number of schools necessitated. It would have completely
-exhausted the State allowance for my traveling expenses and
deft nothing for the usual traveling expenses required in the
dischargee of ordinary official duties.

EXPRESSED APPRECIATION OF YOUR WORK.
I have no doubt that it would please you and your Board to
Dr4ad many of the resolutions adopted by the teachers at the
,cose of these schools, expressive of their apperciation of the
-benefits derived from the schools, their thanks to the man-
agers of the Peabody Fund for the inauguration of the en-
terprise, and to others connected with the schools, but as this
report is already lengthy and tedious, copies of these resolu-
tions will not be appended here, but should you desire to see
them as printed in various publications, I will take pleasure
in collecting and forwarding them to you.
The opposition to Summer Schools in this State is confined
to a few adck ngmibers who persist in not attending the
schools, to an occasional disappointed applicant for the posi-










57


tion of instructor in one of them, and to such persons as
either of these may be able to influence.
As the representative of the great army of teachers and
pupils that have received benefits from this enterprise, I ex-
tend thanks to you and to the Peabody Trustees for the wis-
dom and beneficience of your gifts.
I thank you personally for the assistance you have rendered
me in my efforts to elevate the standard of the schools in my
State, as well as for the kindly suggestions and courteous
treatment I have uniformly received at your hands.
Accept this as my Report of the Summer Training Schools,
or Institutes, in Florida, for the year 1898.
Yours most obediently,
W.r. N. SHIETS,
State Superintendent Public Instruction.

























/














APPENDIX.

TABLE I-SHOWING, (1) THE LOCATION OF SUMMER ScHOOLS; (2)
ENROLLMENT; (3) AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE.
WHITE SCHOOLS.

.\ iin',- At-. Actual i Expectant
Enrollment. i
tendance. 'Teachers iTeachers.

Location of School.'
r! I
c1 I 2


Bartow............ 36 78 11 18 48 r 2 4 14 29
Chipley............ 26 24 14 14 16 1 10
Fernandina. ....... 8 1 3
Dade City........... 1 27 8 19 2 1 1.: 14
Jacksonville........ 4 56 ; 35 4;' 1! 9
Umatilla.......... 1 14 : 1 13 27 9 11
Lake 11
Lake City............ 20 .;i 2 14 10 3 12
Tampa.............. 3 .. 1 17 57 ;4 2 1 17
Kissimmee ......... It1i 3 4 9 21 .. 12 I11 14
Crawfordville...... 1'2 7 19 10 5 I.1 8 5 l 4 2
Pensacola.......... i 57i 38 -... 17
Madison .......... i 7 20 27' 4 10 11 4 1: 3 8
Gainesville .......... 11 38 4 9 261 .., 4 14
Bronson............ 11 181 29 10 15 25 70 41 9
Titusville..... .... 1 28 1 22 1 0 5
Perry....... ........ :,7 1 6 5 11 41 2 3
Total W hite .. 1' ';".' 1 .' .:*' 4: : 1: .. 1

NEGRO SCHOOLS.


Fernandina........ 17 ; I 1 27' 40 10 6 13
Quincy........... 12 19 .1 1 1 1 1
Palatka.......... .. 8 21 6 14 8 1 ..... 11
Madison..... ..... 16 11 27 11 81 1: 12 4 7
Tampa............ 6 18 0 1 : 6 ,. ....
Pensacola ......... 6 : 21 3 161 1 4 I:' 2 8
Lake City......... 16 27 14 -, 10 1t. 6 11
Gainesville........... 26' 309 65 16 18 2" 8 9
Total Npgro. i....... i 1 16| 27 71
Total White...... 1: *' ': 1 349 477 1301 357 69 17
Grand Total.... -3061 716 1022 194 477 671 209 473 96 244














TABLE II-Showing the Grades of Teachers' Certificates. Held by
Students in the Summer Schools.
WHITE SCHOOLS.


First Second Third Without
Grade. Grade. Grade. Certificate

Name of School.

Barow 1I3

I l i
Bartow.........; 4 13; 4 1 15
Chipley........... l 10 4 9 8
Fernandina .. ...... .. ... 1 4
Dade City....... 2 l 1' 4 6" 7 13
Jacksonville.. .... 1. 1 .
Umatilla ... 2 ... 9 .. 9
Lake City.... ...., 1 i 1: 3: 1 1
Tampa............ 4 1i 20 52! 4 9 5 16
Kissimme ........ 3: 61 9 2 61 4 15
Crawfordville. ....... ... .. 3 2 4 2
Pensacola .. .. 9 .. 21 .... 7 21 17
Madison........ .. .. 2 l'i 1 5 4t 5*
Gainesville......... 95 19i l 1n| 1 5 41 14
Bronson ....... 1 .. 4i 6" 2 4, 4 8'
Titusville...... ....... ..... 1 1 3 7
Perry........... .. 3 2 1 2 3

Total White. 27! 641 76 215: 29; 88' 67 163


NEORO SCHOOLS.

F'ernandina........ 2 1
Quincy............ 1. 2 10
Palatka......... 1 1i (ij 4 ...... 11
Madison.. ...... 6! 1 3 3' 6 7
Tampa ........ ... 3 7i 2 7, 1 4
Pensacola........., .. 1 7,1 2; 2 9
Lake City...... .. .. 6 (i 10.1 4' 10
Gainesville........ 1.... 8 7 10 10 23
Ne "o_..... -- --= ...--'j----'--
Total Negro....... 5 4 86. 39 3 53 34 90
Total White .. 27i 76 2151 29 88 67 163
T Wt 7 -- ---7----
Grand Totals .... 32 11i2 254i 611 141;' 1(01 253
*Including three primary life certillcates.












60

TABLE III.-SHowING THE DISTRIBUTION Oi' ATTENDANCE BY
CoUNTIES AND RACES.


Counties.


Whites. Negroes Total.


"Alachua... ........ ........ .......... i 4 61
B aker.... ............. ... .......... 2 .......
B radford................................ 3 ......
4Brevard.......................... ......
C alhoun ........ .... .................. .......
Citrus ............ .... ... ... ........ 3
Clay........ .......... 1............... I
*Columbia. .... ...................... : 19 39
D ade ................. ................ 3 ........
DeSoto.................... .. ..... ......
4(Duval ............. ........... .... 56' 5
Escambia ........ .......... 57 27
Franklin ............... .. ............ 3 1
1Gadsden .... .. ..................... 1 07
H am ilton ................ ....... ........... 1
H ernando .............. .............. 2 ....
-*Hillsborough.......... ... ... .......... 11 17
H olmes .......... ....... ...... ...... ...
Jackson .............. ....... ........ 8 ....
Jefferson......... .. .......... ...... 1
fLake................. .. ......... ..... 31 1
Lee... ...... ... ........... ....... 1
Leon...... .......... .................... 3 4
tLevy............... .................. 28 1
*Madison ............... .............. 23 25
Manatee.... .. ....... ....... 8 .. .
Marion............. .... ........... 4 3
Monroe........ ........ .... ....... .... .3
oNassaur ....................... ...... .. 10 48
Orange............. ......... ........... 19 2
'j Osceola ................ ..... 34 ...
4Pasco ................. ... ............ 4
+Polk............ 10...... ... ..
4Putnam ...................... .. ... ..... 2 20
.St. Johns ..... ......... ..... ..... .. 1
Santa Rosa.... ........ .. ..... ..... ......
Sumter......... .. ............... 2
Suwannee.............. ... ....... .. 1 3
fTaylor......... .. ...... ..... 14 .
Volusia... ............................ 2 4
fW akulla ....................... .. 14 ........
Wasnlton ..................... .... 1 .....
{'W ashington ... ........................ 35 i.... .
Other State. ......................... 4 1

Totals .... ......... ......... ...... .. 7 9 293
*School for bbth races located in this county.
(School for whites located in this county.
:School for negroes located in this county.


95
2
3
23
1
3
1'
58
3
6
61
84
.4
28
1
2
128
6
8
3
32
1
7
29
48
8
7
3
58
21
34
42
106
22
1
2
2
4
14
6
14
1
35
5

1022














TABLE IV.-Showing the InstruCtors in Each School, the Number
of Days Taught, and the Salary Paid to Each.


Name of School. Name of Instructors,



A rthur Williams, Principal......
Bartow........ i Mrs. L. B. Matches, Assistant....
SJ. L. Hollingsworth............
Chi pl. W. S. Cawthon, Principal.......
ipley ...... iss Carrie 1. Greene.........
i J. H. Fulks, Principal.......:.:
Fernandina .. S Philips ... ...............
'Miss Clem Hampton............
Dade Ct W. L. Floyd, Principal..........
Da City ( rs. J. B. Johnston...........
Jacksonville.. C. L. Hayes, Principal.........
Jacksonville E. Bennett....................
S0. V. Waugh, Principal .........
Umatilla..... Wm. T. Kennedy..... ........
Miss Norma Pepper. ............
if. I. Himes, Principal.............
Lake City.... U. R. Spencer............... ..
( Mrs. Ella LaF. Hamilton......
L. \. Buchh)lz, Principal......
Tampa ....... J. J. Earle....................
SRobt. M. Ray ................
Kisimmee... J. L. Boone. Principal.........
S,-. D. Cawthoo ..................
Crawfordville .L. [W. Demilly, Principal ......
V E. Knibloe, Principal.......
Pensacola ....... \ladge D. Ice.... ......
I. F. Knight ........... ... .. .
A. Murphree, Principal......
Madison ..... in. F. lim s .......... ........
iss Clem Hampton... ..........
SDr. W. F. Yocum, Principal....
Gainesville.i AMis Benella Davenport.........
Ino W W ideman................
SD. R. Cox............. ........
Bronson ........ H. Fulks, Priicipai........
Titsvill Dr. W. F. Yocum, Principal......
Titusvilleo. ... E. V. Barrington........... ..
Perry.......... D. Cox ... ......... .........
Quin ....... D. R. Cox........... ..........
Quincy.. .... F. Himes.................
Palatka...... E. W. Barrington, Princiral....
...... B. Peeler......................
*


I


No. Salary
Days Paid
Taught. Each


20 100 00'
15 56 25
5; 18 75
30 150 00'
30i 112 50
20 100 00
20: 75 00
20i 75 00'
201 100 00
20: 75 00"
20 100 00
20 7-5 00
15 75 00
5 25 00'
20: 75 00
25 125 001
25, 903 75
25 93 75
:51 175 00-
35: 11 25
35. 131 25
25 125 00
25) ,: 75
25 125 00'
30 150 00
301 112 50
27 101 25
25 325 00(
25 93 75
25 S3 75
40; 200 00W
40; 130 01)
40" 150 00
401 150 00,
20[ 100 00
20' 75 00
20 100 00
20i 100 00
20| 75 00
20i 75 00
201 60 00

1 *4317 50














TABLE V--Blank of Report, made Weekly to the State Superin-
tendent.
Report of Summer School held at ...........for the week ending
..................day of ..........189 ...

No. Of Attendance of Teacher- Answer
Of Studies Pursued. Pupils l in
in each Pupils. Figures


Arithmetic...... .
Concrete Georietr
Geography...
'History .......
Physiology... ..
*Grammar ......
Spelling ........
Reading .......
-Composition ....
Theory and Practi
Physical (ieograpl
Algebra............
-Civil Government
.Singing.......... .
Nature Study....


7 8
.E
..... .. .. .. -- .

.. .. !]No. enrolled to date 16 years
y. .. -|.. old and over... .......... ....
.. .. Average daily attendance of
S ... the above .... ........... ..
..... Greatest number present any
"" "iii day...................... .. ...
... ... No. withdrawing permanent-
.. .. ly during the week..... ........

ce .. .Facts Relative to Teacher
by .... Pupils.

.. .. .... No. enrolled who have taught ........
. .. .. Nu. enrolled who have not
. .. taught...... .......... .. .. .
S.. ....o. enrolled now holding
.. First Grade Certificate.... ......
.. .. o. enrolled now holding
.. .. Second Grade Certificate... ......
.. .. .. No. enrolled now holding
.. .. .. Third Grade Certificate.... .. ...
.... .... No. enrolled now holding no
..... cetificate... ..........

Enrollment Distributed.


No. from... ................. county ............... .... ...
-No. from ..................county.................. .. ..
No. from other States............. ..................... ..
I Name of Each.
Facts Relative to Instructors. Princi- Assis- Assis-
pal. tant. I tant.

No. of periods assigned to each for thel
w eek ........ ................ ...... ........ I . .........
No. of periods filled in person during the
week ........... ................... ........ ........ ........
REMARKS: (Explain absence of instructor from duty.)


I certify upon honor to the correctness of the above report.
........... ......... ........ Principal.













TABLE VI.-COMPLETE FINANCIAL STATEMENT.
WWm. N. Sheats, in account with Summer School Fund.
DR.
To balance from last year..............................$ 285 80
To Peabody donation for 1898 ........................... 1,200 00
To State appropriation.................. .......... .. ,000 00

Total. ............. .. .......................... ....... .$4,485 80
Cil.
By printing 2,500 letter circulars............$ 25
By printing 200 report blanks................. 6 00
By printing 200 salary requisitions........... 2 50
By printing 200 salary receipts ............. 1 25
By printing Course of Study (paid to Dr. Yocum) 23 00
By telegrams ............ ............... 7 4
By part of traveling expenses of State Supt..... 75 00
By salaries of instructors itemized in Table IV. 4,317 50
By printing 2Q0 copies of Report .............. 22 00

Total............ ........................... $4,460 98
To balance .............. ................... 24 82

$4,485 80-$1,485 80
Balance to'the credit of the funl $24.82. Vouchers with receipts
attached are on file in my office for every dollar disbursed.

















CHfFPTeC III.



Sample Examination Questions.




In this Chapter are given two of the five sets of State Uni-
form Examination Questions used during the past two years,
simply to show the character of questions submitted and the
subjects upon which applicants are examined for each grade of
certificate.
The Law respecting Third Grade Certificates: "An applicant
for a Third Grade Certificate shall be examined in Orthography,
Reading, Arithmetic, English Grammar, Composition, United
States History, Geography, Physiology, Theory and Practice of
Teaching, and must make an average grade in the above named
branches of 60 per cent., with a grade in no branch below 40 pet'
cent." Third Grade Certificates are good only in the county in
which they are issued, and for two years from date of issue.
The Law respecting Second Grade Certificates: "A Second
Grade Certificate shall be issued on examination in the branches
prescribed for Third Grade Certificates. An average grade of 75
per cent. shall be required, with a grade in no branch below 50
per cent." A Second Grade Certificate is good for three years.
from date of issue.
The Law respecting First Grade Certificates: "An applicant
for a First Grade Certificate shall be examined in Civil Govern-
ment, Algebra and Physical Geography in addition to the
branches required for a Third Grade Certificate. An applicant
for a First Grade Certificate must make an average grade of 80
51














per cent and shall grade in no branch below 60 per cent." A
First Grade Certificate is good four years from the date of issue.
A First or Second Grade Certificate may be endorsed by the
County Superintendent of any County in the' State, and is then
good in the County in which it is endorsed, as well as in the one
in which it is issued.
The Law respecting State Certificates: 'A State Certificate
shall be issued only by the State Superintendent of Public In-
struction to persons holding a First Grade Certificate and who
have taught at least twenty-four months (eight months of which.
must have been taught in this State successfully, under a First
Grade Certificate). The Superintendent of Public Instruction
shall issue no State Certificate except on written examination
in the following branches: Geometry, Trigonometry, Physics,
Zoology, Botany, Latin, Rhetoric, English Literature, Mental
Science and General History. A~ candidate for a State Certificate
must make an average grade on the prescribed branches of 85
per cent. with the grade in no branch below 60 per cent."















STATE UNIFORM EXAMINATIONS.



Questions Used September 7, 1897, for Second or Third Grade
Certificates.



When one ceases to grow, he should cease to teach.



REGULATIONS.
1. Questions sent sealed to the County Superintendents shall
be kept exclusively in his charge. Seals to any enclosure shall
be broken only in the presence of examinees.
Q. The whole time for the examination is limited to three
lays; the subjects must be taken in the following order: Orthog-
raphy, Reading, Arithmetic, English Grammar, Composition,
Geography, History, Physiology, Theory and Practice, Algebra,
Physical Geography, Civil Government.
3. All examinees must begin a given subject at the same time,
and no recess shall be taken until that subject is completed.
4. Prohibitions.-No examinee shall communicate with any
person or receive assistance in any way, shall have any text-book
or other thing that would contain information, shall work out of
sight of the examiner or other examinees, shall leave the room
without permission or for more than ten minutes, or shall be
seated so as to be able to read another's writing.
5. Duties.-Every examinee must supply himself with cap-
paper, must write in a legible hand with pen and ink, must
number or letter answers to agree with questions, and must
fasten together all sheets on the same subject.
6. Any name or mark made by an examinee, calculated to dis-
close to the Grading Committee the author of any paper, shall be
ample reason for excluding that paper from being counted in the
examination.


ORTHOGRAPHY.

1. (a) Distinguish between the merits of oral and written spell-
ing. (b) Give reason why neither should be discarded altogether.
5 credits each.
2. Unite the following and give the rule for spelling in each
case: Blame-able, chargeable, pals-ness, true+ly, busy ness,
duty -us, spry+ly, snobbish, prefer-ed, benefiting.
1 credit each,















3. Syllabicate and npark diacritically the vgwel in the accent-
ed lln:1;1,h. Ioly: / Inentory, dolorous, quinine. decade, idea,
hI,,Jl' ,i. i/.lri r.. bicycle, toirards, horizon. 1 credit each.
4. Form a derivative word by using each of the following a-s
a suffix, and illustrate the meaning of each suffix: en, dom, ness,
ism, ity, cle,. ling, able, ary, ous. 1 credit t each.
5. Defile each word formed by uniting in order to a root a
prefix meaning: From, not, towards, beyond, with, between, down,
before, around, half. 1 credit each.
6. Write a paronym of each of the following: Man, principle,
pendant, corporal, stationary. 2 credits each.
7. Write and define a homonym for each of the following:
Need, rabbit, corps, seller, quire, cygnet, bald, bruise, fame, plain.
1 credit each.
8. Write in order a synonym of each of the following: Custom,
invent, dexterity, prolific, antique, revolt, rough,eminent, misfortune,
accelerate. 1 credit each.
9-10. If wrong, correct the spelling of the following: Eezle,
domisil, effect, descendant, silinder, demagog, flktishus, catapiller, man-
icle, etomology, ekstacy, elemosinary, aleet, Eskimo, effishent, indelable,
rhinoceros, satalite, sinlillate, hypokracy. 1 credit each.

READING.

1. Name five other branches that should be taught in conne--
tion with the reading lesson. 2 credits each.
(. What two ordinary school appliances does the scientific
teacher of primary reading use more than chart or primer?
10 credits.
3. (a) Define reading. (b) Distinguish between silent reading
and oral. (c) Distinguish between teaching reading and a process
of word calling. (d) Would you begin with script or print with a
primary class in reading? (e) Give reasons for for your last
answer. 2 credits each.
4. (a) Distinguish between the woord method, phonic, sentence,
and letter methods. (b) When should the phonic method be
dropped? (a) 8, (b) 2. credits.
5. (a) Make an outline analysis of how you would teach a.
class in the Second Reader, Which hadbeen properly taught the
First. (b) What changes would you make in your method and
object in teaching an advanced reading class. 10 credits.
6-8. Read for your examiner a paragraph of prose.
30 credits.
9-10. Read an extract of poetry. 20 credits.

NOTE-The examiner will hand his grading of the last two
questions to thl Grading Committee.














ARITHMETIC.

r-Solutions must be written out; answers alone will not be
accepted. When right principles are employed, an incorrect an-
swer will diminish the grade not more than four points.

'NOTE-Ten possible credits for each'example.

'1. If 4 of 4! bushels of beans cost $55 what will I of 4 of
20 bushels cost?
2. (a) 7 -f-4,-3+4-=?
(b) (7 *)X( f-4g)--(-34 )=- 5 credits each,
3. Multiply 16 by sixteen hundredths, divide the product by
sixteen ten-thousandths and express the quotient by Roman
notation.
4. (a) What is the value of the wheat, at $3j1 bushel, in a box
10 ft. long, 54 ft. wide, and 64 ft. deep, the box beinglevel full?
(Use approximate rule in gauging the box).
(b) If a cask containing .. the capacity of the above box is
half full of wine, what will be its value in U. S. money at 10
francs a gallon? 5 credits each.
5. A teacher invests $200 in books at 334 'per cent. below
list price and sells them to his students at 16 j per cent. above
list price, what per cent. does he make on his investment?
6. A trader sells two horses for $100 each, on one he gains 20
per cent., on the other he loses 20 per cent. Did he gain or lose,
and what per cent. on both horses?
7. Divide 2 sq. mi., 120 A., 8 sq. ch., 12 P.. 500 sq. 1. equally
between 8 heirs. (Do not reduce the whole to square links).
8. Find the square root of the third power of 1.6 correct to
four decimal places.
9. (a) A receives a semi-annual income of $1SO from Florida
O's, what was his total investment in bonds, if they were quoted
at 110%1, brokerage 1/4 of 1 per cent?
(b) What annual rate does the investment pay, if the interest
for the first half of each year is immediately loaned at 1 per cent.
a month?
10. If a tank 6 ft. long, 3 ft. wide and 2 ft. deep contains 4/4
hogsheads of water, how deep must a tank be that is 8 ft. long
and 51 ft. wide to contain 22" hogsheads of water?


GRAMMAR.

1. Write both the possessive singular and plural of the fol-
lowing: Miss Ley, sister-in-law, countess, chimney, solo. deor,
ox, who, it, x. : 1 credit each.
2. Decline in both numbers each of the simple personal pro-
nouns. 2 credits each.
3. Write all the participles and infinitives, both active and
passive, of the verb .love. 2 credits each.














4. Compare the f..ll.%u in.ll Little. able,' pretty, beautiful, in-
finite, near, far, much, holy, wholly. 1 credit each.
5. Give all the properties and the order of stating them in!
parsing: (a) The noun; (b) the verb. 5 credits each.
C. Diagram this sentence: This examination will be easy for-
those teachers who habitually prepare the lessons before attempt-
ing to teach them. 10 credits.
'7. Write the synopsis with he of the verb am in all moods-
and tenses. 10 credits.
8. Parse in full every word in the sentence: He got what he-
deserved. 10 credits.
0. Give complete analysis of the following, and parse in full
the words in italic::
"The patriot, whom the corrupt tremble to see arise, may
well feel a grateful satisfaction in the mighty power which
heaven has delegated to him, when he thinks that he lhas used it
for those purposes only which heaven approves." 10 credits.
10. Correct each of the following and give the reason:
(a) Each woman brought their work with them.
(b) My mother she thinks I am too young.
(c) That couple are very devoted to one another.
(d) It never has and can never can be done.
(e) He acts like he was sick. 2 credits each.
[The correction to count only half, if the proper reason is not
given.]
COMPOSITION.

1. (a) Name the most general use of composition. (b) Give
the six parts of a formal letter. 5 credits each.
2. Write a formal letter of at least five lines to some firm in
New York, in which all of' the six parts are properly located,
capitalized, punctuated, and signed by a fictitious name..
10 credits.
3. Give rules for using direct, indirect and divided quotations,.
and for paragraphing... 21/ credits each.
4. Discuss diction, and give rules for acquiring elegant dic-
tion. 10 credits.
5. Give your ideas how and how often composition exercises
should be conducted in every school. 10 credits.
S6-10. Make a topical outline wiih not less than five heads, in-
cluding the introduction, discussion and conclusion, and write a.
composition of hot more than 300 words on one of the following
subjects:
(1) The Use and Abuse of Examinations.
(2) The Schoolmaster's Place in Society.
(3) The Pleasures of a Well-informed Mind.
(4) The Value of County Institutes and Summer Schools.
(5) Why the Rich are Influential. 50 credits.

NOTE-In grading the composition consider the orthography,
capitalization, punctuation, paragraphing, diction, the value of
the thought expressed, and the general appearance.














HISTORY.

1. Tell from whom and how the United States obtained the
territory embraced within each of the following States: Louis-
iana, Ohio, Florida, California, Alaska. 2 credits each.
2. (a) When and by whom were negroes introduced into the
United States? (b) When and by what authority was the slave
trade prohibited? 5 credits each.
'3. Recall the peculiar circumstances of the Presidential elec-
tions of 1800 and 1824, and tell wherein they differed from the con-
test of 1876. 10 credits.
4. Tell all you know of each of the following: (a) The "Hart-,
ford Convention"; (b) The Nullification Ordinance.
5 credits each.
,5. In what consists the chief difference between the New
England and the Southern conception of the U. S. Constitution?
10 credits.
6. What is meant by the following: (a) Tariff for revenue'-
(b) Reciprocity? (c) Free Silver? (d) Civil Service? (e) Free
Trade? 2 credits each.
7. Couple the name of the inventor with five of the most im-
portant American inventions. 2 credits each.
8. In pleading for what cause did each of the following
render himself famous as an orator: Samuel Adams, Wendell
Phillips, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, Benj. H. Hill?
2 credits each.
9. Name the States admitted into the Union since the Civil
War. 10 credits.
10. (1) What did President McKinley do immediately after
he came into office? (b) What law has just been passed in con-
sequence of his action? .5 credits each.

GEOGRAPHY.

r1. Give the number of great circles extending north and
south; (2) the number east and west. (3) Give reasons for your
answer. 10 credits.
2. Mention the States through which a car of salt must pass
by a direct route from Salt Lake City to Boston. 10 credits. '
;3. Name the provinces of Canada and the chief industries of
each. 10 credits.'
3. Name the leading industry of the following: Omaha, Mil-
waukee, Augusta (Ga.), Cleveland. Pittsburg. 2 credits each.
5. (1) Name the longest and shortest day in the year. (2) Ex-
plain why each is so. 5 credits each.
6. Give the names of all the principal divisions of land anl
water crossed by the equator. 10 credits.
7. Give proofs that the earth rotates on its axis from west to
east. 10 credits.














8. Name all the governments of Europe and the metropolis
-of each. 10 credits.
9. Tell the following of Cuba: (1) Between what parallels;
(2) area in square miles; (3) climate; (4) productions; (5) races and
character of the people. 2 credits each.
10. Draw a township, number its sections. subdivide the 16th
as much as is necessary to place a cross (X) in the S. E. 1/ of
S. E. % of N. W. 1., i 10 credits.

PHYSIOLOGY.

1. (1) Of what service is the skeleton? (2) How is the spinal
cord formed, and what purpose doesit subserve? (3) What is the
composition of bone? (4) How many in the body? (5), Name
some of the most important ones. 2 credits each.
2. (1) Name the two grand divisions of muscles. (2) Describe
their structure and give the uses of each class. (3) Describe and
tell the office of tendons. (4) Give the name and office of the
largest tendon in the body. (5) Considering the muscles. what is
the value of exercise and rest? 2 credits each.
3. (1) Describe the structure of the skin. (2) Tell six func-
tions of the skin. (3) What is the value of bathing; the kind; the
time for it? (4) Why is clothing necessary? (5) Give the disad-
vantages of too tight, too heavy, unclean, wet, cheaply dyed
clothing. 2 credits each.
4. Name all the organs, and describe the whole process of
digestion, including the action of all fluids until the food enters
circulation or becomes tissue. 10 credits.
5. (1)' What is food in a physiological sense? (2) Organic food
is divided into what two general groups? (3) What are chemical
constituents of each group? (4) From what sources are each of
these'constituents found in greatest abundance? (5) Name the
inorganic foods, and tell why each of the following is needed:
dime, phosphorus, iron and the alkalis. 2 credits each.
'6. Tell to which class, the albuminoid or carbonaceous, each
of the following belongs, and its value as a food product: Fish,
milk, butter, eggs, wheat bread, sweet potatoes, peas, apples, onions,
mustard. 1 credit each.
7. How do alcoholic stimulants affect each of the following:
Heart, liter, kidneys, brain, and nerves? 2 credits each.
8. (1) Can the evil effects of it be transmitted by parent to
child? (2) Why are malt liquors and light wines dangerous? (3)
Give some of the evil effects of tobacco, especially upon the
young. (4) Name some of the narcotics, and tell what effect they
have upon the system. 2%/ credits each.
9. What is most likely to induce sunstroke, what the symp-
toms, and what should be the treatment if no physician is near?
10 credits.
10. Discuss the evils of bad cooking and the value of right
cooking. 10 credits.














THEORY AND PRACTICE.

(Questions from White's School Management, first 150 pages.)

1. What, says the author in the preface, are the two most
obstructive foes of needed progress in school training?
10 credits.
2. (1) What serves as "a guide in practice" in determining the
best means and methods of teaching? (2)What is said of "test of
devicess" (3) of "worthlessness of scores of devices?" (4) What is
the end of school discipline? (5) Name the six topics to be con-
sidered in a practical treatment of school government.
2 credits each.
3. Name the seven essential "elements of governing power."
10 credits.
4. (1) What the teacher need more doesthan "personal magnet-
ism" and "natural aptitude?" (2) Give reasons for the necessity
of "daily study," and quote the reason of Dr. Arnold, of Rugby,
why he did it. 5 credits each.
5. Give in bripf the argument s used under the sub-heads: (1)
"Acquisition of skill;" (2) "Individuality;" (3) "Crank turning;" (4)
"Teacher's personal example;" (5) Teacher's spirit."2 credits each.
6. What law would the author, if he had the power, write
over every, schoolroom door? 10 credits.
7. Name six "requisite qualifications,"which are "conditions of
easy control." 10 credits.
'8. (1) Give the author's distinction between a "condition" and
a "device" in school government. (2) Name the four "mechanical
devicess" (3) Give a kind of synoptical brief of the arguments
advanced for the adoption of each of the above devices.
(1) 2, (2) 2, (3) 6 credits.
9. Name "the seven school virtues" of every well-ordered school.
10 credits.
,10. Under the head, "School Incentives," give in order the
"royal nine." 10 credits.














FOR FIRST GRADE CERTIFICATES.


Appli(nnts for this certificate were examined on the preced-
ing questions, given to Second and Third Grade examinees, on
Orthography, Reading, Composition, Geography, Physiology, and
Theory and Practice.


ARITHMETIC.

Solutions must. be given; answers only cannot be accepted.
When right principles are employed, incorrect answers shall
diminish the grade not raore'than two-fifths.

INOTE-Give ten credits for each example below.

1. B sells I of his cattle to A, 2 to C, 3 of the remainder to.
D, and finds that 48 head is &% of what he has left. How many
cattle had he at first?
2. Seven men start together around an island 120 miles in cir-
cumference, each walking 5, 61, 7j, 8%. 9%, 101/ and 11% miles.
an hour respectively. In how many days will they be all together
again, if they walk 12 hours a day?
3. The sides of a triangular lot are 115/ ft., 128 ft. and
134 t ft. respectively. I-ow many boards will it take, and what
will it cost to fence it with lumber at $71/, per M., the longest
boards possible being used, and the fence being 5 boards high,
the bottom one 10 in. wide, two 6 in. wide, and the others 4 in..
wide?
4. A and B are partners. A's capital is to B's as 5 to 8; at
the end of four months A withdraws 14 of his capital and B Z
of his. At the end of the year their whole gain is $400, how
much of the gain does each get?
6. A grocer bought 36 bu. 3 qt. of nuts at $3.20 a bushel, and
sold them at 12 cents a liquid quart. Did he gain or lose, and
how many dollars?
6. At what per cent. below par must 4% per cent. stock be
quoted, to yield the same per cent. on the investment as 5- per
cent. stock at a premium of 23% per cent. brokerage j per cent.
in each case?
7. At Washington, 77 degrees west longitude, it is 12 minutes
past 7 P. M., while it is 2 P. M. on the Sandwich Islands; what
is the longitude of the Sandwich Islands, and are they east or
west of Washington?
8. A square.lot is bordered by a walk 1 yd. wide, the lot and
walk together occupy 21/ acres; find the cost of paving the walk
at 25 cts. a sq. yd.
9. If a sphere 2 ft. I in. in diameter weighs 3,125 lbs., what is,
the diameter of one of the same material weighing 819.2 lbs?
l10. Find by approximate rule the number of bushels of grain
in a conical vessel whose base is 8 ft. in diameter and altitude
4 ft.











75

GRAMMAR.

1. Parse in full the words italicized in the following:
"Greatly pleased, the sturdy warrior lifted his own hat, and
said, '1 honor the man or boy who can be neither bribed nor
frightened into doing wrong. With an army of such soldiers, I
could conquer not only the French, but the world;' and, handing the
boy'a glittering sovereign, the old duke put spurs to his horse
and galloped away." 1 credit each.
2. Account for all the marks of punctuation in the above.
10 credits.
3. Give the two principal clauses in the above quotation.
10 credits.
4. Select and classify all the object complements in the above-
quotation. 10 credits.
5. Make in order a list of all of each in the above: (a) Adjec-
tive elements; (b) adverbial elements. 5 credits each.
6. Write the synopsis in the passive voice of the verb cheat
with he in all moods and tenses. 10 credits.
7. Write a sentence with an infinitive used: (a) As a noun;
(b) as an oppositive; (c) as an adjective; (d) as an adverb; (e) as.
an object complement. V credits. each.
8. Diagram or analyze:
"The crow doth sing as sweetly as the lark
When neither is attended; and I think
The nightingale, if she should sing by day
When every goose is cackling, would be thought
No better a musician than the wren."
9-10. Correct each of the following, if wrong, and give the
reason for each change:
(1) It is he and not I that is to blame.
(2) Those kind of sentences are confusing.
(3) Would you strike your wife-her who has always
been so devoted to you?
(4) It is natural for every one to esteem their own best.
(5) He looks bad, and I feel badly.
(6) If we study the science of teaching we will teach~
well.
(7) He intended to be there.
(8) It has laid there for a week.
(9) Can I leave the room?
(10) He died with yellow fever. 2 credits.
[Give only one for the correction, if the reason is not stated.}

HISTORY.

1. (a) What of the Mound Builders? (b) What evidence can
you give to prove that they were not the ancestors of the Indians?
5 credits each.
2. Upon what basis did each of the following lay claim to,
lands now in the United States: (a) Spain; (b) France; (c) Eng-
land; (d) Holland? 2% credits each.














3. Write a sketch of Washington's administration, noting:
la) His foreign policy; (b) the notions of the people in regard to
the government; (c) the rise of political parties; (d) condition of
home affairs on assuming the presidency; (e) condition on his
retiring from office. 2 credits each.
4. Discuss the "Doctrine of State Rights" in the light of the
following:
(a) Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions; (b) Massachusetts
Legislation relative to the war of 1812; (c) the "Hartford Conven-
tion;" (d) the Nullification Ordinance of South Carolina; (e) the
Ordinance of Secession. 2 credits each.
5. Distinguish between the "Virginia Plan" and the "New
Jersey Plan" in the U. S. Constitutional Convention.
6. Trace briefly the financial policy of the United States from
Alexander Hamilton to Wm. McKinley. 10 credits.
7. Tell why each of the following became distinguished in
American history: Wm. H. Prescott, Elias Howe, Charles Sum-
ner, William Cullen Bryant, Eli Whitney. 2 credits each.-
8. What do the stars and what the stripes signify in our flag?
When was this flag first used? 5 credits each.
O. Name the great political parties of to-day, and give the
distinguishing features in the platform of each. 10 credits.
110. Tell what you know about the circumstances which each
o)f the following suggests: (a) Weyler; (b) Klondike.
5 credits each.

CIVIL GOVERNMENT.

.1. Distinguish between four different forms of government.
21/ credits each.
2. Describe briefly each of the "four groups of rights."
2%2 credits each.
3. (a) Explain what is meant by Magna Charta; (b) The
origin of tares. 5 credits each.
4. (a) What is the supreme law of the United States? (b) De-
scribe the three departments of government for which it provides.
5 credits each.
5. (a) What is the necessity for political parties? (b) Name all
the conventions necessary to secure a nominee for President. (c)
Give some of the benefits and some of the evils of the Convention
System. (d) Which is the most important in the- system of
conventions? 2'S/ credits each.
6. (a) What is a State?, (b) Name the departments of a State
government. (c) Give in'brief the duties of the Administrative
Officers of this State. (d) Give the number of State Senatorial
districts and the number of lower house or assembly districts in
this State. (e) Tell how a Territory becomes a State.
2 credits each.
7. (a) How did it happen that Congress was composed of two
houses? (b) For how long, and who elect members of each house?
4c) What are the. ouslifications for, membership in each? (d)
JTow are vacancies in each house filled? 2 4 credits each.












77


8. Give the Executive Departments of the Federal Govern-
ment. 10 credits.
9. (a) What was the object of "The Australian- Ballot Sys-
tem?" (b) Give the main features of it. 5 credits each.
10. (a) Who is a school patron? (b) Who are qualified elec-
tors in choosing a school supervisor? (c) State the duties of a.
supervisor. (d) Who has the authority to form school districts
and to assign teachers? (e) What is meant by the one mill tax,
and what is done with it? 2 credits each.

ALGEBRA.

1. Simplify (a2+b2+c2+2ab+2bc+2ac)-(a- -b-c).
4 10 credits.
2. A man walking 4 miles per hour has 30 minutes the start
of a boy on a bicycle. How many miles per hour must the boy
go to overtake the man in 20 minutes. 10 credits.
3. Give the prime factors of the following:
m3 -n3, as+n3, as-b8, p4+p2+1, n'-2 no+o2.
2 credits each.
4. Of the following quantities x'-2x3+6x-9, 6x--4x3--16x2
-12x-6 find; (a) G. C. D.; (b) L. C. M. 5 credits each.
5. A and B, in a game of baseball, are each at the bat 15.
times. B makes 2 hits to A's 1, and A gets out 1 4 times as.
many times as B. Find the number of hits and outs of each, sup-
posing each gets out when he does not make a hit. 10 credits.
6. Raise 2a2+4b3 to the 7th power by the bionominal theorem.
10 credits.
2 S
7. Multiply (x--y) by (x+y) 4 10 credits.
2
8. Find the value of x in x-1=2+---
1'x. 10 credits.
1 1 1 1
9. Find the value of x and y: 3; = 21.
x y x2 y
10 credits.
10. A man purchased a field, whose length was to its breadth
as 8 to 5. The number of dollars paid per acre was eqlial to the-
number of rods in the length of the field and the number of dollars
given for the whole was equal to 13 times the number of rods
.around the field. Required the length and breadth of the field.
10 credits.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

1. Of what does Physical Geography treat? 10 credits.
2. (1) Explain the cause of day and night: (2) the causes of
the change of seasons. 5 credits each.
3. Distinguish between maps of the earth on the following-
projections: (1) Mercators; (2) equatorial; (3) polar; (4) conicaL
21, credits each.












78

4. Give'proofs of the present heated condition of the interior
-of the earth. 10 credits.
5. (1) What is an atoll? (2) What do their existence in any
part of the earth prove? 5 credits each.
6. (1) How are tides caused? (2) Distinguish between ebb,
.flood, spring and neap tides. 5 credits each.
.7. (1) Give proofs that the greater weight of the atmosphere
.lies within a few miles of the earth's surface. (2) Explain the
origin of winds. 5 credits each.
8. Give the characteristic fauna of the following: (1) North
America; (2) South America; (3) Australia; (4) Greenland; (5)
Cuba. 2 credits each.
0. (1) Distinguish between vertical and horizontal distribu-
tion of vegetation? (2) What are the conditions requisite for
forests? 5 credits each.
110. Tell the following of Alaska: (1) Its area; (2) its principal
islands; (3) its principal trees; (4) its principal animals. (5) I)e-
scribe the river system of the Yukon. 2 credits each.


_ I














STATE UNIFORM EXAMINATIONS.


Questions Used June 7, 1898, for Second or Third Grade
Certificates.


Do you dislike examinations? Your remedy is to work for a
State Certificate.



REGULATIONS.
1. Questions must be kept exclusively in the hands of the
Examiner until the minute for examination on that subject. Seals
to every enclosure must be broken in the presence of examines.
2. The whole time for the examination is limited to three
days, and the subjects must be taken in the following order:
Orthography, Reading, Arithmetic, English Grammar, Composi-
tion, Geography, History, Physiology, Theory and Practice, Alge-
bra, Physical Geography, Civil Government.
3. All examinees must begin any given subject at the same
time, and no recess must be taken until that subject is completed.
4. Duties.-Every examinee must supply himself with cap-
paper, must write in a legible hand with pen and ink, must work
in full view of other examinees, must number or letter answers
to agree with questions, and must fasten together all sheets on
the same subject.
'5. Prohibitions.-During the examination on any subject
there shall be no violation of any of the following: (1) No exami-
nee shall be seated so that it is possible for him to read another's
writing; (2) Shall have in his possession any book, note-book or
other thing from which help may be obtained; (3) Shall speak to
any person; (4) Shall overlook another's work; (5) Shall ask the
examiner the meaning of any question; (6) Shall leave his seat
without permission; (7) Shall leave the room more than once, or
remain out longer than ten minutes; (8) Shall pass or throw any-
thing about the room; (9) Shall place any mark calculated to dis-
close its author on any paper.
Violations of any of these prohibitions will be deemed suffi-
cient cause for excluding any paper from the Grading Committee,
or for throwing out a whole county examination.



ORTHOGRAPHY.
1. Define: Orthography, primitive word, derivatir" word,prefix,
suffix. 2 credits each.
,2. Unite each of the following primitive, words with the suffix
and give the rule for spelling: Close --ure, singe.-I- ing, charge
-- able, plan -I- ing, fancy -I- ful, differ -!- ed, prefer- --- ed,
11.a2ld -|- ous, red -- en, model -I- ing. 1I credit each.





I-I





80

3. Separate the prefix and the root in the following deriva-
tives and write after each prefix its meaning: Abed, afternoon,
belittle, midsummer, misna me, withstand, unkind, outstrip, disobey,
foresight. 1 credit each.
4. Form a derivative by using each of the following as a pre-
fix or suffix, and define each word formed: Age, ery, cule, dom, ful,
ish, ity, ment, ness, post. 1 credit each.
5. Write the following and opposite each a homonym: Rude,
sear, surf, serge, auger, throw, team, suite, root,strait.
1 credit each.
6. Syllabicate and mark diacritically the vowel in the sylla-
ble primarily accented in each of the following: Inventory, finan-
cier, ally, gratis, apparatus, sinecure, recess (noun), agriculture, ab-
domen, alternately. 1 credit each.
7. Form ten derivatives by using as a prefix or suffix each
of the following, once only, meaning: One who, across, times, be-
tween, like, against, little, without, full of, made of.
1 credit each.
8-10. Spell correctly: Damning (obstructing), bulitin, census
(enumeration), reserrection, restorant, separation, malliable, p r iv i-
lege, corister, prejudice, hipokrit, projeny, orkestra, kleek, missile,
2 credits each.

READING.

1. Name in order the steps you would pursue in teaching a
beginner to read. 10 credits.
2. When a class has reached Fifth Reader, state what you
aim to accomplish by the reading exercises, and how you would
conduct a recitation. 10 credits.
3. Name the necessary qualifications of a successful teacher
of reading. 10 credits.
4. What other subjects should be taught in connection with
reading? 10 credits.
5. Name the books you have read that have been especially
helpful in directing you how to teach reading. 10 credits.
6. Read for the examiner, without previous knowledge of
what you would read, a paragraph of prose. 25 credits.
7. Read for the examiner, he selecting the piece, one or more
stanzas of poetry. 25 credits.

y The examiner will grade the reading of each selection from
0 to 25 and deliver his grading of the same to the Grading Com-
mittee.














ARITHMETIC.

CgSolutions must be given; answer, only cannot be accepted.
Method of solution must be counted in grading each example.
NOTE-Ten possible credits for each example.
1. (a) Express in words: 605006. (b) Write in figures: Eight
hundred trillion, eight billion, eight million, eight hundred thou-
sand, eighty. (c) Write: Fifty-five thousand eight hundred sixteen
dollars, five cents. (d) Express by Arabic notation: XDCCCXXII.
(e) Express one million by Roman notation, using one letter.
2 credits each.
2. 4+11X3--(5+28-4+24) 6=?
3, Write all the prime factors of 4862.
4. A can walk around.a race-course in 12 min., B in 15 min.,.
and C in 18 min. If they start together and keep walking each
at his own rate, how many minutes will elapse before they are all.
three together at the starting point, and how many times will.
each have made the circuit?
5. The pendulum of one clock makes 25 beats in 28 seconds,.
and that of another clock 30 beats in 34 seconds. If the clocks.
are started at the same moment, when first after starting will.
the clocks beat together again?
/4'
6. What is the exact value of 3 + 2 -- of -+ 4 ?

7. When it is noon at Philadelphia it is 10 min. past 5 o'clock
p. m. at Paris. Whht is the longitude of Paris, the longitude of
Philadelphia being 750 10'?
8, Find, by using approximate measurement, how many feet
high a box 5 ft. square must be made to hold 100 bushels of rice.
9. After getting a note, without interest, discounted at a
bank for 3 mo. at 6 per cent., I had $354.42. What was the face-
of the note?
r10. A man purchased a horse, giving in payment his note at
6 per cent. At the end of 3 years and 6 months he found that he-
owed $42 interest. How much did the horse cost him?

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

1. (a) What does English Grammar teach? (b) How should
pupils be taught the subject for two or three years preparatory
to taking up technical grammar? 5 credits each.
2.. In beginning grammar; should the sentence and its ele-
ments, or the parts of speech and their properties and accidents,
be taught first? Why? 10 credits.
3. (a) Name and define the different kinds of sentences..
(b) Write a declarative sentence and change it into each of the
other kinds. 5 credits each.
4. (a) Define inflection. (b) When is it called declensionZ
when comparison; when conjugation? 5 credits each.
61















5. Decline I, thou, thyself, which, man-of-war.
2 credits each.
6. Give the rule and compare each of the following: hot,
lteerful, sincere, able, capable, angry. fore. well, worldly, much.
1 credit each.
7. Copy the following and write opposite each its plural:
army, turkey, tax, thief, brief, *, solo, son-in-law, forget-me-not,
Knight Templar. 1 credit each.
8. Write the synopsis with thou .of the verb drive in the
passive in all moods and tenses, and give all forms of the infinitive
and participles. 10 credits.
9. Make a list of all the propositions, clauses, and phrases,
stating what each modifies and the kind of an element it is, in
the. following sentence:
"We cannot perceive that the study of Grammar makes even
the smallest difference in the speech of people who have always
lived in good society." 10 credits.
10. Parse in full the Italicized words in the following sen-
tences:
(1) Whoever studies will learn.
(2) Every good gift is from above.
(3) He is all awry, for his reputation is his all.
(4) Be not like dumb, driven cattle.
(5) Than whom, Satan excepted, none higher sat.
10 credits.

COMPOSITION.

1. What advantage to composition are written recitations?
Should they be more frequent, more carefully corrected and
copied? 5 credits.
2. What of the nature of the subjects, and at what period
in a child's education should composition work begin?
5 credits.
3. Elaborate upon the benefits of the following as introduc-
tory to composition writing: (1) Conversation-lessons; (2) Copying
exercises; (3) Oral and written descriptions of pictures and famil-
itar objects; (4) Committing choice extracts.
5 credits.
4. A knowledge of the following being indispensable in com-
position, when and how should their use be taught: (1) Capital
letters; (2) Punctuation; (3) Use of words; (4) Use of sentences;' (5)
Figures of speech. 5 credits.
5. Name briefly ten instances when words should begin with
capitals. 5 credits.
6. (a) Name all the marks of punctuation in general use. (b)
Write five rules for the use of the comma. 5 credits.
7. Write ten cautions to be observed in the selection of
words. 5 credits.
8. Give five general rules to be observed in the construction
of sentences. 5 credits.
9. Name and illustrate the use of five of the figures of speech
SJ most common use. 5 credits.














10. (a) What is the value of paragraphing? (b) Give some
rules for paragraphing. 5 credits.
11. After preparing an outline, write a composition, at least
4one fools-cap page in length, on one of the following subjects:
(1) The use and abuse of school examinations.
(2) Teachers' Uniform Examinations.
(3) The war with Spain.
(4) The necessity of ripe scholarship in a teacher.
50 credits.

UNITED STATES HISTORY.

1. Tell what you know of the "Starving Time," and what
followed in the early history of the country.
2. Relate the story of the sending of wives to Virginia.
3. What of "bond servants," "redemptioners" and slaves, in
the colonies.
4, Tell the history of Patrick Henry and his part in precipi-
tating the Revolution.
5.. What forms of religious worship were established by law
in different sections before the Revolution? To whom is the
country indebted for religious freedom, free speech, and a free
press.
6. (a) Give an account of the United States Navy in the war
of 1812. (b) Give an account of the battle of Bladensburg and the
subsequent results.
7. Why is each of the following celebrated in history: Ar-
nold, Ethan Allen, John Endicott, Roger Williams, Lafayette,
Daniel Boone, Alex. Hamilton, Washington Irving, Alex. H.
Stephens, Admiral Dewey
8. Describe the Civil War from Bull Run to Gettysburg.
9. Relate the history of the term, "The Greater New York."
10. Tell the causes of the present war with Spain.

GEOGRAPHY.

1. Of what use are parallels of latitude and meridians?
2. What cities in the United States are in about the same
latitude as Madrid?
3. (a) Give approximately their number, their combined area
and the population of the Philippine Islands. (b) Give the latitude
and longitude of Manila.
4. (a) What are zones? (b) Give the width of each in miles.
5. Name ten important rivers of the Mississippi River Sys-
-tem.
6. Name in order the five nations that have the largest popu-
lation.
7. What is the distance, and through what waters would you
sail from Gibraltar to Manila?














8. Give the following in regard to'Cuba: Length, average
width, area in square miles, climate, character of soil, chief pro-
ducts, number of inhabitants and their character, chief exports
and imports.
9. Locate Mexico. How many states compose the republic
What is its area? What is the character and number of its popu-
lation? What are its chief exports and imports?'
10. Name all the governments in South America with their
capitals. State approximately their combined population. What
countries have furnished the greater part of the South American
population? What language is principally spoken in each gov-
ernment?

PHYSIOLOGY.

1. Describe all the bones of the trunk.
2, Give the physiological 1'easons why a child's feet should
not be allowed to dangle from a high seat.
3. Explain the uses and structure of the muscles.
4. Describe and state the uses of the perspiratory glands.
5. Name the organs of respiration and tell how we breathe.
6. Give reasons for school-room ventilation, and tell how it
may best be done.
7. Describe the heart and explain its movements.
8. Tell the effects of alcoholic drinks and narcotics upon cir-
culation; the heart; the blood; the lungs.
9. Trace the food from the mouth to the small intestines and
describe the whole process of digestion, explaining the action of
the gastric and pancreatic juices and the bile.
10. Explain the effects of alcoholics and narcotics upon the-
organs and process of digestion; and give the "Law of Heredity."'

THEORY AND PRACTICE.

(From Hughes' Mistakes in Teachtng.)

1. Discuss the following mistakes; (1) Regarding knowledge
as more important than the child; (2) Of confining education to the
school; (3) Of neglecting definite moral training. Chap. I.
31 credits each.
2. Give a brief of the arguments on the following questions.
of school management: (1) Yard supervision; (2) Demerit marks;
(3) Tardiness in the teacher; (4) Personal habits of the teacher; (5)
Sitting while teaching. Chap. II. 2 credits each.
B. Give in substance the discussion on five mistakes of the
teacher in dealing with parents. Chap. II. 2 credits each.
4. Discuss the following mistakes in discipline: (1) Trying to
teach without order. (2) State five rules given for "maintaining
order." Chap. III. 5 credits each.














5. What is said in relation to the following: (1) Too many
rules. (2) Losing sight of the class. (3) 1 Ii.l'i,, for disciplinary
purposes merely. (4) Allowing whispering on the plea of "'a Ilo wing
pupils to assist each other." (5) A hearty laugh in the school room.
Chap. Ill. 2 credits each.
6. Discuss the following mistakes in method: (1) Asking ques-
tions in rotation; (2) Repeating questions; (3) Slavish use of text-
,books; (4) Assigning lessons without testing thereon; (5) Continuing
lessons too long. Chap. IV. 2 credits each.
7. State in brief the argument of Mr. Hughes on the follow-
ing: (1) Thinking one teaching of a subject sufficient; (2) Supposing
detecting errors means correcting them. Chap. IV. 5 credits each.
8. What is said of the following: (1) Trying to teach too
.much in a single lesson; (2) Paying most attention to smartpupils;
(3) Accepting partial answers; (4) Repeating answers. Chap. IV.
21 credits each.
9. Write what is said of talking too much while teaching. (2)
,Quote the "Teacher's Golden Rule," and the sayings of Mr.
Hughes, Sir William Hamilton, and Horace Mann, relative to the
same principle. Chap. IV. 5 credits each.
10. Reproduce the substance of the arguments in discussing
the'following mistakes: (1) Allowing "Yes" and "No," and neglect-
ing the manners and deportment of pupils; (2) Tempting pupils by
the self-reporting system. 5 credits each.

The questions on this subject for the September examination
-will be taken from Browning's Educational Theories, published
by E. L. Kellogg & Co., 68 East Ninth St., New York.
















FOR FIRST GRADE CERTIFICATES.



The preceding examinations on Orthography, Reading, Com-
position, Geography, Physiology and Theory and Practice were:
also required for this certificate.



ARITHMETIC.
SE-Solutions must be given; answers only cannot be accepted..
Method of solution must be counted in grading each example..

NOTE-Ten possible credits for each example.

f. A farmer brought to market 3 jars of butter, weighing-
27, 29, and 40 pounds, respectively. The empty jars weighed 41,
49, and 71 pounds. The butter was sold for $28. Give the
price per pound in the fraction of a dollar.
123 3t
2. Reduce --- X-- .01 to a decimal. Give answer correct
(42 41
to six decimal figures.
3. Find the value in U. S. money of the contents of a purse
containing 35 sovereigns, 27 half-sovereigns, 13 crowns, 41 half-
crowns, a guinea, and a shilling.
4. Express .65 of a pint as a decimal of a bushel.
5. Fifteen persons agree to purchase a tract of land, but
three of the company withdrawing, the investment of each is in-
creased $150. What does the land cost?
6J If the assessed valuation of a town is $2,360,000, and the
town has 640 polls, paying $1.50 each, what must be the rate of
taxation in order to raise $10,400?
7. What is the difference between the present worth and
proceeds of $560 due in 2 yr., 6 mo., at 6 per cent?
8, If 5 horses eat as much as 6 cattle, and 8 horses and 12
cattle eat 12 tons of hay in 40 days, how much hay will be needed
to keep 7 horses and 15 cattle 65 days?
9. If a globe of gold 1 inch in diameter is worth $120, what
is the diameter of a globe of gold worth $6400?
10. If a child should receive 1 cent at birth, 2 cents on the
second birthday, 4 cents on the third, etc., how much would he be
worth when 21 years of age?














ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

1. (a) Distinguish between practical and technical Grammar.
(b) Tell which should be taught first, and give reasons for your
answer.
2. Separate the following into all of its propositions, clauses
and phrase ; classify and tell what each modifies:
"Nobody knew how the fisherman brown,
With a look of despair that was half a frown,
.Faced his fate on that furious night,
Faced,the mad billows with hunger white,
Just-within hail of a beacon light
That shone on a .woman fair and trim
Waiting for him."
3. Parse in full in the above sentence: how, that (wherever it
appears), with (both), just, faced (second), half, knew.
4. Write each part of speech and after it as a head, in the
order of stating them in parsing, all the properties and accidents
to which each is subject.
5. (a) Only what kind of verb s may have a passive voice,
and why? (b) How is the passive voice of every verb formed?
5 credits each.
6. Write a short sentence and illustrate each of the follow-
ing uses of the infinitive: (1) As the subject of a sentence; (2) As
the object of a verb; (3) As the object of a preposition; (4) As
the complement of a verb; (5) As a noun appositive; (6) As an
adjective; (7) As an adverb.
7. Write a short sentence in which a noun clause is used; (1)
As the subject of a sentence; (2) As the object of a verb; (3) As
the object of a preposition; (4) As a complement of the verb be;
(5) As an appositive. 2 credits each.-
8. Write two sentences and illustrate the difference between
restrictive and non-restrictive clauses.
9. (a) Give four classifications of sentences. (b) What deter-
mines the classification of words, phrases and clauses?
5 credits each.
10. (a) Which two parts of speech, besides conjunctions, may
connect; and what is each of them called? (b) Illustrate each by
a sentence.

UNITED STATES HISTORY.

1. What are the chief benefits to be derived from the study
of history, and what subjects should be taught in connection with
it. 10 credits.
2. Give the principal epochs in the history of what is now
the United States. 10 credits.
3. Distinguish between -the Provincial, Continental. and
Federal Congresses. 10 credits.

















4. Give the meaning and origin of each of the following
-political terms: Loco-focos, Nullification, Free Soilers, Know-noth-
,.ings, Undergroun oRailroad, Secession. So u t h e r n Confederacy,
.Emancipation, Carpet-baggers, Mugwumps. 1 credit each.
5. (a) Who enunciated the doctrine, "To the victors belong
-the spoils?" (b) What is meant by "Civil Service Reform?" (c)
'Under whose administration was the latter inaugurated? (d)
What is likely to be the outcome of it? 10 credits.
6. What is meant by the "Monroe Doctrine?" What recent
*occurence made this question prominent again? Explain.
10 credits.
7. Write.five questions you would ask a class about the
'Dred Scott Decision." 10 credits.
8. Give a brief sketch of the first one of each in the United
:States: (a) Railroad; (b) steamboat; (c) newspaper; (d) tele-
.graph; (e) cotton gin. 2 credits each.
9. What do you understand by the "Resumption Act" of
1879;\the Sherman Silver Bill repealed by special session of Con-
:gress in 1893? 5 credits each.
10. What do you understand by "the free and unlimited coin-
age of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1?" 10 credits.

CIVIL GOVERNMENT.

1. (1) What State took the lirst step leading to the forma-
tion of the present Constitution of the United States? (2) Name
the time and place fixed by the commissioners for the meeting of
.the first Convention. (3) Why did the attempt fail? (4) When and
where did the Convention finally meet? (5) State why the organi-
'sation was delayed, and who was elected president, and the
length of the session..
2 credits each.
2. (1) The ratification of how many States were necessary to
-adopt the Constitution? (2) How many ratified wAhin a year?
*(3) When was the first election held under it? (4) What prevented
-Congress from organizing and the President from being in-
atugurated at the date fixed, March 4th, 1789? (5) When and
:,where was he finally inaugurated?
2 credits each.
3. (1) Give the six reasons set forth in the preamble for the
establishment of the Constitution. (2) How many Articles in ihe
-woriginal instrument? (3) How many since added by amendments?
-(4) How many amendments were proposed by the first Congress?
,(5) Which three were offered and declared ratified to free and to
--adjust the negro to citizenship?
2 credits each.
4. (1) Name the branches of government established by the
'Constitution. (2) Show wherein these branches are not entirely
:independent of each other. (3) Name the two bodies created con-
;-stituting the first branch of government. (4) What are both to-
:gether called? (5) ,How often is this body required to meet?
2 credits each.














5. Why is the House of Representatives so called? (2) State
three conditions of eligibility therein. (3) Give the number of
members in the first Congress. (4) When was the first census
taken? (5) What was approximately the population of the United
States, and what ,was the primary object of this census?
2 credits each.
6. (1) Give approximately the population of the Eleventh
census; the number of members in the present House. (2) What
population was made the basis of the apportionment of Repre-
sentatives after the first census; what after the eleventh? (3)
Can a non-resident of a Congressional district be elected and serve
it in Congress? (4) What three exclusive powers are granted the
House of Representatives? (5) How many times has the House
of Representatives elected a president, and under what circum-
stances may a State have no voice in such election?
2 credits each.
7, How many members now compose the United States
Senate? (2) Who are eligible; how are they elected, and how did
It happen that the Constitution did not require their election by
popular vote? (3) Who is its presiding officer; when must the
Chief Justice preside? (4) What executive and what judicial func-
tions performed by this body? (5) Under what circumstances
may a State lose its vote in the election of a Vice-President?
2 credits each.
8. (1) Why is it that State Legislatures frequently instruct
their Senators and request their Representatives to support certain
national measures? (2) How long must a foreigner live in this
country before eligible to the Senate? (3) What is the salary of a
Senator; a Representative? (4) What are .the salaries of Vice-
President and Speaker of the House? (5) Under what conditions
may a Governor appoint a Senator.
2 credits each.
O' Give three processes by which a bill may become a na-
tional law. 10 credits.
10. (1) Show the points of agreement and how State govern-
ments are all built on the plan of the general government. (2)
Mention the Executive officers of a State and the primary duties
of each. 5 credits each.
ALGEBRA.
1. (1) Define Algebra. (2) Express the multiplication of a, b,
and c, iin three ways. (3) Express the division of a by b in two
ways. (4) Write x with a numerical coefficient; with a literal
coefficient; with a literal exponent. (5) Express the fourth root of
r3; the reciprocal of a -I- b. 2 credits each.
2. Express by algebraic symbols: (1) x equals the sum of a
and b; (2) x is less than the sum of a and b; (3) x is greater than
the sum of a and b; (4) x is not equal to y; (5) x is not greater
than v; (6) x is not less than y; (7) make the sign of deduction
(meaning therefore).; the sign of continuation (meaning and so on);
(8) name the four signs of aggregation; (0) in the trinomial 2 a2-
N3 -1- 3 c, tell the sign of 2 a2, the coefficient of b3, and the exponent
of 3 c; (10) Give three brief rules embodying your answers to
sub-question "(9)." 1 credit each.












90

3. (1) Add: (a), 2a -+ (+ a); (b), 2a + (- a); (c), 2a+ (+a); (d),
- 2a+ (-- a).
(2). Subtract: (a), 2 a --(+ a); (b), 2 a- (- a): (c). -2 a -
(+ a); (d), 2 a (- a).
(3). Multiply: (a), a (+ b); (b), aX (+ b), (c), aX (- b).
(d), aX (-b).
(4). Divide: (a), ab (+ a); (b), ab- (-a); (c), -ab- (+-a);
(d), ab + (- a).
S(5). Explain all the algebraic meanings of the signs plus and
minus. 2 credits each.
4. Resolve each of the following factors into four factor:
(1), 1--m; (2), x4 + 7 x3 +- 9 x2 7 x 10. 5 credits each.
5. Find each the G. C. D. and L. C. M. of 6 x2 --13 z + 6. 2 xz
+ 5 12, and 6 a2 a'- 12. 5 credits each.
i l n \ / nn M.
6. Reduce to its simplest form -- (-- --
m-n m-nl \mn m-n).
10 credits.
14 7 21 6
7. Solve the equations + 4. 1.
x y x y 10 credits.
8. A and B together earn $50 in eight days; A and C together,
$69 in 12 days; B and C together, $55 in 10 days. How much can
each earn in a day? 10 credits.
1 1
9. Find the value of x in +2 *
Xf+ V2 X -V-2-x2 X
10 credits.
10. A certain number of sheep were bought for $468; but,
after 8 of them have been reserved, the rest were sold at an ad-
-vance of $1 a head, and $12 were gained on the lot. How many
sheep were bought? 10 credits.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY:

1. (1) Distinguish between Mathematical, political, and physi-
cal Geography. (2) Name six other sciences closely akin to and
partly treated in Physical Geography. 5 credits each.
2, Give the following in regard to the earth: (1) Its form;
(2) Its Polar and mean Equatorial diameters; (3) Its surface in
square miles, and volume in cubic miles; (4) Its relative cubical
contents and mass as compared with the sun; (5) The source from
which its losing heat is largely restored. 2 credits each.
3. Define: (1) Agonic line; (2) Isogonic lines; (3) Isoclinical
lines; (4) Magnetic storms; (5) Mercator's Projection.
2 credits each.
4. '(1) What is relief? (2) Give the total relief of the earth
in miles, andthe proportion between that and the earth's radius;
(3) Tell the effects of erosion; (4) Under what circumstances
might there be no land? (5) Classify islands. 2 credits each.













91

5. (1) Describe the coral polyp, and coral reef building. (2)
Give the theory of atolls. 5 credits each.
6, Define Seismology. (2) Give the modern theory of earth--
quakes, and their effects at sea. 5 credits each.
7, '(1) Explain the nature of waves, how produced, move-
ment, extreme height and velocity, duration, depth of disturb-
ance, etc. (2) Explain the phenomena of tides; solar, lunar,,spring:
and neap tides, height at different places; bores and maelstrom.
5 credits each.
,8. (1) Define climate, and state the chief conditions which de-
termine the climate of a place. (2) Tell how winds are produced;.
give the starting place of cyclones, and draw the distinction be-
tween cyclones and tornadoes. 5 credits each.
9. (1) Define vapor, and tell how water is held in the air..
(2) Explain what is meant by the "dew point," and state the con-
ditions and in what forms vapor is precipitated. 5 credits each.
10. (1) Tell what is meant by the flora of a country, and tell
the conditions which effect flora. (2) Explain what is meant by
the fauna of a country, and name some of the animals common:
to the several faunal regions. 5 credits each.














QUESTIONS FOR STATE CERTIFICATES



Used January 1898.


"'Too low they build who build beneath the stars."-Young.


NOTICE TO EXAMINEES.
1. A fee of one dollar not refundable and an endorsement of
good character must be handed the examiner.
2. Use legal cap paper, pen and ink; number and letter an-
swers to correspond with questions; fasten together all papers on
the same subject.
3. The whole examination must be completed within one
year, or no credit will be allowed on any subject passed on
longer. than twelve months.



GEOMETRY.
(From Robinson's New Geometry.)
1. Draw and define each of the quadrilaterals.
2 credits each.
2. -Define: (a) Altitude of. a polygon; (b) equivalent magni-
tudes; (c) similar figures; (d) an arc; (e) a proposition; (f) a prob-
lem; (g) a theorem; (h) a hypothesis; (i) a corollary; (j) a postulate.
1 credit each.
3. Demonstrate: The sum of the three angles of any triangle
is equal to two right angles. 10 credits.
4. Demonstrate: If in any triangle a line be drawn from any
angle to the middle of the opposite side, twice the square of this
line, together with twice the square of one half of the side bisect-
ed, will be equivalent to the sum of the squares of the other two
sides. 20 credits.
5., Demonstrate: An angle at the circumference of any circle
is measured by one half of the are on which it stands. 20 credits.
6. Problem: Two parallel chords in a circle are 8 feet each,
and their distance apart is 6 feet; what is the radius of the circle?
10 credits.
7. Problem: How far can a keeper in a light house 200 feet
above the sea level see a man in the water, assuming the diame-
ter of the earth to be 8,000 miles? 10 credits.
8. Demonstrate: Any triangular pyramid is one-third of the
triangular prism having the same base and equal altitude.
10 credits.


L~














TRIGONOMETRY.
(From Robinson's.)
1. Draw a figure, name and describe each of the trigonometrical
lines, or circular functions. 10 ciredta
2. Conceive the radius unity and find the value of each func-
tion in terms of the other. 20 credits.
3. Give the algebraic signs of all the circular functions in
each quadrant. 20 credits.
4. Proposition: In any triangle, the sines of the angles are
to one another as the sides opposite to them. 20, credits.
5, Problem: In a right-angled triangle, ABC, given the base-
AB, 1214, and the angle A, 510 40' 30", to find the other Darts.
[Give proportions simply, as logarithms cannot be used.i
T1 credits.
6. Explain logarithms. Tell how multiplicatiEns, divisions,
raising to powers, and the extraction of roots, may be performed by-
logarithms. 10 credits.
7. Problem: In a plane triangle, the side AC=1751, CB =
1257.5, AB= 2364.5, find the angles. [Use the formula for cosinee.
and work correctly to the use of logarithms.] -0o credits.

PHYSICS.
(From Steele's Popular Physics.)
1. Name five general properties of matter. Define five speciffJ
properties of matter. 1 credit each.
2. (a) Give the three laws of motion. (b) Explain circular-
motion; reflected'motion. 5 credits each.
3. (a) Draw a diagram and show how a nearly west wind:
may drive a sail-boat north. (b) Why will a rifle ball make a.
round hole in a pane of glass while a stone thrown against it will
shatter it? 5 credits each.
4, Give the lait of capillarity; distinguish between direct
and reversed capillarity. (b) Give the three laws of weight.
5 credits each.
5. (a) A man on the earth (4,000 miles from the centre)
weighs 200 lbs., what would he weigh 2,000 miles above the. sur--
face? (b) How high is a precipice if it takes 10 seconds for a
stone to fall to its base? 5 credits each.
6., Illustrate the three classes of levers; give the taw of equi-
librium. 10 credits.
7. Draw a diagram and illustrate the principle of the hydro-
static press. 10 credits.
8. (a) A water tower 81 ft. high has an orifice at the base,
what will be the velocity of a jet? (b) What will be the number-
of cubic feet of water discharged in 10 seconds if the orifice have-
an area of 1 a square foot? 5 credits each.
9, (a) Describe a rainbow. (b) Why are they circfilar, why
always opposite the sun; why are there primary and secondary
bows? 5 credits each.
110. (a) Distinguish between frictional and voltaic electricity.
(b) Explain Rhumkorff's coil. 5 credits each-


~














ZOOLOGY.
(From Steele's Popular Zoology.)

q, (a) Define organic matter, and give the kingdoms into
~which organisms are divided. (b) Of what does Zoology treat?
5 credits each.
2. Illustrate the six classifications of the animal kingdom be-
-ginning with the swallow as a species. 10 credits.
B1 Define the following branches of invertebrates: (1) proto-
.zoa; (2) porifera; (3) coelenterata; (4) echinodermata; (5) vernms;
(6) Mollusca; '(7) arthropoda. 10 credits.
4. Name the branch, class and order to which each of the fol-
lowing belongs: (1) common sponge; (2) jelly-fish; (3) star-
fish; (4) tape-worm; (5) mosquito. 2 credits each.
15. Give the chief points of distinction between invertebrates
.and vertebrates. 10 credits.
6.. Give reasons for sub-dividing the vertebrates into each of
the following ten classes: acrania, cyclostama, elasmobranchii, ganoi-
dei, teleostei,.dipnoi, batrachia, reptilia, waves, mammalia; or define
.each. 20 credits.
7.. Give class and order of each of the following: sting-ray,
cat-fish, swell-fish, bull-frog, rattlesnake. 2 credits each.
8. Give the order, genus and species of each of the following
:mammalia, and the reason for each distinction in classification:
(1) Kangaroo; (2) horse; (3) mastiff; (4) gorilla; (5) man.
2 credits each.
9. (a) Discuss migrations of birds; (b) homologies of the verte-
brates. 5 credits each.

BOTANY.

(From Gray's Lessons in Botany.)

a. (a) Distinguish between Systematic and Structural Botany;
'(b) Explain the terms morphology, histology, and vegetable physi-
ology. 5 credits each.
2. Take fla. and illustrate in various ways the advantages
,of a pattern plant. 10 credits.
0. Define: cotyledon, caulicle, plumule, node, calyx, sepal, sta-
mnen, pistil, stigma, anther, and other technical terms used in the
above illustration. 10 credits.
4. Draw diagrams and illustrate ten kinds of buds.
10 credits.
5. Describe the functions of each and name some plants that
has each of the following kinds of roots: tap, multiple, primary,
secondary, fibrous, fleshy, napiform, fusiform, fascicled, aerial, root
.hairs. credits.
6. Explain the meaning of the following terms used in con-
nection with stems: herbaceous, arboreous, diffuse, decumbent, assur-
gent, culm, caudex, stolon, offset, rootstock. 2 credits each.


L














7., Draw diagrams and describe leaves as to the following
particulars: (1) venation; (2) general outline; (3) apex and base; (4)
stipules; (5) phyllotaxy. 2 credits 'each.
8. Analyze each of the following, making all possible classi-
fications: orange, pineapple, waternmlon, Irish potato, onion.
2 credits each.

LATIN.
1. Ad haec Caesar respondit: 'Se magis consuetudine sua
quam merito eorum civitatem conservaturum, si prius quam
murum aries attigisset se dedidissent: sed deditionis nullam esse
condicionem nisi armis traditis. Se id quod in Nerviis fecisset
facturum, finitimisque imperaturum, ne quam dediticiis populi
Romani injuriam inferrent.' He nuntiata ad suos, quae impera-
rentur facere dixerunt. 10 credits.
2. Decline the above, se, aries, nullam, armis, re. 10 credits.
3. (a) What part of speech is conscrvaturui? (b) How is
such discourse usually expressed? 10 credits.
4. Give the principal parts of attigisset, dedidissent, fecisset,
inferrent. Why is each in the Subjunctive mood? 10 credits.
5. Give the case and construction of each: se (second one),
deditionis, traditis, finitimisque, imperaturum, dediticiis, populi.
10 credits.
6. Ausus quinetiam voces jactare per umbram
Implevi clamore vias: moestusque Creusam
Nequicquam ingeminans, iterumque iterumque vocavi.
Quaerenti, et tectis urbis sine fine furenti,
Infelix simulacrum, atque ipsius umbra Creusae
Visa mihi ante oculos, et nota major imago.
Obstupui, steteruntque comae, et vox faucibus haesit.
Tum sic affari, et curas his demere dictis:
Quid tantum insano juvat indulgere dolori,
O dulcis conjux? non haec sine numine Divum
Eveniunt: nec te comitem asportare Creusam
Fas, qut ille sinit super regnator Olympi.
Longa tibi exilia, et vastum maris aequor arandum.
Ad terram Hesperiam venies, ubi Lydius arva
Inter opima virum leni fluit agmine Tybris.
Illic res laetae, regnumque, et regia conjux
Parta tibi: lachrymas dilectae pelle Creusae. 20 credits.
7. Give principal parts of ausus, implevi, visa, obrstlpui, stete-
runt. 1 10 credits.
8. Parse in full quaerenti,nota, affari, demere, arandum, virum,
leni, part, pelle, Creusae. 20 credits.

RHETORIC.
(From Quackenbos.)
1. What is the province and object of rhetoric? 10 credits.
2. Give the elements and standards of taste. 10 credits.
3. Name the sources of the pleasures of the imagination.
10 credits.


1












96

4. Name the essential elements of the sublime in writing.
10 credits.
5. Name the elements of beauty; contrast sublimity with
beauty. 10 credits.
i6. Name two figures of orthography; eight of etymology; five
of syntar. 10 credits.
7.' Define sixteen of the principal figures of rhetoric; illus-
trate each by a short example. 20 credits.
8. Name the different varieties and the essential properties
of style. Give direction's for forming a good style. 20 credits.
ENGLISH LITERATURE.
(From Rev. Stopford Brooke.)
1. Give a sketch of the author, and an outline of the Canter-
bury Tales. 5 credits each.
B. Name the authors with their literary works that greatly
influenced prose literature in the time of Henry VIII.
10 credits.
3. Give a sketch of the youth and manhood of the author of
the Faerie Queen. 10 credits.
4. What is said of the decay of the drama? Name some of
the dramas written by Ben Jonson, and how does he compare
with Shakespeare? 5 credits each.
5. Name and describe the writings of Jeremy Taylor; Rich-
ard Baxter. I 5 credits each.
6. Give a sketch of the life of'John Milton. Give the charac-
teristics of Paradise Lost and of Paradise Regained.
5 credits each.
7. Give a sketch of the life of Alexander Pope; a summary
of his writings; their design and effect. 10 credits.
8. What were the Taller, Spectator and Guardian; what their
influence upon the people; who the principal writers? 10 credits.
9J (a) Name the principal prose writers between 1745 and
1832. (b) Give a brief outline of two of the principal literary
works. 5 credits each.
10. Couple the author with the following and give a suffi-
cient summary of two of them to show that you have read each:
The Religious Affections; Poor Richard's Almanac; The Spy; The
Sketch Book; Psalm of Life; We and Our Neighbors; The Seven Oaks;
The Circuit Rider; Little Women; Sights and Insights. 10 credits.

PSYCHOLOGY.
(From Sully's Outlines.)
1. Define psychology; show its relation to physiology and
education. 10 credits.
2. '(a) How is the mind divided for purposes of study? (b)
'Explain the relation between thesepsychical factors.
5 credits each.
3. Distinguish between senses and sensations. (b) Treat of
the range and origin of instinct in man. 5 credits each.















4. (a) Define and give the general functions of attention.
(b) How may the teacher train the attention of pupils?
5 credits each.
5. (a) Define perception; (b) Distinguish between a procept
and a concept; between perception and conception.
5 credits each.
6. (a) Define memory. (b) Give some of the general condi-
tions necessary to reproduction, and tell how memory may be cul-
tivated. 5 credits each.
7. (a) Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning.
(b) Explain the mental process in reasoning. 5 credits each.
8. Distinguish between feelings and emotions; (b) desire and-
motire. 5 credits each.
9. Show the relation between habit and volition.
10 credits.
10. Is the will free? Give arguments pfro and con.
10 credits.

GENERAL HISTORY.

(From Swinton's Outlines of the World's History.)

1. Narrate the career of Alexander the Great. 10 "redits.
2. What of the character and effect upon the world of Greek
literature, philosophy and art? 10 credits.
3. Relate the origin and spread of Christianity. 10 credits.
4. Give the rise and'origin of the Saracens; their influence
upon literature, science and art. 10 credits.
5. Relate, in brief, the origin, history and decline of Feudal-
ism. 10 credits.
6. Tell the design, date, number and results of the Crusades.
10 credits.
7. Tell the causes, name the participants, and state the result&
of the Thirty Years War. 10 credits.
8. Tell the story of The French Revolution; the causes, the chief
actors, the atrocities, the close, the i,,Ilfirial effect. 20 credits.
9. Relate the Restoration of the German Empire.
10 credits.
71'



































































































































































































































































L
















CHItPTCR IV.



Statistical Reports of County Superintendents
for 1896-7 Tabulated.



The facts presented in the following Tables are as full and
-as absolutely correct as it was possible to make them from the
-data furnished in County Superintendents' reports.
Some items, omitted in the statistics of this year, will be
found in the Tables of the succeeding year, being of such na-
ture that it is deemed sufficient to present such facts only bi-
-ennially.
Other facts are not given because the reports from some
.counties were obviously defective relative to such data.
*County Superintendents, however, are to be congratulated
upon the constantly increasing care employed in the prepare.
tion of their reports. Their reports are manifestly neater,
more correct, and give less cause for complaint than they did
In former years.
The effort has been made to so tell the story of education
that the student of statistics may tind all he may wish to
know, and to present it in such form that one accustomed to
sift truths out of Statistical Tables may learn the educational
work and the real condition of the State with facility.
In the following Tables all averages and percentages are
-correct within a fraction of one or less.
The showing presented denotes healthy progress in all mat-
ters pertaining to education, but when compared with the
work of many other States, the fact is clearly discernible that-
-a great responsibility is yet to be met, if it be the aim of
Y'lorida to rank with her more enthusiastic sisters in the divine
work of elevating the masses through public education.
The imperative need for more money and longer school
terms is apparent to the eye of an informed educator in nearly
every Table.













100

TABLE I.-Showing, (1) Number of Schools; (2) Total Popula-
tion; ;3) School Population, all by Races.

:School Population
No. Total Population, i t to 21 years of
of Schools. Census of 1895. age.)
Census of 1896.

1896-97.
COUNTIES


ra *5 'r S


In State........ 2,467l. 869 464,639 271,561 193, 039 12,98186,1666,402
Alachua.. .1 -72 2,07 13,63 14,5681 9,8 3,94 5,138.
Baker.. .... ........ .... 30 27 3,71 2,986 7261 1,374 1,148 226
Bradford....... ..... 55 451 9,49 7142 2,357 2,926 2,285 641
Brevard.... 40 9 4,55 3,731 827 1,238 1,000 238.
Calhoun...... .... 2 7 3,274 2,436 83 1,08 842 241
Citrus.. .. .... 29 4,261 2,618 1 c 9471 732 215
Cay. 44 5,200 3,723 1 4;_ 1,722 1352 370>
Clay............ 51 44 1 1,722 1352 370
Columbia.. .......49 12,935 6,294 6,641 4,515 227 2,238
Dade..23 19 4 3,322 2,148 1,174 640 549 91
DeSoto ... 60 58 2 6,418 6,018 40 2,46 2,405 61
Duval......87 53 34 34,766 14,871 19,89 10,482 4,228 6,254
Escambia .. .. 59 42 17 22,503 12,848 9,655 7,036 4,184 2,852:
Franklin..6 4 2 4475 2,44 2,131 967 544 423
Gadsden.. 7 40 30 13,693 4,82 886 5,048 1,738 3,310
Hamilton............ 63 45 18 9,991 5,35 4,638 3,123 2,005 1,118
Hernando.. .... .. 19 15 2,940 1,826 1,114 1,051 620 431
Hillsborough.. ........ 95 79 16 31,362 24,04 7,316 8,108 6,54 1,561
Holmes.. .......... 39 38 1 6,232 5,774 ., 2,377 2,295 8
Jackson.. .......... 94 56 38 21,930 9,64 1 7,66 3,391 4.272.
Jefferso.. ......... 56 27 29 15,007 3,276 ll. 6,549 1,271 5,27
Lafayette............ 44 43 1 3,783 3,44 338 1,224 1,200 24
Lake.. ............ 63 49 14 8,349 6,18 2,281 1,696 585.
Lee.. ...............2,225 2,084 1 677 654 23
Leon.. .............. 71 3 19,597 3,34 16,250 9,251 912 8,339
Levy................ 54 41 13 7,534 5,16 2,370 2,519 1,638 881
Liberty.. ............ 2,079 1,151 98 687 394 293.
Madison.. 91 5734 13,60 5,923 7,737 5,917 2,195 3,722-
Manatee..... 35 33 3,83 3,54 282 1,249 1,183 66-
Marion....... .. .. .. 1 21,875 10,284 11,591 7,727 3,162 4,565
Monroe............ 11 17,16 11,35 5,232 4,613 3,277 1,336
Nassau.. ............17 8,84 4,285 4,558 2,749 1,413 1,336
Orange.. ............ 65 4916 12,45 8,6 3,835 3,098 2,061 1,03T
Osceola.......... .. .. 25 4 3,39 2,723 671 1,083 930 15
Pasco. ..... .. .. ..... 41 38 3 4,697 4,174 523 1,426 1,328 95
Polk.. .............. 84 6 10,98 9,20 1,77 3,409 3,019 390
Putnam............ 71 4724 11,381 6550 4,31 3,477 1,826 1,651
St. Johns.......... .. 0 7 7,70 5,125 2,166 1,477 689'
Santa Rosa........... 8 8 8,91 6,57 2,342 3,512 2,631 881
Sumter.. .......... .. 10 5,308 3,743 1,55 1,761 1,265 496-
Suwannee.. .......... 27 1,54 6,838 5,706 4,660 2,425 2,235
Taylor.......... .. .. 34 3 3,062 2,842 220 1,135 1,074 61
Volusia........ .. 44 15 11,480 7,240 4,240 2,526 1,641 885
Wakulla.. .. .. 32 22 10 3,7 1,977 1,723 1,231 658 57
Walton.. .......... .. 7,9 6,826 1. 1 2,9651 2,506 459
Washington.......... 9 7,820 6,228 2,857 2.273 584
*39 Indians included in totals.














101

TABLE II.-Showing, (1) Enrollmint by Race; (2) By Sex and Race;
(3) Percentage of School Population (6 to 21) Enroll-d.


Enrollmen
by Race

1896-97.

'CO UNTIES :
'


In State.. ..1105,5191 66,0071
.Alachua .. .. ..I- 5,7- 0 2,511
Baker .......I 963 8271
Bradford. .... 2,497 19811
Brevard.. .. 1:036 834
54alhoun... 833: 697
Citrus.. .. ... 798 645
-Clay...... 1,520 1,249
Columbia 3,377 1
Dade.. .. .. .I 717
.DeSoto .... 2,070 2,010
Duval...... 6.2031 3,0411
Escambia .. 3,8091 2,5551
Franklin. 578: 3641
Gadsden.. 3,4631 1,439!
Hamilton .... 2,023 1,4171
HJernando ....1 6271 4711
Hillsborough 4.720! 3.822:
Holmes.. ...! 1,7181 1.703|
Jackson .. .... 5,534| 2,752
Lafayette.... ., 9381 922
Jefferson. ..i 3,7891 956
Lake...... II 1,906 1,3931
Lee ..... 489 472
Leon.. .... 4,107 707
Levy ...... 1,775 1,195
Liberty .. 507 307
Madison..- 4,024 1,848
Manatee.. I 1,189 1,126
Marion. 11 5,436 2,3191
Monroe.. 2,101 1,4391
Nassau .. ....' 2,078 1,105
Orange .. .... 2,810 1,84
Osceola .... .. 876 750
Pasco.. .. .. .. 1,073 1,006
Polk .... .... 3,101 2,756'
Putnam.... I 2,558 1,357
St. Johns .. I 1,677 1,1271
Santa Rosa 2,564' 2,035|
Sumter 1.. 1,481f 1,068
Suwannee 3,7561 2,286,
Taylor. .... '1,0331 981
Volusia..... I 2156 1,388
W'akulla. .. 1,0668 6231
W\,alton .. ... 2.3181 2.0391
Washington. .i 2,4721 1,9561


P'er cent. of
t Enrollment by School Pop-
SSex and Race. ulation En-
rolled
Males. Females.

-, d s i '
Sa a

39,512 1.34,1701 19,01511 31,837 20,49711 69 771 60
2,8981 1,4391 1,35011 1,413 1,5481 ; 72 56
16 461 58 366 78 70 72 60
I. 1,039, 2571 942 2591 85 87 80
399i 99;, 4351 103: 84 83 85
I 374: 681 323 68; 77 83 56
I 3421 75| 303 78 84 88 71
.;I! 6151 13331 634 138 88 92 73
1 953. 748 886 790 75; 81| 69
267 100 241 109 *112 931 *230
1,087 31 923 29 81 84 98
S 1,474 1.491 1567 1,674' 59 721 51
S 125, 586 1,3051 668 54 611 44
.11 190 88! 174; 126 60 671 51
7171 1,003 7221 1,021 69 83 61
S 775i 317 642 289i 651 71 54
1". 243 73 228| 831 60 76 36
1,9481 446 1,874 452 58 58 58
S 894 10 8091 72 74 18
S.1 1.419 1,401 1,333 1,378 72 81 65
1' 5111 71 411 9 77 77 67
48 1,439 471, 1,394 58 75 54
I: 722 251 671 262 84 82 88
I: 229 8 243 9 72 72 74
S 31 5 1,604 352 1,796 44 78 41
"i 642 287 553 293 70 7 66
-'i 154 103 153 97 74 78 68
..17,'' 983 1,006 865 1,1701 6S1 84 5R
593 30 533 33 951 95 95
3,11711 1,213 1,426 1,1061 1,691 701 73 68
6621' 757 312 682 350 46 44 50
973!! 590, 485 515 488 761 78 73
970 92 456 920 514 1 89 94
126 3 72 361 54 81 81 82
67 529 27 477 40 75 76 68
3451 1,433 147 1,323 198 91 8 91 1f8
1,2011 6861. 596 671 605 74 73
550: 593 260 534 290 7 76 80
529' 1,0901 251 945 278 7 771 60
41 519 88 549 22 84 83
1,470 1,221 692 1,065 778 811 94 66
52 I 517 20 464 32 91 91 85
7681 708 365 680 403 851 85 87
4431 343 2401 280 203 87 95 77
2791 1,079 1401 9601 139 78 811 61
516[ 1,0231 266( 933 250! 871 861 88


*Due to great increase in Negro population
.since the h!st census.










102


TABLE III.-Showing, (1) Average Daily Attetnance; (2) Percent-
age of Attendance Compared Witt Enrollment.
C7
Avir ae' lsfibr.'Attdidiing School each l .
day















Baker ".... 636[ '533 10 '2 239 61
Brevard.ales. .. .. 24 13em 2 6 3 e12 72
189-).. 385 8 19 4 188 44
COUNTCES. '98 393 93







Columbia.... 2,18 1,191 97 58 466 602 511
; i





In Stat .. ....., 69.47 43,623162725,854122,09 2,265212913,9 166166165
Alachua.. ..... ...... 15 ,123 1,478 995 988 998 17472 705.
Bakerma .. .. .. 50 33 103 294 42 239 61 666476
Bradfordn .. 1.629 1 7 332 658 161 639 1 65 625 6
Brevard... 74 137 275 65 '312 72 707068,
Calhoun. ... .. .... 2,26 98 87 197 43 186 44 7 55 641
Citruso.. .... .... .. 188 238, 92 352 49 7171 71
Clay.. 96... .... ......918 777 191 384 '98 393 93 64 62170

Dad .............. 41 318 1 72 73 146 76 6. 63171

Hillsboroughmbia ......... .. 1 97 589 4, 6 6,2 1 8 4I ..
DeSoto... .. 2 1,9 1,59478 45 798 24 680 211 74 775,


Duvalf ....... 4,21[ 2,241 1,974 1,102 99 1,139 1,0151 68 7462:
Escambia ........... ,50 1,681 869 807 40 87 4631 67 666
Franklin .. .. ...... .. .. 8 272 14 115 8 11 85636265
Gadsden.. ...... ... ...... 2,899 989 1,267 492 607 4 6 30 651696
Hamilton. ......... ..1,317 962 3755 49 1 67 468
Hernando.. ...... 404 311 93 15 41 159 58i
Hillsboron gh.. ... .. .. 2,664 586 1,342 287 1,322 7 i
Holmes., ........... ... '2 84929 11 481 8 4482 '3
Jackson.. ........ .. .. 317 1,596 1,583 813 797 783 098 ,
Jefferson.......... .. .. .. 617 623 1,994 289 989 334 1 *

Lake ................ ,272 92 352 464 162 46 190 66 6


Lafayette ............... ..632 60371 71 3 282 344 26064
Lee .... ,2864 272 12 '1281 144 7 55871,
Leonla.. ............ .. ,899 632 479 2,420 233 1,115 246 1,305 71 6871
Levy.. ..5............. 1,365 792 373 389 .9 1 397 '192 66/ 6669,
Liberty.. .. .. 1851 125 94 671 100 58 63 63169.
adison.. .. .2 1,0991 1,463 82 674 517 789 5 6
Sari oa.. ..... .... .. 1,574 1,970 791 '872 7 1 ,098 1656 6.
Monroe.. ........... ...1,93 927 26 '43 12 446 2421 6664 70
Nassaun.. ........ ...... 2I, 1,8 870 6 7 59 282 344 265 60164 5
Orange.. ........ .. .. 617 2 '29 293 17 666864
Osceola.. ............. 3 12 5 130 518 270 26 44 72 71 81
Pascoua. ..... ..... .... 674 47 261 80 .13 169 25 74 74 69
Polk.. .. .. ........ .. 2,0 1, 185 '95 101 916 138 6 67 69


hnta Ron.......... .... 1,9024 1 .47 4023 660 195 '3 1077,69 7
Sumter.. 92.... .. S 260 '343 119 389 141 6769163
Suwannee.............. 2,174 1,348 826 677 .355 671 4718 59 5
Taylor.. 617 592 25 '299 10 293 15 60 6W48
Solusia................ 1,5 1C25 510 518 245 507 265 7174 66
Wakulla.. ............. 4131 26,7 1 1223 133 190 128 63 66 59
Walton.. .............. 457 1,272 185 '656 90 616 95j 6362 66.
Washington. __. 1,4941 1.1771 317 604 162 '573 15516060 6L