<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Training for sports
 Fair play in games
 Athletic games
 Ball games
 Athletic feats
 Gymnastic exercises
 Base Ball
 Cricket
 Lacrosse
 Foot-ball
 Hand-ball
 Lawn tennis
 Croquet
 Rackets
 Hockey
 Polo
 Bowls
 Rink-ball
 Bowling
 Battledore and shuttlecock
 Badminton
 Archery
 Quoiting
 Shuffleboard
 Bicycling
 Rowing
 Canoes and canoeing
 Miniature yachting
 Fishing
 Swimming
 Riding
 Skating
 Curling
 Ice-boating
 Tobogganing
 Snowshoeing
 Roller-skating
 Billiards
 Bagatelle
 Chess
 Double chess
 Draughts
 Dominoes
 Backgammon
 Parcheesi
 Ring toss
 Jack straws
 Thirty-one
 Fox and geese
 Morrice
 Knuckle-bones
 Solitaire
 Forfeits
 Penances
 Play-ground amusements
 Kites
 Marbles
 Tops
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover


BLDN NEH CCLC ICDL UFSPEC



The sports and pastimes of American boys
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053421/00001
 Material Information
Title: The sports and pastimes of American boys A guide and text-book of games of the play-ground, the parlor, and the field. Adapted especially for American youth
Physical Description: 2 p. 1., 9-303 p. : front., illus., diagrs. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chadwick, Henry, 1824-1908
George Routledge and Sons ( Publisher )
Publisher: G. Routledge and sons
Place of Publication: New York (9 Lafayette Place)
Publication Date: [1884]
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Sports -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Games -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1884   ( rbgenr )
Boys' nonfiction -- 1884
Bldn -- 1884
Genre: Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: By Henry Chadwick ...
General Note: Includes index.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001597001
oclc - 02748429
notis - AHM1131
lccn - 05029297
System ID: UF00053421:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Frontispiece
        Page 4
    Title Page
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Introduction
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Training for sports
        Page 11
    Fair play in games
        Page 12
    Athletic games
        Page 13
        Tug of war
            Page 14
        Prisoner's base
            Page 15
        Steeplechase
            Page 15
        Hare and hounds
            Page 16
            Page 17
    Ball games
        Fungo
            Page 18
        Two old cat
            Page 18
        Trap ball
            Page 19
    Athletic feats
        Page 20
        Plate
        Palm spring
            Page 21
        Trial of the thumb
            Page 21
        Finger feat
            Page 21
        Prostrate and perpendicular
            Page 21
        Knuckle down
            Page 22
        Tantalus trick
            Page 22
        The triumph
            Page 22
        Dot and carry two
            Page 22
        Flying book
            Page 22
        Lifting at arm's length
            Page 23
        Breast to mouth
            Page 23
        Jumping through you fingers
            Page 23
        Catch penny
            Page 23
        The turn over
            Page 23
        Long reach
            Page 24
        Stooping stretch
            Page 24
        Feats with chairs
            Page 24
        Leap before you look
            Page 24
        Tumble-down dick
            Page 25
        Take a chair from under you without falling
            Page 25
        Chairing the leg
            Page 25
    Gymnastic exercises
        Page 26
        Walking
            Page 27
        Running
            Page 27
        Jumping
            Page 28
        Dumb-Bells
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
    Base Ball
        Page 31
        Diagram of a base ball field
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
        The theory of the game
            Page 35
        How to play the positions
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Playing base-ball on the ice
            Page 44
            Page 45
        The rules of base-ball
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Plate
            Page 55
    Cricket
        How to play Cricket
            Page 56
        The game for boys
            Page 57
            Page 58
        The rules
            Page 59
        The regular game
            Page 60
        How the game is played
            Page 61
        Field positions
            Page 62
        The three departments of the game
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
        Amended laws of cricket
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
        Practice at the net
            Page 80
    Lacrosse
        Page 81
        Field positions
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
        Rules of the game
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
        Score sheet
            Page 96
    Foot-ball
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Field positions
            Page 99
            Page 100
        The rules of the game
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
    Hand-ball
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Lawn tennis
        Page 110
        Materials of the game
            Page 111
        Serving the ball
            Page 111
        Striking out
            Page 112
        The fielder
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
        Instructions to scorers
            Page 117
        Rules of the game
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
    Croquet
        Page 123
        Page 124
        The strokes
            Page 125
            Page 126
        Terms used in croquet
            Page 127
    Rackets
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Hockey
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Polo
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Bowls
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Rink-ball
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Bowling
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Battledore and shuttlecock
        Page 141
    Badminton
        Page 142
    Archery
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Quoiting
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Shuffleboard
        Page 149
        Page 150
    Bicycling
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Rowing
        Page 154
        Plate
        Component parts of boats
            Page 155
        Management of the oar
            Page 156
            Page 157
        Sculling
            Page 158
    Canoes and canoeing
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    Miniature yachting
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Fishing
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Swimming
        Page 169
        Entering the water
            Page 170
            Page 171
    Riding
        Mounting
            Page 172
        Seat and balance
            Page 173
            Page 174
        Trotting
            Page 175
        Canter and gallop
            Page 176
        Standing leap
            Page 177
        Flying
            Page 177
            Page 178
    Skating
        Page 179
        Learning to skate
            Page 180
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Plate
        Figure of eight
            Page 183
        Figure of three
            Page 183
        Outside edge backward
            Page 184
        Back Cross-roll
            Page 184
            Page 185
            Page 186
        The model skate
            Page 187
    Curling
        Page 188
        Curling stones
            Page 189
        The crampets
            Page 190
        Playing the points
            Page 191
            Page 192
            Page 193
            Page 194
        Rules of the game
            Page 195
            Page 196
            Page 197
    Ice-boating
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
    Tobogganing
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
    Snowshoeing
        Page 205
        Page 206
    Roller-skating
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
    Billiards
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Rules
            Page 213
            Page 214
            Page 215
    Bagatelle
        Page 216
        Page 217
    Chess
        Page 218
        Learning to play chess
            Page 219
        The king
            Page 220
        The queen
            Page 221
        The bishops
            Page 222
        The knight
            Page 222
            Page 223
        The castles
            Page 224
        The pawns
            Page 225
        Relative value of the pieces
            Page 225
        Playing a game
            Page 226
            Page 227
        Chess notation
            Page 228
            Page 229
        Study of problems
            Page 230
            Page 231
            Page 232
        Rules of the game
            Page 233
            Page 234
            Page 235
            Page 236
    Double chess
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Examples in opening
            Page 239
        Rules and penalties
            Page 240
    Draughts
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Laws of the game
            Page 243
            Page 244
    Dominoes
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Matadore game
            Page 248
        All threes
            Page 248
    Backgammon
        Page 249
        Technical terms of the game
            Page 250
        How the game is played
            Page 251
            Page 252
    Parcheesi
        Page 253
        Page 254
    Ring toss
        Page 255
    Jack straws
        Page 256
    Thirty-one
        Page 257
        Page 258
    Fox and geese
        Page 259
        Page 260
    Morrice
        Page 261
    Knuckle-bones
        Page 262
        Page 263
    Solitaire
        Page 264
    Forfeits
        The four elements
            Page 265
        The family coach
            Page 265
            Page 266
        My lady's toilet
            Page 267
        The huntsman
            Page 267
        Game of the key
            Page 268
        Acting rhymes
            Page 268
        Post
            Page 269
        Two hats
            Page 269
        How? where? and when?
            Page 270
    Penances
        Page 271
        Bouquet
            Page 272
        Wit, beauty, and love
            Page 272
        Four corners
            Page 272
        The poker feat
            Page 272
        Disconsolate lover
            Page 272
    Play-ground amusements
        Page 273
        Leap-frog
            Page 274
        Hide and seek
            Page 275
        Whoop
            Page 275
        I spy the wolf
            Page 275
        Jingle-Ring
            Page 275
        See-saw
            Page 276
        Follow the leader
            Page 276
        Bull in the ring
            Page 277
        Winding the clock
            Page 277
        Drawing the oven
            Page 277
        Tom Tiddler's ground
            Page 278
        Tip-Cat
            Page 278
        Throwing sticks
            Page 279
        Hop scotch
            Page 279
        Duck and drake
            Page 280
            Page 281
        Game of tag
            Page 282
        Touch-Wood and Touch-Iron
            Page 282
        Cross tag
            Page 282
        Bound hands
            Page 282
        Dropping the handkerchief
            Page 283
        Cap ball
            Page 283
        Hole-ball
            Page 284
        Shinney
            Page 285
        Baste the bear
            Page 286
    Kites
        How to make
            Page 287
        Flying the kite
            Page 288
        Messengers
            Page 288
        Fancy kites
            Page 289
    Marbles
        Three holes
            Page 290
        Bounce eye
            Page 291
        Picking the plums
            Page 291
        Handers
            Page 291
        Ring-taw
            Page 292
        Increase pound
            Page 292
        Pyramid
            Page 293
        Arch-board, or nine holes
            Page 293
        Odd or even
            Page 294
        Eggs in the bush
            Page 294
        The Conqueror
            Page 294
    Tops
        Whip-top
            Page 295
        Spanish peg-top
            Page 295
        Humming-top
            Page 296
        Peg-top
            Page 297
        Peg in the ring
            Page 297
            Page 298
    Table of Contents
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
    Back Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
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REST BY THE ROADSIDE.









THE


SPORTS AND PASTIMES

OF

AMERICAN BOYS

A GUIDE AND TEXT-BOOK OF GAMES OF


THE PLAY-GROUND, THE PARLOR, AND THE FIELD


ADAPTED ESPECIALLY FOR AMERICAN YOUTH
BY
HENRY CHADWICK
Author of American Hand-Books of Games, etc., etc.


















NEW YORK
GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS
9 LAFAYETTE PLACE



















IN UNIFORM STYLE.
Copiously Illustrated.

ILLUSTRATED POEMS AND SONGS
FOR YOUNG PEOPLE.
LABOULAYE'S ILLUSTRATED FAIRY
TALES.
SPORTS AND PASTIMES OF AMERI-
CAN BOYS.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBIN-
SON CRUSOE.
THE SWISS FAMILY ROBINSON.
LAMB'S TALES FROM SHAKESPEARE.
WOOD'S ILLUSTRATED NATURAL
HISTORY FOR YOUNG PEOPLE.

All bound in handsome lithographed double
covers; also in cloth.
George Routledge &6 Sons,
9 LAFAYETTE PLACE, NEW YORK.














Copyright, 1884,
By JOSEPH L. BLAMIRE.












































gRA` -;:






Liiji'




















INTRODUCTION.

NOW that the spirit of the age favors the plan of a judicious combination of
physical recreation with mental culture, it is timely to prepare a text-book
of sports and pastimes for boys, which will best tend to promote this system of
paying due attention to physical as well as mental education. An old writer says,
". Let me make the songs of a people, and I care not who makes their laws." This
rule is as applicable to the structure of the sports of a people as it is to the com-
position of their songs. The pastimes of boys of all nations partake largely of the
peculiar character of the people whose youth engage in them. The boys of a war-
like nation find their chief recreation in sports in which feats of brutal courage,
and of endurance of fatigue and pain, are marked characteristics. On the other
hand, the youths of a peaceful people enjoy those pastimes best which most com-
pare in their character with the national life of their progenitors. Differences in
climate necessarily have their relation to the character of national sports ; but it is
more in the essential character of the people themselves that their national pastimes
differ, and this is especially noticeable in the receative sports of boys. It is in this
respect that the games of American boyhood are different, as a rule, from those of
English youths. Of course, there is a certain degree of similarity in most of
them, arising from their English origin ; but there is scarcely an imported game
that is at all open to improvement, which has not of late years been essentially
Americanized ;" witness the evolution of our manly national game of Base-Ball
from the old English schoolboy game of Rounders."
There is one thing in connection with the subject of youthful sports which
merits special attention, and that is the tendency of boys of the period to forego
such pastimes and to replace them with habits of their leisure hours, which are at
war alike with health and morality. Far too many of our American boys jump
from the games of their early school days, even before they have reached their
teens, into the vicious ways of fast young men. For this reason parents and
guardians cannot do better than to foster a love of out-door games among their
boys, if only as a means of keeping them out of the mischievous habits they are so
prone to indulge in when not at their school desks or actively engaged in physical
recreation suitable to their age. It is a sad sight to see boys of from twelve to










IO SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

fifteen years of age with cigarettes in their mouths, canes in their hands, and with
precocious appetites for stimulants, visiting, during their leisure hours, race-
courses, pool-rooms, variety-saloons, and other vicious places of public amuse-
ments, when they should be either on their regular playground, enjoying their
boyish games, or out on the fields participating in a higher class of youthful
sports.
The experience of the last half century of our American progress in refined
civilization has conclusively shown that physical culture must keep pace with
mental education, if the latter is to be carried to the point of perfection. There
are, of course, extremes in this respect as in everything else; and just as we
Americans, up to within the past twenty-five years, cultivated our minds at the
expense of our bodies, just so are our English cousins of the present day giving
too much of their attention to physical culture, to the neglect of that of the mind.
To read such influential sporting journals as The Field/; Landland Water, and weekly
papers of that class in England now-not to mention Bell's Life and kindred
journals-one might very reasonably think that the English leisure classes had
little else to do or to think of than sports and pastimes. But this is as much the
extreme in one way as it has been, since the early days of the Republic, with us
the other way. The happy medium, however, unquestionably recognizes out-door
recreation as going hand in hand with mental culture. Morally, too, the aspect of
the case is one which gives encouragement to national pastimes as essential to the
right and proper growth of our young people. The inhabitants of our large
American cities have, up to within a late period, lacked a healthy physique.
Their mental powers have drawn too heavily on the nervous forces of their bodies,
and the result has been that the middle period of life has seen thousands carried
to the grave, who, with proper attention to physical exercise and recreation in
youth and early manhood, would have reached a good old age, ere the sere and
yellow leaf of time had made itself apparent. But it is useless further to sermonize
on the subject. Experience has taught us as a people that our old-time system of
" all work and no play," of overtaxing the mind at the expense of a neglected
physique, is a very bad policy, and very wisely and characteristically we are gain-
ing yearly in wisdom in this respect; and hence the increased and growing popu-
larity of out-door sports for our boys and young men, and for physical exercise for
the fair sex as well, in the large cities and towns of the American Continent.


















TRAINING FOR SPORTS.

IN this work we shall give no special rules for training to excel in any particular
sport or branch of athletic exercises, inasmuch as this book is intended only
for games and sports calculated to aid in promoting physical culture as an impor-
tant ally of mental education. In regard to training, an important question arises
which bears upon the encouragement of physical exercise and recreation in our
colleges, and that is the question concerning the amount of time required for the
purpose of special training for particular sports in our colleges and large schools.
Certain sports are engaged in by collegians, and strenuous efforts are made to
excel all other colleges in them, without due regard being paid to the loss of time
in training involved in getting into winning form as competitors in matches. The
fact that young men go to college to advance themselves in the higher branches
of education is too frequently lost sight of, and valuable time is wasted in training
for special excellence in some one particular sport, which ought to be devoted to
study. While the question of physical education, in combination with that of
mental culture, should not be lost sight of, it is certainly very necessary that the
former should be made subordinate to the interests of the latter. In taking up
this question of the time wasted in training, the college Faculty fail to judiciously
discriminate in the matter, and they too often apply a general rule to the subject
when only a single sport is involved. For instance, there is a great difference in
the time required for training to excel in ball games-such as base-ball, cricket,
lacrosse, and foot-ball-and that needed to get into winning form as one of the
University crew," or as a competitor in a running or walking match in the inter-
collegiate contests ; it being impossible to excel in either one or other of the latter
sports without devoting an amount of time to necessary training which greatly
trespasses on the hours required each day for diligent study. To get into form"
in any of the ball games, it is only necessary to occupy the ordinary leisure
time of a student's daily life ; and the out-door work involved is of a character
advantageous as healthful recreation and desirable in a sanitary point of view.
But to train properly for a position in the racing crew of a college, or as the
champion athlete of the University, on the other hand, involves not only exceed-
ingly arduous labor, but a loss of time which necessarily interferes with the more










12 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

important class duties of the college. Moreover, aside from this loss of time in
training, there is the terrible strain upon the system, involved alike in the rowing
and running matches which is never incurred in the ball games. This important
difference in the matter of time used in training should be more duly considered
by the governing powers of our colleges than it is, otherwise an injustice will be
done to a class of out-door sports for collegians, which are admirably adapted for
healthful recreation, while not at all infringing on the hours required for study.







FAIR PLAY IN GAMES.

T HE most marked feature of true manliness of character is a love of fair play.
It is a jewel in the crown of manhood of the first water, and without it all
sports degenerate into low and dishonest struggles to win by trickery and decep-
tion instead of by honorable efforts to excel. A love of fair play is inherent
in the breast of every man worthy of the name, and all such detest to see unfair
play exhibited on any field whatever, but especially in games where athletic
skill is the chief attraction, for on such fields it is that fair play shines out at its
brightest. Without referring to any other line of sports, sufficient examples can
be found in the arena of the American game of base-ball to fully illustrate the
nature of fair play and its opposite. When two contesting nines enter upon a
match game of base-ball, they do so with the implied understanding that the
struggle between them is to be one in which their respective skill in handling
the ball and the bat, and in running the bases, is alone to be brought into
play, unaided by such low trickery as is comprised in the acts of cutting the
ball, tripping up base runners, hiding the ball, wilful collisions with fielders,
and other specially mean tricks, of the kind characteristic of corner-lot loafers
in their ball games. All these so-called points" are beyond the pale of fair and
manly play, and rank only as among the abuses of the game. While strategic
skill is a legitimate feature of a contest on the diamond, it includes only such points
of play as are shown in a skilful outwitting of the batsman in the delivery of the
ball and in out-manceuvring opponents in base running.


















ATHLETIC GAMES.

IN the selection of games for this work we have omitted several which have
hitherto been included in boys' books of games, for the reason that in their
construction and characteristics they are'in no way calculated to improve a boy
either physically or otherwise. We have eliminated all sports and games marked
by anything of a cruel or brutal nature, as unworthy of a work intended for the
promotion of true manliness of character and of gentlemanly conduct. What is
not manly is not gentlemanly, and anything that inculcates brutality or any phase
of cruelty is not manly. Boys' sports should be part of their school education in
preparing them to be manly in the moral attributes of truth, honor, kindliness,
and a charitable consideration for the failings of humanity, as well as in the
manliness of a well-trained physique. Especially should the mastering of quick
tempers be regarded in this matter of mental training by recreative exercise. We
begin this chapter on Games of the Playground," with the sports of boys from
ten years of age upward. For purposes of education it would be well to have some
grown person present to superintend the games of the school playground. But
the individual should be one who has not forgotten that he was once a boy him-
self, and also one who should bear in mind the old saying that boys will be
boys." These memories involve due consideration for that freedom of action and
absence of undue restraint in supervision which, while giving the boys a free rein
to go their own pace in the race for enjoyment, yet holds them within proper
bounds in governing-their words and actions, when temper or passion attempts to
assume entire control. There is a sort of electric battery of physical force in the
composition of boys of healthy physiques, which must be allowed an avenue of
escape or evil consequences are likely to ensue ; and it is better to guide the direc-
tion of this explosive material than to allow it to have its own way in its working
off. In other words, it is not judicious to allow wild play to a boy's excess of
animal spirits ; nor is it advisable to check the overflow too suddenly. Train up
your boys in the way they should go-alike on the playground or the field of
sport as in the school of morality-and maturity will assuredly find them the right
kind of men for progressive humanity. With this brief reference to the moral
philosophy of sports, we proceed with our work.










14 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.





S. ,0











TUG OF WAR.

This is an exceedingly lively game, giving exercise to the muscles of the chest
and arms. It is played by two parties, as nearly equal in numbers and strength
as can be mustered ; one party takes hold of one end of a strong rope, while their
antagonists take hold of the other ; each party then strives to pull the other over
a line chalked or marked on the ground for the purpose, and those who are so
pulled over, being made prisoners, lose the game.
In this game two leaders should be appointed, who must calculate the powers
of their own side, and concert plans accordingly. The leader of either side
should have a code of signals, in order to communicate with his own friends, that
he may direct them when to stop, when to slacken, or when to pull hard. So im-
portant is the leader's office, that a side with a good leader will always vanquish a
much superior force which has no commander to guide it. For example, when all
the boys are pulling furiously at the rope. the leader of one side sees that his op-
ponents are leaning back too much, depending on their weight more than on their
strength. He immediately gives the signal to slacken, when down go half the
enemy on their backs, and are run away with merrily by the successful party, who
drag them over the mark with the greatest ease. Or if the enemy begins to be
wearied with hard pulling, a unanimous tug will often bring them upright while
they are off their guard, and, once moved, the victory is easily gained. No knots
are to be permitted on the rope. In the school-boy game of tug of war the game is
not to be considered as won unless the entire side has been dragged over the line.








ATHLETIC GAMES. 15


PRISONER'S BASE.

This is one of the best of the running class of games, and it is played as
follows. Sides of from six to ten players are chosen from among the swiftest
runners of the crowd. Two of the best players choose sides, after which the
" home" and prison" bases are marked out. These are laid out by drawing a
line ten or a dozen yards from a wall, and dividing the inclosed space into two
equal portions, each of which ought to be large enough to contain all the players
on one side. At some distance (from a hundred to two hundred feet) in front of
these bases, two more spaces must be marked out for prisons, the prison of one
party being opposite the home base of the other.
The game is commenced by a player from one side called the leader" run-.
ning out of his base toward the prisons; when he has got about half way he calls
out chase," at which signal one of the opposite party rushes from his base and
endeavors to catch him; a partner of the first player next dashes out to capture
the second, and so on, both sides sending out as many of their partners as: they
please, to touch or take their opponents. Each player strives to overtake and
touch any one of the opposite side who quitted his base before he did, as he must
not touch any one who started after him, although they may, if they can, touch
him before he gets back to his own base ; but if a player has taken a pria '.t.
cannot be touched when he makes his way back to his base again. It is tWi-ule
that a player may touch only one of his adversaries every time he leaves his base,
and every prisoner must be taken to the prison of the party opposed to him, where
he remains until one of his partners can manage to touch him. It is to be borne
in mind that he who comes to rescue the captive must have started from his base
after the other has been taken, and the prisoner and his liberator are not allowed
to touch any one, or to be touched on their return home. The victors are those
who can contrive to make all their opponents prisoners; the game may also be
decided by one player taking possession of the base belonging to his opponents
when they are all out; it is therefore prudent to leave some one in charge of each
base.

STEEPLECHASE.

This is a trial of speed and agility, and may be played by any number oi
boys. It consists in the boys agreeing upon some distant object for a mark, such :-
as a conspicuous tree, or house, or steeple. The players then start off in whatever
direction they please, each one being at liberty to choose his own course: In a








ATHLETIC GAMES. 15


PRISONER'S BASE.

This is one of the best of the running class of games, and it is played as
follows. Sides of from six to ten players are chosen from among the swiftest
runners of the crowd. Two of the best players choose sides, after which the
" home" and prison" bases are marked out. These are laid out by drawing a
line ten or a dozen yards from a wall, and dividing the inclosed space into two
equal portions, each of which ought to be large enough to contain all the players
on one side. At some distance (from a hundred to two hundred feet) in front of
these bases, two more spaces must be marked out for prisons, the prison of one
party being opposite the home base of the other.
The game is commenced by a player from one side called the leader" run-.
ning out of his base toward the prisons; when he has got about half way he calls
out chase," at which signal one of the opposite party rushes from his base and
endeavors to catch him; a partner of the first player next dashes out to capture
the second, and so on, both sides sending out as many of their partners as: they
please, to touch or take their opponents. Each player strives to overtake and
touch any one of the opposite side who quitted his base before he did, as he must
not touch any one who started after him, although they may, if they can, touch
him before he gets back to his own base ; but if a player has taken a pria '.t.
cannot be touched when he makes his way back to his base again. It is tWi-ule
that a player may touch only one of his adversaries every time he leaves his base,
and every prisoner must be taken to the prison of the party opposed to him, where
he remains until one of his partners can manage to touch him. It is to be borne
in mind that he who comes to rescue the captive must have started from his base
after the other has been taken, and the prisoner and his liberator are not allowed
to touch any one, or to be touched on their return home. The victors are those
who can contrive to make all their opponents prisoners; the game may also be
decided by one player taking possession of the base belonging to his opponents
when they are all out; it is therefore prudent to leave some one in charge of each
base.

STEEPLECHASE.

This is a trial of speed and agility, and may be played by any number oi
boys. It consists in the boys agreeing upon some distant object for a mark, such :-
as a conspicuous tree, or house, or steeple. The players then start off in whatever
direction they please, each one being at liberty to choose his own course: In a









16 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

long run of a mile or so it very often happens that hedges, ditches, and other
obstructions have to be got over, which adds great interest to the play, and the
best climbers and jumpers are the most likely to come in victors.





































HARE AND HOUNDS.

This is one of the best of the athletic class of school games. The principle of
it is simply this : one boy represents the hare, and runs away, while the others act
as hounds and pursue him to a specified goal. The proper management of the
I Y"





.71 k

















HARE AND HOUNDS.

This is one of the best of the athletic class of school games. The principle of
it is simply this : one boy represents the hare, and runs away, while the others act
as hounds and pursue him to a specified goal. The proper management of the










ATHLETIC GAMES. 17

game, however, requires considerable skill. The first thing to be done is to
choose a hare. The hare should not be the best runner, but should be daring, and
at the same time prudent, or he may trespass into forbidden lands, and thereby
cause trouble. A huntsman and whipper-in are then chosen. The huntsman
should be the best player, and the whipper-in second best. Things having
advanced so far, the whole party sally forth. The hare is furnished with a large
bag of white paper cut into small squares, which he scatters on the ground as he
goes. An arrangement is made that the hare shall not cross his path, nor return
home until a certain time; in either of which cases he is considered caught. The
hounds also are bound to follow the track or scent" implicitly, and not to make
short cuts if they see the hare. The hare then starts, and has about seven
minutes' grace, at the expiration of which time the huntsman blows a horn with
which he is furnished and sets off, the hounds keeping nearly in Indian file, the
whipper-in bringing up the rear. The huntsman is also furnished with a white
flag, the whipper-in with a red one, the staves being pointed and shod with metal.
Off they go in the chase until the huntsman loses the scent. He immediately
shouts Lost !" on which the whipper-in sticks his flag in the ground where the
scent was last seen and the entire line walks or runs round it in a circle, within
which they are tolerably sure to find the track. The huntsman in the meanwhile
has stuck his flag in the ground, and examines the country to see in what direction
the hare is likely to have gone. When the track is found, the player who discovers
it shouts Tally ho the huntsman takes up his flag, and ascertains whether it is
really the track or not. If so, he blows his horn again, the hounds form in line
between the two flags, and off they go again. It is incredible how useful the two
flags are. Many a hare has been lost because the hounds forgot where the last
track was seen, and wasted time in searching for it again. Moreover, they seem
to encourage the players wonderfully. Sometimes the chase extends fourteen or
fifteen miles in length ; but before such an undertaking is commenced it is neces-
sary to prepare by a series of shorter chases, which should however be given in an
opposite direction to the course fixed upon for the grand chase, as otherwise the
tracks are apt to get mixed, and the hounds are thrown out. The hare should
always carefully survey his intended course a day or two previously, and then he
will avoid getting himself into quagmires or imprisoned in the bend of a river.
A pocket compass is a most useful auxiliary, and prevents all chance of losing the
way.








18 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.


BALL GAMES.

There are no sports or games engaged in by either men or boys which surpass
in interest and pleasure those in which a ball or balls are used. From the simple
ball game of the playground up to the most scientific of all games of ball,
cricket, a variety of sports are presented which gives the palm to the ball as a
means of recreative exercise. In this chapter on Ball Games" we not only in-
clude games in which ten-year-olds can readily participate, but also the manly
games of ball, such as cricket, base-ball, lacrosse, and, foot-ball, the latter of which
are described especially for the use of boys, while we also devote considerable
space to each game designed for the perusal of an older class of readers. The
majority of ball games call for the exercise of considerable mental powers as well
as of physical ability to excel in them. Especially is this the case in cricket,
base-ball, and lacrosse. A manly physique is not more necessary to attain the
honors of victory in contests at these games, than are the mental powers of judg-
ment, courage, nerve, pluck, and control of temper. Games requiring such at-
tributes necessarily become valuable aids in education.


FUNGO.

This game is played with a round bat and a common ball. One player acts
as the batsman while all the others are fielders. The batsman takes the ball in
one hand, tosses it up in the air, and as it falls hits it on the fly" to the out-
field, and if it be caught by any fielder on the fly the batsman goes to the field
and the fielder who caught the ball becomes the batsman. The batsman is out
also if he sends the ball to the fielders on the bound, or if he strikes at the ball
three consecutive times without hitting it, in which case the fielder next in turn
goes to the bat. Usually the latter receives the ball when thrown in from the
field, and passes it to the batsman. The game simply affords good practice to
out-fielders in catching the ball, it being comparatively useless as good practice
for batting.

TWO OLD CAT.

This game is a variation of fungo, and a preliminary step to the regular
game of base-ball. It is generally played by nine players, one of whom acts as
pitcher, another as catcher, three others as base players, another as short stop,








18 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.


BALL GAMES.

There are no sports or games engaged in by either men or boys which surpass
in interest and pleasure those in which a ball or balls are used. From the simple
ball game of the playground up to the most scientific of all games of ball,
cricket, a variety of sports are presented which gives the palm to the ball as a
means of recreative exercise. In this chapter on Ball Games" we not only in-
clude games in which ten-year-olds can readily participate, but also the manly
games of ball, such as cricket, base-ball, lacrosse, and, foot-ball, the latter of which
are described especially for the use of boys, while we also devote considerable
space to each game designed for the perusal of an older class of readers. The
majority of ball games call for the exercise of considerable mental powers as well
as of physical ability to excel in them. Especially is this the case in cricket,
base-ball, and lacrosse. A manly physique is not more necessary to attain the
honors of victory in contests at these games, than are the mental powers of judg-
ment, courage, nerve, pluck, and control of temper. Games requiring such at-
tributes necessarily become valuable aids in education.


FUNGO.

This game is played with a round bat and a common ball. One player acts
as the batsman while all the others are fielders. The batsman takes the ball in
one hand, tosses it up in the air, and as it falls hits it on the fly" to the out-
field, and if it be caught by any fielder on the fly the batsman goes to the field
and the fielder who caught the ball becomes the batsman. The batsman is out
also if he sends the ball to the fielders on the bound, or if he strikes at the ball
three consecutive times without hitting it, in which case the fielder next in turn
goes to the bat. Usually the latter receives the ball when thrown in from the
field, and passes it to the batsman. The game simply affords good practice to
out-fielders in catching the ball, it being comparatively useless as good practice
for batting.

TWO OLD CAT.

This game is a variation of fungo, and a preliminary step to the regular
game of base-ball. It is generally played by nine players, one of whom acts as
pitcher, another as catcher, three others as base players, another as short stop,










ATHLETIC GAMES. I9

and the last three as out-fielders. The pitcher is only allowed to pitch the ball
to the bat, no kind of throw in the delivery of the ball being permitted ; and
he acts as pitcher until the batsman is put out, when the catcher goes in to the
bat, and the pitcher becomes the catcher, and each of the occupants of the
other seven positions advance one position, the retiring batsman going to right
field. The batsman can be put out on a fly catch of a fair or a foul ball, and on a
foul-bound catch, and also on three strikes. He can also be put out after
hitting a fair ball on the bound, if the ball be held at first base before the batsman
reaches it. Should he make his base after such hit, however, he is entitled to take
the bat again, or he can resign it in favor of any player he chooses. Of course the
game is played on a diamond field, roughly laid out so as to mark the several base
positions.

TRAP BALL.

This favorite game is played with a trap," which is a solid piece of wood
shaped something like a shoe, and having a movable tongue or spoon. Be-
fore playing it, it is as well to fix the trap by sinking the heel in the ground.
Innings being tossed up for, the winner places the ball in the spoon of the trap,
touches the tongue of the trap with his bat, and as the ball rises, strikes it away as
far as he possibly can. If he makes more than two unsuccessful efforts at striking
the ball, or touches the tongue more than twice without being able to hit the ball,
he is out, and the next player takes his innings, which order of succession should
be settled beforehand. If one of the fielders can catch the ball before it falls to
the ground the striker loses his innings ; but if it is not caught, the fielder who
stops it must bowl it from the spot where he picked it up, toward the trap ; if it
touches the trap, the striker is out, but if, on the contrary, it misses, the batsman
counts one toward his game.
It is usual in the present game of Trap and Ball to place two boundaries, at a
given distance from the trap, between which it is necessary for the ball to fall when
struck by the batsman, for if it falls outside of either, he is out.
































ATHLETIC FEATS.


ATHLETIC exercises and feats of muscular strength, when not carried to
excess, are very beneficial to boys, not only in assisting in the development
of their young muscles, but in promoting health by causing the blood to circulate
freely and by producing perspiration, thereby giving healthy action to the skin.
In practising light feats of strength, care should be taken to avoid overstraining
of untrained muscles. Athletic exercises, as a general rule, should be practised
just as a child learns to walk. Each movement should be acquired by degrees, not
too suddenly. The simple exercises necessary to be gone through with before
any special feats are attempted may be regarded by most boys as needless, but
they properly prepare the muscles to sustain without injury the extra strain put
upon them in performing any special athletic feat of strength.
Almost all the feats of strength and activity which follow may be performed
readily enough by any boy who will take the trouble to practise them. We
recommend him to use great caution in making the first essays, both for his own
sake and for the sake of the furniture with which some of these gymnastic exer-
cises are performed. These feats are peculiarly suited for wet weather, when out-
door exercise is not at command. We begin with the simplest form of feats, and
of these the first is








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A~:




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L. '1~II
IV






a------



ATHLETIC FEATS. 21


THE PALM SPRING.
The palm spring is performed by standing at a
little distance from a wall, with your face toward it,
and leaning forward until you are able to place the
palm of your hand quite flat on the wall, as represented
in the margin; you must then take a spring from the
hand, and recover your upright position without mov-
ing either of your feet. It is better to practise it first
with the feet at a little distance only from the wall,
increasing the space as you gradually attain greater ----
proficiency in the exercise.


TRIAL OF THE THUMB.
Place the inside of the thumb on the edge of a table, taking care that neither
of the fingers nor the palm of the hand touch it ; next move your feet as far back
as you possibly can, and then taking a spring from the thumb, recover your
standing position without shifting your feet forward. The table should be a
heavy one, and not upon casters, or the other end should be placed against a wall,
else in springing back you would in all probability push it away and fall upon
your hands and knees. It greatly facilitates the spring if you rock yourself to
and fro three or four times before you take it ; and it is best to begin, as in the
" palm spring," with the feet at a little distance from the table, increasing the
" trial of the thumb" by degrees.

THE FINGER FEAT.
Place your hands horizontally across and close to your breast, and put the tips
of your forefingers together; another player should then endeavor to separate
them, by pulling at each arm ; but if you hold them firmly in the manner described
he will be unable to achieve it, although he may be much bigger and stronger
than you are. -It is not proper for the second player to use sudden or violent
jerks in his attempts; he must employ only a steady, regular pull.


PROSTRATE AND PERPENDICULAR.

Cross your arms on your body, lay down on your back, and then get up again,
without using either your elbows or hands in doing so.






a------



ATHLETIC FEATS. 21


THE PALM SPRING.
The palm spring is performed by standing at a
little distance from a wall, with your face toward it,
and leaning forward until you are able to place the
palm of your hand quite flat on the wall, as represented
in the margin; you must then take a spring from the
hand, and recover your upright position without mov-
ing either of your feet. It is better to practise it first
with the feet at a little distance only from the wall,
increasing the space as you gradually attain greater ----
proficiency in the exercise.


TRIAL OF THE THUMB.
Place the inside of the thumb on the edge of a table, taking care that neither
of the fingers nor the palm of the hand touch it ; next move your feet as far back
as you possibly can, and then taking a spring from the thumb, recover your
standing position without shifting your feet forward. The table should be a
heavy one, and not upon casters, or the other end should be placed against a wall,
else in springing back you would in all probability push it away and fall upon
your hands and knees. It greatly facilitates the spring if you rock yourself to
and fro three or four times before you take it ; and it is best to begin, as in the
" palm spring," with the feet at a little distance from the table, increasing the
" trial of the thumb" by degrees.

THE FINGER FEAT.
Place your hands horizontally across and close to your breast, and put the tips
of your forefingers together; another player should then endeavor to separate
them, by pulling at each arm ; but if you hold them firmly in the manner described
he will be unable to achieve it, although he may be much bigger and stronger
than you are. -It is not proper for the second player to use sudden or violent
jerks in his attempts; he must employ only a steady, regular pull.


PROSTRATE AND PERPENDICULAR.

Cross your arms on your body, lay down on your back, and then get up again,
without using either your elbows or hands in doing so.






a------



ATHLETIC FEATS. 21


THE PALM SPRING.
The palm spring is performed by standing at a
little distance from a wall, with your face toward it,
and leaning forward until you are able to place the
palm of your hand quite flat on the wall, as represented
in the margin; you must then take a spring from the
hand, and recover your upright position without mov-
ing either of your feet. It is better to practise it first
with the feet at a little distance only from the wall,
increasing the space as you gradually attain greater ----
proficiency in the exercise.


TRIAL OF THE THUMB.
Place the inside of the thumb on the edge of a table, taking care that neither
of the fingers nor the palm of the hand touch it ; next move your feet as far back
as you possibly can, and then taking a spring from the thumb, recover your
standing position without shifting your feet forward. The table should be a
heavy one, and not upon casters, or the other end should be placed against a wall,
else in springing back you would in all probability push it away and fall upon
your hands and knees. It greatly facilitates the spring if you rock yourself to
and fro three or four times before you take it ; and it is best to begin, as in the
" palm spring," with the feet at a little distance from the table, increasing the
" trial of the thumb" by degrees.

THE FINGER FEAT.
Place your hands horizontally across and close to your breast, and put the tips
of your forefingers together; another player should then endeavor to separate
them, by pulling at each arm ; but if you hold them firmly in the manner described
he will be unable to achieve it, although he may be much bigger and stronger
than you are. -It is not proper for the second player to use sudden or violent
jerks in his attempts; he must employ only a steady, regular pull.


PROSTRATE AND PERPENDICULAR.

Cross your arms on your body, lay down on your back, and then get up again,
without using either your elbows or hands in doing so.






a------



ATHLETIC FEATS. 21


THE PALM SPRING.
The palm spring is performed by standing at a
little distance from a wall, with your face toward it,
and leaning forward until you are able to place the
palm of your hand quite flat on the wall, as represented
in the margin; you must then take a spring from the
hand, and recover your upright position without mov-
ing either of your feet. It is better to practise it first
with the feet at a little distance only from the wall,
increasing the space as you gradually attain greater ----
proficiency in the exercise.


TRIAL OF THE THUMB.
Place the inside of the thumb on the edge of a table, taking care that neither
of the fingers nor the palm of the hand touch it ; next move your feet as far back
as you possibly can, and then taking a spring from the thumb, recover your
standing position without shifting your feet forward. The table should be a
heavy one, and not upon casters, or the other end should be placed against a wall,
else in springing back you would in all probability push it away and fall upon
your hands and knees. It greatly facilitates the spring if you rock yourself to
and fro three or four times before you take it ; and it is best to begin, as in the
" palm spring," with the feet at a little distance from the table, increasing the
" trial of the thumb" by degrees.

THE FINGER FEAT.
Place your hands horizontally across and close to your breast, and put the tips
of your forefingers together; another player should then endeavor to separate
them, by pulling at each arm ; but if you hold them firmly in the manner described
he will be unable to achieve it, although he may be much bigger and stronger
than you are. -It is not proper for the second player to use sudden or violent
jerks in his attempts; he must employ only a steady, regular pull.


PROSTRATE AND PERPENDICULAR.

Cross your arms on your body, lay down on your back, and then get up again,
without using either your elbows or hands in doing so.









22 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.


KNUCKLE DOWN.
Knuckle down is a very good feat; it consists in placing the toes against a
line chalked on the floor, kneeling down and getting up again without using the
hands or moving the feet from the line.

THE TANTALUS TRICK.
Desire a player to stand with his back close to the wall, then place a piece of
money on the floor, at a little distance in front of him, and tell him he shall have
it if he can pick it up without moving his heels from the wall. Although at first
sight it appears very easy to perform this trick, yet it will be found impossible, as
in bending, a part of the body must necessarily go back beyond the heels.

ANOTHER TANTALUS TRICK.
Place the left foot and leg and the left cheek close against a wall; then lift
the right foot slowly and endeavor to touch the left knee with it, and stand stead-
ily in that position.
THE TRIUMPH.
This is a very excellent feat, and requires great practice to perform it adroitly.
Put your arms behind you and place the palms of your hands together, the fingers
downward and the thumbs next your back; then turn your hands, keeping the
tops of the fingers close to your back, and the palms still together, until the ends
of the fingers are between your shoulders, pointing upward toward your head,
and the thumbs outside.

DOT AND CARRY TWO.
This is to be performed by three players, whom we will style A, B, C, in the
following manner: A, standing between B and C, must stoop down and pass his
right hand behind the left thigh of B, and grasp B's right hand ; he should next
pass his left hand behind the right thigh of C and take hold of C's left hand ; B
and C should each pass one arm round the neck of A, and the latter, by raising
himself gradually, will be able to lift the others from the ground.

THE FLYING BOOK.
Put a book between your feet in such a manner that it is held between the
ankles and the inner side of the feet ; then kick up backward with both your feet,
and in this manner try to jerk the book over your head.









22 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.


KNUCKLE DOWN.
Knuckle down is a very good feat; it consists in placing the toes against a
line chalked on the floor, kneeling down and getting up again without using the
hands or moving the feet from the line.

THE TANTALUS TRICK.
Desire a player to stand with his back close to the wall, then place a piece of
money on the floor, at a little distance in front of him, and tell him he shall have
it if he can pick it up without moving his heels from the wall. Although at first
sight it appears very easy to perform this trick, yet it will be found impossible, as
in bending, a part of the body must necessarily go back beyond the heels.

ANOTHER TANTALUS TRICK.
Place the left foot and leg and the left cheek close against a wall; then lift
the right foot slowly and endeavor to touch the left knee with it, and stand stead-
ily in that position.
THE TRIUMPH.
This is a very excellent feat, and requires great practice to perform it adroitly.
Put your arms behind you and place the palms of your hands together, the fingers
downward and the thumbs next your back; then turn your hands, keeping the
tops of the fingers close to your back, and the palms still together, until the ends
of the fingers are between your shoulders, pointing upward toward your head,
and the thumbs outside.

DOT AND CARRY TWO.
This is to be performed by three players, whom we will style A, B, C, in the
following manner: A, standing between B and C, must stoop down and pass his
right hand behind the left thigh of B, and grasp B's right hand ; he should next
pass his left hand behind the right thigh of C and take hold of C's left hand ; B
and C should each pass one arm round the neck of A, and the latter, by raising
himself gradually, will be able to lift the others from the ground.

THE FLYING BOOK.
Put a book between your feet in such a manner that it is held between the
ankles and the inner side of the feet ; then kick up backward with both your feet,
and in this manner try to jerk the book over your head.









22 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.


KNUCKLE DOWN.
Knuckle down is a very good feat; it consists in placing the toes against a
line chalked on the floor, kneeling down and getting up again without using the
hands or moving the feet from the line.

THE TANTALUS TRICK.
Desire a player to stand with his back close to the wall, then place a piece of
money on the floor, at a little distance in front of him, and tell him he shall have
it if he can pick it up without moving his heels from the wall. Although at first
sight it appears very easy to perform this trick, yet it will be found impossible, as
in bending, a part of the body must necessarily go back beyond the heels.

ANOTHER TANTALUS TRICK.
Place the left foot and leg and the left cheek close against a wall; then lift
the right foot slowly and endeavor to touch the left knee with it, and stand stead-
ily in that position.
THE TRIUMPH.
This is a very excellent feat, and requires great practice to perform it adroitly.
Put your arms behind you and place the palms of your hands together, the fingers
downward and the thumbs next your back; then turn your hands, keeping the
tops of the fingers close to your back, and the palms still together, until the ends
of the fingers are between your shoulders, pointing upward toward your head,
and the thumbs outside.

DOT AND CARRY TWO.
This is to be performed by three players, whom we will style A, B, C, in the
following manner: A, standing between B and C, must stoop down and pass his
right hand behind the left thigh of B, and grasp B's right hand ; he should next
pass his left hand behind the right thigh of C and take hold of C's left hand ; B
and C should each pass one arm round the neck of A, and the latter, by raising
himself gradually, will be able to lift the others from the ground.

THE FLYING BOOK.
Put a book between your feet in such a manner that it is held between the
ankles and the inner side of the feet ; then kick up backward with both your feet,
and in this manner try to jerk the book over your head.









22 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.


KNUCKLE DOWN.
Knuckle down is a very good feat; it consists in placing the toes against a
line chalked on the floor, kneeling down and getting up again without using the
hands or moving the feet from the line.

THE TANTALUS TRICK.
Desire a player to stand with his back close to the wall, then place a piece of
money on the floor, at a little distance in front of him, and tell him he shall have
it if he can pick it up without moving his heels from the wall. Although at first
sight it appears very easy to perform this trick, yet it will be found impossible, as
in bending, a part of the body must necessarily go back beyond the heels.

ANOTHER TANTALUS TRICK.
Place the left foot and leg and the left cheek close against a wall; then lift
the right foot slowly and endeavor to touch the left knee with it, and stand stead-
ily in that position.
THE TRIUMPH.
This is a very excellent feat, and requires great practice to perform it adroitly.
Put your arms behind you and place the palms of your hands together, the fingers
downward and the thumbs next your back; then turn your hands, keeping the
tops of the fingers close to your back, and the palms still together, until the ends
of the fingers are between your shoulders, pointing upward toward your head,
and the thumbs outside.

DOT AND CARRY TWO.
This is to be performed by three players, whom we will style A, B, C, in the
following manner: A, standing between B and C, must stoop down and pass his
right hand behind the left thigh of B, and grasp B's right hand ; he should next
pass his left hand behind the right thigh of C and take hold of C's left hand ; B
and C should each pass one arm round the neck of A, and the latter, by raising
himself gradually, will be able to lift the others from the ground.

THE FLYING BOOK.
Put a book between your feet in such a manner that it is held between the
ankles and the inner side of the feet ; then kick up backward with both your feet,
and in this manner try to jerk the book over your head.









22 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.


KNUCKLE DOWN.
Knuckle down is a very good feat; it consists in placing the toes against a
line chalked on the floor, kneeling down and getting up again without using the
hands or moving the feet from the line.

THE TANTALUS TRICK.
Desire a player to stand with his back close to the wall, then place a piece of
money on the floor, at a little distance in front of him, and tell him he shall have
it if he can pick it up without moving his heels from the wall. Although at first
sight it appears very easy to perform this trick, yet it will be found impossible, as
in bending, a part of the body must necessarily go back beyond the heels.

ANOTHER TANTALUS TRICK.
Place the left foot and leg and the left cheek close against a wall; then lift
the right foot slowly and endeavor to touch the left knee with it, and stand stead-
ily in that position.
THE TRIUMPH.
This is a very excellent feat, and requires great practice to perform it adroitly.
Put your arms behind you and place the palms of your hands together, the fingers
downward and the thumbs next your back; then turn your hands, keeping the
tops of the fingers close to your back, and the palms still together, until the ends
of the fingers are between your shoulders, pointing upward toward your head,
and the thumbs outside.

DOT AND CARRY TWO.
This is to be performed by three players, whom we will style A, B, C, in the
following manner: A, standing between B and C, must stoop down and pass his
right hand behind the left thigh of B, and grasp B's right hand ; he should next
pass his left hand behind the right thigh of C and take hold of C's left hand ; B
and C should each pass one arm round the neck of A, and the latter, by raising
himself gradually, will be able to lift the others from the ground.

THE FLYING BOOK.
Put a book between your feet in such a manner that it is held between the
ankles and the inner side of the feet ; then kick up backward with both your feet,
and in this manner try to jerk the book over your head.










ATHLETIC FEATS. 23.


LIFTING AT ARM'S LENGTH.
Take an iron poker, and grasping it firmly in your right hand, lift it gradu-
ally until it is on a level with your shoulder. In performing this feat the arm
must be stretched out at the full length, and the poker being grasped firmly, with
the nails of the fingers upward, should be elevated in a right line with it.

BREAST TO MOUTH.
Measure the length of your arm, from the outside of the elbow to the tip of
the middle finger, and mark it down on a stick ; then hold the stick horizontally
before you, with your elbow close to your side, placing the middle finger exactly
over the mark, and keeping the fingers at right angles with the stick, and the
thumb closed over them. You must now try to raise the left end of the stick,
from the horizontal position up to your mouth, which should be done without
changing the place of your fingers, bending your head, or moving your elbow
from your side.

JUMPING THROUGH YOUR FINGERS.
Hold a stick of wood between the forefingers of each hand, and without let-
ting go try to jump over it both forward and backward; with a little practice it
can be done very easily, the hardest part of the feat consisting in the difficulty of
clearing the heels ; indeed, with high-heeled boots or shoes it is next to impossi-
ble to achieve it. You may also jump over your middle fingers placed together,
without touching or separating them with your feet.

CATCH PENNY.
Place on your elbow three or four penny pieces in a heap, then drop your
elbow very suddenly, so as to bring your hand rather below the place where your
elbow was, and try to catch the money before it falls to the ground ; a few trials
will enable you to perform this trick with the greatest facility.

THE TURN OVER.
Take a short run, place the toe of the right foot against a wall, and throw
the left leg over it, making a complete turn at the same time, so that when your
left foot touches the ground your back is to the wall. The right foot is the pivot
on which you turn, and you must take especial care to keep it quite close to the.
wall while you perform the turn over. This is by no means a difficult feat, re-
quiring only a little practice to enable you to perform it with rapidity.










ATHLETIC FEATS. 23.


LIFTING AT ARM'S LENGTH.
Take an iron poker, and grasping it firmly in your right hand, lift it gradu-
ally until it is on a level with your shoulder. In performing this feat the arm
must be stretched out at the full length, and the poker being grasped firmly, with
the nails of the fingers upward, should be elevated in a right line with it.

BREAST TO MOUTH.
Measure the length of your arm, from the outside of the elbow to the tip of
the middle finger, and mark it down on a stick ; then hold the stick horizontally
before you, with your elbow close to your side, placing the middle finger exactly
over the mark, and keeping the fingers at right angles with the stick, and the
thumb closed over them. You must now try to raise the left end of the stick,
from the horizontal position up to your mouth, which should be done without
changing the place of your fingers, bending your head, or moving your elbow
from your side.

JUMPING THROUGH YOUR FINGERS.
Hold a stick of wood between the forefingers of each hand, and without let-
ting go try to jump over it both forward and backward; with a little practice it
can be done very easily, the hardest part of the feat consisting in the difficulty of
clearing the heels ; indeed, with high-heeled boots or shoes it is next to impossi-
ble to achieve it. You may also jump over your middle fingers placed together,
without touching or separating them with your feet.

CATCH PENNY.
Place on your elbow three or four penny pieces in a heap, then drop your
elbow very suddenly, so as to bring your hand rather below the place where your
elbow was, and try to catch the money before it falls to the ground ; a few trials
will enable you to perform this trick with the greatest facility.

THE TURN OVER.
Take a short run, place the toe of the right foot against a wall, and throw
the left leg over it, making a complete turn at the same time, so that when your
left foot touches the ground your back is to the wall. The right foot is the pivot
on which you turn, and you must take especial care to keep it quite close to the.
wall while you perform the turn over. This is by no means a difficult feat, re-
quiring only a little practice to enable you to perform it with rapidity.










ATHLETIC FEATS. 23.


LIFTING AT ARM'S LENGTH.
Take an iron poker, and grasping it firmly in your right hand, lift it gradu-
ally until it is on a level with your shoulder. In performing this feat the arm
must be stretched out at the full length, and the poker being grasped firmly, with
the nails of the fingers upward, should be elevated in a right line with it.

BREAST TO MOUTH.
Measure the length of your arm, from the outside of the elbow to the tip of
the middle finger, and mark it down on a stick ; then hold the stick horizontally
before you, with your elbow close to your side, placing the middle finger exactly
over the mark, and keeping the fingers at right angles with the stick, and the
thumb closed over them. You must now try to raise the left end of the stick,
from the horizontal position up to your mouth, which should be done without
changing the place of your fingers, bending your head, or moving your elbow
from your side.

JUMPING THROUGH YOUR FINGERS.
Hold a stick of wood between the forefingers of each hand, and without let-
ting go try to jump over it both forward and backward; with a little practice it
can be done very easily, the hardest part of the feat consisting in the difficulty of
clearing the heels ; indeed, with high-heeled boots or shoes it is next to impossi-
ble to achieve it. You may also jump over your middle fingers placed together,
without touching or separating them with your feet.

CATCH PENNY.
Place on your elbow three or four penny pieces in a heap, then drop your
elbow very suddenly, so as to bring your hand rather below the place where your
elbow was, and try to catch the money before it falls to the ground ; a few trials
will enable you to perform this trick with the greatest facility.

THE TURN OVER.
Take a short run, place the toe of the right foot against a wall, and throw
the left leg over it, making a complete turn at the same time, so that when your
left foot touches the ground your back is to the wall. The right foot is the pivot
on which you turn, and you must take especial care to keep it quite close to the.
wall while you perform the turn over. This is by no means a difficult feat, re-
quiring only a little practice to enable you to perform it with rapidity.










ATHLETIC FEATS. 23.


LIFTING AT ARM'S LENGTH.
Take an iron poker, and grasping it firmly in your right hand, lift it gradu-
ally until it is on a level with your shoulder. In performing this feat the arm
must be stretched out at the full length, and the poker being grasped firmly, with
the nails of the fingers upward, should be elevated in a right line with it.

BREAST TO MOUTH.
Measure the length of your arm, from the outside of the elbow to the tip of
the middle finger, and mark it down on a stick ; then hold the stick horizontally
before you, with your elbow close to your side, placing the middle finger exactly
over the mark, and keeping the fingers at right angles with the stick, and the
thumb closed over them. You must now try to raise the left end of the stick,
from the horizontal position up to your mouth, which should be done without
changing the place of your fingers, bending your head, or moving your elbow
from your side.

JUMPING THROUGH YOUR FINGERS.
Hold a stick of wood between the forefingers of each hand, and without let-
ting go try to jump over it both forward and backward; with a little practice it
can be done very easily, the hardest part of the feat consisting in the difficulty of
clearing the heels ; indeed, with high-heeled boots or shoes it is next to impossi-
ble to achieve it. You may also jump over your middle fingers placed together,
without touching or separating them with your feet.

CATCH PENNY.
Place on your elbow three or four penny pieces in a heap, then drop your
elbow very suddenly, so as to bring your hand rather below the place where your
elbow was, and try to catch the money before it falls to the ground ; a few trials
will enable you to perform this trick with the greatest facility.

THE TURN OVER.
Take a short run, place the toe of the right foot against a wall, and throw
the left leg over it, making a complete turn at the same time, so that when your
left foot touches the ground your back is to the wall. The right foot is the pivot
on which you turn, and you must take especial care to keep it quite close to the.
wall while you perform the turn over. This is by no means a difficult feat, re-
quiring only a little practice to enable you to perform it with rapidity.










ATHLETIC FEATS. 23.


LIFTING AT ARM'S LENGTH.
Take an iron poker, and grasping it firmly in your right hand, lift it gradu-
ally until it is on a level with your shoulder. In performing this feat the arm
must be stretched out at the full length, and the poker being grasped firmly, with
the nails of the fingers upward, should be elevated in a right line with it.

BREAST TO MOUTH.
Measure the length of your arm, from the outside of the elbow to the tip of
the middle finger, and mark it down on a stick ; then hold the stick horizontally
before you, with your elbow close to your side, placing the middle finger exactly
over the mark, and keeping the fingers at right angles with the stick, and the
thumb closed over them. You must now try to raise the left end of the stick,
from the horizontal position up to your mouth, which should be done without
changing the place of your fingers, bending your head, or moving your elbow
from your side.

JUMPING THROUGH YOUR FINGERS.
Hold a stick of wood between the forefingers of each hand, and without let-
ting go try to jump over it both forward and backward; with a little practice it
can be done very easily, the hardest part of the feat consisting in the difficulty of
clearing the heels ; indeed, with high-heeled boots or shoes it is next to impossi-
ble to achieve it. You may also jump over your middle fingers placed together,
without touching or separating them with your feet.

CATCH PENNY.
Place on your elbow three or four penny pieces in a heap, then drop your
elbow very suddenly, so as to bring your hand rather below the place where your
elbow was, and try to catch the money before it falls to the ground ; a few trials
will enable you to perform this trick with the greatest facility.

THE TURN OVER.
Take a short run, place the toe of the right foot against a wall, and throw
the left leg over it, making a complete turn at the same time, so that when your
left foot touches the ground your back is to the wall. The right foot is the pivot
on which you turn, and you must take especial care to keep it quite close to the.
wall while you perform the turn over. This is by no means a difficult feat, re-
quiring only a little practice to enable you to perform it with rapidity.









24 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.


THE LONG REACH.
Chalk a line on the floor, and place the toes of both feet on it, being careful
that they do not pass beyond ; then throw forward either the right or left hand,
no matter which, so far and no farther than you can' easily spring back from and
readily regain your upright position, without either moving the feet from the line,
touching the floor with the hands in throwing them forward, or scraping the floor
with them in the spring back. When you have in this manner ascertained the
utmost distance to which you can stretch, and from which you can recover, with-
out scraping the hands or altering the position of your feet, you must stretch as
far forward as you possibly can, and while supporting the body upon one hand,
chalk a line on the floor with the other. You may, in order to bring your body
lower, move your feet backward from the line marked on the floor, and by so
doing you will be enabled to make a much greater stretch than you could other-
wise have done. If you can manage to chalk two lines, your own length apart, it
is a tolerably good stretch, but with a little practice you may chalk considerably
further than that measure. Some persons in performing this feat rest upon their
elbows instead of their hands.


THE STOOPING STRETCH.
Chalk a line on the floor, and place the outer edge of the right foot on it, and
at a little distance behind the right foot, put the left heel on the line. Then
take a piece of chalk in your right hand, bend down and pass the right hand be
tween your legs, and under the right knee, and chalk a line on the floor, as far
from the former line as you possibly can, yet not so far but that you can easily
recover yourself without touching the ground with your hands, or removing your
feet from the line. Your knee and body may project beyond the chalked line,
provided you keep your feet properly placed.


FEATS WITH CHAIRS.
LEAP BEFORE YOU LOOK.
Get a chair with a very narrow back, so narrow, indeed, that you can bestride
it with great ease ; stand on the seat, put your hands on the top rail of the back
and rest your knees against the middle one, then push the chair forward until it
rests only on its back legs, and before you lose your balance jump from the seat,
so that when you alight on the floor you still hold the back rail in your hand. In
all feats with chairs it is necessary to use great caution in making the first essays.









24 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.


THE LONG REACH.
Chalk a line on the floor, and place the toes of both feet on it, being careful
that they do not pass beyond ; then throw forward either the right or left hand,
no matter which, so far and no farther than you can' easily spring back from and
readily regain your upright position, without either moving the feet from the line,
touching the floor with the hands in throwing them forward, or scraping the floor
with them in the spring back. When you have in this manner ascertained the
utmost distance to which you can stretch, and from which you can recover, with-
out scraping the hands or altering the position of your feet, you must stretch as
far forward as you possibly can, and while supporting the body upon one hand,
chalk a line on the floor with the other. You may, in order to bring your body
lower, move your feet backward from the line marked on the floor, and by so
doing you will be enabled to make a much greater stretch than you could other-
wise have done. If you can manage to chalk two lines, your own length apart, it
is a tolerably good stretch, but with a little practice you may chalk considerably
further than that measure. Some persons in performing this feat rest upon their
elbows instead of their hands.


THE STOOPING STRETCH.
Chalk a line on the floor, and place the outer edge of the right foot on it, and
at a little distance behind the right foot, put the left heel on the line. Then
take a piece of chalk in your right hand, bend down and pass the right hand be
tween your legs, and under the right knee, and chalk a line on the floor, as far
from the former line as you possibly can, yet not so far but that you can easily
recover yourself without touching the ground with your hands, or removing your
feet from the line. Your knee and body may project beyond the chalked line,
provided you keep your feet properly placed.


FEATS WITH CHAIRS.
LEAP BEFORE YOU LOOK.
Get a chair with a very narrow back, so narrow, indeed, that you can bestride
it with great ease ; stand on the seat, put your hands on the top rail of the back
and rest your knees against the middle one, then push the chair forward until it
rests only on its back legs, and before you lose your balance jump from the seat,
so that when you alight on the floor you still hold the back rail in your hand. In
all feats with chairs it is necessary to use great caution in making the first essays.









24 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.


THE LONG REACH.
Chalk a line on the floor, and place the toes of both feet on it, being careful
that they do not pass beyond ; then throw forward either the right or left hand,
no matter which, so far and no farther than you can' easily spring back from and
readily regain your upright position, without either moving the feet from the line,
touching the floor with the hands in throwing them forward, or scraping the floor
with them in the spring back. When you have in this manner ascertained the
utmost distance to which you can stretch, and from which you can recover, with-
out scraping the hands or altering the position of your feet, you must stretch as
far forward as you possibly can, and while supporting the body upon one hand,
chalk a line on the floor with the other. You may, in order to bring your body
lower, move your feet backward from the line marked on the floor, and by so
doing you will be enabled to make a much greater stretch than you could other-
wise have done. If you can manage to chalk two lines, your own length apart, it
is a tolerably good stretch, but with a little practice you may chalk considerably
further than that measure. Some persons in performing this feat rest upon their
elbows instead of their hands.


THE STOOPING STRETCH.
Chalk a line on the floor, and place the outer edge of the right foot on it, and
at a little distance behind the right foot, put the left heel on the line. Then
take a piece of chalk in your right hand, bend down and pass the right hand be
tween your legs, and under the right knee, and chalk a line on the floor, as far
from the former line as you possibly can, yet not so far but that you can easily
recover yourself without touching the ground with your hands, or removing your
feet from the line. Your knee and body may project beyond the chalked line,
provided you keep your feet properly placed.


FEATS WITH CHAIRS.
LEAP BEFORE YOU LOOK.
Get a chair with a very narrow back, so narrow, indeed, that you can bestride
it with great ease ; stand on the seat, put your hands on the top rail of the back
and rest your knees against the middle one, then push the chair forward until it
rests only on its back legs, and before you lose your balance jump from the seat,
so that when you alight on the floor you still hold the back rail in your hand. In
all feats with chairs it is necessary to use great caution in making the first essays.









24 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.


THE LONG REACH.
Chalk a line on the floor, and place the toes of both feet on it, being careful
that they do not pass beyond ; then throw forward either the right or left hand,
no matter which, so far and no farther than you can' easily spring back from and
readily regain your upright position, without either moving the feet from the line,
touching the floor with the hands in throwing them forward, or scraping the floor
with them in the spring back. When you have in this manner ascertained the
utmost distance to which you can stretch, and from which you can recover, with-
out scraping the hands or altering the position of your feet, you must stretch as
far forward as you possibly can, and while supporting the body upon one hand,
chalk a line on the floor with the other. You may, in order to bring your body
lower, move your feet backward from the line marked on the floor, and by so
doing you will be enabled to make a much greater stretch than you could other-
wise have done. If you can manage to chalk two lines, your own length apart, it
is a tolerably good stretch, but with a little practice you may chalk considerably
further than that measure. Some persons in performing this feat rest upon their
elbows instead of their hands.


THE STOOPING STRETCH.
Chalk a line on the floor, and place the outer edge of the right foot on it, and
at a little distance behind the right foot, put the left heel on the line. Then
take a piece of chalk in your right hand, bend down and pass the right hand be
tween your legs, and under the right knee, and chalk a line on the floor, as far
from the former line as you possibly can, yet not so far but that you can easily
recover yourself without touching the ground with your hands, or removing your
feet from the line. Your knee and body may project beyond the chalked line,
provided you keep your feet properly placed.


FEATS WITH CHAIRS.
LEAP BEFORE YOU LOOK.
Get a chair with a very narrow back, so narrow, indeed, that you can bestride
it with great ease ; stand on the seat, put your hands on the top rail of the back
and rest your knees against the middle one, then push the chair forward until it
rests only on its back legs, and before you lose your balance jump from the seat,
so that when you alight on the floor you still hold the back rail in your hand. In
all feats with chairs it is necessary to use great caution in making the first essays.










ATHLETIC FEATS. 2.5

TUMBLE-DOWN DICK.
A strong, long-backed old-fashioned chair is the best adapted for this feat.
Place the chair down on the floor, and put a small piece of money at the end or
else about the middle of the back. Next kneel on the legs of the chair, and take
hold with both hands of the sides of the legs near the seat rail ; then bend down
and endeavor to touch the back of the chair with your face, and take up the
piece of money before mentioned with your mouth; you must be careful that
you do not fall forward, or allow the top of the chair to touch the ground. In
this amusement, the position of the hands may be altered, either higher up or
lower down the back of the chair, at the pleasure of the player, as he finds
necessary.
TO TAKE A CHAIR FROM UNDER YOU WITHOUT FALLING.
In order to perform this feat, you must lay along on three chairs. Throw
up your chest, keep your shoulders down, and your limbs as stiff as you possibly
can ; then take the centre chair from under your body, carry it over, and place
it again under your body on the opposite side. Although this at first sight ap-
pears difficult, yet in reality it is very easy ; it is as well, however, to have a chair
of a rather lighter construction for the middle one, as you are thereby enabled to
perform it with less strain upon the muscles of the body and arm.

CHAIRING THE LEG.
After putting your left foot on the lowest back rail of a tolerably heavy chair,
you must try to pass your right leg over the back, and bring it to the floor be-
tween your left leg and the chair. In performing this trick, which must be done
with caution, it is not allowable to touch the chair with your hands. The chair
should not stand on a slippery surface, as it might by chance move, and a fall
would be the result.










ATHLETIC FEATS. 2.5

TUMBLE-DOWN DICK.
A strong, long-backed old-fashioned chair is the best adapted for this feat.
Place the chair down on the floor, and put a small piece of money at the end or
else about the middle of the back. Next kneel on the legs of the chair, and take
hold with both hands of the sides of the legs near the seat rail ; then bend down
and endeavor to touch the back of the chair with your face, and take up the
piece of money before mentioned with your mouth; you must be careful that
you do not fall forward, or allow the top of the chair to touch the ground. In
this amusement, the position of the hands may be altered, either higher up or
lower down the back of the chair, at the pleasure of the player, as he finds
necessary.
TO TAKE A CHAIR FROM UNDER YOU WITHOUT FALLING.
In order to perform this feat, you must lay along on three chairs. Throw
up your chest, keep your shoulders down, and your limbs as stiff as you possibly
can ; then take the centre chair from under your body, carry it over, and place
it again under your body on the opposite side. Although this at first sight ap-
pears difficult, yet in reality it is very easy ; it is as well, however, to have a chair
of a rather lighter construction for the middle one, as you are thereby enabled to
perform it with less strain upon the muscles of the body and arm.

CHAIRING THE LEG.
After putting your left foot on the lowest back rail of a tolerably heavy chair,
you must try to pass your right leg over the back, and bring it to the floor be-
tween your left leg and the chair. In performing this trick, which must be done
with caution, it is not allowable to touch the chair with your hands. The chair
should not stand on a slippery surface, as it might by chance move, and a fall
would be the result.










ATHLETIC FEATS. 2.5

TUMBLE-DOWN DICK.
A strong, long-backed old-fashioned chair is the best adapted for this feat.
Place the chair down on the floor, and put a small piece of money at the end or
else about the middle of the back. Next kneel on the legs of the chair, and take
hold with both hands of the sides of the legs near the seat rail ; then bend down
and endeavor to touch the back of the chair with your face, and take up the
piece of money before mentioned with your mouth; you must be careful that
you do not fall forward, or allow the top of the chair to touch the ground. In
this amusement, the position of the hands may be altered, either higher up or
lower down the back of the chair, at the pleasure of the player, as he finds
necessary.
TO TAKE A CHAIR FROM UNDER YOU WITHOUT FALLING.
In order to perform this feat, you must lay along on three chairs. Throw
up your chest, keep your shoulders down, and your limbs as stiff as you possibly
can ; then take the centre chair from under your body, carry it over, and place
it again under your body on the opposite side. Although this at first sight ap-
pears difficult, yet in reality it is very easy ; it is as well, however, to have a chair
of a rather lighter construction for the middle one, as you are thereby enabled to
perform it with less strain upon the muscles of the body and arm.

CHAIRING THE LEG.
After putting your left foot on the lowest back rail of a tolerably heavy chair,
you must try to pass your right leg over the back, and bring it to the floor be-
tween your left leg and the chair. In performing this trick, which must be done
with caution, it is not allowable to touch the chair with your hands. The chair
should not stand on a slippery surface, as it might by chance move, and a fall
would be the result.






























GYMNASTIC EXERCISES.

T1HE study of Gymnastics is of the utmost importance to young persons, as its
object is to call into exercise and to train to perfection all the corporeal or
bodily powers. It is the education of the limbs, joints, and muscles, and includes
not only the systematic training of these, but also assists the physical sciences of
riding, driving, wrestling, rowing, sailing, skating, swimming, etc.
In the following gymnastic exercises only those simple and useful feats which
may be said to make up the alphabet of the science" are introduced. They
may be performed in very small spaces, and require no particular preparation,
expense, or place. By attention to the directions any pupil between the ages of
twelve and sixteen may train and exercise himself and a number of other children
younger than himself, and this excellent study may thus become a source of
amusement and delight.
Gymnastic exercises may be begun by a boy of about eight years of agc, or
may be commenced at any age ; but in all cases he should begin gently, and pro-
ceed gradually, without any abrupt transitions. They should be commenced
before breakfast in the morning, or before dinner or supper, but never imme-
diately after meals ; and the pupil should be very careful, after becoming heated
by exercises, of draughts or cold, and especially refrain from lying on the damp
ground, or from standing without his coat or other garments, and rigidly guard
against the dangerous practice of drinking cold water when overheated, which,
in many instances, has been known to produce immediate death.










GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 27


WALKING.
in all gymnastic exercises, walking, running, and jumping deserve the pref-
erence, because they are the most natural movements of man, and those which he
has most frequent occasion to use. This exercise, within the reach of everybody,
ought to be placed among the number of those which are direct conservators of
health, and which have the most important beneficial effects upon our mental and
moral economy. Walking provokes appetite, assists digestion, accelerates the
circulation, brings the fluids to the skin, strengthens the memory, and gives cheer-
fulness to the mind, and in fatiguing the limbs gives repose to the senses and the
brain.
It might be supposed that every one knows how to walk: not so, however;
some persons crawl, some hobble, some shuffle along. Few have the graceful,
noble movement that ought to belong to progression, or, however well formed,
preserve a really erect position and an air of becoming confidence and dignity.
To teach young persons to walk properly, we should advise a class of them to
unite, that they may be able to teach themselves.


RUNNING.
Running is both useful and natural ; it favors the development of the chest
dilates the lungs, and, when moderate, is a highly salutary exercise. To run fast
and gracefully one should as it were graze the ground with the feet, by keeping
the legs as straight as possible while moving them forward. During the course
the upper part of the body is inclined a little forward, the arms are, as it were,
glued to the sides and turned in at the point of the hips, the hands shut, and the
nails turned inward. The faults in running are swinging the arms, raising the
legs too high behind, taking too large strides, bending the knees too much, and
in not properly managing one's wind. In all running exercises the young should
begin gradually, and never run themselves out of breath at any time. By careful
practice a boy may soon acquire the power of running a mile in ten minutes;
this is called moderate running; in what is called prompt running a thousand
yards in two minutes is thought very good work, and in quick running 600 yards
in a minute is considered good. The first distance that children from eight to
ten years of age may be made to run is about 200 yards ; the second, for those
more advanced, 300 yards; and the third, for adults, 400 yards. It is, however,
most essential that in running boys should not overtax their strength or wind."
We are not all constituted alike, and a boy who could last for 200 yards or so
might injure himself considerably by racing for a mile.










GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 27


WALKING.
in all gymnastic exercises, walking, running, and jumping deserve the pref-
erence, because they are the most natural movements of man, and those which he
has most frequent occasion to use. This exercise, within the reach of everybody,
ought to be placed among the number of those which are direct conservators of
health, and which have the most important beneficial effects upon our mental and
moral economy. Walking provokes appetite, assists digestion, accelerates the
circulation, brings the fluids to the skin, strengthens the memory, and gives cheer-
fulness to the mind, and in fatiguing the limbs gives repose to the senses and the
brain.
It might be supposed that every one knows how to walk: not so, however;
some persons crawl, some hobble, some shuffle along. Few have the graceful,
noble movement that ought to belong to progression, or, however well formed,
preserve a really erect position and an air of becoming confidence and dignity.
To teach young persons to walk properly, we should advise a class of them to
unite, that they may be able to teach themselves.


RUNNING.
Running is both useful and natural ; it favors the development of the chest
dilates the lungs, and, when moderate, is a highly salutary exercise. To run fast
and gracefully one should as it were graze the ground with the feet, by keeping
the legs as straight as possible while moving them forward. During the course
the upper part of the body is inclined a little forward, the arms are, as it were,
glued to the sides and turned in at the point of the hips, the hands shut, and the
nails turned inward. The faults in running are swinging the arms, raising the
legs too high behind, taking too large strides, bending the knees too much, and
in not properly managing one's wind. In all running exercises the young should
begin gradually, and never run themselves out of breath at any time. By careful
practice a boy may soon acquire the power of running a mile in ten minutes;
this is called moderate running; in what is called prompt running a thousand
yards in two minutes is thought very good work, and in quick running 600 yards
in a minute is considered good. The first distance that children from eight to
ten years of age may be made to run is about 200 yards ; the second, for those
more advanced, 300 yards; and the third, for adults, 400 yards. It is, however,
most essential that in running boys should not overtax their strength or wind."
We are not all constituted alike, and a boy who could last for 200 yards or so
might injure himself considerably by racing for a mile.










28 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

JUMPING.
Of all the corporeal exercises, jumping is one of the most useful ; and during
our lives very many instances occur of a good jump having done us essential ser-
vice. To jump with grace and assurance one should'always fall on the toes, tak-
ing care especially to bend the knees on the hips; the upper part of the body
should be inclined forward, and the arms extended toward the ground. The
hands should serve to break the fall when jumping from a great height. In jump-
ing we should hold the breath and never alight on the heels. Boys should exer-
cise themselves in jumping by jumping in length and jumping from a height,
with attention to the above cautions. They may make progressive exercises in
length by varying the distance from time to time, and in height by jumping from a
flight of stairs or steps, increasing a step at a time: they will soon be able to
jump in length three yards, and from a height six feet, without injury.

DUMB-BELLS.
Most boys know the form and appearance of dumb-bells, and probably have
some ideas of using them, but a few directions and illustrations will benefit them.
Nor would we exclude girls from the practice in moderation. A light pair of
" bells" used every morning after the bath will have a wonderful effect in bracing
and strengthening the muscles and in giving elasticity to the figure.
It is a great mistake to commence with heavy dumb-bells. For a boy a pair
weighing three or four pounds will be sufficient, and this weight can be increased
as the pupil gets stronger. Another hint which boys should bear in mind is this
-a useful one in all exercises-never attempt too much at one time. You will
only get exhausted, and though the novelty of the practice and energy will carry
you through, you will feel the evil effects next day. In this, as in everything else,
be moderate. Half an hour or a quarter of an hour at first will be sufficient.
There are numerous exercises with the dumb-bells. We will give the principal
ones :
Exercise I. Stand erect firmly, heels close together, the elbows back. Lift
the bells, and from the chest raise them as high as the arms will reach. Then
bring them down again and up together and afterward alternately to the armpits.
Repeat.
Exercise II. Take the bells, and leaning forward from the waist drop the
right arm to the full extent, at the same time holding the left bell up to the chest.
Do likewise with left and right arms. Then leaning sideways, raise and lower the
dumb-bells right and left alternately, both arms fully extended diagonally. The
arms may also be extended full in front, as if striking a blow. (See figure.)










28 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

JUMPING.
Of all the corporeal exercises, jumping is one of the most useful ; and during
our lives very many instances occur of a good jump having done us essential ser-
vice. To jump with grace and assurance one should'always fall on the toes, tak-
ing care especially to bend the knees on the hips; the upper part of the body
should be inclined forward, and the arms extended toward the ground. The
hands should serve to break the fall when jumping from a great height. In jump-
ing we should hold the breath and never alight on the heels. Boys should exer-
cise themselves in jumping by jumping in length and jumping from a height,
with attention to the above cautions. They may make progressive exercises in
length by varying the distance from time to time, and in height by jumping from a
flight of stairs or steps, increasing a step at a time: they will soon be able to
jump in length three yards, and from a height six feet, without injury.

DUMB-BELLS.
Most boys know the form and appearance of dumb-bells, and probably have
some ideas of using them, but a few directions and illustrations will benefit them.
Nor would we exclude girls from the practice in moderation. A light pair of
" bells" used every morning after the bath will have a wonderful effect in bracing
and strengthening the muscles and in giving elasticity to the figure.
It is a great mistake to commence with heavy dumb-bells. For a boy a pair
weighing three or four pounds will be sufficient, and this weight can be increased
as the pupil gets stronger. Another hint which boys should bear in mind is this
-a useful one in all exercises-never attempt too much at one time. You will
only get exhausted, and though the novelty of the practice and energy will carry
you through, you will feel the evil effects next day. In this, as in everything else,
be moderate. Half an hour or a quarter of an hour at first will be sufficient.
There are numerous exercises with the dumb-bells. We will give the principal
ones :
Exercise I. Stand erect firmly, heels close together, the elbows back. Lift
the bells, and from the chest raise them as high as the arms will reach. Then
bring them down again and up together and afterward alternately to the armpits.
Repeat.
Exercise II. Take the bells, and leaning forward from the waist drop the
right arm to the full extent, at the same time holding the left bell up to the chest.
Do likewise with left and right arms. Then leaning sideways, raise and lower the
dumb-bells right and left alternately, both arms fully extended diagonally. The
arms may also be extended full in front, as if striking a blow. (See figure.)










GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 29

Exercise III. Seize the bells firmly and extend the arms, as far as possible, in
a line with the shoulders. From this position bring the hands together in front
and then to the back to touch, if possible-arms being all the time extended
straight from the shoulders. Repeat.
E.2 E<3














Exercise IV. Circle the bells by swinging first one and then the other, and
then both, with extended arms backward and forward, and then round the head.
Exercise V. Extend the arms in front; bring them back to the chest, the
bells hugged almost to the breast; from that position strike sharply out, opening
the arms as widely as possible, and then bring the arms round to front again.
Repeat.
















The above are some of the most usual exercises, but the pupil can soon be-
come proficient if he will practise. Remember the head -should be erect, the chest









30 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

expanded, the heels together, the body upright. No stooping or slouching habits
can be tolerated.

SBAPBELS?















From dumb-bells the pupils may go through a course of bar-exercise, or
French dumb-bells or bar-bells.






























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k n, nil filll--:~..:

Till















DIAGRAM OF A BASE BALL FIELD,
WITH THE LINES OF MEASUREMENT.

A

UMPIRE


Y CATCHER /




0 >

/\ 3 ft. 3 ft.V





PITCHER'S
POSITION

4 ft.

I N- F I E L D
1ST BASEMAN
S 3D BASEMAN



B SHORT-STOP

2ND BASEMAN




Right-fielder. Left-fielder.
OUT-FIELD.



Centre-fielder.
0


A. A. A.-Ground reserved for Umpire, Batsman and Catcher.
B. B. B.-Ground reserved for Captain and Assistant.














THE DIAMOND FIELD,

,i



oU





O
ILL























I N-FIELD OF TURF.














In laying out a Base Ball Field the diamond shall be carefully covered with turf,
and kept rolled, so as to make it level and smooth. The base lines should be path-
ways, and the space from the pitcher's position to that of the catcher's should be
bare ground, with a hard smooth surface, especially behind the home base. The
above diagram shows the lines of the diamond field.
// N

















































-. --- ...




HENRY CHADWICK,

A author of Sports and Pastimes of A merzcan Boys.


















THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME.*

IN the chapters on the American game of base-ball which we give in th6
succeeding pages, we have not only taken special pains to prepare them for
youthful readers, but also to make this part of our work on sports a special feature
as a text-book of the game adopted for the amateur class of the fraternity. It is
the game of games for American boys, and therefore we devote more space to
base-ball than to any other department of the book.
It has been justly said that there is no outdoor sport in America that equals
our national game of base-ball, either as an exciting sport to witness or as a game
affording ample opportunities for healthy, manly, and recreative exercise. In
comparison with every other field game known in the arena of outdoor sports,
base-ball bears off the palm in all those features which are calculated to secure the
popular favor of the American public. A match at base-ball scarcely averages two
hours of time, from the opening innings to the close of the contest, even at the
hands of amateur experts, and still less when the contesting nines are trained and
experienced professionals. From the moment the ball is in play to the end of
each innings of a match, the interest is kept up unceasingly. Then, too, in the
accomplishment of the work in those departments of the game which the nine in
the field has especially to attend to, opportunities are afforded for the most attrac-
tive displays of manly courage, pluck, and nerve ; while activity of mind as well
as limb come into active play through the medium of pitching, catching, fielding,
throwing, and holding the ball on the bases, involved in the work of an attacking
party in a contest; while, on the other hand, there is the great skill needed in.
handling the bat, and sound judgment as well as remarkable agility required in.
running the bases, this being the work of the defence in the battle for the prize of
victory; the whole affording scope for active exercise of mind and body, un-
equalled by any field sport.

THE THEORY OF THE GAME.
There is no game now in vogue the theory of which is more simple than that
of base-ball, and hence its attractions for the masses ; and yet to excel in the game
as a noted expert requires not only the )possession of the physical attributes of











36 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

endurance, agility, strength, good throwing and running powers, together with
plenty of courage, pluck, and nerve, but also the mental powers of sound
judgment, quick perception, thorough control of temper, and the presence of mind
to act promptly in critical emergencies. The plain theory of base-ball is simply
as follows : A space of ground being marked out on a level field in the form of a
diamond, with equal sides, bases are placed on the four corners thereof. The con-
testants include nine players on each side-one side takes the field and the other
goes to the bat. When the field side take their positions the pitcher delivers the
ball to the batsman, who endeavors to send it out of the reach of the fielders and
far enough out on the field to enable him to run round the bases, and if he reaches
the home-base-his starting point-without being put out, he scores a run. He is
followed in rotation by the others of his side until three of the batting party are
put out, when the field side come in and take their turn at the bat. This goes on
until nine innings have been played on each side, and then the side scoring the
most runs wins the game.


HOW TO PLAY THE POSITIONS.
THE PITCHER.
This position is the most important in the field and the most responsible of
all. He is now allowed -to deliver the ball to the bat either by a pitch, a toss, a
jerk, or an underhand or overhand throw.
His position is within the lines of a space of ground six feet by four. The
rules require him to deliver the ball while standing in his position, and when in
the act of delivering, or in making any preliminary motion to deliver the ball, he
must have both feet within the lines of his position, and he cannot take a step
outside the lines until the ball has left his hands. Should he do so he incurs the
penalty for balking.
The pitcher should bear in mind the important fact that the true art of pitch-
ing is to deceive the eye of the batsman-that is, to send the ball in to the bat in
such a manner as to lead the striker to believe that it is just coming in where he
wants it, while in fact it is either too high or too low, or is too swift or too slow
for the purpose. Moreover, he should have the pluck to face hot balls direct from
the bat. Unless he can do this, he can never pitch with judgment, for he will be
so impressed with the idea of avoiding being hit with the ball that he will think of
little else.
He must especially possess a full command of the ball in delivery, or his judg-
ment will be of no avail ; and he should have the endurance to pitch through a










THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 37




























long and tedious game. He should also remember that there is nothing in speed
alone which makes such a style of delivery effective, and also that a merely swift
delivery of the ball without command of aim, costs more in passed balls and bases
run than is compensated for by either poor hits, tipped balls, or strikes. For
fuller instructions, see article on The Art of Pitching.

THE CATCHER.
Much of the success of a nine depends upon the ability of the catcher, and it
is therefore requisite that he should be an excellent player in his position ; and to
excel as catcher he should be able to throw with great accuracy and speed a line
ball a distance of fifty yards, and be able to stop swiftly-pitched balls and low
grounders, and be especially on the alert in judging of foul balls, besides having
the nerve to face sharply-tipped balls direct from the bat. The ordinary rule is,
when the striker has made his first base, for the catcher to come up close behind
the bat, in order to be in a position to take the ball from the pitcher quick enough
to send it to second base, in case the base runner tries to steal a base on the





* *' *^ -- -- w^-lI~ -- I *I'l I 1111 *III ~-.. .-- ---- ---------





38. SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

pitcher. The catcher and pitcher should always have a perfect understanding
with each other in regard to their respective movements. They should have a
code of signals between them, and they should practise these signs until they can
read them as easily as their letters. Thus, when the catcher sees an opportunity
for the pitcher to catch a base player napping off his base, a certain signal should
be given by which the pitcher may understand that he is to throw to the base
promptly. Again, if the pitcher is familiar with a certain habit of the batsman
before him of hitting at a favorite ball, he should give the catcher a sign informing
him that he is going to send in a slower or swifter ball or a higher or lower one
than ordinarily is pitched.

THE BASE PLAYERS.
All basemen should be good ball-catchers, but the occupant of the first base
should especially excel in holding the swiftest thrown balls. He should also be
fearless in facing hot balls from the bat, and expert in taking balls from the field,
while holding one foot on the base. When a ball is hastily thrown to first base,
his care should be to hold it, but at any rate to stop it. A good first-base player
ought to be able to hold a ball from the field, if it comes in anywhere within a
radius of six feet from the base, and in case of high-thrown balls he ought to take
them at least eight feet high from the base. He must remember that the ball
must be held by him, with some part of his person touching the base at the same
time, before the striker reaches it, or the latter is not out ; if the ball is held at the
same time, the base runner is not out.
The second baseman requires to be a pretty active fielder, an accurate thrower
for a short distance, and a pretty sure catch ; he should, however, be very expert
in catching a swiftly-thrown ball, and in holding it firmly and putting it quickly
on the player running to his base. He is required to cover the second base and to
play right-short-stop" too; but his position in the field must be governed
entirely by the style of batting he is called upon to face. If a strong hitter comes
to the bat and swift balls are being sent in, he should play well out in the field
between right field and second base, and be on the qui vive for long-bound balls,
or high-fly balls which drop between the out-field and the second-baset ne.
When the batsman makes his first base, the second baseman comes up an d ets
near his base in readiness to receive the ball from the catcher. He should remem-
ber that in a majority of cases his duty is to touch the base runner, and this it
would be well to do in all cases when the latter is found off his base.
When the first baseman runs after the ball hit by the striker, the second base-
man should at once make for the first base, as he is generally nearer to it than
either the short-stop or pitcher when balls are being hit to first base. In timing










THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 39

for a throw to first base be sure of your aim, or if in doubt let the base be made,
or otherwise the chances are that an over-throw will -give your opponent his third:
instead of his first base. Hasty throwing is poor policy except you are pretty sure
in sending in a swift line ball, and you have a good man at first base to hold it.
When a player is on the first base, and another on the third, be on the watch so as
to make a prompt return of the ball when the catcher throws to the second and the
man on the third attempts to run home on the throw. There is ample time for a
ball to be thrown from home to second and back to put out a player running
home.
The third baseman's duties are the most onerous of the three positions on the
bases, as on his good fielding will frequently depend the loss of runs to his oppo-
nents, whereas failures on the other bases are only made at the cost of a single
base. In the case of a misplay at third base, however, one or more runs scored is
generally the result-that is, in cases where players are running their bases.
When no men are on the bases the third baseman will have to be active in fielding
the ball, and quick and accurate in throwing it, in order to prevent the striker
from making his base. The third baseman takes a position closer to his base than
either of the other basemen. Sometimes, however, he takes the place of the short-
stop when the latter covers the second base in cases where the second baseman
plays at right-short for a right-field hitter, a position frequently taken by a first-
class nine.
In throwing from base to base hastily, take care that you throw low rather
than high, as a low ball can be stopped if not handled, whereas a ball overhead.
gives one or more bases in nearly every instance. In fact, in the long run, it is
safer to allow a player to make one base than to run the risk of helping him to two
or three bases by an over-throw. Accurate throwing from base to base is a pretty
feature of the game, and with straight throwers and sure catchers can be safely
indulged in at all times; for though a player may not be put out by a throw,
when he sees the ball thrown straight and handled prettily, it makes him hug his
bases closer. Every base player should be active in backing up" in the in-field.
The life of fielding is in the support afforded each other by the fielders who are
located near together. A good fielder or base player never stands still; he is
always on the move, ready for a spring to reach the ball, a stoop to pick it up, or
a prompt movement to stop it, and he always has his eye upon the ball, especially
when it is flying about inside the base lines or from base to base. Poor base
players seldom put themselves out of the way to field a ball unless it comes within
their special district, but a good base player is on the alert to play at a moment's
notice, on any base from which the player has gone after the ball. When bases
are vacated by runners, forced off or foul or fly balls are struck, all the base




.V









40 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

players handle the ball in the same way as at first base, but it is advisable to make
sure always by touching the player when he is off the base.

THE OUT-FIELDERS.
The occupants of the positions in the outer field-viz., left, centre, and right
fields, should be equal in their qualifications as fielders. Each should be able to
throw a ball a hundred yards, certainly not less than eighty at least. They should
be good runners and excellent judges of fly-balls. They should never stand still
or occupy one position all the time, but be on the move, ready for a quick run, or
to back up each other. In judging of fly-balls it is always safer to lay out for a
long hit than to get so close in as to have to get back to catch a ball. They never
should hold a ball a minute, but return it to the in-field as soon as handled. The
point to throw the ball in to is the pitcher's position, as a general thing, but as to
that they will have to be guided by circumstances, according as the ball sent to
them is taken on the fly or fielded while a player is running his bases. One or
other of the positions in the outer field is the place for the change pitcher of the
nine, as it will afford him a chance to rest. The out-fielders should watch the
movements of the pitcher and catcher closely whenever a new batsman takes his
stand at the home base, in order to be ready to obey any signals either to come in
or go out farther, according to the character of the pitching or the peculiar style
of the batsman.
THE ART OF PITCHING.
The Value of Strategic Play.
No player can ever excel as a pitcher who is not more or less a strategist in
his work. A pitcher may be able to send in the ball with unwonted speed and
unusual accuracy, and also be able to add the curve" to his delivery, and yet,
from his ignorance of strategic play or head-work," as it is technically termed,
he will rank only as second-rate in the position. Some reader will probably ask,
What is strategy in base-ball ? The reply is, A resort to legitimate artifice to
blind the judgment of the party attacked. As regards the play of the pitcher, the
elements of strategic play may be summed up as follows : First, to deceive the eye
of the batsman in regard to the character of the delivery of the ball, as to its being
fast or slow. Secondly, to deceive his judgment in reference to the direction of
the ball when pitched to him, as to its being high or low, or where he wants it.
Thirdly, to watch the batsman closely so as to know just when he is temporarily
" out of form" for making a good hit; and fourthly, to tempt him with a ball
which will be likely to go high from his bat to the out-field and be caught. The









THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 41

moment the pitcher faces the batsman in the first.inning of a match, he should
begin to study his man and endeavor to find out his weak points of play, Watch
how he holds his bat, and, if he does not poise it properly in his preliminary
moves, count it a point in your favor. Then watch him closely to see if he takes a
temporary rest from standing in readiness to meet the ball. The latter is impor-
tant, as a batsman may stand in good form for hitting for five or six balls, and
then suddenly get tired of waiting and stand at ease," as it were, when he imme-
diately becomes open to attack from a strategic pitcher. This catching the bats-
man out of form is almost sure to yield an out. It is very readily done by a quick
return of the ball to the pitcher by the catcher, and an equally prompt delivery to
the batsman. But the ball thus quickly sent in must invariably be a fair ball-
over the base and for the striker--or the point will fail.
A great point in strategic pitching is a well-disguised change of pace. It
should be borne in mind that change of pace in pitching is comparatively useless
unless it be well disguised. Nothing bothers a batsman more than to be prepared
to strike quickly at a fast ball, only to find that his stroke has been too quick to
meet the ball fairly, owing to the lessened speed of the ball. The same, too, when
he is expecting a medium-paced ball, and suddenly sees it flash by him at the
utmost speed of the pitcher. It requires a keen-sighted, nervy, and experienced
batsman to be ready to meet this style of pitching.
A point of play peculiar to old-time pitchers was throwing to bases; but ex-
perience has so plainly shown that, as a general rule, throwing to bases should be
but rarely indulged in, that it has gone out of use to a considerable extent. Not
one pitcher out of four can throw accurately enough to a base to catch a runner
napping off base. Of course, it won't do for a pitcher to neglect throwing to the
bases, but he should only do it when well practised in it, and even when sure of
his throwing to first base it should never be done except on signal from catcher.
Watch the bases well, but throw only when a throw will be sure to tell.
The effectiveness of the curve in pitching depends greatly upon the pitcher's
command of the ball, not only as regards accuracy of
aim in delivery, but in being able to control the curve
itself. As we said before, the curve without head-
work" in its use loses half its effectiveness; and it is
almost impossible to use strategy in connection with the
curve unless you have thorough command of the ball. .
Curve-pitchers should remember that it is frequently a
good point to play to drop the curve for a ball or two.
The pitcher must learn to school himself to a state of apparent indifference to
the actions of wily base-runners, who try every means in their power to disconcert









42 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

him in his delivery. There is nothing more trying to a pitcher than to have a
base-runner at third base with no man out, while a runner is at first base and
about to go down to second in such way as to let the man at third get home.
Here is just where nerve in a pitcher tells. A pitcher never plays his points so
Swell, or shows his skill more plainly, than when he'keeps a man on third base who
has reached there by his good hit before a man has been put out. This is a pretty
good test of a pitcher's ability as a strategist. No machine pitcher can do it.
One word more, and we will finish this chapter. The pitcher who cannot control
his temper is as unfit for his position as would be a quick-tempered billiard profes-
sional. It is an essential of success in every position in the field, but especially in
that of the pitcher.
BATTERY" WORK.
The pitcher and catcher in base-ball are technically called the battery," and
this team of two players are the main reliance of the attacking force in a contest.
An effective pitcher is a tower of strength in himself, and a good catcher is almost
equally as valuable, but unless they work together as a team" they divide their
strength and weaken their power in proportion. Pitchers and catchers should
always work together in pairs. They should be familiar with each other's peculiar
methods of playing their respective positions. A first-rate catcher for one pitcher
would be almost useless for another, as far as helping the pitcher in strategic play
is concerned. Each should fully understand the other's signals in a match--the
catcher those of the pitcher, so as to be able to be prepared for a sudden change
of pace, and the pitcher those of the catcher, so as to know when the latter wants
his partner to pitch for throwing to bases ; for the pitcher should know that it is
impossible for a catcher to do his best in throwing to bases unless the pitcher
sends him in balls especially for that purpose. Pitchers should bear in mind the
important fact that, no matter how skilful they may be in the delivery of the ball
to the bat, they must be largely dependent for success upon the character of the
assistance rendered them by their catcher. It is especially a matter of the first
importance to a strategic pitcher that he should have a first-rate man behind the
bat to second him in all his little points of play.

THE ART OF BATTING.
In no department of the game are more facilities offered for strategic play
than in batting ; but it requires an intelligent player to engage in it successfully.
The batsman who would be invariably successful must resort to strategy, for if he
depends solely upon a quick eye and a strong arm he will fail. These are very
excellent as aids, but a poor dependence to place your trust in altogether. The










THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 43

batsman, when he takes his bat in hand, finds opposed to him nine men, and
though to the casual observer it may seem a very easy undertaking to bat a ball
out of the reach of only nine men, covering as large a space as a four or five acre
field ; yet when you come to face nine experienced and active fielders, you will
soon be taught to realize the fact that headwork" is as important an element of
success in batting as it is in pitching ; and you will then see that to earn bases on
hits and to score runs you will have to play points" pretty skilfully. The best
preparatory form for striking is to stand as a backwoodsman does when using his
axe in cutting down a tree-viz., poising the bat over the shoulder and standing in
such form as to give the swing of the arm all the impetus a half twist of the body
can impart to it. The style of holding the bat forward and then withdrawing it
and then swinging it forward again is a waste of strength, besides being a motion
calculated to mar the aim of the striker. The holding of the bat horizontally and
then making a double movement in striking is also objectionable as wasting the
strength of the wrists, whereas in holding it over the shoulder the weight of the
bat in coming down is added to the impetus given by the arms and body, besides
affording the wrists a chance to assist the movement.
There are three classes of balls pitched for the batsman to strike at-viz.,
shoulder high, hip high, and knee high. If you can swing a heavy bat handily
and are pretty accurate in your aim, a squarely-hit shoulder ball will clear the
heads of the in-fielders and go too close to the ground to be easily caught on the
fly by the out-fielders ; but if you are not a sure hitter let this class of balls alone,
as the chances are that you will give the fielders a chance for an out oftener than
you will get a square hit. Balls hip high offer chances for good hits, provided the
movement of the bat is timed well and swung forward as near on a line with the
ball as possible, but if the line of the bat forms a semicircle in being swung for-
ward,the chances are that the ball will either be missed or sent up in the air, and,
of course, favorable for a catch. More ground balls are hit from knee-high balls
than from any other class pitched ; in fact, it must be a poorly.timed strike that
could not send a knee-high ball skimming along the ground about a foot or more
from it, making it difficult to stop and almost impossible to catch it. A waist ball
is only advantageous to strong batters, who can send a ball over the heads of the
out-fielders, as there are not one out of ten of this class of balls that does not rise
high when hit.
The moment a batsman hits the ball, whether fair or foul, he should drop the
bat-never sling it behind him-and run for his base until he hears the call of
" foul." No matter if the ball has been hit so as to almost insure the catch, the
striker should nevertheless run just as if it had been hit safe. If he stops simply.
because he sees it is a sure to be caught," he only gives the fielder more confi-,









44 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

dence to make the catch, whereas, if he still run on, the very earnestness of the
fielder to hold the ball may cause him to drop it. In fact, the striker in running
to first base should act on the principle that nothing is sure but death," and so
keep alive until he is really put out.





















PLAYING BASE-BALL ON THE ICE.

A game of base-ball played by a party of skaters on a good field of ice is very
lively sport; such a game, however, is played under different rules to those
governing the field game, especially in the delivery of the ball to the bat and in
running the bases. The ordinary rules governing the batsmen and pitcher are not
so strictly observed as in the field-game, the impossibility of obtaining a good
footing making the operation of pitching and batting rather difficult. In running
the bases in a game on the ice on skates, all that it is necessary for the base-runner
to do is to cross the line of the position, after which he cannot be put out until he
has returned to the base and again leaves it. The bases are marked on the ice in
the form of lines three feet in length, each line being marked at right angles with
the base lines from base to base, and three feet each side thereof. This line forms
the base, and on this line the base player must stand when he holds the ball, in
order to put a player out. The base-runner makes his base if he crosses the line
of the base before being touched, or before the ball is held on the base.





I





/





THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 45

The following is the diagram of the diamond for a game on an ice-field :


6 feet





-4-

4 feet-














After hitting a ball on which the batsman can only make one base, he should
start from the home base so as to turn to the right in crossing the lines of the
base; but in cases where his hit entitles him to two or more bases, then he should
start so as to turn to the left. If he turns to the left after skating over the base-
line he at once ceases to be exempt from being put out in returning to the base he
had overrun.
In putting players out the regular rules prevail, except in regard to outs on
catches, a fair ball caught on the first bound putting the batsman out.
In calling strikes and balls, the umpire must call a strike on every ball within
fair reach of the bat, no matter whether high or low, the batsman not being
allowed to designate the height of the ball. In calling balls he must call a ball on
each and every ball out of fair reach of the bat, and also on every thrown ball,
as only a square pitch or toss of the ball is allowed in the game. Six called balls
give a base. The essentials for a successful game of ball on the ice include a large
space of good clear ice; a non-elastic and soft ball; a fair day, not windy or too
cool; a field cleared of spectators, and two parties of good, plucky skaters. Under
these favorable circumstances, a really exciting display would be the result. The










46 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

ball requires to be non-elastic and soft, because a light blow will send it a good
distance, and a hard ball sent swiftly to the hands on a cold day is very painful,
and likely to result in severe injuries. The pitching also should never be swift in
a game on ice. The ball should simply be tossed in to the bat; by this means
more frequent chances are given to the field for outs, and the game is made active
and lively instead of tedious, as it would otherwise be.



THE RULES OF BASE-BALL.

The following Code of Rules has been prepared from the combined codes of
the League and the American Professional Associations, and this revised set of
rules includes every amendment made up to the close of the League and American
meetings held in March, 1884. The rules are differently classified to those of the
professional codes, in order to facilitate a reference to each rule when required.


RULE I.-MATERIALS OF THE GAME.

THE BALL.
I. The ball must weigh not less than five nor more than five and one quarter ounces avoirdupois.
It must measure not less than nine nor more than nine and one quarter inches in circumference. It
must be composed of woollen yarn, and shall not contain more than one ounce of vulcanized rubber in
mould form, and shall be covered with leather.

SUPPLYING THE BALL.
2. In all match games the ball or balls played with shall be furnished by the home club, and shall
become the property of the winning club.

CALLING FOR A NEW BALL.
3. When a ball becomes out of shape, or cut or ripped so as to expose the yarn, or in any way so
injured as to be unfit for fair use, a new ball shall be called for by the umpire at the request of either
captain. Should the ball be lost during a game, the umpire shall, at the expiration of five minutes,
call for a new ball.
THE BAT.
4. The bat must De round, and must not exceed two and one half inches in diameter in the thick-
est part. It must be made wholly of wood, and shall not exceed forty-two inches in length.
THE BASES.
5. The bases must be four in number, and they must be placed and securely fastened upon each
corner of a square, the sides of which are respectively thirty yards. The bases must be so con-
structed and placed as to be distinctly seen by the umpire. The first, second, and third bases must
cover a space equal to fifteen inches square, and the home base one square foot of surface. The first,
second, and third bases shall be canvas bags, painted white, anp filled with some soft material. The






j










THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 47

home base shall be of white marble or stone, so fixed in the ground as to be even with the surface,
and wholly within the diamond. One corner of said base shall face the pitcher's position, and two
sides shall form part of the foul lines.

THE UMPIRE'S GROUND.
6. The base from which the ball is struck shall be designated the home base, and must be directly
opposite the second base. The first base must always be that upon the right hand, and the third base
that upon the left hand side of the striker when occupying his position at the home. base. In all
match games, lines connecting the home and first bases, and the home and third bases, and also the
lines of the striker's and pitcher's position, shall be marked by the use of chalk or other suitable
material, so as to be distinctly seen by the umpire. The line of the home base shall extend four feet
on each side of the base, and shall be drawn through its centre and parallel with a line extending from
first to third base. The foul lines from first and third -bases to home base shall be continued as straight
lines to the limits of the field beyond and back of said home base. The triangular space thus laid off
behind the home base shall be for the exclusive use of the catcher, umpire, and batsman, and no
player of the side," at bat" (except the batsman) shall be permitted to occupy any portion of such
triangular space. Two lines marked in the same way as the foul lines, and parallel with said foul
lines, shall be drawn, one fifteen feet and the other fifty feet distant from them, and terminating at the
lines bounding the triangular space aforesaid.
7. From a point half way between home and first bases, on the foul line, must be drawn a line
rectangularly to the foul line three feet in length, thence running parallel to the foul line to a point
rectangularly opposite the centre of the first base ; this is called the "three-feet line."




RULE II.-THE GAME.

THE INNINGS.
I. The game shall consist of nine innings for each side, but should the score then be a tie, play
shall be continued until a majority of runs for one side-upon an equal number of innings-shall be
declared, when the game shall end. All innings shall be concluded when the third hand is put out.
If the side first at the bat shall score less runs in nine innings than the opposite side has scored in
eight innings, the game shall then end ; it shall also end in case the side last at bat shall in the ninth
inning score the winning run even before a player has been put out; and, in case "game" is called by
the umpire on account of darkness or rain, after each side has completed five innings, the score shall
be that of the last equal number of innings; but if the side last at the bat shall have scored a greater
number of runs than the opposite side, the full number of runs made shall be the score.

FIRST TO THE BAT.
2. The choice of first innings shall be determined by the two captains. The fielders of each club
shall take any position in the field their captain may assign them; but whoever is assigned as the
pitcher of the nine must deliver the ball from the appointed position.

SUBSTITUTES FOR ABSENTEES.
3. No player taking part in a game shall be replaced by a substitute, except for reason of illness
or injury, occurring in the game then being played.









48 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

NO GAME.
4. No game shall be considered as played unless five innings on each side shall be completed.
Should darkness or rain intervene before the third hand is put out in the closing part of the fifth
innings of the game, the umpire shall declare No game."

DRAWN GAME.
5. Whenever a game of not less than five completed innings on each side is stopped by rain or
darkness, and the score at the time is equal on the even innings played, the game shall be declared
drawn; but under no other circumstances shall a drawn game be declared; except in case the side
that went second to the bat, being then at the bat, has scored the same number of runs as the other
side, in which case the game shall be declared drawn, without regard to the score of the last equal
innings.
A GAME STOPPED BY RAIN.
6. Should rain commence to fall during the progress of a match game so heavily as to oblige the
spectators to seek shelter, the umpire must note the time it began, and should the rain continue to fall
for thirty minutes after play has been suspended, the game shall terminate.

CALLING PLAY AND TIME.
7. When the umpire calls play," the game must at once be proceeded with. Should either party
fail to take their appointed positions in the game, or to commence play as requested, the umpire shall,
at the expiration of five minutes, declare the game forfeited by the nine that refuses to play. When
the umpire calls "time," play shall be suspended until he calls play" again, and during the interim
no player shall be put out, base be run or run be scored. The umpire shall suspend play only for an
accident or injury to himself or a player, or on account of rain. In case of an accident to a fielder
"time" shall not be called until the ball is held by the pitcher in his position.

SUSPENDING PLAY.
8. The umpire in any match game shall, in case of rain or darkness, determine when play shall be
suspended, and if the game cannot be fairly concluded, it shall be decided by the score of the last equal
innings played, unless one nine shall have completed their innings, and the other nine shall have
equalled or exceeded the score of their opponents in their uncompleted innings, in which case the game
shall be decided by the total score obtained, which score shall be recorded as the score of the game.

GAME CALLED.
9. When the umpire calls "game," it shall end; but when he merely suspends play for any stated
period, it may be resumed at the point at which it was suspended ; provided such suspension does not
extend beyond the day of the match.


RULE III.-PITCHING.

PITCHER'S POSITION.
I. The pitcher's position shall be within a space of ground four feet wide by six feet long, the front
or four feet line of which shall be distant fifty (50) feet from the centre of the home base, and the
centre of the square shall be equidistant from the first and the third bases. Each corner of the square
shall be marked by a flat iron plate or stone, six inches square, fixed in the ground even with the
surface.











THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 49

DELIVERY OF THE BALL.
2. The pitcher in delivering the ball to the bat must do so while wholly within the lines of his
position. He must remain within them until the ball has left his hand, and he shall not make any
motion to deliver the ball to the bat while any part of his person is outside the lines of the pitcher's
position. The pitcher, when taking his position to deliver the ball, must face the batsman, and in
delivering it to the bat, his hand must pass his side below the line of his shoulder. The ball, to be a
fair ball, must pass over the home base, and at the height called for by the batsman.
A FAIR BALL.
A fair ball is a ball delivered by the pitcher while wholly within the lines of his position and facing
the batsman, with his hand passing below his shoulder, and the ball passing over the home base at the
height called for by the batsman.
AN UNFAIR BALL.
3. Should the pitcher in delivering the ball fail to send it over the home base, or at the height
called for by the batsman, it shall be considered an unfair ball.
A FOUL BALK.
4. Should the pitcher deliver the ball by an overhand throw, a "foul balk" shall be declared by
the umpire, and the batsman shall take one base, as in the case of an ordinary balk. Any swing of
the arm higher than that referred to in Section 2 of this rule shall be considered an overhand throw.
(This rule is not observed under the League Code, the overhand throw being allowed by the League rules.

AN ORDINARY BALK.
5. Should the pitcher make any motion to deliver the ball to the bat, and fail so to deliver it-
except the ball be accidentally dropped-or should he unnecessarily delay the game by not delivering
the ball to the bat, or should he, when in the act of delivering the ball, have any part of his person
outside the lines of his position, the umpire shall call a balk," and players occupying the bases shall
take one base each. (In the American Association's code of rules, a balk made by an overthrow gives
the batsman his base.)
A GOOD BALL.
6. Every ball fairly delivered and sent in to the bat over the home base and at the height called
for by the batsman, shall be considered a good ball.
CALLED BALLS.
7. All balls delivered to the bat which are not sent in over the home base and at the height called
for by the batsman, shall be considered unfair balls, and every ball so delivered must be called. When
" seven balls" have been called, the striker shall take first base, and all players who are thereby forced
to leave a base shall take one base. Neither a "ball nor a "strike" shall be called until the ball
has passed the home base. (The League rule admits of only six called balls.)
DEAD BALLS.
8. All balls delivered to the bat which shall touch the striker's bat without being struck at, or his
(the batsman's) person while standing in his position, or which shall hit the person of the umpire-
unless they be passed balls-shall be considered dead balls, and shall be so called by the umpire, and
no players shall be put out, base be run, or run be scored on any such ball; but if a dead ball be
also an unfair ball, it shall be counted as one of the seven unfair balls that entitle the striker to a base.
No ball on which a "foul" or "block" has been declared, shall be in play until held by the pitcher in
his position.










50 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

RULE IV.-BATTING DEPARTMENT.

BATSMAN'S POSITION.
I. The batsman's or striker's position shall be within a space of ground located on either side of
the home base, six feet long by three feet wide, extending three feet in front of and three feet behind
the line of the home base, and with its nearest line distant one Toot from the home base.

ORDER OF STRIKING.
2. The batsmen must take their position in the order in which they are directed by the
captain of their club, and after each player has had one time at bat, the striking order thus
established shall not be changed during the game. After the first inning, the first striker in each
inning shall be the batsman whose name follows that of the last man who has completed his turn
(or time) at bat in the preceding inning. In case of the disability of a player, the substitute must
take the player's position in the regular batting order.
FAILING TO STRIKE IN ORDER.
3. Any batsman failing to take his position at the bat in his order of striking-unless by reason
of illness or injury, or by consent of the captains of the contesting nines-shall be declared out, unless
the error be discovered before a fair ball has been struck, or the striker put out.

TAKING POSITION WHEN CALLED.
4. Any batsman failing to take his position at the bat within one minute after the umpire has called
for the striker, shall be declared out.
DESIGNATING HIGH OR LOW BALLS.
5. The batsman on taking his position, must call for either a high ball" a low ball," or a "fair
bali," and the umpire shall notify the pitcher to deliver the ball as required ; such call shall not be
changed after the first ball delivered.
BALLS CALLED FOR.
6. A "high ball" shall be one sent in above the belt of the batsman, but not higher than his
shoulder. A "low ball" shall be one sent in at the height of the belt, or between that height
and the knee, but not higher than his belt. A "fair ball" shall be one between the range of shoulder
high and the knee of the striker. All the above must be over the home base, and when fairly delivered
shall be considered fair balls to the bat.
CALLING STRIKES.
7. Should the batsman fail to strike at a fair ball, or should he strike at and fail to hit
such ball, the umpire shall call "one strike;" should he fail a second time, "two strikes," and
a third time, "three strikes," when the batsman must run to first base, and keep within the lines
of the pathway to first base in so running.
HOW THE BATSMAN STANDS.
8. The batsman, when in the act of striking at the ball, must stand wholly within the lines of his
position.
A FOUL STRIKE.
9. Should the batsman step outside the lines of his position to strike at the ball, the umpire shall
call "foul strike and out," and base runners shall return to the bases they occupied when the ball was
hit.











THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 51

FOUL BALL LINES.
Io. The foul lines shall be unlimited in length, and shall run from the right and left hand corners
of the home base through the centre of the first and third bases to the foul posts, which shall be located
at the boundary of the field and within the range of home and first base, and home and third base.
Said lines shall be marked throughout their entire length, with chalk or some other white substance, so
as to be plainly seen by the umpire.
FAIR AND FOUL HITS.
I I. If a ball hit high from a fair stroke of the bat first touches the ground, the person of a player,
or any other object, either in front of, or on the foul ball lines, or the first or third base, it shall be con-
sidered fair.
If the ball hit high from a fair stroke of the bat first touches the person of the batter, or the
ground, the person of a player, or any other object, behind the foul-ball lines, it shall be declared foul,
and the ball so hit shall be called foul by the umpire even before touching the ground, if it be seen
falling foul.
The following are exceptions to the foregoing section : All balls batted directly to the ground that
bound or roll within the foul lines between home and first or home and third bases, without first touch-
ing the person of a player, shall be considered fair. All balls batted directly to the ground that bound
or roll outside the foul lines between home and first or home and third bases, without first touching
the person of a player, shall be considered foul. In either of these cases the first point of contact
between the batted ball and the ground shall not be regarded.

WHEN THE BATSMAN BECOMES A BASE RUNNER.
12. When the batsman has fairly struck a fair ball, or three strikes," seven balls," or two foul
balks," have been declared by the umpire, he shall be considered a base runner, until he is put out or
scores his run.
In case, too, the pitcher delivers the ball so as to hit the batsman, he equally becomes a base
runner. (The League Code does not admit of such a ball or a balk giving the batsman a base.)

HOW BATSMEN ARE PUT OUT.
13. The batsman shall be declared out" by the umpire as follows :
If a fair ball be caught before touching ground, or any object other than the player who catches it
-except the person of a fielder-except it be caught in such player's cap or dress.
If a foul ball be caught before touching ground, except it touch some object other than the player
who catches it before touching ground or being caught, or be caught by the player in his cap or dress.
If a fair ball be securely held by a fielder while touching first base with any part of his person
before the batsman touches first base.
If after three strikes" have been called, the ball be caught before touching the ground.
If after three strikes" have been called, he fails to touch first base before the ball is legally held
there.
If he plainly attempts to hinder the catcher from catching the ball, evidently without effort to
make a fair strike, or if he makes a foul strike.
If in running the last half of the distance from home base to first base, he runs outside a line three
feet distant from the foul line and parallel thereto. (The American Code admits of the foul-bound catch.)











52 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.


RULE V.-RUNNING THE BASES.

TOUCHING THE BASES.
x. Players running bases must touch each base in regular order, viz., first, second, third, and home
bases; and when obliged to return to bases they have occupied, they must retouch them in reverse
order, when running on fair or foul balls. In the latter case the base runner must return to the base
where he belongs on the run and not at a walk, or risk being put out while off a base. No base shall be
considered as having been occupied or held until it has been touched.

FORCED TO VACATE A BASE.
2. No player running the bases shall be forced to vacate the base he occupies unless the batsman
becomes a base runner. Should the first base be occupied by a base runner when a fair ball is struck,
the base runner shall cease to be entitled to hold said base until the player running to first base shall
be put out. The same rule shall apply in the case of the occupancy of the other bases under similar
circumstances. No base runner shall be forced to vacate the base he occupies if the base runner
succeeding him is not thus obliged to vacate his base.

FORCED OUT.
3. Players forced to vacate their bases may be put out by any fielders in the same manner as when
running to first base.
OVERRUNNING FIRST BASE.
4. The player running to first base shall be at liberty to overrun said base without being put out
for being off the base after first touching it, provided he returns at once and retouches first base, after
which he can be put out as at any other base. If, in overrunning first base, he also attempts to run to
second base, he shall forfeit such exemption from being put out.

AVOIDING THE BALL IN RUNNING.
5. Any player running a base who shall run beyond three feet from the line from base to base in
order to avoid being touched by the ball in the hands of a fielder, shall be declared out by the umpire,
with or without appeal; but in case a fielder be occupying the runner's proper path attempting to
catch a batted ball, then the runner must run out of the path and behind said fielder, and shall not be
declared out for so doing.
WHEN A RUN IS SCORED.
6. One run shall be scored every time a base runner, after having regularly touched the first three
bases, shall touch the home base before three hands are out. If the third hand out is forced out, or is
put out before reaching the first base, a run shall not be scored. Runners touching home base can
only count their runs in the same order as they go to the bat.

BASES ON BALKS.
7. When a "balk" is called by the umpire, every player running the bases shall take one base
without being put out, and shall do so on the run. (Under the American Code the batsman is also given
a base on foul balks.)
BASES ON CALLED BALLS.
8. When seven "balls" have been called by the umpire, the batsman shall take one base-pro-
vided he does so on the run-without being put out, and should any base runner be forced thereby to
vacate his base, he also shall take one base. Each base runner thus given a base shall be at liberty to











THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 53

run to other bases besides the base given, but only at the risk of being put out in so running. (Six
called balls only are allowed under the League Code.)

HOLDING A BASE.
9. A base runner shall be considered as holding a base, viz., entitled to occupy it, until he shall
have regularly touched the next base in order, or until forced to leave it by a following base runner
forced off by the batsman.
RUNNING ON FOUL FLY BALLS.
10. Any player running the bases on fair or foul balls caught before touching the ground must
return to the base he occupied when the ball was struck, and retouch such base before attempting to
make another base or score a run, and said player shall be liable to be put out in so returning, as in
the case of running to first base when a fair ball is hit and not caught flying.

OBSTRUCTING BASE RUNNERS.
11. If the player running the bases is prevented from making a base by the obstruction of an
adversary, not having the ball in hand, he shall be entitled to that base and shall not be put out.

SUBSTITUTES FOR BASE" RUNNERS.
12. No base runner shall have a substitute run for him, unless disabled in the game then being
played. (The League Code allows no substitute at all for a base runner.)

HOW BASE RUNNERS ARE PUT OUT.
13. Any player running the bases shall be declared out if, at any time, while the ball is in play, he
be touched by the ball in the hand of a fielder, without some part of his person is touching the base.
The ball must be held by the fielder after touching the runner; unless so held the ruriner shall not be
given out even if touched by the ball.
FAILING TO TOUCH A BASE.
14. Any base runner failing to touch the base he ruus for shall be declared out if the ball be held
by a fielder, while touching said base, before the base runner returns and touches it.

OBSTRUCTING A FIELDER.
15. Any base runner who shall in any way interfere with or obstruct a fielder while attempting to
catch a fair fly ball, or a foul ball, shall be declared out. If he wilfully obstructs a fielder from fielding
a ball, he shall be declared out, and, if a batted fair ball strike him, he shall be declared out, and no
base shall be run or run be scored in such case.


RULE VI.-THE UMPIRE AND HIS DUTIES.

SELECTING THE UMPIRE.
I. Two clubs may, by mutual agreement, select any man to umpire any game or games, provided
that such agreement be in writing. (The professional codes have special rules for umpires, who are
salaried officials.)
CHANGING AN UMPIRE.
2. The umpire shall not be changed during the progress of a match game, except for reason of
illness or injury, or by the consent of the captains of both contesting nines, and then 'only in case he
shall ha e wilfully violated the rules of the game.












54 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

SPECIAL DUTIES.
3. Before the commencement of a match, the umpire shall see that the rules governing the mate-
rWls of the game, and also those applicable to the positions of batsman and pitcher, are strictly
observed. Also that the fence in the rear of the-catcher's position is distant not less than ninety feet
from the home base, except it mark the boundary line of the field, in which case the umpire, for every
ball passing the catcher and touching the fence, shall give each base runner one base without his being
put out.
Before calling play," the umpire shall ask the captain of the home club whether there are any
special ground rules to be enforced, and if there are, he shall see that they are duly enforced, provided
they do not conflict with any rules of the game.
REVERSING A DECISION.
4. No decision rendered by the umpire on any point of play shall be reversed by him upon the
testimony of any of the players or bystanders.
DECIDING AN UNSEEN CATCH.
5. Should the umpire be unable to see whether a catch has been fairly made or not, he shall be at
liberty to appeal to the bystanders, and to render his decision according to the fairest testimony at
command.
NO TALKING TO THE UMPIRE.
6. No person, not engaged in the game, shall be permitted to occupy any position within the lines
of the field of contest, or in any way interrupt the umpire during the progress of the game. No player
except the captain or player especially designated by him shall address the umpire concerning any
point of play in dispute.
PLAYERS TO STAND BACK.
7. The umpire shall require the players on the batting side who are not at the bat or running the
bases, to keep at a distance of not less than fifty feet from the line of home and first base and home
and third base, or further off if he so decide. The captain and one assistant only shall be permitted
to coach players running the bases, and they must not approach within fifteen feet of the foul lines.
A BLOCK.
8. Should a batted or thrown ball be stopped by any person not engaged in the game, the umpire
must call block," and players running bases at the time shall be entitled to the bases they were run-
ning for, and the ball be regarded as dead until settled in the hands of the pitcher while standing within
the lines of his position.
FORFEITED GAMES.
9. Any match game in which the umpire shall declare any section of this code of rules to have
been wilfully violated, shall at once be declared by him to have been forfeited by the club at fault.



RULE VII.-THE UMPIRE'S JURISDICTION AND POWERS.

THE UMPIRE IN CHARGE OF THE GAME.
The gentleman selected to fill the position of umpire must keep constantly in mind the fact that
upon his sound discretion and promptness in conducting the game, and compelling players to observe
the spirit as well as the letter of the rule, largely depends the merit of the game as an exhibition. He












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THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 55

must render his decisions in a distinct and clear manner. He must keep the contesting nines playing
constantly from the commencement of the game to its termination, allowing such delays only as are
rendered unavoidable by accident, injury, or rain. He must, until the completion of the game, require
the players of each side to promptly take their positions in the field as soon as the third hand is put
out, and must require the first striker of the opposite side to be in his position at the bat as soon as
the fielders are in their places.
The players of the side at bat" must occupy the portion of the field allotted them, subject to the
condition that they must speedily vacate any portion thereof that may be in the way of the ball, or any
fielder attempting to catch or field it. The triangular space behind the home base is reserved for the
exclusive use of the umpire, catcher, and batsman, and the umpire must prohibit any player of the side
"at bat" from crossing the same at any time while the ball is in the hands of, or passing between the
pitcher or catcher while standing in their positions.
The umpire is master of the field from the commencement to the termination of the game, and
must compel the players to observe the provisions of this and of all the Playing Rules, and he is
invested with authority to order any player to do or omit to do any act necessary to give force and
effect to any and all of such provisions.































... . .. ...




HE question for the novice



to consider, in learning to
"most profit by book instruction
......... .. .


.1 T HE question for the novice
i I to consider, in learning to
~ play cricket, is, whether he can
... most profit by book instruction
or from practical lessons at the
Bg hands of an expert. Both are
S-.-- ..essential in learning the art
thoroughly. For beginners,
S..,. however, it is best to read
up" about the game first, and
when puzzled to fully compre-
hend some portion of the book
instruction, or bothered in prac-
tically applying what the book teaches, then advice from an expert comes well into
play. In getting at a practical knowledge on the field of special departments of
the game, do not put too much trust in professional teaching, as the majority of
professionals are afflicted with sundry prejudices and bad habits of play, in com-
bination with their skill as experts, which often makes them anything but effective










HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 57

teachers. It is a peculiarity of most of them, too, that though they may be first-
class bowlers, good batsmen, and sharp fielders, they are lamentably lacking in
their ability to properly impart what they know to novices.
If you should meet with an exceptional professional, how-
S/ ever, who excels as a coach" as well as being a good
i bowler or batsman, then professional instruction will aid
Sour book knowledge materially. Otherwise stick to your
text-book, and apply the lessons thereby learned practi-
/ call to the best of your ability, leaving to experience
"/ and a quick perception to give you a proper insight into
the intricacies of the game. Reading a chapter or two
on the game from some
Sh- well-written work on
Se Cricket will soon post
you up" on the subject,
if you are mentally sharp,
and if you are not you
will never, or hardly
S_ ever," become an expert
cricketer. Our first chap-
ter of instruction will be devoted to

THE GAME FOR BOYS.

Suppose a party of -twelve-year-old boys
want to play a game of cricket, and though hav-
ing a tolerably level piece of turfy field at com-
mand, have no materials for the game in their
possession-viz., a flat bat, a set of stumps for .
the wicket, and a ball. A bat can be readily
sawed out of a piece of inch plank about three......Ni, "1
feet long, in form as near as can be to the regular s
bat as shown in the cut. (The regulation size of
the bat is 38 inches in length, of which 25 inches O...,,k
are taken up by the pod," or, according to the
more modern term, the blade, and 13 by the Ax
handle. No bats are made longer than this,
although, of course, they are allowed to be of various smaller proportions, in
order to suit the height of the batsman.)










58 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

Having procured the bat and a common but hard ball, the next thing is to
get the stumps, and three old broom handles will answer the purpose, all that is
necessary to make stumps of them being to point them at one end and cut a nick
at the other end in which to lay the bail-two short pieces of stick. The regula-
tion stumps are in form as shown in the cut. (These stumps stand 27 inches out















\%\








.*i





of .the ground, and are placed so as to occupy 8 inches of space from their outer
lines, the bails being 4 inches in length.)
The broom-handle stumps are driven into the ground a few inches, and just far
enough apart to prevent the ball from going through them. This being done you
lay out the lines of your wicket-viz., the line of the stumps, and the front line or
" popping crease," as it is called. Your wicket would then look as in the adjoin-
ing cut. The distance between the stump line and the front line should be a pace










HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 59

and a half. Between these lines is the batsman's ground ; 20 paces distant from
this wicket place one stump in the ground, and back of the line of this stump is
the bowler's ground. All this being done the boys can begin play, and they
should play under the appended code of rules.
When the batsman takes his position at the wicket, he stands as shown in the
adjoining cut. It is important that he plays a straight bat"-that is, that he
keeps the face of the bat in a line with the wicket.
(See annexed cut.)
Make it a rule to guard the wicket from every
straight ball, and to hit only at balls off the line
of the wicket.
When the batsman takes his position, the
-- bowler then prepares to deliver the ball, having
first placed his fielders in position, according to
the number of players on a side. If there be but
three, he places one to the right of him and the other to the left, leaving one of
his adversaries-standing ready to take his turn at the bat-to field the ball
back to him after it passes the wicket. If there be five on a side, then one
goes behind the bat. If six, then two short fielders go into position between
the bowler and the wicket, but to the right and the left. No byes" or leg
byes" count when only a single wicket is used, the ball being practically dead
after it passes the wicket, even when hit by the bat. The rules for this boy's
game" are as follows :
THE RULES.
The bowler can only bowl or toss the 'ball to the bat. He cannot jerk the ball, nor throw it to
the bat, either underhand or overhand. He may bowl it either underhand, round-arm, or over his
shoulder.
In bowling the ball he must have at least one foot back of the stump line or it is no ball."
If he bowls the ball so that it passes the batsman out of the fair reach of his bat, it is a wide ball,"
and both no balls" and wide balls" count the same as a run against the side the bowler is on.
The batsman can only guard his wicket from the bowler by his bat. If he prevents a bowled
ball from taking the wicket by stopping it with his legs, he is out.
The batsman is out if the wicket be knocked down, either by a bowled ball or by a ball thrown in
from the field in front of the wicket, which takes the wicket before the batsman can run back to his
ground. In the former case he is "bowled out," in the latter he is run out."
The batsman is out if the ball from the bat be caught on the fly, even if it touch another fielder
before being caught. He is also out-when only one wicket is used-if, in making a run, he fails to
get back to his ground before the ball is thrown across the line from the wicket to the bowling stump.
The batsman, after hitting the ball, can run or not, as he chooses; and he scores a run every time
he runs to the bowler's stump, touches it with his bat, and returns to his ground before being put out,
provided the ball is hit to the field in front of the line of his wicket; not otherwise.











60 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

Two innings on each side make a game, and an innings is completed on each side when all the
batsmen have been put out. The side making the most runs in two innings' play wins the game.
All hits made by the batsmen on which runs are made must be made in front of the wicket, no
ball hit so as to go behind the line of the wicket admitting of a run being made on it. Neither can the
batsman step out of his ground to hit at the ball, as he can in the regular game. It would be well to
place a couple of sticks in the ground on each side of the wicket, and distant twenty paces from it, to
mark the line of the wicket, so as to judge fair balls by them. No stumping" is allowed unless there
are at least five players on a side, when a wicket-keeper can then take his position.
When two wickets are used in the boys' game, then the rules of the regular game come into play,
and these can be found in the last part of the chapters on Cricket.















THE REGULAR GAME.

We now come to the regular game of cricket, and the succeeding chapters will
be written for the boys of an older growth-the coming American cricketers ; and
in doing this we propose to write the game up in the interests of what we call
American cricket, and that is, the game as played with the rules of the English
playing code lived up to to the very letter. The greatest obstacle to the progress
of cricket, as a popular out-door sport for Americans, has been the tedious delays
incident to the way of playing the game customary with our English resident
cricketers. The adage that time is money" governs the American people in
every phase of their national life, and in nothing so much as in the character and
nature of their sports and pastimes. In England, where there is a large class of
unemployed people, who, with wealth at command, find time hang heavy on their
hands, the style of playing the game of cricket so as to absorb as much of their
surplus of leisure time as possible, commends itself as quite an attractive feature.
But in this country, where the drones of society are decidedly in the minority, and
where the busy bees of the community find but little time to devote to recreation,
that game which most economizes time of course will naturally become popular.










HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 61

The delays incident to cricket, to which we specially refer, do not belong to the
game itself so much as to the loose observance of its rules, and therefore the one
thing necessary to remove this obstacle to the popularity of cricket is simply to
insure a strict observance of the written laws of the game. In the instructions
given in the different departments of the game, brevity has been observed as far
as possible, and in the chapters on bowling, batting, and fielding only the most
important features of each department of the game are commented upon.
Ordinarily the playing code of rules governing a game ought to present the
best instructions for learning it ; but this is not the case in regard to the existing
rules of cricket, and we therefore leave the code of rules for the last part of the
chapters on the game in this work.


HOW THE GAME IS PLAYED.

The full game of cricket is played by twenty-two persons, eleven on each
side, of whom thirteen take their regular positions on the field, eleven of one side
as fielders and two of the other side as batsmen. When the former are placed in
position for play the field side will show a bowler" at one wicket ready to
bowl to the opposite wicket ; a wicket-keeper" behind the opposite wicket ready
to receive the ball if the batsman fails to hit it ; a long stop" behind the wicket-
keeper to field balls passing both the batsman and wicket-keeper ; and fielders at
" short-slip" and long-slip ;" at short-leg" and long-leg ;" at point" and
" cover-point ;" and at mid-off "and mid-on," the off side being on the
right-hand side of the batsman, and the on" side on the left hand. These are
the eleven regular positions on a cricket field. There are other positions techni-
cally called third man up," square-leg," long-field," off and oni,"
" extra cover," half-leg," etc., which are occupied according to the character
of the bowling, there being more fielders back of the wicket for very fast bowling
than there is for slow or even medium-paced bowling. (See diagram of field posi-
tions.) There are two umpires in a full game of cricket-one to judge the delivery
of the ball by the bowler, and the other to judge the action of the batsman at the
wicket, in stepping out of his ground, etc.
Play" having been called by the umpire at the bowler's wicket, the game
begins, and the bowler proceeds to bowl four balls to the opposite wicket, which
constitute an over ;" after which the other bowler does the same from the other
wicket, this change in the bowlers involving a transfer of the fielders from their
positions relative to the first bowler to similar positions on the other side support-
ing the other. This process goes on until one or the other of the batsmen is
either bowled out, stumped out, run out, or caught out, in which case another bats-














SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.


LONG-LEG





THE FIELD POSITIONS.



LONG-STOP




LONG-STOP








SHORT-STOP \WICKET. KEEPER







COVER-POINT
SHORT-LEG



POINT

i I







II
II


II
















MID-OFF MID-ON

BOWLER 0
iiMDO
7~WLEI










HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 63

man takes his place at the wickets. When the last two men are in at the bat, and
one or the other is put out, the other remaining in carries his bat out," only ten
men being put out in a regular match. Besides the players and the umpires
there are two scorers, who score the runs made in a record book under the head
of runs, byes, wides, and no balls. If the match is to be played out"-that is,
played to the close of the full four innings, two on each side-then the eleven
scoring the greatest aggregate of runs in their full two innings wins the game.
But if it be one day's play only," and there be not time to play the second inn-
ings out on each side, then the score of the second innings counts for nothing, the
game being decided by the full score of'the first innings only. When strong
elevens play against young clubs they sometimes play their eleven against eigh-
teen or twenty-two of their opponents; and sometimes, when the two clubs are
short handed, they frequently play as few as eight or nine on a side ; but the regu-
lar match game at cricket calls for eleven vs. eleven."

THE THREE DEPARTMENTS OF THE GAME.
THE BOWLING.
Bowling is the most important department of the game, for there can be no
thoroughly good cricket without excellent bowling. The theory of bowling is to
endeavor to deceive the eye of the batsman so that he may fail to prevent the ball
from hitting the wicket. In order to do this the bowler must, first of all, possess
thorough command of the ball in delivery; secondly, speed ; thirdly, the power
to impart a bias to the ball, and lastly, the experience and skill to give it the
proper length, the latter being very important. Headwork," too, is especially
an essential in bowling. With it the bowler becomes a dangerous opponent;
without it, no matter what his pace" or accuracy of aim, he can be punished by
skilful batsmen with comparative ease.
The bowler's position is within a space of ground bounded in front by the line
of the wicket, known as the bowling crease," and on the sides by lines called
the return crease ;" his position in delivering the ball being, at all times, behind
the wicket. The following diagram shows the lines of his position :
8 Inches Wide.






Bowling Crease.
6 feet 8 inches in length.











64 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

The bowler stands within the above lines while in the act of delivering the
ball, and he must have one foot or the other behind the line of the wicket and
within the line of the return crease when delivering the ball, or the umpire will
call no ball."
The rules of cricket admit of the bowler's legal delivery of the ball to the bat,
either by the underhand pitch or toss of the ball, or by the round-arm swing on a
level with his shoulder, as shown in the following cut, or by a straight-arm swing
above his shoulder, as follows.


























But he cannot legally throw the ball either by an underhand or overhand
throw, nor by a jerk, the rules limiting him to a legitimate pitch or round-arm
swing in bowling.
An old cricketing song thus pointedly makes allusion to the importance of
paying attention to the length" in bowling. The verse reads as follows:
Ye bowlers take heed, to these precepts attend,
On you the fate of the game must depend ;
Spare your vigor at first, now exert all your strength,
But measure each step, and be sure pitch a length."









HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 65

The imparting of a bias to the ball is a great feature in bowling, especially in
combination with a fast delivery. The bias consists of giving the ball a rotary
motion in its passage from the bowler's hand to the wicket, technically known as a
twist" or spin." This can be done in round-arm bowling so as to make the
ball shoot," break back," or work."
A ball is said to break back" from the pitch when, instead of continuing on
in the line of its delivery after it touches the ground, it suddenly diverges from
that line on the right of its delivery. And a ball is said to work in" when it
diverges on the left. On the one hand, the line of its delivery would have taken
it clear of the wicket, whereas the break back" sends it in on the stumps. On
the other hand, the work" causes it to diverge on the other side. The lines of
both are to be seen in the appended diagram.







The effect of these several changes in the direction of the ball from the line of
its delivery to the pitch, to the line of its rebound to the wicket is greatly to puz-
zle the eye and judgment of the batsman. It is comparatively an easy task to play
a swiftly-bowled ball that comes to the wicket on one direct line from the deliv-
ery to the wicket, to what it is to play the same ball which has either a forward
or side rotary motion imparted to it by which the rebound is made so difficult to
judge. Straight bowling-that is, bowling unmarked by any bias being given to
the ball, can be readily played, even when of good length, by expert batsmen ;
but bowling marked by much spin" or twist requires the utmost skill to save
wickets.
There is one thing a bowler should bear in mind, and that is to pitch the ball
straight if he desires to get the batsman out leg before wicket." The definition
of this term, pitching straight," is that the bowled ball, when it touches the
ground at the pitch, must touch it within the lines from the outer stump of one
wicket to those of the opposite wicket. These lines are shown in the appended
diagram.










66 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

It will be seen that the surest method of pitching a ball straight is to bowl over
the wicket.
An old bowler, in a series of Hints to Novices," thus advises his young pupil :
Stand upright and deliver your ball high, so as to obtain a good pitch."
Fix upon a certain spot near your opponent's wicket where you think your
length will tell best, and aim for that spot every ball.
If you find your opponent standing on his defence, bowl for a catch.
Regulate the speed of your delivery by the style of your opponent's batting,
and frequently vary it.
Find out the favorite ball of your opponent, and then avoid sending him such
ball.
Never hesitate to take yourself off when you are being punished." Bad
bowling frequently takes wickets when a good delivery fails.
Look out for the weak point of your opponent's play. Sometimes it is at his
" leg" side, and then again to the off, or perhaps a tendency to run out at a short
pitch.
Avoid bowling too fast and beyond your strength.
Bowl straight; balls that are dead on the wicket" always tell.
Do not keep to one style of delivery simply because it is the correct thing
to do ;" remember the object of bowling is to take wickets, and if you cannot
get your opponent's stumps with a good ball, try a bad one.
Accustom yourself to bowl on both sides of the wicket.
Adopt the style of delivery which comes most natural to you. It is the only
one you will be likely to excel in.
Pitch the ball as near to the crease as you can safely do.
Do not be deterred from adopting a line of tactics in bowling by the absurd
remark, that it is not cricket." When you feel tired with bowling change off,
for you then become useless in a measure.

BATTING.
Practical instruction in batting is more advantageous than in either of the other
departments of the game, but nevertheless a great deal of information can be
gleaned from books. In fact it is very essential to examine into the theory of the
art in order to get at a good foundation for thoroughly acquiring a practical
knowledge of batting in cricket. The work of the batsman is first to defend his
wicket, dnd then to hit the ball to the field so as to make runs. What with the
speed of the ball in its delivery and the uncertain rebound from the pitch,"
occasioned by the bias imparted to it by the bowler, the task of the defence is no
light one ; while what with the number of men in the field, their combined action











HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 67

with the bowler in strategic play, and their individual skill as experts in their
several positions, the batsman is intrenched with difficulties in the way of run-
getting which requires no small amount of practical experience and good judg-
ment to overcome.
The batsman takes his stand within a space of ground in front of the wicket,
bounded by the line of the wicket and the line of the popping crease." The
appended diagram shows the lines of the batsman's position.







BOWL N 0 EASE
R BATSMAN'S GROUND
THE BLOO K\HOLE
LINE OF POPPING CREASE-UNLIMITED IN LENGTH

The batsman, while the ball is in play, must either stand within the lines of his
position, as above defined, or have his bat, while in hand, grounded within the
lines-that is, back of the front line or popping crease." He is only at liberty
to step outside of this line when the ball is dead, without running the risk of being
put out by means of having the wicket put down while he is outside the boundary
line of his position. It is immaterial whether his bat, while in hand, or any part
of his person touches the ground within the line of the crease ;" but one or the
other must do.
The first thing to learn in handling the bat is to take a correct position, and
then to make it habitual. Cuts illustrating proper positions when facing the
bowling will be found on the next page.
In taking your position at the wicket, first get your guard ;" then, placing
your bat upright, take your stand-one foot within the line of the crease, and the
other just outside of it-so as to admit of your swinging your bat, pendulum-like,
in a perpendicular line with the wicket, so that the habit may be acquired of
" playing a straight bat," as it is called, the first essential of a correct style of de-
fence. Neither foot should be within the line running from the outer stumps of
one wicket to the other. In taking guard he should ask the umpire for the block
for the middle stump, and this done he can then vary his guard according as the
bowler delivers from one side or the other of the wicket or over it. The block
mark should be made at the distance of the bat's length from the stumps. The

/\










68 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

correct form in taking your position at the wicket ready for play is illustrated by
the preceding cuts. This is the position the batsman should habituate himself to
take whenever he goes to the wicket to bat, whether in practice or in a match.
Having taken his guard and his stand, as above shown, he next prepares himself
for immediate action, and in doing this he takes an upright position, keeps his
right foot firmly on the ground behind the line of the crease, making it the pivot
foot, and with his left stepping lightly in front of the line, and his bat held in such
a manner as to be equally ready for use in blocking a straight shooter," to
swing round at a leg" ball, or to promptly cut" a ball to the off," he stands
ready in proper form for effective batting either in defence or attack. This second
position is illustrated in the appended cut.
























An upright position is necessary in order to obtain the best sight of the ball;
besides, it is the only position which admits of a free use of the muscles of the
chest and arms in batting, all other positions more or less cramping the move-
ments of the batsman.
There are two styles of play in vogue among skilful batsmen in defending
their wickets-viz., forward and backward play. In the former the batsman en-
deavors to stop the ball near the pitch by stepping forward with his bat and pre-









HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 69

senting the inclined plane of the bat so as to face the ball just as it rebounds from
the pitch. This style of defence is illustrated in the appended cuts.








fi 2












By this forward play the batsman, while presenting a pretty sure defence in
the case of balls which are well pitched up," and in stopping shooters," renders
himself liable to lose his stumps from swift balls which are pitched short and
which take the bails over the shoulder of the bat; and also in the case of such
swift balls which are pitched short and which have any bias imparted to them
either in "working" in, or in breaking back," the forward blocking, as above
illustrated, fails to present a sure defence unless the batsman is very quick of sight
and steady in handling the willow.
On the other hand, the backward play in defence renders it very difficult to
guard against shooters," while a very keen sight is necessary to prevent the
ball from taking the stumps. This back play is illustrated in the appended cut.
In your style of defensive operations, the batsman should be able to play
either backward or forward in accordance with the character of the pitch of the
ball and the pace of the bowling ; in fact, he should be skilled in both styles of
play. As a general rule, however, the forward play is the safest.
This preliminary chapter on batting has special reference to defensive opera-
tions, as shown in the blocking of straight balls. We now come to the method of










70 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

defence, which at the same time combines hitting powers sufficient to score single
runs.
In preparing to hit-not to block," remember-the batsman should rise to
his full height, keeping his bat well up to his shoulder and ready poised, so that it
can be brought down quickly to stop a shooter or block a rising bail ball, or so
that it can be swung round sharply to face a leg-ball as it rises from the pitch or
cut away an off-ball, bail high.
Remember that every straight pitched ball-that is, every ball that touches
the ground between the lines from the outer stumps of batsman's wicket to those
of the opposite wicket-must be played either by blocking it, or hitting it
away, and every such ball, therefore, needs careful watching.
Mr. W. G. Grace, the champion batsman of the cricket world, says, in his
" Hints on Batting ;" Nothing is of such incalculable benefit to the student in
the art of batting, as an early adherence to the necessary principle of playing with
a straight bat. It is in this special point that a young cricketer should earnestly
seek to excel. It is the want of this essential habit, or the momentary neglect of
it, that causes so many experienced batsmen to retire with the fatal cipher at-
tached to their names. Practise, then, first of all, straight and upright play, and
you will have grounded yourself well in the first and most important rudiment
of the art."
Paragraphing Mr. Grace's Hints" from the lengthy chapter in Lillywhite's
Guide, we quote as follows :
In reference to holding the bat, he says : From my own experience I have
always found it to my advantage to hold the bat half way up the handle, and this
happy medium I recommend for adoption, as thereby the bat can be controlled as
effectively as if held nearer to the blade, and the benefits incidental to the extra
length are very important."
Further on he says : To hold the bat in what is termed the pendulum fash-
ion, in my opinion, gives the greatest scope for freedom of play, without in the
slightest degree diminishing the powers of defence."
In commenting on the best style of meeting the ball, he says : Much depends
on the accuracy of the eye and much on the judgment with which the ball is
timed; but beyond all I think the great secret of batting, both in so far as it
affects defence and hitting, consists in meeting the ball with the full face of
the bat."
In reference to the system of defending the stumps by playing" at the ball
with a straight bat instead of merely placing the bat in the way of the ball, Mr.
Grace says: To block a 'shooter' or stop a bailerr' can as easily be accom-
plished in a resolute as in a hesitating manner, while in the one case runs will ac-










HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 71

crue, and in the other runs may never come. When you hit, hit hard, and when
you block do not be deterred from infusing vigor into the movement."
Commenting on forward and backward play, Mr. Grace says : To play for-
ward is undoubtedly, when possible, the more advisable plan, as by this means
are avoided all the deviations of the ball from spin,' or accidental deflections."
There are ten dierent ways in which a batsman can be put out in cricket.
i. By being bowled out.
2. By being caught out.
3. By being stumped out.
4. By being run out.
5. By hitting his own wicket down with his bat.
6. By stopping a straight ball with his leg instead of his bat.
7. By handling the ball while it is in play.
8. By hindering a fielder from catching a ball.
9. By allowing some part of his dress to knock the bails off.
10. By running out of his ground before the bowler has delivered the ball,
and thereby giving him a chance to put his wicket down.
He cannot, however, be caught out except from a ball held on the fly;"
neither can he be stumped out unless the wicket-keeper first handles the bowled
ball behind the wicket ; neither can he be caught out or run out on a no ball."

FIELDING.
Skill in fielding in cricket is the most attractive feature of the game, and yet
it is the one most neglected. Watch any party of cricketers while awaiting the
beginning of a match, engaged in preliminary practice, and note how eager they
are to either bowl or bat, and how reluctant to do any fielding. While effective
bowling is an essential part of the attacking force in a cricket contest, unless the
work of the bowler be well supported on the field, half its effectiveness will be
lost. Of what use is it for a bowler to bowl for catches, for instance, if the ball is
dropped by the incompetent fielder placed in position purposely to catch it?
Cricket cannot advance much in popular favor in America so long as so important
a department of the game as sharp fielding is neglected as it is ; especially when
the inferiority of its exemplars, in this respect, is placed in such striking contrast
to the masterly displays of skill to be seen at the hands of the exponents of the
national game of base-ball.
To be a good fielder in cricket, a man must unite in himself the qualities of
activity, courage, nerve, quick sight, and sound judgment, and especially control
of temper, and he should ever be on the alert. To see some men field in a match
one would suppose that the only duty a fielder in cricket had to attend to was to










72 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

catch or to stop and throw in any balls that came within his reach, and to go to
such places in the field as the captain may direct. Not so with the fielder. who
uses "head-work" in his position. While obeying the behests of the captain, as
he should do, and go sharper," or squarer," nearer in," or further out,"
as he may direct, this brain worker in the field does not forget to be on the alert
in watching the style of play of the batsman; and moreover, if the ball does not
happen to come near his position he is nevertheless ready to take his place to back
up the ball on the throw-in ; and also to be on the watch at all time to do the work
of any laggards in the field rather than a point should be lost in the play.
A sharp fielder anticipates the ball as much as possible, and never waits until
it comes to him. In fact, this anticipation of the ball is the secret of good fielding.
An expert fielder will always have more work to do in a match than a poor one,
simply from his habit of covering more ground. One such man in a field is fre-
quently worth three of your slow machine-players, who simply do what they are
told, and never trouble a ball that does not come directly to their hands.
S To spectators at a match fine fielding is the attractive feature of the game.
Few can appreciate really first-class bowling, and only the minority can judge
properly in regard to the skill shown at the bat, but all can understand the differ-
ence in the fielding of an expert and a muffin."
A peculiarity of cricket is that even in the one department of fielding it affords
ample scope for the display of considerable versatility of talent. In keeping
wicket the keenest sight, the steadiest nerve, and the soundest judgment are re-
quired to be brought into play at a moment's notice. At point," thorough
pluck and determined courage and fearlessness are essential. At long-stop,"
sharp sight and quickness of movement are necessary, while in the other positions
trained pedestrianism, keen perception, cat-like activity of movement, and good
judgment are among the principal requisites.

WICKET-KEEPING.
The most important position on the field next to that of the bowler is that of
the wicket-keeper. He should possess keen sight, steady nerves, activity of move-
ment, and sound judgment, for all these qualifications are brought into play in his
position more frequently than at any other. On his keen sight depends the stop-
ping of balls that might yield byes ;" and on his activity the chances of
stumping an opponent; while on his pluck in facing hot balls the bowler relies for
sharp catches from the bat. The wicket-keeper must remember that he cannot
legally put down the wicket unless with the ball in the hand with which he knocks
down the stumps. Also that when the bails are off he must knock a stump out of
the ground with the hand in which the ball is held before the batsman can be put










HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 73

out. The rules governing his position also require that the wicket-keeper shall
not take a ball from the bowler for the purpose of stumping until it shall have
passed the wicket; and moreover, if any part of his person be in front of the
wicket before the ball passes the stumps, even if the ball hit the wicket, the striker
shall not be out.
It is needless to refer in full to the other positions in the field except that of
the long-stop," and that position requires a first-class fielder to occupy it. He
is the main support of the wicket-keeper, and has pretty hard work to attend to
when the bowling is fast. He should in such
case wear both pads and light gloves, the latter -
for protecting the palms of his hands. He l
must be prompt and accurate in returning balls
to the wicket-keeper, and should back up that
player in every way. He should be active
enough, too, to capture sharp leg-balls just
" snicked" from the bat, as also balls slipped
from fast bowling which go within a few yards
of his position.
The point" player has a rather arduous
task to perform, inasmuch as he has to face
the hardest-hit balls from the bat, at the short-
est distance. He must be plucky, very keen of
sight, exceedingly active, and be a good judge
of a batsman's play. Cover point" simply
backs up "point." He has more ground to
cover than point" has, but has not such diffi-
cult balls to field.
"Mid-off and mid-on" are players who :.
have to face some lively balls, and should be -'
good judges of batting in order to play their
positions properly. The mid-off stands to the left of the -bowler, and deeper
in the field than mid-on," who stands to the right of the bowler and nearer in.
Very active fielders are required in the slips, as sharp grounders and high-
hit balls alternately require them to field close to therground or to jump up for a
catch. The short-slip stands to the right of the wicket-keeper and back of his
position, distant from the wicket from two to four yards. Besides stopping short
balls which slip from the bat, he should be ready to take the wicket-keeper's place
whenever that player deems it necessary to leave the wicket to get the ball. The
long slip stands deeper, in fact almost as far back as the long-stop. His duty is









74 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

to stop balls missed by the short-slip, or which glance from the wicket-keeper's
hands to the off side. He should excel in backing up, and always be on the
watch. The bowler who is not bowling takes up a position in the slips," gener-
ally at short-slip" or third-man-up."
Long-leg" is a position requiring the best thrower in the eleven, and he
should be a sure catcher and an active runner. He plays deep, or otherwise ac-
cording to the pace of the bowling, taking a squarer position to fast bowling, and
playing deep for the slows. Short-leg" is the easiest position in the field, re-
quiring little movement and no special amount of skill, as a general thing, though
at times a batsman who is good at square-leg hits will give the short-leg hot work
to do.
RUNNING BETWEEN WICKETS.
W. G. Grace, in his Hints to Batsmen," says: No one can claim to be a
good cricketer who is not a good runner between the wickets. The neglect of this
essential of first-class cricket costs dozens of runs in match games. To see two
good runners at the wickets is a treat to those who understand genuine cricket.
With such there is no slovenly dallying, no indecision, no call for a run with an
immediate recall. In this respect alone a mediocre batsman may be as valuable in
a match as one of far superior batting skill. Be ready to back up the batsman
facing the bowler the moment the ball leaves the bowler's hand, but be careful to
act decisively. If you think there is a chance for a run, do not hesitate, but call at
once, and after calling on no account oblige your partner to retrace his steps, as,
if you have started well in your backing up, you can reach the opposite wicket
quicker than he can return and recover his ground. A stolen run, if the batsmen
act well in concert, is not difficult of attainment, and a succession of such runs
not only irritates the bowlers but demoralizes the fielders."
In taking ground preparatory to running, the batsman at the bowler's wicket
can safely command twenty feet in front of his wicket. He should be watchful,
however, to see that he does not allow his bat to be lifted from the ground back of
the popping crease until the ball has actually left the bowler's hand. When run-
ning, too, always keep to the right, and run wide of the lines from wicket to wicket.

GOLDEN RULES.
Frederick Gale's Golden Rules" for cricketers contains the following sound
suggestions :
Think only of winning the match, and not of your own innings or average;
sink self and play for your side.
Remember, cricket is an amusement and manly sport intended for good-










HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 75

fellowship, and not as a vehicle for envy, hatred, malice, or uncharitableness. If
you have any complaint against your captain, tell him to his face quietly what you
think ; but do not form conspiracies against him behind his back. The grumblers
and mischief-makers are always the greatest muffs and the worst enemies of
cricket.
Take the place assigned to you, and give your whole mind to the game,
from the delivery of the first ball to the fall of the last wicket. If you make a
mistake, try and mend it; many a good fielder has dropped an easy catch and
picked up the ball and thrown it in and run a man out. Remember the backing
up. A fieldsman is not a sentry on duty, but is always a fighting soldier, and if a
fiver is hit to the off, long-leg even can go into the battle and render his aid by
backing up. Every hit which is made is the business of the whole eleven in the
field until the ball is dead. A man who will not attend unless a ball comes near
him had much better be in the tent smoking his pipe."

UMPIRING.
John Lillywhite in his Hints to Umpires," says :
The runner cannot be out for running round his ground instead of through,
because the popping crease is unlimited.
The hitter cannot make his partner out' by striking the ball through his
wicket, unless his partner is off his ground, and the ball touches (and therefore
may be supposed to be guided by) the hands or person of one of the opposite
party."

AMENDED LAWS OF CRICKET.
Henry Perkins, secretary of the Marylebone Cricket Club, of London, Eng., has sent to all the
prominent cricketing centres the following draft of amended laws of cricket, inviting comment before
finally reconsidering and adopting them for submission to a general meeting of the club next season.
Lord Harris has also proposed to amend Law 10 as follows: "The ball must be fairly bowled, not
thrown or jerked ; and if the umpire be of opinion that the delivery is not absolutely fair, he must call
" No ball.'"
THE NEW RULES.
I. A match is played between two sides of eleven players each, unless otherwise agreed to; each
side has two innings, taken alternately, except in the case provided for in Law 51. The choice of
innings shall be decided by tossing.
2. The score shall be reckoned by runs. A run is scored and shall be duly recorded : Ist. So often
as the batsmen after a hit, or at any time while the ball is in play, shall have crossed and made good
their ground from end to end. 2d. For penalties under Laws 13, 14, 32, and 39. The side which
scores the greatest number of runs wins the match. No match is won unless played out or given up.
3. Before the commencement of the match two umpires shall be appointed, one for each end.
4. The ball shall weigh not less than 51 oz., nor more than 5f oz. It shall measure not less than










76 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

9 in nor more than 9J in. in circumference. At the beginning of each inning either side may demand
a new ball.
5. The bat shall not exceed 41 in. in the widest part; it shall not be more than 38 in. in length.
6. The wickets shall be pitched opposite and parallel to each other at a distance of twenty-two
yards. Each wicket shall be 8 in. in width, and consist of three stumps, with two bails upon the top.
The stumps shall be of equal and sufficient size to prevent the ball from passing through, 27 in. out of
the ground, the bails each 4 in. in length. The wickets shall not be changed during a match, unless
the ground between them becomes unfit for play, and then only by consent of both sides.
7. The bowling-crease shall be in a line with the stumps, 6 ft. 8 in. in length, the stumps in the
centre, with a return crease at each end towards the bowler at right angles.
8.. The popping-crease shall be four feet from the wicket and parallel to it; unlimited in length,
but no shorter than the bowling-crease.
"9. The ground shall not be rolled, watered, covered, mown, or beaten during a match, except be-
fore the commencement of each inning and of each day's play, when, unless the inside object, the ground
shall be swept and rolled for not more than ten minutes. This shall not prevent the batsman from
beating the ground with his bat, nor the batsman nor bowler from using sawdust in order to obtain
a proper foothold.
zo. The ball must be bowled ; if thrown or jerked the umpire shall call No ball."
ii. The bowler may require the batsman at the wicket from which he is bowling to stand on that
side of it which he may direct.
12. The ball shall be bowled in overs of four balls from each wicket alternately. When four balls
have been bowled, and the ball is finally settled in the bowler's or wicket-keeper's hands, the umpire
shall call "Over !" The bowler shall deliver the ball with one foot on the ground behind the bowling-
crease and within the return crease, otherwise the umpire shall call No ball !" Such no-ball shall
not be reckoned as one of the over. The bowler may not change ends more than twice in the same
inning, nor bowl more than two overs in succession.
13. If the bowler shall bowl the ball so high over or so wide of the wicket that in the opinion of
the umpire it is not within reach of the striker, the umpire shall call Wide ball !" Such wide ball
will not be reckoned as one of the over.
14. The striker may hit a no-ball," and whatever runs result shall be added to his score ; but
he shall not be out from a no-ball" unless he be run out or break Laws 24, 25, 27, 28. All
runs made from a no-ball otherwise than from the bat shall be scored no balls," and if no run
be made one run shall be added to that score. From a wide ball" as many runs as are run shall be
added to the score as wide balls," and if no run be otherwise obtained one run shall be so added.
I5. If the ball, not having been called Wide !" or "No ball !" pass the striker without touch-
ing his hat or person, and any runs be obtained, the umpires shall call Bye !" but if the ball touch
any part of the striker's person (hand excepted), and any run be obtained, the umpire shall call Leg
bye !" such runs to be scored "byes" and leg byes" respectively.
x6. At the beginning of the match, and of each inning, the umpire at the bowler's wicket shall
call "Play !" From that time no trial ball shall be allowed to any bowler on the ground between the
wickets, and when one of the batsmen is out the use of the bat shall not be allowed to any person until
the next batsman shall come in.
17. A batsman shall be held to be out of his ground unless his bat in hand or some part of
his person be grounded within the popping crease.
18. The wicket shall be held to be down" when either of the bails is off ; or, if both bails be
off, a stump is struck out of the ground.





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