• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Definitions
 North America
 United States
 New England states
 Middle states
 Southern states
 Central states
 Northern states
 Colorado and western territori...
 North-western states
 Western states
 British America
 Mexico, Central America, and West...
 South America
 Europe
 Asia
 Africa
 Australia
 General review
 Table of areas and population,...
 Vocabulary
 Back Matter
 Back Cover






Group Title: New two-book series
Title: The Eclectic elementary geography
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053301/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Eclectic elementary geography
Series Title: New two-book series
Alternate Title: Elementary geography
Physical Description: 82 p. : ill., maps (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Book Company ( Publisher )
Eclectic Press ( Printer )
Publisher: American Book Company
Place of Publication: New York ;
Cincinnati ;
Chicago
Manufacturer: Eclectic Press
Publication Date: c1883
 Subjects
Subject: Geography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1883   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1883
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
United States -- Ohio -- Cincinnati
United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
 Notes
General Note: Publisher's advertisements on back cover.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053301
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002223339
notis - ALG3588
oclc - 27971301

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Definitions
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10-11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    North America
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    United States
        Page 20
        Page 21-22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    New England states
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Middle states
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Southern states
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Central states
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Northern states
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Colorado and western territories
        Page 47
        Page 48
    North-western states
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Western states
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    British America
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Mexico, Central America, and West Indies
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    South America
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Europe
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Asia
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Africa
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Australia
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    General review
        Page 79
    Table of areas and population, 1891
        Page 80
    Vocabulary
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Back Matter
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Back Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
Full Text








"Tr. NEW-ECLECTIC-SERIES

ELEMENTARY


OGRAPHY


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NEW TWO-BOOK SERIES.


THE ECLECTIC


ELEMENTARY



GEOGRAPHY
i--"** --






NEW-YORK *:* CINCINNATI *:* CHICAGO
AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY











Eclectic Geographies.-Two-Book Series.

Eclectic Elementary Geography, 8vo, 82pp., 55 cts.
Eclectic Complete Geography, 4to, 114 pp., $1.20.

Eclectic Physical Geography, 12m0, 382 p., $rI.o.
Correspondence Solicited.

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY,
NEW YORK. + CINCINNATI. + CHICAGO.
















COPYRIGHT,

1883,

BY VAN ANTWERP, BRAGG & CO.
EC. ELE. GEOG.





















printeb at
9he Eclectic press
4incinnati, U. S. EL




(ii)
44


















-1 --






-_ _c; t -----







THE ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY is the first, or lower, of the two books which constitute the
New Eclectic Series. Though designed as an introduction to the study of Geography, and
adapted to the comprehension of young children, this book covers the entire subject, touching
upon and explaining the salient points in each branch of the subject-Mathematical, Physical,
and Political. The Maps are new, and were prepared especially for this book from the best
authorities extant. While the accurate shape of each country has been shown with great nicety,
clearness and distinctness have been attained by omitting such minor towns and such details of
physical structure as in no way affect the practical requirements of the study. A chapter
entitled "How to Study a Map" meets the difficulty which young children experience in un-
derstanding the relation between a map and the country under consideration.
The Map Questions are simple, and have been prepared with great care,-the direct answers
being in most cases simply names which the pupil must find on the maps. Questions requiring
descriptive answers are inserted at the end of each lesson.
All educators now agree that the elements of Geography should be learned from a study
of the locality in which the pupil lives. The smallest rill of running water serves to illustrate
the action of rivers; a slight elevation may represent a hill, and serve as an introduction to the
study of mountain systems. It is, of course, impossible to adapt the order of arrangement in
one book to an infinite number of localities; but the division of the United States into as many
as eleven sections not only secures a greater uniformity in the scale of the maps, but meets
this demand for local treatment.
By avoiding repetition, much new matter has been inserted without increasing the size
of the book over that of the old Primary. Questions for Review are formulated at the close
of the treatment. A Table of the Area and Population of the principal countries of the
world is inserted. A full and complete Vocabulary, including every name of difficult pro-
nunciation occurring in the book, occupies the last pages.
(iii)
























CONTENTS.



PAGE PAGE
Definitions, 5 British America, 55
North America, 17 Mexico, Central America, and West
United States, .20 Indies, 57
New England States, 26 South America, 60
Middle States, 29 Europe, 64
Southern States, 33 Asia, 69
Central States,. 38 Africa, 73
Northern States, 44 Australia,. 76
Colorado and Western Territories, 47 Review Questions, 79
North-western States 49 Tables of Area and Population, 80
Western States, .52 Pronouncing Vocabulary,. 81













































7 -
--_ .-_ _







THE EARTH.

i. Geography tells about te ... :,
which we live.
2. The World is a large 1:1. .i:h
always moving around the sun. It is called
the Earth.
S3. The Sun gives us heat and light.

"- .. s on a line called its Axis.
"5. It takes twenty-four hours for the earth
to turn once on its axis. \hen the side on
which we live is turned toward the sun, it is
We know that the earth is round because when a ship is turned
Sday with us; when this side is turned away
sails toward us we first see only the tops of the masts in
the distance, then the lower sails, and finally the whole from the sun, it is night. It is usually cooler
ship. at night than during the day.
E. G.-. (5)








6 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.

8. The direction half-way between north and
east is called north-east; half-way between east
and south, south-east; half-way between south
and west, south-west; half- N
way between west and 4t
north, north-west.
9. A Compass is an
instrument containing a E
needle of steel, one end >
of which always points in
a northerly direction. S
QUESTIONs.-6. What direc- Points of the Compass.
tion is called east? What one, west ?-7. How can you
find the north? How, the south ?-8. Where is north-
east? South-east? South-west? North-west ?-9. What
is a compass?

LINES OF THE EARTH.

10. The ends of the earth's axis are called
By sticking a wire through an apple, and turning it Poles. The north
before a lamp, as the boy in the picture is doing, you can end is t h e north -
show how the earth turns on its axis, and why an object pole; the south end
on its surface is in the light during the day and in the dark is the south pole.
during the night. '
durnting tea ani iy. A line extend- )
QUESTIONS.-I. What does geography tell about ?-2. I i. Aline extend- ,
What is the world? What is it called?-3. What do we ing around the earth l I
receive from the sun ?-4. What is the imaginary line just half-way be- .
called upon which the earth turns?-5. How long does it ..,
take for the earth to turn once on its axis ? When is it tween the north pole -
day? When, night? and the south pole is

DIRECTIONS. called the Equator.
12. The equator is an east and west line, and
6. The direction in which the sun first is about twenty-five thousand miles long.
appears in the morning is nearly East. The
direction in which it disappears in the evening If a man could walk
direction in which it disappears in the evening all the time, at an ordi-
is nearly West. nary gait, without ever
stopping to rest, it would
:- _r ,-1 take him almost a year
-to walk around the earth 4
on the equator.
13. Lines extend-
ing around the earth
in the same direction
as the equator are
7. When you stand with your right hand called Parallels.
pointing east, and your left hand pointing west, 14. Meridians are lines on the earth extend-
the direction in front of you is North; that ing from the north pole to the south pole. The
behind you is South. direction of meridians is north and solith.








THE LAND. 7

15. The distance of a place from the equator 24. A Peninsula is a body of land nearly
is called its Latitude. Places north of the surrounded by water.
equator are in north latitude. Places south of 25. An Isthmus is a narrow neck of land
the equator are in south latitude. which connects two larger bodies of land.
16. Latitude is measured in degrees (marked ) 26. A Cape is a point of land projecting
and parts of degrees. A degree of latitude is into the water.
about sixty-nine miles long. Places on the 27. A Promontory is a high cape.
same parallel are in the same latitude, and par- 28. A Plain is a nearly level tract of land.
allels are often called Parallels of Latitude. When a plain is more than one thousand feet
17. The distance of a place from a meridian high, it is usually called a Plateau or a Table-
known as the prime meridian, is called its Lon- land.
gitude. It is measured east or west from the 29. A Hill is a mass of land rising above the
prime meridian half-way round the earth, surrounding country. When a hill is more
The prime meridians used in this book are the merid- than one thousand feet high, it is usually called
ian passing through Greenwich, near London in England, a Mountain.
and the meridian passing through Washington, the capital The highest point of a hill or a mountain is called its
of our country. Summit; the lowest part, where it begins to rise, its Base;
18. Longitude is also measured in degrees the parts between the summit and the base are called its
and parts of degrees. The length of a degree
of longitude at the equator is about sixty-nine .
miles, but degrees of longitude become shorter
toward the poles. ...
QUESTIONS.-1-. What are the ends of the earth's axis -
called? Which is the north pole? Which is the south
pole?-ii. What is the equator?-I2. How long is it?
What is the direction of the equator ?--I3 What are par-
allels?-14. What are meridians? What is the direction
of meridians ?-5. What is latitude? When are places
in north latitude? When in south latitude ?--6. How is
latitude measured ? How long is a degree of latitude ?-
17. What is longitude? How is it measured ?--8. Do Hill and Mountain.
degrees of longitude become longer or shorter toward
the poles ?
the po? 30. A Range, or Chain, is a number of hills
THE LAND. or mountains standing close together in a long
row. Several chains lying near each other
19. The earth's surface consists of Land and form a Mountain System.
Water. There is three times as much water as 31. A Volcano is a mountain from which
there is land. smoke, flame, and melted rock sometimes issue.
20. The Coast-line is the line where the 32. A Valley, or Basin, is a tract of land
land and the water meet. The land near this lower than the surrounding country.
line is called the coast or the shore.
21. A Continent is a very large body of QUESTIONS.-I9. Of what does the earth's surface con-
"sist? How much more water is there than land ?-2o.
land. What is the coast-line ? What is the land near the coast-
22. An Island is a much smaller body of line often called?-21. What is a continent?-22. An
island?--23. An archipelago ?-24. A peninsula ?-25. An
land surrounded by water. isthmus ?--26. A cape ?-27. A promontory ?-28. What
23. An Archipelago is a number of islands is a plain? A plateau or table-land?-29. A hill? A
mountain ?-3o. A range, or chain? A mountain sys-
lying near each other. tern ?-31. A volcano?-32. What is a valley, or basin?








8 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.


-- n -

OCEAN

PLATEAU

LA ND

,-_ISLA-ND L

OO E A N-. : "


A Map. A Picture.

A map shows where objects are and their direction from each other; a picture represents the objects themselves
as they appear when looked at. The difference between a map and a picture may be seen in the above cuts.

THE WATER, 41. Some rivers have more than one mouth;

33. Three fourths of the earth's surface are the space between the mouths is called a Delta.
covered with water. This body of water is 42. A Lake is a body of water surrounded
called the Sea. by land. Small lakes are called Ponds.
34. The water of the sea can not be drunk 43. The water of springs, rivers, and lakes is
like rain-water, for it is very salt and bitter. usually fresh, like rain-water, but not always.
35. An Ocean is one of the five parts into A salt lake is sometimes called a sea.
which the sea is divided. QUESTIONS.-33. How much of the earth's surface is
water? What is this body of water called ?-34. Would
36. A Gulf, or Bay, is a body of water which you like to drink some sea-water? Why not?-35. What
extends into the land. is an ocean ?-36. A gulf, or bay ?-37. A strait, or chan-
nel?-38. How are springs formed ?-39, What is a
A large gulf, or bay, is sometimes called a sea. brook? How is a river formed ?-40. What is the source
S. of a stream? The mouth ?-41. A delta?-42. What is a
37. A Strait, or Channel, is a narrow passage lake? What are small lakes called?-43. Is the water
connecting two larger bodies of water. A strait of rivers and lakes usually salt or fresh?
or a bay in which the water is not very deep is
MAPS.
called a Sound.
38. Some of the water which falls upon the 44. A Map is a drawing which shows, upon
land in showers sinks into the earth, and at a flat surface, the position of different objects
length comes bubbling forth from the ground, on the earth.
forming a Spring. 45. On the maps in this book, oceans and
39. The stream of water which flows from a lakes are represented by a blue tint; and the
spring is called a Brook, or Creek. When rivers, by crooked blue lines.
many brooks unite their waters in one stream, 46. All the parts of the maps not colored
they form a River. blue, represent the land.
40. The place where a stream begins is called 47. The mountains are represented by a great
its Source; the place where it ends is called its number of short brown lines.
Mouth. 48. The position of towns is indicated by
We go up a stream when we go toward its source; we a little black ring, while the name of each town
go down a stream when we go toward its mouth. is printed close to the ring.








MAP OF THE WORLD. 9


49. The names of the different bodies of Asia in the same manner. Asia is the largest
land or water are printed on or near them. grand-division. Australia is smaller than any
50. The fine black lines passing from the top grand-division. Africa is larger than Europe;
to the bottom of the map are parts of merid- North America is larger than South America.
ians, and are usually numbered at the top and 58. Most of the land in each hemisphere is
bottom margins, north of the equator.
In the maps on pages o1 and II, eighteen entire me- QUESTIONS.-53. What is a hemisphere? What does
ridians are shown, and are numbered along the equator. the map on pages o1 and II represent ?-54. What conti-
1. The fine black lines passing from side to nent lies in the western hemisphere? What continents
Slide in the eastern hemisphere ?-55. How many grand-
side of the map are parts of parallels, and are divisions are there in the Western continent? What are
numbered at the side margins, their names? How many in the Eastern continent?
numbered at the side margins. What are their names ? What does the Australian conti-
52. The top of the maps is north, the bottom nent contain?-56. Where are islands most numerous?-
is south, the right hand side is east, and the 57. How are North America and South America con-
nected? Africa and Asia? Is Australia joined to any
left hand side is west. other continent? Which is the largest grand-division?
What continent is smaller than any grand-division?
QUESTIONS.-44. What is a map ?-45. How are oceans Which is the larger, Africa or Europe ? North America
and lakes shown on the maps in this book? How are or South America?-58. Where is most of the land?
rivers shown ?-46. What parts of the map represent What three grand-divisions lie north of the equator?
land ?--47. How are mountains represented ?-48. How What two are crossed by it ? What continent lies entirely
are towns indicated ?-49. The names of bodies of land south of it?
and of water ?-5o. How are meridians indicated ? Where
numbered ?-51. How are parallels indicated? Where
numbered ?-52. What direction is toward the top of the THE WATER.
map? Toward the right? Toward the bottom? Toward
the left?
59. The sea is divided into five great bodies
MAP OF THE WORLD,-THE LAND. of water called Oceans.
The general depth of the oceans is about three miles.
53. When a ball is divided into two equal Islands are the tops of mountains which rise from the
parts, each of the parts is called a Hemisphere. bottom of the sea.
On pages o1 and II is a map of the two hemispheres 60. There is a small ocean around the north
of the earth: the part on page o1 represents the Western, pole called the Arctic Ocean; another around
and the part on page II, the Eastern Hemisphere. the south pole called the Antarctic Ocean.
the south pole called the Antarctic Ocean.
54. In the western hemisphere there is one T A O s
61. The Atlantic Ocean separates America
continent,-the Western Continent. In the T i sprt Ar
SW C I from Europe and Africa, and extends from the
eastern hemisphere there are two continents,- Arctic Ocean to the Antarctic Ocean.
the Eastern Continent and the Australian
S62. The Pacific Ocean separates America
Continent. from Asia and Australia, and extends from the
55. The Western continent contains two
Arctic Ocean to the Antarctic Ocean.
grand-divisions,-North America and South 6 he nian Ocean earate Ari r
63. The Indian Ocean separates Africa from
America. The Eastern continent contains three Austra, nd extends fr Asia to th An
Australia, and extends from Asia to the Ant-
grand-divisions, -Europe, Asia, and Africa. arctic Ocean.
The Australian continent contains Australia
only. QUESTIONS.-59. How many oceans are there?---6o.
Where is the Arctic ocean? The Antarctic?-61. What
56. There are a great many islands on each ocean separates America from Europe and Africa? What
hemisphere. These are largest and most nu- ocean north of the Atlantic? What one south ?-62. What
ocean separates America from Asia and Australia ? What
merous between Asia and Australia. ocean north of the Pacific? What ocean south?-63.
57. North America and South America are Where is the Indian Ocean? What grand-division is
north of it? What ocean south of it? Repeat the names
connected by an isthmus. Africa is joined to of the five oceans.







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i.







12 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.

ZONES. cold, and snow and ice can be seen during most
64. Certain parallels divide the surface of the of the year.
earth into five belts, or Zones: a torrid or hot 73. In the temperate zones the climate is
zone, two temperate neither always very hot nor always very cold.
zones, and two frigid 74. Places where it rains a great deal are said
or cold zones. to have a wet climate. At other places scarcely
65. The North any rain falls, and such places are said to have
Frigid zone lies a dry climate.
around the north 75. Mountains always have a colder, and gen-
pole, and extends to erally a wetter, climate than the lowlands near
the Arctic Circle. them.
66. The South QUESTIONs.-70. What does climate mean? What is
Frigid zone lies understood by the climate of a place ?-71. What is the
climate of the torrid zone ?-72. Of the frigid zones?-
around the south pole, and extends to the Ant- 73. Of the temperate zones ?-74. What is a wet climate?
arctic Circle. A dry climate?-75. What is said of the climate of
mountains ?
67. The Torrid zone lies on either side of the
equator, and extends PLANTS.
to the Tropic of Can-
cer on the north, and 76. The growth of Plants depends mainly
to te Tr c of C on the climate. Many plants grow best in a
to the Tropic of Cap-
ricorn on the south. warm, wet climate such as is found in parts of
S6n The N orth the torrid zone.
68. The North
Te erte zone 77. In the moist parts of the torrid zone
Temperate zone
es betee the are thick forests of trees, with leaves which
^ -.lies between the
Trpic of Cancer and remain green during the entire year.
Tropic of Cancer and
the Arctic Circle. 78. In these forests are trees yielding the
69.m e zne lies be- India rubber, from which water-proof clothing is
69. The South Temperate zone lies be-
She Tropic of apriorn an the nt- made, and the palms on which cocoa-nuts grow.
tween the Tropic of Capricorn and the Ant-
S e 79. Coffee, tea, and sugar are obtained from
arctic Circle.
plants which grow in the torrid zone. Rice,
QUESTIONS.-64. Into what is the earth's surface di- pepper, and oranges also grow in this zone.
vided by certain parallels ? Name the five zones.-65.
Where is the north frigid zone ? To what does it extend ?- 80. In the temperate zones forests are also
66. The south frigid zone? To what does it extend ?- found, but they are not so thick as those in the
67. Where is the torrid zone ? To what does it extend on
the north? On the south ?-68. Where is the north tem- torrid zone, and the leaves of many of the trees
operate zone ?-69. The south temperate zone? wither and fall off in the autumn.
81. Wheat and corn, and such fruits as the
CLIMATE. apple and the peach, are among the plants
which grow in the temperate zones, as well as
70. Climate is closely connected with cotton which is made into cloth, flax from which
weather. The kind of weather that is usual in linen is made, and hemp which is twisted into
a place, is said to be the climate of that place. ropes.
71. In the torrid zone the climate is always 82. The frigid zones are too cold for any
hot, and snow or ice is never seen except on plants except moss and a few shrubs.
the highest mountains. 83. In some parts of the torrid and temperate
72. In the frigid zones the climate is very zones, the climate is so dry and the soil is so








ANIMALS. 13













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14 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.





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87. There are not so many kinds of wild ani- 92. People of the same color and appearance
mals in the temperate zones as in the torrid are said to belong to the same Race.
zone. The principal kinds are the bear, bison, 93. There are five races: the Caucasian or
elk, deer, wolf, fox, and ostrich. Besides these white race, the Mongolian or yellow race, the

88. Domestic Animals are those which have race, and the American or red race.
been tamed to the use of man; such as horses, 94. The Caucasian or white race is superior
cattle, sheep, goats, and swine. In some parts to all, and exceeds every other race in numbers.
of the earth, the elephant, the camel, and the White men can be found all over the earth, but
llama have been trained to carry burdens, and they are most numerous in Europe.
in those countries these are also called domestic 95. The Mongolian or yellow race is almost
animals. as numerous as th hte race. Nearly all the
89. The animals of the frigid zones have a yellow people live in Asia.
very thick fur to keep them warm. Most of 96. The Ethiopian race lives principally in
the furs which ladies wear, come from these Africa. The black people are called neroes.
animals. The negroes in our country are the descendants
90. The principal kinds of fur-bearing ani- of Africans.
mals are the polar bear, the sable, the ermine, 97. The Malay or brown race lives in Aus-
the otter, and the seal. The domestic animals tralia, the islands of the Pacific and Indian
of the frigid zones are the reindeer and the dog. oceans, and the south-eastern part of Asia.
These are used instead of horses for drawing the 98. The American or red race lived in
sleds of the natives. America before the white men came here. The
QUESTIONS.-85. Name the principal animals of the people of this race are called Indians, and now
torrid zone.-86. What is said of the reptiles and birds of p i 11
this zone ?-87. What are the principal wild animals of live most the settled parts of North
the temperate zones ?-88. What are domestic animals ? America and South America.
Name some domestic animals.-89. Describe the animals
of the frigid zones. For what is their fur used ?-90. Name
the principal fur-bearing animals. What are the domestic QUESTIONS-91. How do people living in one part of
animals of the frigid zone the world differ from those living in other parts?-92.
When are pee said to belong to the samr r race e ?-93.
s s of te na O ME How many races are there? Name them-94. What is
QESTION. N e the n said of the Caucasian race? Where is this race most
ri The People living in one part of te numerous?-95. Where is the Mongolian race found?-
he pr incipal f eaing animls Wha e rt of the 6. Where does the Ethiopian race live? Of whom are
world often differ from those living in other the negroes living in this country descendants ?-97.
s in te c r of tr s a i t Where does the Malay race live ?-98. Who lived here
before the white people came? Where do the Indians
general appearance. live now?








MANNERS AND OCCUPATIONS OF MEN. 15

MANNER OF LIVING.
99. Those people who have houses to live in, -
books to read, schools, railroads, and steam- -
boats are called Civilized people.






A Scene among Uncivilized People.
S OUEsTIoNs.-99. hat people are called civilized?-
0oo. Where do most of the civilized people live ?-ioi.
f-Describe half-civilized people. What races are half-
nocivilized ?-1o3. Describe savage, or uncivilized, people.-
104of them. What races are savage?
A Scene among Civilized People.
; THE OCCUPATIONS OF MEN. iml
iot The greater a portion one pf the civilized enged in agriculture
people live in Europe and Americks and belonrds. o The ind of sists in obtain man does is
to the white race said to be his Occupearth. Those engaged in this occu-
Half-civilized people have no railroads principal kinds of occupation: Arcutre, -
nor steam-boats, and not many books. Some i ?ng, Dsanufacture, and Comnzeile.
of them live in houses, and have towns and o6. Agriculture consists in tilling the soil,








places from which building stone is obtained, are called
cities; others have no fixed homes, ut live in producing crops, and raising domestic animals.













^BJBK '''JFar millers are all different kinds of manufacturers.
tents and wander about from one part of the Farmers are engaged in agriculture.
country to another with their flocks and herds. 107. Mining consists in obtaining minerals
out of the earth. Those engaged in this occu-
and transpopation are called miners.












102. Most of the yellow race, and that part of culture, and manufacture. These are usually
SThe places from which coal and such metals as gold,
slive ilvern houseron and copper are obtained, are called inhuts or in the wooesds the
time in huntg ad f places from which building stone is obtained, are called
ai" L ,-f q,.uarries.
Sio8. M manufacture consists in adapting the
i , _I, products of agriculture or mining to the uses of
-man. Blacksmiths, shoe-makers, tailors, and
millers are all different kinds of manufacturers.
A S among Halfgcivilized People 109. Commerce consists in buying, selling,
and transporting the products of mining, agri-
102. Most of the yellow race, and that part of culture, and manufacture. These are ki usually
the brown race living in Asia, are half-civilized. bought in one place and carried to another to be
103. Savage, or Uncivilized, people do not sold. Merchants, sailors, and railroad men are
live in houses, but in rude huts or in the woods engaged in commerce.
without any shelter. They know nothing about QUESTIONS.--IO5. What are occupations? Name the
reading or writing, and spend much of their four principal kinds.--Io6. What is agriculture? What
are men called who have this occupation ?-,o7. What is
time in hunting and fishing, mining? What are they called who engage in mining ?-
104. Many of the natives in Africa and Aus- io8. What is manufacture? Name some kinds of manu-
facturers.-1o9. What is commerce? Name some of the
tralia, and the Indians in America, are savages, branches of this occupation.








16 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.

FORMS OF GOVERNMENT. 16. The Jews are descendants of Abraham.
I O. People living in the same country and Their history and religious faith may be found
obeying the same laws, form what is called a in the Old Testament of the Bible.
State. The men who make the laws and who I17. The Christian religion teaches that
punish those that do not obey these laws, form Christ is the Son of God and the Savior of
the Government of the state, mankind. The words of Christ are recorded in
III. There are two kinds of governments- the New Testament of the Holy Bible.
Republics and Monarchies. 18. The Mohammedan religion teaches that
112. In a Republic, the people choose some Mohammed was the greatest of the prophets.
person as Governor or President, whose duty it 19. Brahminism is one of the oldest re-
is to see that the laws are not disobeyed. ligions. Its followers live in eastern Asia.
Our country is the greatest republic in the world. 120. Buddhism was founded by an Indian
prince named Buddha. It is now the religion
of much of eastern Asia.
121. Besides these, there are many Pagan re-
In-- -- a ligions, whose followers worship idols and pray
.an to them for help and protection.
QUESTIONS.--II. Mention five religions.--I6. What
-r- is said of the Jews?--II7. What does the Christian re-
".. ligion teach ? Where are Christ's words recorded ?- 8.
-What is said of Mohammedanism ?-II9. Of Brahmin-
ism ?-I-20. Of Buddhism ?-12i. Of pagan religions?

The President's House, in Washington.
HOW TO STUDY A MAP.
113. In a Monarchy, the laws are enforced by
a Prince, a King, or an Emperor, who is usu- I. To bound a country is to name the coun-
ally the son or heir of a previous ruler. Such tries and bodies of water which border upon
a country is called a PrincizPaliy, a Kingdom, or it,--naming first those on the north, then on the
an Empire. east, then on the south, and then on the west.
Some of the states of Europe are the greatest mon- 2. To describe a river is to tellwhere i
archies in the world. rises, through what countries and in what direc-
tions it flows, and into what body of water it
I14. The city in which the chief officer of a
country usually lives, and where the laws are i
empties.
3. To describe a lake is to tell in what part
made, is called the Capital of that countrbw.
made, is called the Capital of that country of a country it is situated, and to name its inlet
QUESTIONS.--IIO. What forms a state? The govern- and its outlet.
ment ?--I I. How many kinds of government are there?
I2. What is arepublic?-113. A monarchy? Namethree 4. To locate a mountain range is to tell in
kinds of monarchies.-II4. What is the capital of a what part of a country it is situated, and in
country ? what direction it extends.

5. To locate a town is to tell in what part
RELIGIONS of a country and on what body of water, or
near what mountains it is situated.
115. The principal religions are: the Jewish,
the Christian, the Mohammedan, Brahminism, QUESTIONS.-I. How. do you bound a country ?-2.
How describe-'a river ?-3. A lake?-4. How do you
and Buddhism. locate a mountain range?--5. A town ?










NORTH AM ERICA.


DESCRIPTION.
I. North America is the larger part i:f the \Western c.-ntr ,'- r "
ncnt, and includes. be-id,.s the main-land, the i:lands Gr&.,. .
land and l l:aind, the Arctic Archipelag':,. and the \\'..t 4,'
Indies. It is ider !i, tlhe north than it I1 in tile -,,.til. -, '
Surface.- Th,-re are tw,:,' prinip.. u niult.ui, .--.' '
syistcr:m in North .mein c a,--thle C.r'dillcras and th.:
Appalachia.in SIs:ouiiitaiinis. 4 L'
3. The Cordilleras are c' :mp' -e. t prin- -
cipal mni-intain chain ,'-.- thI: R C-l: .y RII, untI ns and; g t
a nm.r, br, : en ch.an r...r the c...:t, calle] In
d'ifl rnilt patrtc thlc CG ..1:t R.:Ail e ai cade Range,-r .
Sierra Ncad'.t andll Sirrra Aib.idre.
4. Th,.,t ri:,uLintailS t. l,.l u[::,or, a high
plateau. cdif`rent parts cf .. hcl .ic
caIIIrl the GreaCt t I'11. thie \IMex a -.. ei .
Plater u. the C. I.,rad. PI.'ltc.Au. n.i- th
Gr.j-t ci-ii le F *r.]ilb -ris iccN *
alim ,t .,ne Ialf -.I' N._,rth Animerica ..
5. The Appalachian System i i -ii.h -

.--' i I. in i' ta i

r, i 11,_ in


t 'tit r. '1, ri and




An,- -ti Ar icj i i t. in. a great
low pla in ct, I. r r: mn the :a i ulb


:_ ." p N -xic' t., the .\rctc Oc.- an
In tie t thi plin i cll thL Mississippi




I-i ii'': i. liicl-5 u1''ni-'r._ Micita. Hu-n Erie .i. (i-
SI.- calil ti G-treat Lakes. great
--- _ r ,- .-4 -. [*I=\low plain ",l- lr. in th ,: l.








W i I i \ 1 1-..I. "39cii -...... '' he :1 *-crq...-.i- \hnr i. 'esnhe
.. .... .In tlIe It 1 1 thr -, 1th l p piichlrn ii :-l tIIC M i s iSSipp i






called in tLe suuith Nam the reats Lakes.
(17)









. -m ... r -- _--- -- "--"




S. --- -
---L'- .... ^ J'-.-iP6- ^-*







-ilk, o- ; _
PI-






S- J 14 -


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.fl .. ---.? t .- _.-'- '.- -



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r i .r ,-











.-.__ ..43 :--_.__,_3 longitude -West 'Wasigrto. 3..hi __..____

_TC.. .B ... l u, Va .w. Brag .. 18M .)
_o ...C
-.- .. S- A -.
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NORTH AMERICA. 19

MAP QUESTIONS. the Atlantic coast?-What cape at the extremity of the
peninsula of Florida ?-Of Lower California ?-What
What ocean north of North America?-What one capes extend into the Pacific?-What cape extends
east ?-What gulf south ?-What ocean west ?-What into Behring Strait ?--What mountain system in the
archipelago on the north ?-What island east of the Arctic west ?-What is the longest chain of the Cordilleras ?-
Archipelago ?-What island east of Greenland ?-What What plains east of the Rocky Mountains ?-What is the
island east of North America ?-What islands south- chain near the Pacific coast called in various parts ?-
east ?-What islands on the west coast ?-What large bay What plateau between the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky
in the north?-What strait connects Hudson Bay with Mountains ?-What mountains near the Atlantic coast?-
the Atlantic ?-What bay west of Greenland ?-What What valley between the Cordilleras and the Appalachi-
strait connects Baffin Bay with the Atlantic Ocean ?-/-What ans ?-What large river, between the Rocky Mountains
gulf in the east ?-What sea south of the West Indies ?- and the Appalachian Mountains, empties into the Gulf of
What gulf in the south-west ?-What sea on the north- Mexico ?-What long river empties into the Mississippi
west ?-What strait connects Behring Sea with the Arctic from the west ?-What river forms the outlet of the Great
Ocean ?-From what does Behring Strait separate North Lakes ?-What river empties into the Arctic Ocean ?-
America ?-What two peninsulas in the south-east ?- Into Behring Sea ?-Into the Pacific Ocean ?-Into the
What peninsula in the south-west ?-What one in the Gulf of California ?-What country in the north of North
north-west ?-What cape projects into the Arctic Ocean ?- America ?-What country occupies the central part ?-
What cape at the southern extremity of Greenland?- What country south of the United States?-What country
East of Labrador ?-What two capes south of this on south-east of Mexico?




9. Rivers.-There are three large rivers in climate, and are covered with dense forests of
this plain; the Mississippi, flowing through the tropical trees. The mountains are cooler, and
Mississippi Valley, and the St. Lawrence and such plants as grow in the temperate zone are
Mackenzie, flowing from the lake region. found on them.
Three large rivers flow westward from the 12. Animals.-Most of the larger wild ani-
Rocky Mountains to mals are found in the
the Pacific; the Colo- -- -- north and west. The
rado, the Columbia, principal kinds are the
and the Yukon. -- polar bear, elk, and seal
Io. Climate and Veg- i'.. in the north; the buf-
etation.-The greater falo, deer, antelope and
part of North America wolf on the plains; and
is in the north temper- the bear, panther, and
ate zone. In the east ,. wild sheep in the west-
and along the Pacific ern mountains.
coast, the climate is N 13. Inhabitants.-
moist, and extensive North .\m:,rii:a ..:-.mains over 84 millions of
forests are found; but iiilhtb!tanit-. m.-.-t .-.I' whom live in the south-
much of the interior .- .-ttrni and ...uthrn. parts.
has a dry climate, and QUESTIONS.-9. Describe the Mississippi. The St.
consists to a great extent of treeless prairies. Lawrence. Three large rivers flowing westward.-io.
I i Small parts lie in the frigid and torrid In what zone is most of North America? Describe the
climate and vegetation in the east and along the Pacific
zones. In the frigid zone the climate is too coast. That of the interior.--II. The climate of the small
cold for trees to grow. In the torrid zone the part in the frigid zone. Of the part lying in the torrid
zone.--Iz. What wild animals are found in North Amer-
lowlands have a moist, hot, and unhealthful ica ?-13. In what parts do most of the inhabitants live?
E. G.-4.







20 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.

14. The inhabitants belong to four races: the owns Alaska; the Dominion of Canada; Mexico;
Caucasian, the Ethiopian, the American, and Central America; the West Indies; and Greenland
the Mongolian. The whites are by far the and Iceland.
most numerous; the blacks, who live chiefly in 17. Greenland is covered with ice and snow.
the south, are next in number. Iceland has a cold climate, and contains many
15. There are still a few Indians in the north volcanoes and geysers. Both of these islands
and among the Cordilleras. A few Mongolians belong to Denmark.
live along the shores of the Pacific and Arctic QUESTIONS.-4. To what races do the inhabitants
oceans. belong? What race is most numerous ? Which next ?-
16. Divisions.-North America contains the 15. Where are Indians still found? Where do a few
Mongolians live ?-16. What divisions does America con-
following divisions: the United States, which tain ?-17. What is said of Greenland and Iceland?





THE UNITED STATES.

MAP QUESTIONS. five states on the Gulf coast.-Eight touching the Great
Map on Pages 22-23. Lakes.-Name ten states touched by the Mississippi
River.-Five touched by the Ohio.-Name six divisions
What country north of the United States ?-What ocean touched by the Missouri.-Four by the Arkansas.-Name
east ?-What gulf and what country south ?-What ocean five divisions containing part of the Rocky Mountains.-
west ?-What gulf on the east coast ?-What two bays ?- What divisions contain part of the Colorado Plateau ?-
What island on the east ?-What islands on the south- In what state is most of the Great Basin ?-What three
In what state is most of the Great Basin ? --What three
east ?-On the west ?-What four capes on the east?- divisions border on the Pacific ?-Bound Alaska.-What
Two on the south ?-Four on the west ?-What mountain
part is mountainous ?-What large river flows through it?
range west of the center of the country ?-What one near
the Pacific ?-What one between the Rocky Mountains
and the Sierra Nevada ?-What basin west of the Wasatch
Mountains ?-What plateau east ?-What plains occupy DESCRIPTION.
the central part of the country ?-What valley east of the
Great Plains ?-What mountains in the eastern part of the I. The United States is the country in
country ?-What plateau west of these mountains ?-What which we live, and occupies the middle portion'
plain to the east ?-What two rivers empty near Long of North America. It also includes the north-
Island ?-What three, into Chesapeake Bay ?-What is the western portion called Alaska.
largest river emptying into the Gulf of Mexico ?-What is
the largest western tributary of the Mississippi ?-Name Our country is called the United States because it is
two other western tributaries,-What is the largest eastern composed of many separate states united under one
branch of the Mississippi ?--VW1at river on the south-west government.
boundary of the United States ? -What river flows south'- 2. Size.-The United States would make
west across the Colorado Plateau?-What river joins the ninety states as large as Ohio, and is exceeded
Colorado from the east?-What two rivers west of the
Sierra Nevada ?-What river flows across the north- in size by only three governments in the world.
western corner 'of the United States ?--Name two tribu- 3. Surface.-The surface of our country is
taries to the Columbia ?-What river flows north from the composed of two great mountain systems-the
United States to Lake Winnipeg?-Name five lakes be- Cordilleras and the Appalachians,- the broad
tween the United States and Canada ?-What large lake Mississippi Valley between them, and the
lies wholly in the United States ?-What river flows out
of Lake Ontario ?-What lake in the west.--Name Atlantic Coast Plain between the Appalachians
fourteen states which touch the Atlantic Ocean ?-Name and the Atlantic Ocean.





Pages
21 -22
missing
from
original









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24 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.

18. A large part of the Mississippi Valley Agriculture includes not only the production of almost
consists of treeless prairies, which have a very every kind of plant crop, but also the raising of horses i
and mules to draw our vehicles; cattle to supply beef,
fertile soil. milk, butter, and cheese; sheep to supply wool and mut-
19. In the warm southern part of this valley, ton; and swine to supply pork.
cotton, rice, sugar-cane, oranges, and lemons 28. Manufacturing is specially active in the
are cultivated; while, farther north, such plants eastern and central parts.
as wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, hay, apples, and North of New York City, the principal manufactures
peaches are produced in great abundance. are cotton and woolen cloth and such notions as buttons,
20. In some parts of the west, the climate is pins, hooks, and eyes. South of New York, the principal
too dry for the most useful plants to grow. manufactures are iron and steel, machinery, silk, etc.
21. Animals.-At one time great herds of 29. Mining is the leading occupation in much
bisons, or buffaloes, roamed over the prairies of of the mountainous portion of the country.
the Mississippi Valley, while the forests con- Petroleum, iron, coal, lead, and copper are obtained in
trained many bear, elk, moose, and deer; most the eastern part; while gold, silver, and mercury are the
of these larger wild animals have been killed, most valuable productions of the western part.
and few are now seen. 30. The Commerce of the United States, in
22. Inhabitants.- the productions of the
More people live in the farm, the mine, and the
United States than in n manufactory, is very ex-
any other country in tensive.
North America. ost The farm products are so
of them belong to the abundant that the people
white, or Caucasian, j can not consume them all,
race; and live in the and a portion is sent to for-
eastern half of the -eign countries in exchange
for sugar, coffee, tea, spices,
country. and various manufactures.
23. A part of the A Scene on the Upper Mississippi. Goods are carried to al-
population belongs to most any town in the Union
the black, or Ethiopian, race, and lives mostly by means of railroads. The United States has more
in the southern part of the Union. miles of railway than any other country in the world.
24. The red race, or Indians, who long ago 31. Government.-The United States is a
roamed over the whole country, have been republic, composed of 44 States, 4 Territories,
driven westward by the whites, and now live the District of Columbia, Alaska, the Indian
on lands set apart for them by the Government. Territory.
These lands are called "Indian Reservations." 32. Washington is the capital of the United
25. The yellow, or Mongolian, race, is repre- States. The National Congress holds its session
sented by the Chinese, who live chiefly near the there each year.
Pacific coast, and by the Esquimos in Alaska. Congress is composed of 88 Senators and 332 Repre-
26. Occupations.-The United States sup- sentatives. Each state sends two Senators. The number
plies greater quantities of the products of agri- of Representatives from each state depends on the number
culture, manufacturing, and mining than any of its inhabitants. Some states have only one: New York
r c ry o t wrhas thirty-four. Each state is a republic, and has its own
Governor and a Legislature chosen by the people.
27. Agriculture is the leading occupation, es- The Supreme Court also sits at Washington. The
specially in the fertile Mississippi Valley. Judges are appointed for life by the President.







UNITED STATES. 25
















.._ --






ft- -- ---- .:-N -am



The Capitol at Washington.


33. The President of the United States is three miles high, and is one of the highest sum-
chosen for four years by Electors, who are mits in North America.
elected by the people in the various states. 36. The Yukon is the largest river of Alaska.
Each state has as many Electors as it has Sen- The people are mostly Mongolian Esquimos.
ators and Representatives. Fishing and the hunting of seals and other fur-
34. For convenience of study, the United bearing animals are their chief occupations.
States may be described in the following nine Sitka is the chief settlement.
divisions : QUESTIONS.-I8. Of what does a large part of the
The New England States. Mississippi Valley consist?-19. What plants are culti-
The Middle States. vated ?-20. Why is agriculture not successful in many parts
of the west?-21. What is said of wild animals?-22.
The Southern States. What is said of the population of the United States?
The Central States. To what race do most of the people belong ?-23. Where
do most of the negroes live ?-24. What is said of the
The Northern States. Indians ?-25. Of Mongolians?-26. In what respects
Colorado and Western Territories. does the United States surpass other nations ?-27. What
is the most common occupation?-28. Where is manu-
The North-western States. facturing especially active ?-29. Where is mining a lead-
The Western States. ing occupation ?-30. What is said of commerce?-31.
What is the government of the United States? Of what
Alaska. is the Union composed ?-32. What is the capital? What
35. Alaska occupies the north-western part body meets there ?-33. How is the President chosen ?-34.
Into what groups may the United States be divided?-35.
of America. Its surface is a plateau, traversed Describe the position and surface of Alaska.-36. What
by a continuation of the Cascade and Rocky is the largest river? To what race do the people belong?
What are their occupations ? What is the chief settle-
mountains. Mt. St. Elias, in this chain, is over ment?









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NEW ENGLAND STATES.

MAP QUESTIONS. Vermont and New York ?-Name a lake in New Hamp-
shire.-The largest lake in Maine.-What bay south of
Name the New England States.-What ocean bounds Maine ?-East of Massachusetts ?-South of Massachu-
this division on the east and south ?-What country, on setts ?-What one extends into Rhode Island ?-What
the north ?-What state, on the west ?-Which state is the sound south of Connecticut ?-Name three capes on the
farthest north ?-Which, farthest south ?-Name the three coast of Massachusetts.-What island on the coast of
northern states.-The three southern.-Which state is the Maine ?-What two islands belong to Massachusetts?-
largest ?-Which, the smallest ?-What two states lie north What is the capital of Maine ?-On what river is it?-
of Massachusetts ?-What two, south ?-What part of this -Name a sea-port of Maine.-What city on the Penobscot
division is mountainous ?-What ranges of mountains in River ?-What is the capital of New Hampshire ?-On
the western part ?-What is their direction ?-What mount- what river is it situated ?-What two cities south of Con-
ains in Vermont ?--n New Hampshire ?-What mountain cord ?-What is the capital of Vermont ?-What city on
in Maine ?-What river forms part of the eastern bound- Lake Champlain ?-What city near Otter Creek ?-What
ary of this division ?-Of the northern ?-What river is the capital of Massachusetts ?-What city in central
forms the boundary between Vermont and New Hamp- Massachusetts ?-Two cities on the Connecticut River ?-
shire ?-Name three rivers in Maine.-Two in Connecti- What two capitals has Rhode Island ?-What is the capital
cut.-One river in New Hampshire.-What lake between of Connecticut ?-What cities on Long Island Sound?



DESCRIPTION.

I. The New England States occupy the 7. New England contains but one thirteenth
north-eastern part of the Union. The coast is of the people in the Union. The southern part
rocky, and has many bays and harbors, is more densely settled than any other part of
2. The Appalachian system renders the the United States.
western and northern parts mountainous. In
Massachusetts the chief range is called the :.....
Hoosac Mountains; in Vermont, the Green
Mountains,-so called because the slopes are t.-- -
covered with evergreen trees.
3. In New Hampshire the system is called
the White Mountains, because some of the sum-
mits are covered with snow for much of the
year. Mt. Washington is the highest peak.
In Maine there are no long ranges, but many C onath nu osto
Commonwealth Avenue, Bostonh
peaks, of which Mt. Katahdin is the highest.
4. Rivers.-The largest rivers are the Con- 8. Manufacturing is the leading industry.
necticut, the Kennebec, and the Penobscot, but New England leads the country in the manu-
these are not navigable far from their mouths. facture of cloth, paper, boots, and shoes.
5. Lakes.-Many lakes are found in north- QUESTIONS.-I. Where are the New England States?
ern New England. Moosehead Lake, Lake Bound this division.-2. What mountain system enters
Winnipiseogee, and Lake Champlain are the this division? What is it called in Massachusetts? In
Vermont? Why?-3. InNewHampshire? Why? What
most noted. is the highest peak? In Maine ?-4. Describe the three
6. The winters are long and cold; the sum- largest rivers.--5. Where are many lakes? Name the
most noted.-6. What is said of the climate ?-7. Of the
mers are short, but warm and pleasant. population ?-8. Of the leading industry?7)
(27)







28 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.

9. The soil is not very fertile, except in the Boston, the capital, is the largest city and
river bottoms, but considerable attention is most important sea-port in New England.
given to agriculture, stock-raising, dairying, and Worcester, Lowell, and Fall River are thriving
wool-growing, manufacturing cities. Cambridge is the seat of
Many people are employed in the cod and mackerel Harvard College. Lynn manufactures shoes.
fisheries. Fine building-stone is quarried in all the states. 14. Rhode Island is called Little Rhody;"
Io. Maine is called the "Pine Tree State" it is the smallest state in the Union. Manu-
on account of its extensive pine forests. The facturing and commerce are leading pursuits.
manufacture'of cloth, leather, and lumber, and This state has two capitals: Providence, a
ship-building, are ------- ^ ___- --- -_-_ -_ --- manufacturing city,
the chief industries. -- ---and Newport, a fa-
Portland is noted mous watering-
for its fine harbor. .. place.
Lewiston and Bidde- I.. Connecticut
ford manufacture ,. is noted for the
cloth. Bangor is a s variety of its man-
large lumber mar- Up, ufactures.
ket. Augusta is N' i New Haven is the
the capital. ca chief sea-port, and
II. New Hamp- th i f is the seat of Yale
shire is called the College. Hartford
"Granite State. is the capital.
Granite is a kind Bridgeport is a man-
of stone very abun- ufacturing city.
dant in the state. QESTIONS.-9. What
The beautiful scen- other occupations re-
ceive attention ?- io.
ery of the White Bound Maine. Why is
"Mountains attracts mr cotton it called the Pine Tree
... W tState? What are the
many tourists. principal industries ?
Manchester and --- -- Describe Portland.
Mt. Washington. Lewiston. Biddeford.
Nashua manufact Bangor. What is the
ure cloth. Concord is the capital. capital? On what river is it situated?
12. Vermont, the "'Green Mountain State," Bound New Hampshire. Why is it called the
"Granite State?" What is specially attractive in the
is hilly and mountainous. Much attention is state? For what are Manchester and Nashua noted?
paid to dairying and the raising of cattle and What is thecapital? On what river are all these towns?
sheep. ain State ? To what branches of industry is much atten-
Burlington has a large trade in lumber and tion paid? Describe Burlington. Rutland. What is the
capital ?
wool. Rutltand is near extensive marble and 13. Bound Massachusetts. What articles are manu-
slate quarries. Montpelier is the capital. factured? What two islands to the south-east ? Describe
thecapital. Whereis Worcester? Lowell? FallRiver?
13. Massachusetts is sometimes called the Lynn ? What college near Boston?
"Bay State." It manufactures more cotton and 14. Bound Rhode Island. What is it called? Why?
woolen cloth, and boots and shoes, than any What are leading industries? What large bay in the
state? Name the two capitals. Where is Providence?
other state in the Union. It contained some Newport?
of the earliest settlements in the United 15. Bound Connecticut. For what is it noted? De-
scribe New Haven. What and where is the capital?
States. Where is Bridgeport?













MIDDLE STATES.





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Bird's-Eye View of New York.

Map Questions on page 31.

DESCRIPTION.

1. The Middle States lie south-west from sively cultivated; farther north, hay, wheat,
New England. The eastern part is in the hops, vegetables, and fruit are raised.
low and fertile coast-plain, the central part is 5. The mineral wealth of this division is
traversed by several mountain ranges, and the very great. Coal, iron ore, petroleum, and salt
western part consists of a broken plateau. are found in great abundance.
2. The most important mountains are the More petroleum is obtained from the oil wells in this
Adirondack, the Catskill, and the Alleghany division than from all the rest of the world.
mountains and the Blue Ridge.
S6. Manufacturing is the principal occupa-
3. There are many rivers in this division, of .
tion. A very great variety of articles is made,
which the Hudson is the most important. In in
the northern part are numerous lakes and but those composed of iron or steel are most
the northern part are numerous lakes and c m
common.
ponds.
The Niaara Rier flows from Lake Erie to Lake QUESTIONS.-. Where are the Middle States? De-
Sscribe the surface.-2. What are the most important
Ontario. In its course it falls over a precipice 164 feet mountains ?-3. What is the most important river in this
high, forming "Niagara Falls," one of the grandest cat- division ? Where are lakes and ponds numerous ?-4.
aracts in the world. Describe the climate. What plant is extensively culti-
vated in the sotith? What plants are raised farther
4. The climate is temperate, though warm north-5. What minerals are abundant?-6. What is
in the extreme south, where tobacco is exten- mon among the manufactures?
(29)









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MIDDLE STATES. 31


MAP QUESTIONS. ginia and Maryland?-What river flows through central
Virginia?-What bay between New Jersey and Dela-
Name the Middle States.-What ocean on the east of ware ?-What bay in Virginia and Maryland?
this division ?-What three New England states on the What is the capital of New York ?-What city at the
east ?-What country on the north ?-What states on the mouth of the Hudson River ?-What city on Long Island,
west ?-What two states south of New York ?-What opposite New York ?-What city on Lake Erie ?-On the
three states south of Pennsylvania ?-What states south Genesee River ?-Near Albany ?
of Maryland ?-What state east of Maryland ?-What -What is the capital of Pennsylvania ?-What large city
state west of Virginia ?-What parts of this division are on the Delaware ?-What two cities in western Pennsyl-
mountainous ?-- What is the general direction of the vania?-What city on Lake Erie ?-On the Schuylkill?
mountain chains ?-What mountains in northern New What is the capital of New Jersey? What three cities
York?-What ranges in Pennsylvania ?--What ranges in in north-eastern New'Jersey?
Maryland and Virginia ?-What lake forms part of the What is the capital of Marylaid ?-What other city on
eastern boundary of New York ?-What two lakes north- Chesapeake Bay ?-What two cities west of Baltimore ?
west of New York ?--What river connects them ?-What What is the capital of Delaware ?-What city in the
river forms part <,f the northern boundary of New north?
York ?-What river in eastern New York ?--What river What is the capital of Virginia? What city near the
empties into the Hudson from the west?-What river mouth of James River ?-What two cities in the central
forms the eastern boundary of Pennsylvania ?-What part of the state?
river in central Pennsylvania ?-What two rivers in west- What is the capital of West Virginia ?-What two cities
ern Pennsylvania ?-What river forms the north-western on the Ohio River?
boundary of West Virginia ?-What river between Vir- On what river is Washington ? In what district is it?




7. New York is called the "Empire State" 8. New Jersey produces great quantities
because it surpasses every other state in the of fruits and vegetables, and manufactures silk
Union in population, manufactures, and wealth, goods, trunks, and thread. Sea-bathing attracts
While the Hudson and Mohawk valleys are among the many people to its coasts in summer.
most densely populated por- .. New Jersey is the garden
tions of the Union, the which supplies the markets
Adirondack region contains of New York and Phila-
very few inhabitants, and is delphia with many of their
one of the wildest regions ".. vegetables. The apples and
east of the Rocky Mount- cider of New Jersey are
gains. famous.
Boats may pass by the ar
Erie Canal, between Buffalo Newak is noted for
and Troy, from Lake Erie its manufactures, and
"to the Hudson River. J jersey City for its com-
New York is the larg- merce. Paterson manu-
est city and the most factures silk and loco-
important sea-port in motives. Trenton is
America. It is the Surf-bathing on the New Jersey Coast. the capital.
fifth city ip the world in size, and contains more QUESTIONS.-7. Bound New York. What is it called?
Why ? Name three lakes in the central part of the state.
inhabitants than the whole state of New Jersey. What two islands belong to the state ? Describe New
Brooklyn is sometimes called the "City of York City. Brooklyn. Buffalo. Rochester. What and
where is the capital ?
Churches." Bzuffalo has a large grain trade. 8. Bound New Jersey. Name its productions. Its
Rochester is in a fine farming region. Albany manufactures. What attracts people to its coasts ? Ve-
scribe Newark. Jersey City. Paterson. What and
is the capital. where is the capital?
E. G.-5.








32 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.

9. Pennsylvania is called the "Keystone The building in which Congress meets is one of the
State" because of its central position among finest in the world, and is called the Capitol. The Pres-
ident's mansion is known as the White House.
the original thirteen states. It ranks as the first
state in the Union in the manufacture of iron 13. Virginia is called the "Old Dominion."
and steel, and in the value of its mineral pro- Agriculture is the chief occupation,-wheat,
ductions. corn, and tobacco being staple crops. The
Pennsylvania was settled by the Quakers, under western part of the state is noted for its beau-
William Penn, the name meaning "Penn's Woodland." tiful mountain scenery and healthful climate.
They bought the land Richmond is the
from the Indians, with -- capital. Norfolk has
whom they lived on --i an excellent har
terms Co al IS m ned fin s p._ -- --.est.-. T e an excellent har-
terms of friendship. bor. Petersburg and
bor. Petersburgand
Philadelp/ia is
B Lynchburg are prin-
the third city of I ct e
America in size and c l c s.
14. West Vir-
one of the first ina is a
manufactures. Pitts-
state. Agriculture
burgh and Allegheny
S- is the principal oc-
manufacture iron cupation.
and glass. Scranton I i
W/zheeling is a
and Reading have
and Reading have manufacturing city.
extensive coal
mines. Harr g Huntington is an im-
Siportant town. Park-
is the capital.
SDelaware is ersburg has large
coal-oil refineries.
one of the smallest
f--- n- 2- Charleston, the
states of the Union. = _
Market-gardening capital, is near val-
Market gardening,
uable salt-works.
fruit culture, and uable salt-works.
-QUESTIONS.-9. Bound
ship-building are im- -:-1 Pennsylvania. What _is
portant industries. .- it called, and why ?
How does it rank
Wiington is the among the states of
largest city. Dover the Union ? Describe
The Natural Bridge, Virginia. Philadelphia. Pitts-
is the capital. burgh. Allegheny.
SI. Maryland. -Agriculture is the chief oc- Scranton. Reading. What and where is the capital?
i. Bound Delaware. What is said of its size? Of
cupation. Coal is mined in the west. The the important industries? What is the largest city?
oyster fisheries are the most valuable in the What and where is the capital?
Union. Bound Maryland. Name three industries. De-
Union. scribe Baltimore. Cumberland. Locate the capital.
Baltimore is a large and wealthy commercial 12. What and where is the District of Columbia?
city. Cumberland is in the coal region. An- What city does it contain?
43. Bound Virginia. What is it called? What is the
napolis is the capital. chief occupation? What are the staple crops? For
12. The District of Columbia is a small what is the western part of the state noted ? What and
where is the capital? Describe Norfolk. Where is
tract on the east bank of the Potomac River. Petersburg? Lynchburg ?
Washington, the capital of the United States, 14. Bound West Virginia? What is said of its surface?
Of the leading occupation? Describe Wheeling. Hunt-
is in this District. ington. Parkersburg. What and where is the capital ?









SOUTHERN STATES.
Map Questions on Page 35.

DESCRIPTION.

I. This division includes the states of the 7. The climate is warmer than that of any
Union in which cotton is grown, other division of the Union, and the soil is very
2. Most of the surface is a continuous low fertile excepting in the extreme west.
plain, broken in the north-east by the Appa- 8. About one fifth of the people in the
lachian Mountains, and rising gradually west Union live in this division. There are very
of the Mississippi River to the Great Plains. few foreigners among them. About one third
3. Several ranges cross from the Smoky of the inhabitants are negroes.
Mountains to the Blue Ridge, forming inclosed 9. Agriculture is the chief occupation, and
valleys. One of these ranges contains the cotton is by far the most valuable crop. Corn
Black Dome, the high- is also cultivated, and,
est peak of the whole in the south, rice, sugar-
Appalachian system. cane, and oranges are
4. Along the coast produced. Much at
there are many large tention is given to herd-
swamps, covered with 'o frs ing in the west.
trees, tangled vines, and 1o. North Carolina
tall canes. A kind of is sometimes called the
long, gray moss hangs "Turpentine State" on
from the trees. account of the great
5. Much of the divi- quantities of turpentine
sion west of the Missis- afforded by its pine
sippi River consists of forests. The mountains
fertile prairies. East in the west are covered
of the Mississippi are with oak forests, and
immense forests,-pine are rich in minerals.
in the lowlands, and oak i Ihnington is the larg-
and chestnut on the est city and shipping
mountains. There are Picking Cotton point. Raleigh is the
valuable cypress and live-oak forests near the capital. Charlotte is a thriving railroad center.
coasts.
6. The Mississippi, the Tennessee, the Cum- QUESTIONS.-I. What does this division include?-2..
What is most of the surface? How is it broken in the
berland, the Arkansas, and the Red are the north-east ? To what does it rise in the west ?-3. De-
most important rivers. Many of the coast scribe the formation of the Appalachian Mountains in this.
division. What is the highest peak ?-4. What is said of
rivers, such as the Savannah, the Chattahoochee, the coast region ?-5. What is the vegetation west of the.
the Brazos, and the Rio Grande, are navigable Mississippi? East?-6. Name the principal rivers.-7.
Describe the climate. The soil.-8. What is said of the
for short distances, people ?-9. What is the chief occupation? The most
To prevent the overflow of the Mississippi, banks, called important crop? What else is raised? What is an im-
levees, are built along its margins. A break in these portant industry in the westcalled? Why?
io. Bound North Carolina. What is it called? Why?
levees is called a crevasse, through which the water rushes What is said 9f the western part ? Where is Wilmington ?
and converts miles of low country into a shallow lake. What and where is the capital? Describe Charlotte.
(33)














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SOUTHERN STATES. 35

Key. West, on an island in the south, is the
largest city. Jacksonville is a winter resort.
Tallahassee is the capital. St. Augustine is one
of the oldest towns in the Union.
14. Tennessee is mountainous in the east
S-s and center, and level in the west. Besides the
cultivation of cotton, hemp, and grain, mules,
horses, and sheep are raised, and coal and cop-
A Turpentine Camp. per are mined.
SI. South Carolina on Nashville is the capital. Mempkis, Chatta-
is called the Pal- nooga, and Knoville are thriving cities.
metto State." The QUESTIONS.-II. Bound South Carolina. What is it
fine sea-island cot- called ? What crops are produced, and where ? Where
is Charleston ? What and where is the capital?
ton grows on the islands near the coast. Rice 12. Bound Georgia. What is it called? What miner-
is cultivated in the lowlands. als are found? Where? What industry receives con-
siderable attention? Describe and locate the capital.
Charleston is an important sea-port. Colum- Savannah. Augusta.
bia is the capital. 13. Bound Florida. Describe its surface. What crops
are raised? Describe Key West. Jacksonville. St. Au-
12. Georgia is sometimes called the "Em- gustine. What and where is the capital?
pire State of the South." Iron ore, coal, and 14. Bound Tennessee. What of its surface? What
are the occupations? What and where is the capital?
some gold are mined in the north. Much atten- Locate Memphis. Chattanooga. Knoxville.
tion is given to manufacturing.
Atlanta, the capital, is a busy
railroad center. Savanna/ is the
largest sea-port. Aiugusta has a
fine water power.
13. Florida is low and swampy.
The southern coast is lined with 7'
coral islands called keys. Large
quantities of oranges and early
vegetables are raised. A Florida Swamp.




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SOUTHERN STATES. 37

15. Alabama is hilly in the north, and level The Ozark Mountains cross the north-western
in the south. Cotton is the principal product, part of the state.
Coal and iron ore are mined in the north. Little Rock, the capital, and Ft. Smith are the
Mobile is a cotton port. Bizmingham is in the largest cities. Hot Springs is a noted water cure.
iron region. Montgomery is the capital. An- 20. The Indian Territory has been set apart
niston and Selma are growing towns, by the United States for the Indians. A portion
16. Mississippi consists entirely of fertile of this, however,-the Oklahoma district,-was
lowlands, and produces -- -- -:-- ------ opened to the public for
more cotton than any settlement in 1889.
other state in the Union. 21. Oklahoma Terri-
Vicksburg and Merid- -.- tory was formed in 1890
ian are flourishing towns. from the western part
Jackson is the capital. of Indian Territory.
17. Louisiana em- Stock-raising and farm-
braces.the delta of the ing are the chiefpursuits.
Mississippi, and contains T ca.,e. Gut/rie is the capital.
many lakes and swamps. QUESTIONS.--I5. Bound Alabama. Describe the sur-
The chief products are cotton and sugar-cane. face. What are the products ? Describe Mobile. Bir-
mingham. Locate the capital. Anniston. Selma.
ew Orleans is the largest city in the south, 6. Bound Mississippi. Describe the surface. What is
and exports cotton and wheat. Shreveport is an the most important crop ? Locate Vicksburg. Meridian.
important town. Baton Rouge is the capital. What and where is the capital?
I7. Bound Louisiana. Describe the surface. What
18. Texas is the largest state of the Union. are the products? Describe New Orleans. Shreveport.
The eastern part is a fertile prairie, adapted to What and where is the capital ace. What crops
18. Bound Texas. Describe the surface. What crops
cotton, corn, and wheat. On the dry table- are raised? What industry is pursued in the west?
lands in the west, cattle and sheep are raised. describe Dallas. San Antonio. Galveston. Houston.
What and where is the capital?
Dallas is the largest city, and San Antonio is 19. Bound Arkansas. Describe the surface. What
the second in population. Galveston and Hous- and where is the capital? Where is Ft. Smith? Hot
Springs ?
ton are trade-centers. Austin is the capital. 20. Bound Indian Territory. What part has been
19. Arkansas has low and marshy lands opened to the public?
21. Bound Oklahoma. What are the chief pursuits?
along the Mississippi, covered with forests. Locate the capital.


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CENTRAL STATES.

DESCRIPTION.

I. The eight Central States are west of gable by steam-boats between the cities and
the Middle States, and lie almost wholly in the towns situated along their banks. The Ohio
Mississippi Valley. They occupy about one River is extensively used in transporting coal
eighth of the area of the United States, and from the mines near its sources to the cities in
contain almost one third of the population. its valley. Many of the tributaries to these
The Central States contain more people than any rivers are also navigable during high water.
other division of the United States. The principal of these tributaries are the Tennessee,
2. Much of the surface is an apparently Cumberland, and Kentucky in Kentucky, the Scioto and
level plain, rising gradually from the Mississippi Muskingum in Ohio, the Wabash in Indiana, the Illinois in
River to the Great Plains on the west, and to Illinois, the Platte in Nebraska, and the Osage in Missouri.
the Appalachian Plateau on the east. The QUESTIONS.-I. Where are the Central States? In
Cumberland Mountains in the south-east, and what valley do they lie ?-2. Describe the surface. What
and where are the mountain ranges ?-3. Name .three
the low Ozarks in Missouri are the only mount- large rivers in this division.
ain ranges. _
West of the Mississippi the sur-
face rises so gradually that it looks I 1
like a level plain, though really the
Great Plains are higher above the ,-
sea-level than the tops of the Cum-
berland Mountains.
3. The Mississippi River R
flows through the middle of
the division, and separates it
into two sections. This river
and its tributaries-the Ohio __ -
and the Missouri-are navi- Scene on Chicago River.





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It H ,__ ,, CENTI.RL STATES 4
---- -- WESTERN SECTION.
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rea- l ] K -. ^- .- ., I ., ,' .
j x. .,,, ; r... .. (, 1
S.A...DE. MOINES ." MI NE1


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< )- < ,"n'*'- St. Jo" h t- L uJJJ,,, a "B l b ,.' t. -B i ta
0rha- Ci, B Ts


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-- tedalia fin ---- L. lou18 IE

o S I ,. F
-- 0... A H Ci '.. -- ," _

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'it Sedalia
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iE 4' JEF 04CITY
Las & TI .Is



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25 23 E -Longitude West .9 from Washi gtom 7 5 E3
& CO., -, BIFFALO, N.Y. (0Vyr4Vhi by Van -ntwrp, -Bragg # CO., IM)I EL INA, E








CENTRAL STATES. 41

sheep, and swine. This is the great food-pro-
'"rH-l.-- s' during region of the Union, and supplies pro-
visions and meats not only to the United States,
but to many foreign countries.
8. Coal is mined in every state of the divi-
sion. Iron ore is abundant in Missouri, Ohio,
and Kentucky. Lead is found in Illinois,
Iowa, Kansas, and Missouri.
'9. This division contains about one third of
r the length of railroads in the country: these,
":- with the Great Lakes and navigable rivers,
S- afford an easy m eans of transporting the prod-
A Corn-field. ucts of the region from one place to another.
4. Two of the Great Lakes touch this divi-
sion. By means of these and the Erie Canal QUESTIONS.-4. What is said of the lakes ?-5. Describe
the climate.-6. Describe the vegetation of the Central
or the St. Lawrence River, the produce of this States.-7. What is the principal occupation ? Wha,
region can be easily and cheaply carried to the crops are abundantly raised? To what other industry
is much attention given ?-8. What minerals are found ?-
Atlantic sea-ports. There are many small lakes 9. What is said of railroads and commerce?
and ponds in the northern part.
5. The climate is moderate, but ---. `-; I -
sudden changes of temperature are com-
-mon. There is more rain in the east.
than in the west.
6. The three eastern states contain I --
many forests, but most of the division I' .
is a prairie having a deep and fertile soil. a I l
7. Agriculture is the principal occu- .--
pqti9n. More corn, wheat, and tobacco
are produced in this division than in all
the rest of the Union. Much attention
is given to the raising of cattle, horses, The Levee at St. Louis.



~-'-d
I2-'V 0, 0 i I1 0




ti .- o -, .a -S o C. o.C C S C3 o
l:Ia' s C 0 M- r
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42 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.













M 2il,


Reaping Wheat.

Io. Ohio is called the "Buckeye State." 12. Illinois is called the "Prairie State"
The surface is generally rolling or hilly. It is because almost the entire surface consists of
the fourth state in the Union in population and prairies. There is very little land in the state
third in the amount of coal mined. In the north, which can not be cultivated. Illinois is among
grazing and dairying are important industries, the first states in the Union in the production
The "bottom" lands in the south are very of corn and wheat; and ranks third in pop-
fertile. Ohio owns several islands in Lake Erie ulation and in the value of its manufactures.
which are famous for their %extnci .e \in'.- A I.i n.r.- I -n..lunt :of coal is mined, and com-
yards and fine grapes. ThI:e n.irnlfacture .:rcS m a. r .'.rv ctive.
of agricultural implements .ind ..," ir,:,,, d-l' .,,', tl-.: "Garden City," is second
are very important. in the iU union in size, and is the
Cincinnati is a large manulfct great.ust grain market in the
during city. Cleveland is i :rld. Peoria and Quincy are
great lake port. Colum- important places. Spring-
bus is the capital. Tole- C 2 i field is the capital.
do is an extensive grain Bloomington has noted
market. Dayton and Youngs- nurseries.
town are manufacturing cities. (II ESTIONS.--l. Bound Ohio.
II. Indiana is sometime. i \\i. t is it called? Describe the
alrlel sie'. e. In what respects does Ohio
called the Hoosier .t t,- rcl.I.: -d? What are important in-
Though the smallest of th. (ntr. I lt,. ...I the north? What lands are
vn, j.. t!." What is said of islands ? Of
States, Indiana is more than Ir.. rD- n, C,, ,i-,,,,,, Describe Cincinnati. Cleve-
the size of Massachusetts I, 1 i Ir W. ...h I where is the capital? Locate
p,-.1-IA.. l, L Youngstown.
part of the state is hilly, but th..: e r-trn I. Luund indiana. What is it called? What
part is a level prairie. The river valleys MakingPigIron. is said of its size? Of its surface? Of the
are wide and especially fertile river valleys? Describe the capital. Evans-
are wide and especially fertile ville. Locate Fort Wayne. Terre Haute. South
Indianapolis, the capital, is one of the Bend.
largest cities in the United States not near na- 2. Bound Illinois. What is it called ? Why? What
largest cities in the United States not ear na- is said of the cultivable land of the state ? In what
igable water. Evansville is a busy manufactur- respects does Illinois rank among the first states? In
ing city. Fort Wayne, Terre Haute, and South what respects, fourth? What is said of coal and com-
merce? Describe Chicago. Locate Peoria. Quincy;
Bend are commercial cities. What and where is the capital? Locate Bloomington.







CEN-RAL STATES. 43

13. Kentucky is known as the Blue Grass center. St. Joseph, Springfeld, and Sedalia are
State," from the name of a very fine grass important places. Jefferson City is the capital.
which covers much of the northern part. Ken- 16. Kansas is called "the Garden of the
tucky is noted for its fine horses and cattle. West" on account of the fertility of its ex-
It produces more tobacco and hemp than any tensive prairies. It is the largest of the Cen-
other state in the Union. tral States, and would make two states as large
Louisville, at the falls of the Ohio, is a fine as Ohio. Stock-raising is a leading industry in
city and the largest tobacco market in the the western part, where the climate is too dry
world. Covington and Nezport, at the mouth for farming. For this reason the eastern part
of the Licking, have some manufactories. Lex- of the state is more densely settled than the
ington is in the beautiful blue grass region, western part. Coal and lead are mined in the
Frankfort is the capital. east, and salt springs and marshes are abundant
14. Iowa is, in general, a level prairie state. in the center and south-west.
The roughest portion is -__ ._ Kansas City, Wichita,
in the north-east, where and Leavenworth are
there are some high -----thriving cities. Tope-
bluffs along the streams. -- -r ka, the capital, is grow-
Belts of timber occur ing rapidly. Lawrence
near many of the rivers. ', ,. .. is the seat of the State
Coal is found in the h University.
south, and lead in the 17. Nebraska con-
north-east. sits mostly of a gently
Prairie chickens-a bird undulating prairie. In
undulating prairie. In
of the grouse family-are t.:r. P,.r, .. the north-west the sur-
especially abundant in Iowa th is
and are killed in great h :S; I ra I'er. tih mrc0- br.. I lin. and rises to the Black Hills
numbers. in ,.utih Dak..-t. In the eastern half of the state,
Des Moines is the the soil is very deep and fertile. In the western
capital. Sioux City, in the north-west, is an im- half the climate is too dry for farming, and
portant distributing point. Dubuque is in the stock-raising is the leading occupation.
lead-mining district. Davenport and Burlington Omaha is a thriving commercial city. Lin-
are important cities. coln is the capital.
15. Missouri consists of high prairies north
13. Bound Kentucky. What is it called? Why? For
of the Missouri River; south of that river, the what is Kentucky noted? What crops are very large?
surface rises to the broad summits of the Describe Louisville. Covington. Newport. Lexington.
What and where is the capital?
Ozarks, which are high hills rather than mount- 14. Bound Iowa. Describe its surface. Where is tim-
ains. In the eastern part of these mountains, ber found? Coal? Lead? Locate the capital. Sioux
City. Dubuque. Davenport. Burlington. Keokuk.
about Pilot Knob, iron ore is found in great Bound Missouri. Describe its surface. Where is
abundance; in the west, lead is mined iron ore abundant? Lead? Describe St. Louis. Kansas
City. Locate St. Joseph. Springfield. Sedalia. What
In the south-east-in the region about Big Lake-are and where is the Capital?
16. Bound Kansas. What is it called? Why? Where
many swamps caused by the sinking of the ground dur- is stock-raising pursued? Why? Which part of the
ing an earthquake in i812. state is most densely settled? Why? What minerals are
found? Describe Kansas City. Wichita. Leavenworth.
St. Louis is the fifth, city of the Union in What and where is the capital? Locate Lawrence.
size, and has a very large commerce by railway 17. Bound Nebraska. Describe its surface, soil, and
climate. What is a leading occupation? Describe
and by river. Kansas City is a great railway Omaha. What and where is the capital ?











SFar-
D C')'
; I .. >



e i Oul- u .
N Michigan?,W at two cities in. .. .th Hs ,h .c,


"r UESTIONS. Lake ne

























Wha stae* s form the eastern t oW atlak to W hat s te compose the we ster seto ? What
-What ba etea s n on th ri ver- o e










ro LH..a e ic h i .,,,r, L ak e S u p e rior a t ea stel n b- n r of M in n e so ta1m. e a he s t


Wht tibutaryform pr the ar t atri o rou the Dakota S---->Nm |
.-W ,












a ad of Saginaw Bay ?What city on east ? e apitalht city
G .r R ivrWhat tt oL n W in thee t i the c R i al oer Sot h D:



h a i s a t Loca te three other citis.
N RTHERN STAT S ..(44)
MAP QUESTIONS. Lake Winnebago?sect





M higan tan western ondry ,N e t


h ariver fore m the in that she Dakota samou
. What it s t tasWht aith cpita
ectsi of thetf wits Greesern tr iLaees.A ,qt rhat isWhat
Whattrhituta ty forms P art W cWhat i t hro easte 0 )f the a o oth D

" .. l argelak n the he a o og M ? t c in the s
two r? a citiesy south of I Lansing ?What is the east?-
Grat n aite,'?_al a cf onhity two cities on Lake Locate three other cities'







Wo 9o 88 Lonritude West 86 from Greenwich 84 82
48 7 .-- "- : i48
-n
.^i -S EASTERN SECTION,
K -- NO.T STATESl

IJ 3> I

..-- a.. a .



IPh I
S j- n._ I- \

'K .. okr^ i h; -%I


'-- CI" a re -- -;






"" ON- I- wa ke41 F r ,- -I -i
i-'t









l',i1 i j p ran d Rapids is
'T JI, .- I .. r _






S . . + -: + I I L- I r by .n, -
Si -0- r. .
4 /_ ,_ j FC"nas ____________
'[ ". *"'* Lc. . ,,. i 'tl C i / !-^o--




,,x U ,I "Y (on 1 .. -_ b -a Antw- rp,.aapg & 0 1 --.",
-- -- / I -L Wst 1 i r and r api ngt .1... I




DESCRIPTION.

i. The Northern States lie north of the I division, and one-Lake Michigan-lies almost
Central States. Although this division contains entirely within it; besides which, thousands of
the water-shed between the Gulf of Mexico and small lakes lie along the main water-shed.
Hudson Bay, most of the surface is an appar- 4. Extensive pine forests cover the north-
ently level plain; the Black Hills in the ex- ern parts of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minne-
treme west, and some low ridges near Lake sota; but most of the division is composed of
Superior, are the only mountains, fertile prairies, the only timber being along the
2. The rivers of the eastern part belong to river banks.
the St. Lawrence system. The Mississippi and QUESTIONS.-I. Where is this division? Bound it.
its tributaries drain the central and western Describe its surface.-2. To what river system do the
streams in the eastern part belong?' In the western and
parts. A portion of the northern part is central parts? In the northern part?-3. Which of the
drained by the Red River of the north. Great Lakes border this division,? Which one lies within
it ? Where are small lakes found ?-4. Where are forests
3. Three of the Great Lakes border this found? What is the rest of the division?
(45)







46 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.

Milwaukee is a great grain market. La
Crosse, Oshkosz, and Racine have a large
S lumber trade. Madison is the capital.
9. Minnesota, the North Star
State," extends farther north than any
Sp other state in the Union. Farming is
e carried on principally in the southern
and western parts. Lumbering is an
important industry in the north.
Minnieapolis has flour and lumber mills.
"t P St. Paul is the capital. Dulut/t and
S. n o O WVinona trade in grain and lumber.
io. North Dakota and South Dakota
became states in 1889. Farming and
Lartcerini In hchijnr
er i t:,:erk-raising are the chief occupations. Gold is
fu1 t- rd in the Black Hills. Sioux Falls, Yankton,
TI -e clim ate i- L r..
S,. inv. .I,.t ar andll a Deadwood are the chief towns, and Pierre is
ll.Lant in mr. the: capital of South Dakota. Fargo is the chief
In the a.rn art the and Bismarck is the capital of North Dakota.
Scli.matoe is nnc.iatcr and 0t c., )
more moderate than it is in the western part.
6. Agriculture is the chief occupation.
Great quantities of grain, especially wheat, are
produced. In the north-east, lumbering and -
mining are leading industries. Catching white ,th
fish, lake trout, etc., is an important industry -
about the Great Lakes.
7. Michigan, the "Lake State," consists of --"
two parts, which are separated by Lake Mich- Deer-hunting in Minnesota.
igan and the Straits of Mackinac. The northern QUESTIONS.-5. Describe the climate of the Northern
part is called the Upper Peninsula; the south- States.-6. What is the chief occupation ? The chief
"crop? What are leading industries in the north-east?
ern, the Lower Peninsula. The copper mines of What is an important industry about the Great Lakes?
the Upper Peninsula are the richest in the world. 7. Bound Michigan. What is it called? Why? How
is the state divided? What is said of its copper mines?
Michigan supplies more iron ore, salt, and white Other minerals ?-Of its white pine lumber? Describe
pine timber than any other state. Detroit. Grand Rapids. Saginaw. Bay City. What
and where is the capital ?
Detroit is a beautiful commercial city. Grand 8. Bound Wisconsin. What is it called? Where is
Rapids manufactures furniture. Saginaw and lead mined? What is a leading industry in the north?
What does the canal at Portage connect? Describe Mil-
'Bay City have many saw mills. Lansing is the waukee. Locate La Crosse. Oshkosh. Racine. What
capital. and where is the capital?
9. Bound Minnesota. What is it called ? What is said
8. Wisconsin is called the "Badger State." of its position ? Where is farming carried on? Where,
Lead is mined in the south-west. Lumbering lumbering? Describe Minneapolis. What and where is
the capital? Locate Duluth. Winona.
is the leading industry in the north. A canal io. Bound each of the Dakotas. When did they be-
at Portage unites the Mississippi and St. Law- come states ? What are the chief occupations ? Where is
gold found? Locate Sioux Falls. Yankton. Deadwood.
rence systems. The capital of South Dakota.-Of North Dakota.-Fargo.











COLORADO AND WESTERN

TERRITORIES.















Silver-mining in Colorado.

DESCRIPTION.
Map Questions on page 48.
I. Colorado and the Western Territories 5. The climate is noted for its dryness.
lie mostly in the Cordilleras, at an elevation The parks and valleys have a fertile soil, but
of almost a mile above the sea. .far -- min i,- c.irried on only where water
2. The Rocky Mountains are can b. obtained by ditches leading
the highest range in the Unit ,J .'i..n : the streams.
States. They inclose several Silver and gold are mined
high and level valleys, called in ..reat quantities. Copper
"Parks." In the south- and coal are also. found.
west, the surface of thi: '-.' 7. This division is sparsely
division descends almost to <.t' ilI B settled. It contains but a
the level of the sea. more people than the
3. Rivers.-The Col Rcity of Brooklyn.
radio, the Rio Grande, a 8. Mining, in the
and the Arkansas are mountainous regions,
the three largest rivers. i andcattle-raising, onthe
Their sources are close plains and plateaus, are
together in the Rocky the leading industries.
Mountains.
QUESTIONS. I. Where
For several hundred is this division ?-2. What
miles the Colorado flows is said of the Rocky Mount-
miles the Colorado flows ains ? Of the surface in the
through a canon, or narrow south-west ?- 3. Describe
gorge, in some places more the Colorado River. The Rio
than a mile deep. An Indian Pueblo" in New Mexico. Grande del Norte. TheAr-
kansas.-4. Describe Great
4. Great Salt Lake is quite shallow, and Salt Lake.-5. What is said of the climate? Of farm-
ing ?-6. What minerals are found ?-7. What is said of
is so salt that fish can not live in it. the population ?-8. What are leading industries?
(47)









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R".Las Vegs .






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I' -. I OLOR DO












l- I P I -- ......ERN RRTORIES.




MAP QUESTIONS. to the Colorado in Arizona.-What river flows through
What subdivisions compose this division ?-What sub- New Mexico ?-In what direction does the Rio Grande
divisions of the United States bound it on the north ?- del Norte flow ?--What river in eastern New Mexico flows
On the east ?-On the west ?-What tate and what coun- south ?-What one flows east ?- hat two rivers in east-







try on the south ?-What mountains extend through the ern Colorado ?-What two mountain chains in the
eastern part ?-The north-western part ?-XWhat plateau north ?-In the south,?-Name two mountain peaks in
in the central part ?-What plain in the south-eastern Colorado.-Four parks.-What is the capital of Colo-
part ?-What desert in the north-western part ?-What rado?-What city west of Denver near the head of the
lake east of this desert ?-What river flows through Arkansas River ?-What two cities south of Denver ?-
Utah ?-What two rivers unite in Utah to form the Colo- What is the capital of Utah ?-What city east of Great
I^p -1


























radio ?-Name two tributaries to Green Rive.-Name a Salt Lake ?-What is the capital of Arizona ?-What city
P ....... la n O






















tributary to the Colorado which flows through the north- in the southern part of the territory ?-What is the cap-
western part of New Mexico.-What river forms part of ital of New Mexico ?-What city nearly east of Santa
the western boundary of Arizona ?-Name two tributaries Fe ?-What one on the Rio Grande del Norte?
(8S)








COLORADO AND WESTERN TERRITORIES. 49

9. Colorado is Tucson is the larg-
the highest state in est city. Phoenix
the Union, and is -is the capital.
noted for its health- p a t s" 12. Utah Terri-
ful climate and its J."u, tory. -The settle-
rich silver mines. ments are mainly





idly growing towns. leading industries.
The last is a noted Salt Lake City
health resort. is the capital. Og-



of sheep and cattle QUESTIONS.-9.
are the principal oc- Bound Colorado. What
is said of its height? For
cupations. Many .what is it noted? What
of the people are of and where se the cp
ital? Locate Pueblo.
Spanish descent. Leadville. Colorado
Albuquerque is a tr Springs.
io. Bound New Mex-
growing town. ico. Is it a state or a
Santa F6, the territory? What are
the occupations? Of
capital, is one of the what descent are many
oldest towns in the A caton. of the people? Locate
Union. Albuquerque. What
and where isthe capital?
ii. Arizona Territory.-Sheep-raising and ii. Bound Arizona Territory. What are the principal
the mining of silver and copper are the pin- occupations ? What is said of the climate? Locate Tuc-
son. What and where is the capital?
cipal occupations. The climate of the southern 12. Bound Utah Territory. Where are the settle-
part is very hot. ments? What are the leading industries? What and
part is very hotwhere is the capital? Locate Ogden.




THE NORTH-WESTERN STATES.

DESCRIPTION.
Maoi Questions on fage 51.
I. Position and Surface.-This division lies 2. The country between these two chains is
west of the Northern States. Two chains of an elevated table-land, on which are several
lofty mountains pass through it. The western mountain ranges.
chain is called the Cascade Mountains; the 3. The climate is mild and pleasant near
eastern chain, the Rocky Mountains. the Pacific Ocean, and the rain-fall is abundant;






'39_ -,.;frJ -oLoJ d We, frn.' wth .



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oo p CCIP






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0,.. do F

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._ t '. .f ., -"







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Fla r
: Z., o .. o / t / .LRawlin .. b g
L.aram ;e C Y. ErN
Evanston
I Mt 5
"0" ,-.. T


NORTH-WESTERN STATES


*- = ------- -.- -. .-
r .. r.
aili
k. rv- b F- r- B mv .&-.K IU







THE NORTH-WESTERN STATES. 51

8. Oregon.-The. fertile valley between the
Coast Range and the Cascade Mountains is the
most densely settled part of the state. Agri-
-- -culture and lumbering are the leading indus-
( tries. There are valuable salmon fisheries on
the Columbia River.
Portland, East Portland, and Salem, the cap-
ital, are on the Willamette River.
QUESTIONS.-I. Where is this division? What chains
of mountains pass through it ?-2. What is said of the
country between these chains ?-3. What is said of the
--- climate ?-4. What are the largest rivers in the divi-
sion ?-5. Where are the forests? Why do not plants
thrive in the interior?-6. What
Yellowstone Lake. r .-r tl, r s:- 1,.rid? Vh.i t is
01 I'ur-_ L: ari n r --i. ll t I -
but it is dry and subject to great extremes of of r,-, Ir ,.J *:,:upir, i .
heat and cold in the interior. und r ...
4. Rivers.-The Columbia and the Mis- leln: r n ilurr.i L.:. I-.:,,
souri are the most important rivers in this divi- land, ]-i ,,rtl.n, an t[h aptall.
sion. They are navigable for several hundred
miles.
5. Magnificent forests of red and yellow fir
occur near the Pacific Ocean and on the slopes .
of the mountains. Useful plants do not thrive
on the table-lands, on account of the dryness of
the climate.
6.. Gold, silver, copper, and coal are found
in this region. Fur-bearing animals are abun-
dant in the forests and along the streams.
7. This is the most sparsely settled part of
the Union. Mining and cattle-raising are the
principal occupations. A Herd of Buffaloes.



0 at arcSO
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< ,D ,,
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S. Shaala 1 ..


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f x ..- | Virginia City,, '
,* I "- 1.I-.-"


L i. -2 -A I. CA O CIT I
_ .- ,. -.. .._'. ~ |- ....1

W I





3" ---P--^,, -^'-- __^^ ^--- --- ^ __ ------------------*
E. ureka
0 Virginia City ..,
Ni c ..-.,Mi.itf- i ,i d-iLJ- I '
A E A D A





"" -------- I
Oakland ). u-_ .,,-'

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Sn Jose "




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I' o ,- .




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a]1. !~ '~Diego
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S.. a,.r,.. l,. . ',,








WESTERN STATES. 53

9. Washington became a state in 1889. ing is the chief occupation. Much coal is mined
Large quantities of fir lumber are exported. in the southern part. The "Yellowstone Na-
Coal is mined near Puget Sound. tional Park" is noted for its geysers.
', Seattle, Tacoma, and Spokane are the largest Cheyenne is the capital. Laramie City and
cities. Olympia is the capital. Rawlins are growing towns.
, o. Idaho became a state in 1890. Mining is QUESTIONS.-9. Bound the state of Washington. What
the leading industry, is exported? What mineral is found? Name and
Bois6 City is the capital. locate the two largest towns. What and where is the
capital?
11. Montana became a state in 1889. Sil- o1. Bound the state of Idaho. What is the leading in-
ver and gold are extensively mined. Many of dusty? What and where is the capital metals are
ii. Bound the state of Montana. What metals are
the valleys have a fertile soil. mined? What and where is the capital ?
Sis t cit a l t 12. Bound the state of'Wyoming. What are the chief
Helena is the capital and largest town. occupations? What is said of the National Park? What
12. Wyoming became a state in 1890. Graz- is the capital? Locate Laramie City. Rawlins.




WESTERN STATES.






--- ----








ian Fr ro~co

MIAP yL'Ez ,..
What states on the north of this division ?-What two DESCR
territories on the east ?-What country on the south ?-
What ocean on the west ?-What mountains along the I. The Western States include California
Pacific coast ?-Between California and Nevada ?-What and Nevada, and lie south of the North-western
mountain peak in northern California ?-What two rivers
in central California ?-What river between California states and Territories.
and Arizona?-In northern Nevada ?-Name a lake in 2. The surface east of the Sierra Nevada is
California.-One between California and Nevada.-What a plateau over a mile high, broken by many
bay extends from the Pacific Ocean into this division ?- mountains extending generally north and south.
Name a cape on the Pacific coast.-What is the capital This lateau descends gradually to the Mohave
of California ?-On what river is it situated ?-What city re
on the Bay of San Francisco ?-What and where is the Desert, which is. but little over half a mile high.
capital of Nevada ?-What city is near it ? The Colorado Desert in the extreme south is
E. G.-6.







54 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.

below the level of the sea. A broad, low val- garden vegetables. Much of the division is
ley occupies most of California between the adapted to stock-growing, and the raising of
Sierra Nevada and the Coast Range. sheep is an important industry.
3. The Sierra Nevada are the highest 8. Mining is the principal occupation in the
mountains of this division, and form a rough mountainous regions, in which are rich deposits
and broken mountain mass which abounds in of gold, silver, copper, and quicksilver.
magnificent scenery. Mount Whitney-the 9. California is called the Golden State."
most elevated peak-is almost three miles high. Large crops of grain are produced, and much
The Yosemite Valley, on the western slope of these wheat is exported. Fruits and grapes thrive,
mountains, is famous for the wild beauty of its scenery. and much wine is manufactured. The richest
It is about eight miles long and two miles wide, and is gold mines in the world are on the western
hemmed in by precipitous slope of the Sierra
mountain walls about evada. Quicksilver
three quarters of a mile Cit
high. Several streams is found in th Coast
fall over these cliffs, Range.
forming some of the San Francisco is the
grandest cascades in the largest city in the
world. state. Los Angeles is
4. The climate the second in size.
west of the Sierra Sacramento is the
Nevada is mild. capital.
There are but two io. Nevada is
seasons in this re- called the "Silver
gion-a wet season St.t, -:.n wat.l:..nt i:1 the richness of its mines,
and a dry season. A hicli aere l.e:. it:l eri ncipally in the western
The plateau region part In tlj, cxtrcme south-east farming is
has a dry climate. pr,-,t:,able, tl.,uh tehr._l-.ughout most of the state
5. The Colorado the climate is too dry for crops. Stock-raising
River borders this division on the south-east, and is pursued largely.
is navigable through this part of its course. The Virginia City is a mining town. Carson City
Sacramento and the San Joaquin are navigable is the capital. Eureka is a growing place.
for some distance from their mouth. They drain QUESTIONS.-I. Where are the Western States? Name
the northern and central parts of California. them. Bound this division.-2. Describe the surface.
Where are the Mohave and Colorado deserts? Where is
The Humboldt River has no outlet to the sea. a broad, low valley ?-3. Describe the Sierra Nevada.
There are many beautiful lakes in this division. What is the highest peak ?-4. Describe the climate.
How many seasons are there west of the Sierra Ne-
6. Along the Pacific coast and on the west- vada ? What climate has the plateau region ?-5. Name
ern slopes of the Sierra Nevada are magnificent the principal rivers. Describe the Sacramento. The San
forestsJoaquin. The Humboldt. Are there any lakes in this
forests, division ?--6. Where are the forests ?-7. What is said of
On the western slope of the Sierra Nevada are several the soil? Name some of the products. What is said of
sheep-raising ?-8. Where is mining the principal occu-
groves of "Big Trees;" some of these trees are almost pation? What is said of the metals?
4o0 feet high. 9. Bound California. What is it called ? Why ? What
is said of its productions? Describe San Francisco.
7. The soil west of the Sierra Nevada is Los Angeles. What and where is the capital?
very fertile, and produces large crops of wheat, io. Bound Nevada. What is it called? Why? Where
is farming profitable? Locate Virginia City. What and
barley, and oats, as well as fine fruits and where is the capital? Name another town.











BRITISH AMERICA.
























DESCRIPTION.
Afap Questions on Pege 56.


America north of the United States except important river in British America. It is navi-
Alaska, Greenland, and Iceland. It belongs to gable for the largest ocean steamers to Montreal.
Great Britain. Steamboats descend the rapids above Montreal,
2. The Dominion of Canada embraces all but ascend by means of canals.
of British America except Newfoundland and 7. The Mackenzie is the largest river,
Labrador. though it is so far north that it is filled with
3. The Cordilleras extend through the ice much of the year. The Ottawa, the Nelson,
western part. The remainder is a plain tray- and the Saskatchewan are important streams.
ersed by ranges of hills or low mountains along 8. Lakes.-The Great Lakes lie partly in
the water-sheds. the Dominion of Canada. Of other Canadian
4. The climate is subject to great extremes, lakes, Great Bear, Great Slave, Athabasca, Deer,
The winters are long and cold; the summers and Winnipeg are the largest.
are short and warm.
5. It is so cold in the northern part that QUESTIONS.-. What does British America include?
trees can not grow. There are exten- To what country does it belong ?-2 Bound the Dominion
large trees can not of Canada. What does it embrace ?-3. Describe the
sive forests south of this cold region, and surface-4. Describe the e climate-5. What is said of the
prairies in the south-western part east of the northern part? Where is the foret region? Where are
ersed rages of hs or ow ountansaries ?-6 What is said of the St. Lawrence ?-7. Of
Cordilleras. the Mackenzie ? Other rivers ?-8. What is said of lakes ?
(55)






S ,, L ,.g. A,*.- mn*. -.. --.. I MAP QUESTIONS.
h r" I Wht r,'ean and i,,.t bay on the north?-W\hat
-- a-. .:can in the c:1 '-W\'ht c:.intry .isuth--\' hat
.- - ,. -f oe.n aid ,h-at ,o.,untra ) ,clt- V-,jat ar._hIp.l.ago
n the north \Vh -tr a n. hiat channel
b..t t>;in i Billin Lind nid the main-l di-
tr8ht iunt Liiii bet.. cen F.s. C channel and
*-r... ...__-_,, ..^ h 'i;\ r..,-hW. l-,at sl.ril..l 1 B i.. l r tish
"in .- .- .- .-- '' A .:.h
1.... "r 1,- s', I I... .i-- ..... t Ir" --..:-' -W h"..t- *'- .....
S, .... ", '7 "J' \- -

\ p"rt. \'l ,11 .J e..t'
-':, ,' 1, *- p i"i" ','-




a I
s_ t r. E t ... .f- A0 N,% Sf_.-_ %V < .. r .tr


S t. ... .-1 -'; : \- I e .
:"; ,L -_ \-







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o: I ... 4 ,I- it 0 t .t LL'% "% -- -1 -.,. ..... ... -
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i|, *:n the n':.rih \ 'h t -- on h- east \\V h-t[ ..." i i i the 1 --
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-- ,.,.,' -I, '. A .- ,,ni d ,-*- ,-- i, .,,_.i .b I.- B r iI i ,-C A






Wa peni-sula in the south-cast ?-What division notth of Nova Scotia West
_of New _._runswiek ?-West of Quebec ?-West of Ontario ?-Name the c-apita -, ~ _' '- -
of _Aah-O e t D o Ca




"of e-ach O t D of i-, -- "-- ~ -- *-' -
'4;V~^ ... ,_ V .,C ,. i ....0,







of New .Brunswick ?--West of Quebec?--West of Ontario?--Name the capital .. . :_.
of each.--Of Newfoundland.--Of the Dominion of Canada.








MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, AND THE WEST INDIES. 57

9. Productions.-Gold is mined in the west, capital of Nova Scotia, is a great naval station.
and silver is found near Lake Superior. Cop- Ottawa is the capital of the whole Dominion.
per, iron ore, coal, and salt are also found. Fredericton is the capital of New Brunswick.
10. The southern part only is settled. Large Victoria is the capital of British Columbia;
crops of grain, hay, and __ Winnipeg is the capi-
potatoes are raised. tal of Manitoba; and
I Farming, lum- Charlottetown is the
being, and the hunting _. capital of Prince Ed-
of fur-bearing animals .' .ward Island.
are the leading occu- .- 14. Newfoundland
nations. Large num- is a rocky island with
bers of people are a sterile soil. The
employed in the salmon, inhabitants are princi-
cod, herring, and mack- pally engaged in the
erel fisheries. cod fisheries. St. Johns
12. The Dominion is the capital. The east
of Canada is composed r coast of Labrador is
of the provinces of under the control of
Cod-fishing near Newfoundland.
Nova Scotia, Prince Newfoundland.
Edward Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, QUESTIONS.-9. Where is gold found? Silver? What
Man and British Columbia; the districts of their minerals are fund ?-io. What part is settled?
Manitoba, and British Columbia the districts of What is said of the crops ?-I I. What are the leading in-
Keewatin, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Athabasca, dustries ? What is said of the fisheries ?-12. Of what is
and Alberta, and some unorganized territory, the Dominion of Canada composed?--3. Describe
Montreal. Quebec. Toronto. Halifax. Ottawa. What
13. Montreal and Quebec, the provincial is the capital of New Brunswick? Of British Columbia?
l a the lar t cities of Q Of Manitoba Of Prince Edward Island ?-14. Describe
capital, are the largest cities of Quebec. To- Newfbundland. What is the capital? What part of
ronto is the capital of Ontario. Halifax, the the mainland is part of th. Colony of Newfoundland?




MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, AND

THE WEST INDIES.

DESCtI OPTION.

a1a Queslia::s on Page 58.

I. Mexico is almost one fourth as large as on the plateau. The year is divided into a wet
the United States. The surface is a high season and a dry season.
plateau, which rises from narrow coast plains. 3. Productions.-Coffee, sugar-cane, indigo,
The plateau is bordered on the west by the and tropical fruits are raised along the coasts,
Sierra Madre, and on the south by several vol- and forests of mahogany and palms are found.
canoes, of which Popocatepetl is the highest.
2. The climate is hot and unhealthful on the QUESTIONS.-I. Bound Mexico. Describe its surface.
Name the principal mountains. The highest volcano.-
low coast plains, but drier and more temperate 2. What is said of the climate ?-3. Of the products?








U N' I .. .. t : ...... I J-- 1 t '
"T E D r-
T I ..-




Il lil I--- ---
-' k I / I -,"- "W"-- -- --;- \- -- -- -



e, r ..!.A IrCA..., -- .a.-... K .




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L l_ .L F -r .... i.... .-. t_ _-" ; | ']i
-+ i -,.-.J ,, I s. ,-.-* -< J *..... .....
A- Ct 5 I--- ----

CENTRAL AMERICA, ------
-" ,-.



1 A, i. j,.z : C -
0-. IIJT.










MAP QUESTIONS. What mountains in the western part of Mexico uWhat .ocean west of1
,z ,A '

E X]('O, Majtmutisih w p:W








Central America ?-What sea east ?-What two gulfs on the east coast of
What country north of Mexico ?-What country south-east ?-What Central America ?-What gulf on the west coast ?-Name a lake in Central
ocean west ?-What gulf east,?--What gulf and what peninsula in the America.-What isthmus joins Central America to South America ?-What


ary ?-What peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea ?-Name the three chains of the West Indies.-Which chain contains
Sea ?-What isthmus in the south-eastern part of Mexico ?-What gulf the largest islands ?-Name the four largest islands.-What straits be-
north of the isthmus of Tehuantepec ?-What gulf south of this isthmus ?- tween Cuba and Florida ?-Name a city in Cuba.







MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, AND THE WEST INDIES. 59

4. Corn, wheat, and other plants common Nicaragua; San Jos6, of Costa Rica. Belize
in the United States are raised on the plateau. is the capital of the British colony of the same
Many cattle are also herded there, name.
5. Minerals.-The silver mines of Mexico 13. The West Indies consist of a large
are among the richest in the world. Gold, number of islands on the north and east of the
copper, and quicksilver are also found. Caribbean Sea.
* 6. The inhabitants are Indians or whites 14. CubA is the largest of these islands. It
of Spanish descent. The form of government belongs to Spain. Haiti is inhabited chiefly by
is republican. negroes, and is divided into two republics.
The republic of Mexico consists of twenty-seven stais, Jamaica belongs to England; Porto Rico, to
one federal district, and pain. Havana i; the. capital of Cuba, and
the territory of Lower th,.l I..'- lt city in th.. \ est Indies.
California. Each state
has an independent '..I,:l :' :u:-, r ir'.l th : finest tobacco used in the
has an independent
local government. i If- C Cba.
y .of t. I 5 T--h, I .-,tr I.-ir, islands and the chain of
7. The City of ". -
e the Ca n mall. r Ii .lst :.1 the Caribbean Sea are called
-Mexicoth_ .-!....'. s Th111 I-lands north of them be-
ital. It is situated long
in a wide valley long to Great Brit-
in a wide valley a and ce
surrounded by lofty .in, are called
s. PT W t is s o, the Bahamas. The
mountains. Vera
Antilles are mount-
Cruz is the principal > h ainous; the Baha-
s-ori't. ainous; the Baha-
sea-port. "t'"' prct -. H mas are low and
8. CentralAmer-
ica.-Like Mexico, lee
nearly all of this The first land of
region is a table-land .ost America discovered by
with low plains Christopher Columbus
along the coasts of a t -A ai was one of the Ba-
"r- :i hamas.
the Caribbean Sea. -
-Near the Pacific A Scene in Cuba. 16. Productions.
coast are many active volcanoes. -The principal products of the West Indies
9. Earthquakes are frequent, and have de- are sugar, tobacco, tropical fruits, and coffee.
stroyed many cities. QUESTIONS.-4. What are raised on the table-lands of
Io. Productions.-The most important prod- Mexico ?-5. What is said of the mines ?-6. Of the in-
ucts are indigo, rice, corn, sugar, cotton, coffee, habitants ? Of the form of government ?-7. What and
where is the capital? Where is Vera Cruz?
and tobacco. The mahogany tree grows in the 8. Bound Central America. Describe its surface.-9.
forests of the coast region. What is said about earthquakes ?--o. What are the most
important products ?-i 1. How many republics in Central
II. Central America consists of five inde- America? Name them. What colony?-I2. What is the
pendent republics, -Guatemala, Honduras, Sal- capital of Guatemala? Of San Salvador? onduras ?
Nicaragua? Costa Rica? Belize ?
vador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica,--and a 13. Where are the West Indies ?-14. Naine the four
British colony, largest islands. To what country do Cuba and Porto
Rico belong ? What is said of Haiti? Of Jamaica ? What
12. Guatemala and Salvador have capitals of is the capital of Cuba?--I 5. Where are the Antilles? The
the same names as the republics. Tegucigalpa Bahamas? Describe the surface of each chain. To
what country do the Bahamas belong?-16. What are the
is the capital of Honduras; Managua, of products of the West Indies?








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*r c -


F I


7 A.U N-AI TAD R S


-- -+ .., 0 "+- "c 8

o V


-- -r L 3L
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i o LC M ..I -M .aN
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UirttALAM MCA
P0. : ..... .
- _:_*__ -- : __ l' ^ : -t

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^ ;-- : -^ ..+ : . .. -j : --
7_-- -/^- V"--^ -- -. -- "1 -^ -



- ^ --y .| ^ -. . -- _-_










SOUTH AMERICA.






,












SSome Annrma oi, South Amer,.



%%'I, :a r,.rrh of Scoith Nnwr.:.- -L a :,, e:Lwt -\- hat orean
c,|'-\\ l',,l i'r ih..ir-i '., 1rol I-, r ti:- I ,a- l .. p. r "---\V h, [ _. .tia iLn
the east ?-In the north-east ?-What isthmus joins Central America to South
America?-What cape farthest north?-Farthest east?- What divisions occupy the northern part of South
Farthest south ?-Farthest west? America?-What division occupies the eastern part?--
What river north of the plateau of Guyana ?---What What one occupies about half of that portion of South
river empties into the Atlantic Ocean near the equator?- America lying west of the Andes ?-What two divisions
Name the largest northern tributary to the Amazon.-The east of Chili?-Which of these divisions is the larger?-
largest southern tributary.-What large river empties into What divisions are east of the Argentine Republic ?-
the Atlantic Ocean in the southern part of this grand- What two divisions west of Bolivia?-What division
division ?-What two rivers unite to form the Rio de la north-west of Peru ?-Name the divisions that border on
Plata ?-What is the largest tributary to the Parana the Atlantic Ocean.-On the Pacific Ocean.-On the Car-
River ?-What river empties into the Atlantic south of ibbean Sea.-Name the capital of each.-What islands
Cape Branco? south of South America?




DESCRIPTION.

I. South America occupies the southern Volcanoes are numerous, and earthquakes are
part of the Western continent. Its coast has frequent.
but few bays and harbors. The most of this range is about 2Y4 miles high, and
2. The Cordillera of the Andes extends many of the peaks rise to a height of more than four
along the Pacific coast. This is next to the miles.
highest mountain range in the world. Many hQESTIONS.-I. Where is South America? Bound it
"What is said of its coast]--2. Describe the Cordillera
of the peaks are always covered with snow. of the Andes.
(61)







62 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.

3. The Brazilian Plateau includes one 7. The climate of the greater part of South
fourth of South America. It is about a quarter America is hot and moist. The higher por-
of a mile high, and is traversed by several low tions of the Andes and the southern extremity
mountain chains. of the grand-division have a cold climate. Most
4. The Plateau of Guyana is in the north- of the west coast north of Valparaiso, and much
eastern part of the grand-division; it is a little of the southern part of the Argentine Repub-
higher, but much smaller, than the Brazilian lic, are very dry.
Plateau. 8. The animals of South America are the
5. A vast low plain lies between the tapir, the jaguar, the armadillo, the huge boa-
Andes and these two plateaus, and extends constrictor, many kinds of monkeys, the rhea or
from the Caribbean .: ,i ,.tri., and r.rr.' bdirl1 in the selvas; and
Sea to the Straits of immense herds of
Magellan. In dif- horses and cattle in
ferent parts this low the llanos and pam-
plain is called Ilanos, pas. The manatee,
selvas, and pampas. or sea-cow, is found
the Tos, prai in some of the riv-
The Ianaos, or pral- ,h h,
ries, have a wet season ers. The Ilama, the
and a dry season. alpaca, and the con-
During the wet portion dor are seen among
of the year they are the Andes.
covered with grasses
and shrubs, but during The llama and the
the dry season they are alpaca are valued for
the hottest part of their fine wool. The
America, and have the condor is one of the
appearance of a largest of birds.
parched desert. The s 9. South Amer-
selvas form the most ica contains but
extensive forests in the i
world, and occupy the little more than
valley of the Amazon. arers Cn one third as many
Many of the trees are of great size, and the foliage is people as North
so thick as to completely shade the ground from the rays America. The inhabitants are chiefly Indians or
of the sun. The selvas are the home of many of the descendants of Spanish or Portuguese settlers.
wild animals of South America. The fiamfas, like the
lanos, are covered with grass and tall weeds during the There are many negroes in Brazil.
wet season, which afford excellent pasturage for immense IO. South America is divided into ten inde-"
herds of horses, mules, and cattle. pendent republics, and the three colonies of

6. Most of the rivers of South America are Guyana, belonging to European nations.
QUESTIONs.-3. Describe the Brazilian Plateau.--4. The
navigable for a great distance. The Amazon Plateau of Guyana.-5. Locate and describe the low plain
River system is the largest in the world, and of the grand-division.--6. What is said of the rivers of
South America ? Describe the Amazon river system.
drains more than one third of the grand-division. What is said of the Orinoco system? Of the Rio de la
The Orinoco River system drains the llanos; Plata system ?-7. What is the climate of most of South
America? Where is it cold? Where dry ?-8. Name
that of the Rio de la Plata drains the northern some of the animals found in the selvas. On the lianos
part of the pampas. The Parana and Uruguay and parnas. Among the Andes.-9. What is said of the
population ? To what races do the inhabitants belong ?-
unite and form the Rio de la Plata. io. How is South America divided?







SOUTH AMERICA. 63

II. The United States of Brazil is larger of the President, though Sucre is the legal
than the United States without Alaska. It sup- capital.
plies half of the coffee used in the world, besides 18. Chili has many fine forests in the south.
some sugar. The sclvas in the north supply Wheat, copper, and saltpeter are exported.
much India rubber. The Portuguese language is Santiago is the capital. Valparaiso is the
spoken by most of the people. principal sea-port.
Rio Janeiro is the capital. Balia is an im- 19. The Argentine Republic contains most
portant sea-port. of the pampas. Herding is the principal occu-
12. Guyana belongs to three European na- pation. Wool and hides are exported. The
tions,-Great Britain, The Netherlands, and southern part is called Patagonia.
France. Sugar and rum are produced. George- Buenos Ayres, the capital, is the largest
town is the capital of the British colony; Para- city in the Argentine Republic.
maribo, of the Dutch; and Cayenne, of the 20. Uruguay has many grassy plains. Herd-
French. ing cattle is the chief occupation.
13. Venezuela.-The northern and southern Montevideo is the capital.
parts are forest-covered 21. Paraguay.-
mountains; the central ... -- Agriculture is the prin-
part lies in the llanos. cipal industry.
Coffee and cacao, from Asuncion is the cap-
which chocolate is ital.
made, are produced. QUESTIONS.--I. Bound
Caracas is the capital. the United States of Brazil.
Ecu i'd' What is said of its size ?
14. The United I What does Brazil supply to
States of Colombia is the world? What language
States of Colombia is produce 16. Bound P Wha is spoke Name n lo-
traversed by three is spoken? Name and lo-
t reversed by three cate the capital. An im-
chains of the Andes, A Scene on the Pampas. portant sea-port.
w12. Bound Guyana. To
which render the sur- whom does it belong? What
face mountainous. Cinchona, from which qui- reproduced? Name and locate the capital of each colony.
13. Bound Venezuela. Describe the country. What
nine is made, coffee, and gold and silver are are the products ? What and where is the capital?
produced. 14. Bound the United States of Colombia. Describe
its surface. What are the products ? Name and locate
Bogota is the capital. the capital.
I5. Ecuador.-The Andes are narrow but I5. Bound Ecuador. What is said of the mountains?
What is the chief product? What and where is the
very high in this country, and contain two capital?
noted volcanoes. Cacao is produced. i6. Bound Peru. What is said of the surface ? What
is famous in Peru? Name and locate the capital.
Quit, the capital, is on the equator. 17. Bound Bolivia. What is said of the surface? Of
16. Peru.-The Andes broaden into a high the mines? What and where is the legal capital? The
uin Peru, upon which is Lake Titicaca, largest city ?
plateau in Peru, upon which is Lake Titicaca, l8. Bound Chili. Where are forests? What are the
the highest large fresh-water lake in the world. exports? What and where is the capital? The largest
sea-port?
The silver mines of Peru are famous. 19. Bound the Argentine Republic. What does it con-
Lima is the capital. tain ? What is the principal occupation ? What are the
exports? What is the southern part called? What and
17. Bolivia lies partly on the high plateau, where is the capital?
from which rise many lofty peaks. There are 20. Bound Uruguay. What is the chief occupation ?
valuable silver and copper mines. What and where is the capital ?
"21. Bound Paraguay. What is the principal industry?
La Paz is the largest city and the residence WVhat and where is the capital ?







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EUROPE.
ANTWERP PARIS










SL

""- iii .- Jl.-"


"Scenes ,n Edrope.

3. The surface i. m,-,untainous in the
.estt; but the eat,:rn half of Europe is a
.-- ...vast iw plain.

4. The Alps F-rm the highest mountain
system lying wholly in Europe.
DESCRIPTIO N. Many of the peaks are always covered with snow, and
many glaciers, or rivers of ice, are found upon their
I. Europe is the north-western part of the sides. The grandeur of the scenery attracts thousands
Eastern continent. It is less than half as large of tourists. The Carpathians, the Apennines, and the
as North America. Balkan Mountains are parts of the Alpine system.
2. The shape of Europe is more irregular QESTIONS.--. Where is Europe? Bound it. What
is said of its size ?-2. Of its shape ?-3. Describe the sur-
"than that of any other grand-division. face.-4. What are the highest mountains in Europe ?


SS .
% t i -", Z .
C- . ,S O -,
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-da 0| 5 1 CS

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C C g0 C C C C I '! 0 r-
"" M C .) .C,_.. > C,
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66 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.

5. The Pyrenees form the next highest 13. The British Isles are part of the
range in Europe. The Kiolen Mountains, in "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire-
the north, and the Urals, in the east, are very land." The larger island is called Great Britain,
low chains, and includes England, Scotland, and Wales; the
The Caucasus Mountains are very high, but properly smaller island comprises simply Ireland.
belong to the mountain systems of Asia.
Besides the British Isles, the United Kingdom in-
6. The rivers of greatest importance are the cludes immense possessions in Asia, Africa, America,
Volga, the Danube, and the Rhine. and Australia.
The Volga is the largest river in Europe; it empties 14. England is the most important and the
into the Caspian Sea, which lies below the level of the most densely populated part of the kingdom.
ocean and has no outlet. It is about as large as the state of New York,
7. The lakes of Europe are small, and lie but contains half as many people as the whole
chiefly among the Alps United States. The
and around the Baltic '- -- -- surface is mostly a low,
Sea. fertile plain. More coal,
8. The climate is iron, tin, and lead are
temperate, and warmer mined, and more cloth
than that of North i- is manufactured, than
America in similar i .- in any other country of
latitudes. It is much the world. The com-
warmer and moister in i W merce of England is
the west and south than very extensive.
in the north and east. 15. London, the cap-
9. The forests of i ia -- tal, is the largest city
Europe are chiefly in London Bridge. and the commercial
north-central Russia and center of the world.
on the mountain slopes of the west. All of the Liveipool is an important sea-port. AManchester
plants raised in the United States, except is noted for its cotton manufactures.
.cotton, are also cultivated in Europe. Wheat 16. Scotland is a mountainous country. Glas-
.and potatoes are staples. In the south, grapes, gow is the largest city. Edinburgh is the next
oranges, olives, and figs are grown. in size.
Jo. The population is greater than that of Wales is a small, mountainous country.
any other grand-division except Asia. The QUESTIONS.-5. Describe the Pyrenees. Name and
people are mostly Caucasians. In the south- locate two other chains.-6. What are the three most im-
east and in the extreme north, there are a few portant rivers? Describe each of them.-7. Where are
the lakes of Europe? Which is the largest ?-8. Describe
Mongolians. the climate.-9. Where are the forest regions? What
i i. The principal animals are the white bear plants are cultivated in Europe ?--o. What is said of the
population ? To what races do the people belong ?--i i.
and the reindeer, in the north; the chamois, What animals are found ?-12. Into how many countries
among the Alps; the wolf, in the east; the is Europe divided? Which are republics? What are
the rest ?
deer, the fox, and many kinds of birds. Do- 13. Of what kingdom do the British Isles form a part?
mestic animals are carefully reared. What is the larger island called ? The smaller ?-14. De-
scribe England. For what is it noted?--5. What and
12. Europe is divided into nineteen independ- where is the capital? Describe London. Where is
ent countries. France and Switzerland are re- Liverpool? Manchester?-i6. Describe Scotland. Where
is Glasgow? Edinburgh? What islands north of Scot-
publics; the rest are monarchies, land? Describe Wales.








EUROPE. 67

17. Ireland is a low, fertile plain. Agri- 25. Agriculture and manufacturing are the
culture is the chief occupation. Dublin is the leading industries. Much coal and iron, zinc,
largest city. Linen cloth is made at Belfast. and other metals are mined. The Germans are
18. Norway and Sweden occupy the Scan- noted for their industry and intelligence.
dinavian peninsula, which is about as large as 26. Berlin, the capital, is the third city of
Texas. The western part of this region is a Europe in size. Hamburg is the great commer-
mountainous plateau; the eastern, a low plain. cial city. Breslau is in a mining and flax-grow-
19. Much pine lumber is exported. Iron, ing region.
copper, and lead are mined. The fisheries on 27. Austro-Hungary is an empire. It is
the coast of Norway are valuable. the largest country of western Europe, but is
20. Each kingdom makes its own laws, but not quite so large as the state of Texas.
both have the 28. The cen-
same king, who Wi- trial portion is a
res ides at -- -- low plain, which
Stockholm, is surrounded

Sweden. ains. Agricult-
Christiania ure and grazing
is the capital of are the chief
Norway. pursuits.
21. Russia 29. Vienna,
occupies more he seventh city
than one half of Th of Europe in
Europe. It is -. size, is the cap-
a low plain, 2. ital. Buda and
through which Pcsth are con-
flow many long, nected by bridg-
flow many long, wte A Winter Scene in Eastern Russia. nected by bridg-
navigable riv- es, and are often
ers. In the south are extensive steppes, or tree- spoken of together as one town,-Buda-Pesth.
less prairies.
less prairies. QUESTIONS.-I7. Describe Ireland. Where is Dublin?
The winters in the east are very cold, and much of Belfast? What sea and what channel east of Ireland?
the traveling is done in sleighs. 18. Where are Norway and Sweden ? Bound Norway.
Bound Sweden. Describe the surface of the Scandina-
22. Agriculture is the principal occupation. vian peninsula.-I9. What is said about lumber ? Min-
Large crops of wheat are raised in southern erals? Fisheries ?-2o. The government? What and
where is the capital of Sweden? Of Norway? Where
Russia. Wheat, hemp, and flax are the lead- does the king reside ?
ing exports. 21. Bound Russia. What part of Europe does it
23. St. Petersburg is the capital; Moscow, occupy? Describe the surface. Where are steppes?
3. St. Petersburg Describe the Ural River. The Volga. The Dnieper.
Warsaw, Odessa, and Rzga are important cities. The Dwina.-22. What is the principal occupation?
24. Germany is an empire. The southern What products are exported ?-23. What and where is the
capital? Where is Moscow? Warsaw? Odessa? Riga?
part lies on the Alpine plateau; the northern 24. Bound Germany. What is said of its surface?
part is a low plain. It is the most populous Population ?-25. Industries ? For what are the Germans
part is a low plain. It is the most populous noted ?-26. What and where is the capital? Describe
country in western Europe. Every man in Hamburg. Breslau.
Germany is obliged to serve for three years in 27. Bound Austro-Hungary. What is said of its
size ?-28. Surface ? What are chief pursuits ?-29. What
the army. and where is the capital? Describe two other towns.








68 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.

30. The kingdom of Denmark is low and of Sicily and Sardinia. Raising the silk-worm
sandy. Agriculture, herding, and fishing are and sardine-fishing are important industries.
the principal occupations. 38. Naples, the largest city, has a beautiful
Copenhagen is the capital. location. Milan and Turin are centers of silk
31. The kingdom of Belgium is the most culture. Rome is the capital of Italy, and the
densely populated country in the world. Its residence of the Pope; it is famous as the
manufactures and commerce are extensive, capital of the ancient world.
Brussels is the capital. 39. The empire of Turkey is a mountainous
32. The kingdom of The Netherlands is so country, with many fertile valleys. The ruler
low that dikes, or walls of earth, are built along is called the Sultan. The Turks belong to the
the sea-shore to keep the water from overflow- yellow race, and are Mohammedans.
ing. The people are called "Dutch," and are Constantinople is the capital.
engaged principally 40. Rumania and
in commerce and Servia are king-
dairy-farming. doms. Montenegro
Amsterdam is the is a principality.
largest city. The These states export
Hague is the cap- cattle and grain.
ital. Bukharest is the
33. The republic capital of Rumania;
of Switzerland con- Belgrade, of Ser-
sists of twenty-five via; and Cetinje, of
states, or cantons. Montenegro.
The fine scenery at- Z- ,. 41. The kingdom
tracts many visitors. A Scene in Germany. of Greece exports
Berne is the capital. wine, currants, and
34. France is a little larger than the Middle honey. Athens is the capital.
States. The eastern part is mountainous; the
low and level. More wine and silk are QUESTIONS.--o. Bound Denmark. Describe it. Its
western, low and level. More wine and silk are industries. What and where is the capital?
produced than in any other country of Europe. 31. BoundBelgium. Describeit. Where is the capital?
The island of Corsica is a part of the republic 32. Bound the Netherlands. Describe the surface.
What are the people called? What are their occupa-
of France. tions ? Where is the capital ? What is the largest city ?
35. Paris, the capital, is noted for the beauty capialund Switzerland. Describe it. What is the
of its churches and other buildings. Lyons has 34. Bound France. What is said of the surface ? Of the
extensive silk manufactories. Marseilles, Bor- productions? Of Corsica ?-35. What and where is the
capital? Locate Lyons. Marseilles. Bordeaux. Havre.
deaux, and Havre are the principal sea-ports. 36. Bound Spain. Bound Portugal. Where are these
36. Spain and Portugal.-These kingdoms kingdoms? Describe the surface. What are the chief
products ? What minerals are found? What and where
occupy the Spanish peninsula) which is a dry is the capital of Spain? Of Portugal?
plateau traversed by mountain chains Wheat, 37. Bound Italy. What islands long to it? What
are important industries ?-38. What and where is the
wool, olives, and grapes are the chief products. capital? Describe it. Naples. Milan. Turin.
Quicksilver, iron, copper, and lead are found. 39. Bound Turkey. Describe its surface. What is
the ruler called? What is said of the Turks? What
Madrid is the capital of Spain; Lisbon, the and where is the capital ?
capital of Portugal. 40. Bound Rumania. Servia. Montenegro. What
and where is the capital of each?
37. The kingdom of Italy includes the islands 41. Bound and describe Greece. What is the capital?









ASIA.
IF



















D ESC RIPTIO N.
-_i -_ .._ --















is about twice the size of North America, and is the largest of the
grand-divisions.
2. The Ural Mountains and the Ural River 6. Rivers and Lakes.-The Yenisei, Lena,
separate it from Europe; the Isthmus of Suez and Obi are the longest rivers in Asia, but the
connects it with Africa. Yang-tse Kiang, Ganges, Amoor, and Indus
3. Six great seas wash the eastern coast, are the most important.
and are separated from the Pacific by chains 7. Most of the lakes and inland seas of
of islands. Two large seas and a bay from Asia are salt; the largest-Caspian Sea-lies
the Indian Ocean bound the southern coast. below the level of the ocean. Baikal is the
4. Surface.-The northern part of Asia is largest fresh-water lake.
a low plain. There are also low plains in 8. Climate.-The northern 'plain is one of
eastern China, central India, and south-eastern the coldest regions in the world. The dry cen-
Turkey. The central and southern parts of the tral plateaus are very cold in winter, and very
grand-division consist of vast plateaus, bordered hot in summer. The southern part of Asia is
and traversed by some of the highest mountains moist and hot.
in the world.
5. The Himalaya Mountains border the QUEsTION--I. Where is Asia? Bound it. What is
said of its size ?-2. How is it separated from Europe?
high Plateau of Thibet on the south. These How connected with Africa?-3. Name the six seas on
are the loftiest mountains of Asia, and contain the east. The two seas on the south. The bay.--4. De-
scribe the surface of northern Asia. Of central and
peaks almost 5 Y miles high. The Kuen Lun, southern Asia. Where are other low plains ?-5. What
the Hindoo Koosh, and the Altai Mountains are the loftiest mountains? Name three other high
chains.-6. What is said of the rivers ?-7. Of the lakes
are also very high chains. and inland seas ?-8. Of the climate ?
(69)








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ASIA.

9. The bleak plains in the extreme north is so cold that water freezes every night in the
are covered with mosses, and are called tundras. year. Hunting fur-bearing animals and mining
The plateaus of Central Asia are too dry for are the chief occupations. Tiflis, in Caucasia;
plants, to grow. Tashkend, in Russian Turkistan; Irkootsk, in
10. There are extensive forests in Central Eastern Siberia; and Omsk, in Western Siberia,
Siberia and along the lower mountain slopes are the most important towns.
throughout the grand-division. In the hot 15. The Chinese Empire is larger than
southern countries the vegetation is luxuriant, the whole of Europe. China proper is only a
and the forests are very r small part of the em-
dense. --. pire, but contains most
i In parts of Asia, of the inhabitants.
wheat, rice, cotton, tea, 1 T i6. The Chinese are

the peach grow wild. _4 i ural people, belonging
12. Among the ani- to the Mongolian race.
mals are the elephant, Rice, tea, and silk are
the rhinoceros, the .. the principal products.
camel, the lion, the Canton, in the south,
tiger, the monkey, and J ese T is the largest city. Pe
the crocodile, besides many strange and beauti- King, in the north, is the capital. Tien-Tsin
fully-colored birds. is an important port.
13. Asia contains more than half the people
in the world. In the east, they are mostly QUESTIONS.-9. Describe the tundras.-io. Where are
extensive forests ?-I I. What plants grow wild in parts of
Mongolians; in the west, mostly Caucasians; Asia ?-12. What animals are found ?-13. What is said
in the south-east and in the Malay Archipel- of the people of Asia? To what races do they belong?
14. What is the northern part of the Russian posses-
.ago, they belong to the Malay race. sions in Asia called ? What is said of the size of these
14. The Russian Possessions in Asia ex- possessions? Of the climate? Of the occupations?
Where is Tiflis? Tashkend? Irkootsk? Omsk?
tend entirely across the northern part of the 15. What countries compose the Chinese Empire?
grand-division, and are almost twice as large as What is said of its size ? Of China proper ?-16. Of its
inhabitants? Products? Where is the largest city?
the United States. In some parts, the climate What and where is the capital? Locate Tien-Tsin.


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72 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.

17. The Empire of Japan occupies the isl- 21. Persia, Afghanistan, and Beloochistan
ands between Formosa island and the peninsula are independent monarchies lying on the plateau
of Kamchatka. The surface is mountainous, of Iran. The climate is dry and hot. Herding
There are many active volcanoes. The Japanese sheep, goats, and camels are the principal occu-
are a polite and ingenious people, and the most pations.
highly civilized of the Mongolian races. Agri- Teheran is the capital of Persia; Cabool, of
culture is the leading industry. Afghanistan; and Kelat, of Beloochistan.
Tokio is the capital; Kioto, an important city. 22. Turkistan is mostly a low, sandy desert.
18. Farther India includes Birmah belonging The people are Mongolian, and roam about
to England, and the independent kingdoms Siam, with their flocks and herds. K/iva and Bok-
and Anam, besides Cam- /zara are in fertile spots
bodia, which belongs to in the desert.
France. The surface is 23. Turkey in Asia
mountainous and cov- extends from the Straits
ered with dense forests. / of Bab el Mandeb and
Rice, indigo, spices, and the Persian Gulf to the
tropical fruits are raised. Black Sea. About half
Most of the people are of the people are Mon-
Mongolians, though golians; the other half
there are some Malays are Caucasians.
in the Malay Penin- ';_ Smynza is the largest
sula. city.
Bangkok is the cap- 24. Palestine is a
ital of Siam; Hue, of small part of Syria, in
Anam; and Saigon, of Tuik. It i, ....! as the country in which
Cambodia. I J-.u- Chr'-t I -cl n:Cli died.
19. The Malay Arch- .i.' n .". i .:,I,. cil..dled the Holy City.
ipelago includes the 25. Arabia is mostly a dry and sterile plateau,
islands between Asia over which the Arabs roam with their herds of
and Australia; those lying farther north or west fine horses.
than Macassar Straits are part of Asia. The Oman, in the east, is the most fertile part.
islands are covered with dense forests, and con- Muzscat is the chief town.
tain many volcanoes. Most of the Archipelago
belongs to the Dutch. Batavia, on Java, is OUESTIONS.--I7. Where is Japan? What is said of
belongs to it? hat and where is the capital? Locate Kioto.
the principal city. 18. What does Farther India include? Describe the
The Philippine Islands belong to Spain surface, products, and people. What and where is the
capital of Siam? Anam? Cambodia?
Manila is the capital and chief town. 19. Where is the Malay Archipelago? Describe it.
The Philippine Islands. Locate Batavia. Manila.
20. India is about half as large as the United 20. Bound India. Describe it. What and where is
States, and belongs to Great Britain. The val- the capital? Where is Bombay? Madras?
21. Bound Persia. Afghanistan. Beloochistan. De-
ley of the Ganges is very fertile, and great crops scribe them. Name and locate the capital of each.
of opium, rice, and cotton are raised. The 22. Bound Turkistan. Describe it. Where are Khiva
and Bokhara?
people are Caucasian, and are called Hindoos." 23. Where is Turkey ? To what races do the people
Bombay, Calcutta, the capital, and Madras belong ? What and where is the largest town ?
24. For what is Palestine noted ? Where is Jerusalem?
are the most important cities. 25. Describe Arabia. What is the chief town ?











AFRICA.










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i. a is te suh-w n gn the zebra, the crocodile, the gorilla, and the
Africa is the south-western grand-division .
ostrich.
of the Eastern continent. It is three times asa
large as Europe. In the southern part of Africa, ostriches are raised
2. This grand-division is a vast table-land, upon "ostrich farms" for their feathers.
with narrow low plains along the coasts. The 6. Most of the inhabitants of Africa belong
principal mountain ranges are on the margin of to the Ethiopian, or black, race. The Cauca-
the table-land, which is higher in the southern sian race inhabits the countries bordering on
and eastern than in the northern and western the Mediterranean and Red seas.
parts.
of t QUESTIONS.-. In what part of the Eastern continent
3. The principal rivers ar the Niger, the iAfrica? What is said of its size? Bound itc-2. De-
Nile, the Congo, and the Zambezi. The prin- scribe the surface-3. Describe the Niger River. The
with narrow low pais a ongai t casts. T Nile. The Congo. The Zambezi. The Orange. Where
cipal lakes areis Lake Albert? Victoria? Tanganyika? Nyassa?
and Tchad. Tchad?-4. Describe the climate of Africa. Where is
4.t Africa is situated chiefly in the torrid th mist region hat Namesome of u the rdrinia idn
zone, and has a hotter climate than any other belong? What countries do the whites inhabit?
(73)
(73)










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AFRICA. 75



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A Caravan in the' Sahara.

MAP QUESTIONS. 7. The Barbary States are Morocco, Al-

What sea north of Africa ?-What ocean east ?-What eria, Tunis, and Tripoli. Morocco is inde-
ocean west?-What sea between Africa and Asia?-What pendent; Algeria and Tunis belong to France.
straits connect the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden ?- Tripoli belongs to Turkey.
What channel between Africa and Madagascar ?-What 8. Egypt occupies the lower part of the
gulf on the western coast?-What straits connect the Nile valley. The valley of the Nile is very
Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean ?-Through l i t a
fertile. Grain and cotton are the
what lake does the equatfrica-- t ocean est?--What eria, Tunis, and Tripoli. Morocco inde-
nects Afric a and Asia?-VI -- ..What pe t i; ri ncid l products. Egypt is

most eastern pointed Red a with the -ir .. Cairo is the cap-
Africa?-Whatonne ween Africa and Madagascar --W vital; Alexandria,t the
Name two high peaks near t I
~tor'-Wh'at ontm ,principal sea-port.
extreme south? What rivn i co W 9. The sahara
into the Mediterranean iSa with te A tic Oais a rocky and sandy
Sea?-In what lakes /qu r desert nearly as large
.does it rise ad ?-What -.. I'.: ,. !,- ,,,: as the United States
river empties into Mo- Its inhabitants live
zambique Channel?-
Into the Gulf of Guinea, in
north of the equator ?- l.. called oases, and
South of the equator?- travel across the des-
What river north of Cape -. ert with long cara-
Colony ?-What counts r- vans of camels.
tries border on the Red I
Sea?-What is the cap- T '.-,.\ -r7. Name the Barbary
italofEgypt ?-Of Abys- .1 T Iapital of each. To whom
sinia ?-What countries bo belong principal sea-port
.41-. ,r. Egypt. .What river flows







der on the Mediterraneain r ..hl h tis i of
Sea?-IWhat country in th -uuh and where is the capital?
of Africa ?-What is its capital? Some Animals of Africa. 9. Describe the Sahara.
of Africa ?--What- is its capital ? .Some. Animals of Africa. 9" Describe the Sahara.









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AUSTRALIA. 77

io. The Soudan is occupied by a number State recently created for purposes of trade by
of states. The soil is very fertile. Tropical European nations.
plants, corn, cotton, and sorghum are raised. 15. Cape Colony and Natal belong to En-
Yako5a and Timbuctoo are the largest towns. gland. Cape Town and Pieternaritzburg are the
II. Abyssinia is a mountainous plateau, and capitals. South African Republic, the Orange
has a mild climate. Coffee trees grow wild. River Republic, and Griqualand West, are
Gondar is the capital. settled by Dutch farmers, but are controlled by
12. Upper Guinea includes several states. Great Britain.
Liberia, inhabited chiefly by negroes from Amer- 16. The kingdom of Madagascar is inhabited
ica, is one of them. Senegambia belongs to by a Malay tribe. Taananrivo is the capital.
France and Great Britain. Sierra Leone be- QUESTIONS.-IO. Where is the Soudan ? What is said
longs to Great Britain. of the soil and productions ? Of the towns?
I I. Where is Abyssinia ? Describe it.
13. Lower Guinea and Mozambique belong 12. Where is Upper Guinea? What is said of Sene-
mostly to Portugal. gambia? Liberia? Sierra Leone? Name two capitals.
13. To what power do Lower Guinea and Mozambique
St. Paul de Loanda is the capital of Lower belong? Name and locate their capitals.
Guinea; and Mozambique, of Mozambique. 14. Where is Central Africa ? By whom is it inhabited ?
a ad o What does it include ?
14. Central Africa lies south of the Soudan. 15. Where is Cape Colony? Natal? To whom do
It is inhabited by ignorant and savage tribes, they belong? What and where is the capital of each?
Describe three countries to the north?
mostly negroes. It includes the Congo Free 16. Who inhabit Madagascar? What is the capital?




AUSTRALIA.

DESCRIPTION.

I. Australia is the smallest of the conti- western shores. The Blue Mountains, near the
nents. eastern shore, are the highest.
2. The surface is a low plateau. Several 3. On the eastern coast, the climate is tem-
mountain chains extend along the eastern and operate; that of the interior is hot and dry.













S. 1 Fiji Islanders.
S" 3 | QUESTIONS.-I. What is said of Australia?-2. Describe
S' "S S, M ^ <: the surface of the continent.-3. Describe the climate.
C :0


"J Cl .





~ Qs ~ ~. o : 2 o the surface of the continent.3 Describe the climate.







78 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.























Some Animals of Australia.

4. Many strange plants and curious ani- 9. Of New Guinea, but little is known.
rnals are found in Australia. New Caledonia belongs to the French.
The leaves of some of the trees are placed edgewise, IO. Many of the Islands of the Pacific
so that they cast hardly any shade. Ocean are of coral formation. They have a
The kangaroo is an animal with short fore legs and moist, tropical climate. The cocoa-palm and
long, powerful hind legs. A full-grown kangaroo, when the bread-fruit tree are native plants.
1 17. Id--



























largest of the native animals. The duck-bill has web-
feet and a bill like a duck, but is covered with hair. amn. The inhabitants are mostly Malay savages.
S, 12. The Sandwich Islands form a native
5. The native inhabitants belong to the




.kingdom, The people have become civilized.
Malay, or brown, race; they are fast disappearing i he p lav og.e Pciviz
S n c rd an s_ e. -Th Honolulu, the capital, has a large trade with
6. The Engis nis. he continent




of Australia and the islands of Tasmania and
New Zealand belong to Great Britain. QUESTIONS -4. What is said of the plants and ani-
7. Australia is divided into five colonies, males of Australia ?-. Of the inhabitants ?-6 To what
e in nation do Australia. Tasmania, and New Zealand belong ?
The chief occupations are farming, sheep-raising, Into how many colonies is the continent of Aus-
so that they cast hardly any shade Ocean are of coral formation. They have a














and mining. Wheat andi wool are the principal trial, divided Whcat are he chief occupatisl Ex-
exports. Gold mines have been opened which Melbourne ? Sydney ?
yield nearly as much as those of California. 8. Where is Tasmania? New Zealand? What metal
stadis found in Tasmania? In New Zealand ? What is the
Melbourne and Sydney are the largest cities. chief occupation? What is the capital of each?-9.
8. Tasmania and New Zealand are British Where is New Guinea? New Caledonia? To whom
does New Caledonia belong?
colonies. Tin is found in Tasmania, and gold o1. How have many of the Pacific islands been
in New Zealand, but farming is the principal formed? Describe them. Name and locate the princi-
pal groups.
occupation. Ii. Describe the Fiji Islands. To what nation do
Hobart is the capital of Tasmania; Welling- they belong?
o12. Where are the Sandwich Islands? What is the
ton, of New Zealand. capital?
ton, of New Zealand. capital?









GENERAL REVIEW. 79




GENERAL REVIEW.

What does Geography tell about ?-What is the shape Name the five Northern states.-Describe the sur-
of the earth ?-What is the earth's axis ?-What direction face.-The occupations of the inhabitants.-Bound Mich-
is nearly east ?-West ?-Where is north ?-South ?- igan.-Wisconsin.- Minnesota.-North Dakota.- South
What are the poles ?-What is the equator ?-What are Dakota.-Name and locate the capital of each.
parallels ?-Meridians ?-What is latitude ?-Longitude ?- What two divisions of the United States are crossed
What is a continent ?-How many continents are there ?- by the Rocky Mountains ?-Name six states in these
What is an island ?-An archipelago ?-A peninsula ?-A divisions.-Three territories.-Describe their surface.-
cape?-A promontory?-A plain?-A plateau?- A The occupations of the inhabitants.-Bound Colorado.-
mountain system ?-A valley, or basin ?-An ocean ?-A New Mexico.-Utah.-Arizona.-Montana.-Wyoming.-
gulf, or bay ?-A strait, or channel ?-A spring?-A Idaho.-Oregon.-Washington.-What is the capital of
river ?-A lake ?-A hemisphere ? each state and territory ?
How many continents in the Eastern hemisphere ?- Name the Western States.-Describe their surface.-
In the Western hemisphere ?-What grand-divisions cor- The occupations of the inhabitants.-Bound California.-
pose the Western continent ?- The Eastern ?-Name and Nevada.-What and where is the capital of each ?
bound the five oceans.-Name the zones.-What is the Bound British America.-Describe its surface.-
general climate of each ?-Name some plants of the Climate.-Name some of its rivers and lakes.-What are
torrid zone.-Of the temperate zones.-Of the frigid the principal productions ?-The leading occupations ?-
zones.-What are deserts ?-Prairies, or steppes ?-Name Name the provinces of the Dominion of Canada.-Locate
some wild animals of each of the zones.-Some domestic the capital of each.-What is the capital of the Do-
animals.-Describe the five races of man.-Describe civ- minion, and where located ?-Describe the province of
ilized, half-civilized, and savage life.-Name the four prin- Newfoundland.-What is its capital ?-What part of the
cipal occupations of man, and give an illustration of main-land is under the control of Newfoundland ?
each.-Describe the difference between the two principal Bound Mexico.-Describe its surface.-Climate.--Pro-
kinds of government.-What is the capital of a couri- ductions.-Locate the capital.-Describe Central Amer-
try ?-Name the five principal religions of the world. ica.-The West Indies.-Name the three chains compos-
Bound North America.-Describe its surface.-Name ing them.-Which is the largest island ?-What is the
and locate the two great mountain systems of North capital of Cuba?-How is Haiti divided?
America.-Name its largest rivers.-Name and locate Bound South America.-Describe its surface.-Name
three bays.-Four gulfs.-Five peninsulas.-Six capes.- three large rivers.-Describe the climate.-The animals.-
Seven lakes.-Describe its climate.-Vegetation.-Ani- The inhabitants.-What are the states of South Amer-
mals.-Inhabitants.-Name its divisions.-What islands ica ?-Bound Brazil.-Guyana.-Venezuela.-Colombia.-
form the northern part ?-What islands lie south-east? Ecuador.-Peru.-Bolivia.-Chili.-Argentine Republic.-
Bound the United States.-Describe its surface.- Uruguay.-Paraguay.-Tell the form of government and
Drainage systems.-The leading occupations of the in- locate the capital of each.
habitants.-What is the capital?-How many states are Bound Europe.-Describe its surface.-Principal riv-
there in the Union ?-How many territories ?-What ers.-Population.-Animals.-Into how many states is
other divisions ?-What states border on the Atlantic Europe divided ?-Which are republics, and which mon-
Ocean ?-On the Gulf of Mexico ?-On the Mississippi archies ?-Describe the British Isles.-What is the cap-
River?-On the Great Lakes?-What divisions on the ital?-Bound Norway.-Sweden.-Russia.-Germany.-
Pacific coast?-The Canadian border?-Which is the Austro-Hungary.-Denmark.-The Netherlands.-Switz-
largest state ?-The smallest ?-The most central ?-Which erland. France. Spain.-Portugal.-Italy.-Turkey.-
one extends farthest north ?-Farthest south?-Bound Rumania.-Servia.-Montenegro.-Greece.-Name and
and describe Alaska. locate the the capital of each.
Name the New England States.-What is the leading Where is Asia ?-Describe its surface and principal
industry ?-Describe Maine.-New Hampshire.-Ver- rivers.-The climate.-The animals.-The inhabitants.-
mont.-Massachusetts.-Rhode Island.-Connecticut.- Describe the Russian Possessions in Asia.-Describe the
Name and locate the capital of each. Chinese Empire, and give its capital.-Japan.-Farther
Name the Middle States.-What is the leading occu- India.-India.-Persia.-Afghanistan.-Beloochistan.-
pation ?-Bound and describe New York.-New Jersey.- Turkistan.-Describe Turkey in Asia.-Arabia.-Malay
Pennsylvania.-Delaware.- Maryland.-Virginia.-West Archipelago.
Virginia.-Name and locate the capital of each.-De- Where is Africa ?-Describe the surface and the prin-
scribe New York City. cipal rivers.-The climate and the vegetation.-The ani-
Name the Southern States.-What is the leading occu- mals and the inhabitants.-Bound and give the capital
pation ?-The chief crop ?-Bound and describe North of each of the Barbary States.-Egypt.-Abyssinia.-
Carolina.-South Carolina.-Georgia.-Florida.-Tennes- Cape Colony and Natal.-Describe the Sahara.-The
see.-Alabama.- Mississippi.- Louisiana. -Arkansas.- Soudan.-Central Africa.-Madagascar.
Texas.-Oklahoma Territory.-Locate the capital of each. Where is Australia?- Describe the surface.-The
Name the Central States.-Describe the surface.- climate, the animals, and the inhabitants.-Name the En-
Occupations of the people.-The principal crops.-Bound glish colonies in Australia.-Give the capital of each.-
Ohio. Indiana. Kentucky. Illinois. Iowa. Mis- Describe Tasmania.-New Zealand.-New Guinea.-The
souri -KansaE.-Nebraska.-Locate the capital of each. Fiji Islands.-The Sandwich Islands.
E. G.- .










AREAS AND POPULATION.--891.

SUMMARY. UNITED STATES. AREA IN POPULATION.
SQ. MILES.
AREA IN POPULATION AREA IN POPULATION. Mexico .751,584 11,395,712
SQ. MILES. SQ. MILES.
Asia 16,956,284 823,155,251 Alabama 52,250 1,513,017 Central America 179,730 3,010,324
Africa 11,514,985 168,497,091 Arkansas 53,850 1,128,179 West Indies. 94,417 5,504,284
NorthAmerica 9,349,741 88,003,212 California 158,360 1,208,130
South America 6,887,794 33,565,882 Colorado .103,925 412,198 TotalN. Amer. 9,349,741 88,003,212
Europe 3,942,530 360,580,788 Connecticut. 4,990 746,258
Australia, etc., 3,709,781 5,683,968 Delaware 2,050 168,493 SOUTH AMERICA.
-- Florida . 58,680 391,422 Colombia .464,537 3,321,052
The World, 52,361,115 1,479,486,192 Georgia 59,475 1,837,353 Venezuela .403,067 2,238,900
Idaho ... 84,800 84,385 Guiana, British, 88,652 282,066
ASIAIllinois 56,650 3,826,351 Dutch, 49,848 66,037
ASIA. Indiana . 36,350 2,192,404 French, 30,465 25,797
Russian Empire, 6,465,339 14,126,793 Iowa ... 56,025 ,911,896 Brazil 3,228,452 14,600,00
Chinese Empire, 4,291,967 361,766,000 Kansas ... 82,o8o 1,427,096 Ecuador 15,68 1,24,400
JapaneseEmpire, 147,629 40,072,020 Kentucky 40,400 1,858,635 Peru .....439,14 2,980,000
Corea . 84,424 10,519,000 Louisiana 48,720 1,118,587 Bolivia ... 5'15,56 1,434,8
British India (inc. Maine 33,040 661,086 Chili ...299,626 3,65,300
Nepal, etc.), 1,845,099 296,156,000 Maryland 12,210 I,042,390 Argentine Rep. 1,077,032 3,203,700
Siam . 308,893 9,000,000 Massachusetts. 8,315 2,238,943 Paraguay 97,726 330,000
French India. 189,202 19,197,000 Michigan 58,915 2,093,889 Uruguay 68,999 711,700
Beloochistan. 166,802 1,020,000 Minnesota 83,365 1,301,826 Islands 9,540 2,130
Afghanistan 239,778 4,600,000 Mississippi. .. 46,810 1,289,600
Turkistan. 127,805 1,780,000 Missouri 69,415 2,679,184 Total S. Amer. 6,887,794 33,565,882
Persia . 635,161 7,500,000 Montana. 146,080 132,159
Turkey (inc. Is- Nebraska 77,510 1,058,910
land of Cyprus), 713,067 15,688,438 Nevada 110,700 45,761 EUROPE.
Arabia include New Hampshire 9,305 376,530 British Possess'ns, 121,610 38,087,470
Aden) 967,267 2,272,000 New Jersey 7,815 1,444,933 France (inc. Mo-
Malay Archi- New York 49,170 5,997,853 naco& Andorra)207,299 38,238,207
pelago 773,851 39,458,000 North Carolina. 52,250 1,617,947 Spain (inc. Balear-
-North Dakota 70,795 182,719 ic Isles) 191,994 17,246,688
TotalAsia, 16,956,284 823,155,251 Ohio . 41,060 3,672,316 Portugal. 35,745 4,709,910
Oregon . 96,030 313,767 Belgium. 11,374 6,093,798
AFRICA. Pennsylvania 45,215 5,258,014 Netherlands .12,742 4,558,095
Rhode Island 1,250 345,506 Luxemburg 999 21 i,o88
Morocco 313,642 8,016,000 South Carolina. 30,570 1,151,149 Denmark 15,295 2,185,159
Algeria .257,578 3,855,000 South Dakota 77,650 328,808 Germany 209995 49,424,I35
Tunis .44,906 1,500,000 Tennessee 42,050 1,767,518 Switzerland (inc.
Tripoli. 399,012 1,000,000 Texas. .. .265,780 2,235,523 Lakes). .. 16,192 2,933,334
Egypt . 361,134 6,818,000 Vermont. 9,565 332,422 Austro-Hungary, 261,318 42,630,650
Abyssinia 196,147 4,500,000 Virginia . 42,450 1,655,980 Italy (inc. San
Sahara .2,386,352 2,500,000 Washington. .69,180 349,390 Marino) .110,680 30,166,328
Soudan .2,969,348 87,164,000 West Virginia. 24,780 762,794 Norway and
Somauli Land 812,620 13,092,000 Wisconsin .56,040 i,686,88o Sweden 299,572 6,773,585
Congo State. 865,383 14,100,000 Wyoming 97,890 60,705 RussiainEurope,2,I98,487 98,840,489
Portuguese South Delaware, Raritan, Turkey in Europe, 105,234 8,907,375
German Sout 826,836 and N. Y. bays, 720 Roumania 50,589 5,000,000
German South Servia . 18,576 2,157,477
Africa 691,272 3,100,000 Total States. 2,634,530 61,908,906 Montenegro 3,506 2oo,ooo
"Republtican. 13,634 679,000Alaska .577,390 32,052 Greece and Islands, 25,143 2,217,000
Orange Free Arizona 113,020 59,620 Spitzbergen, etc.. 46,180
State 50,465 208,000 District Columbia, 70 230,392, 3, 0
British South Indian Territory TotalEuro1e, 3,942,530 360,580,788
Africa 988,994 4,221,000 (Indians, 50,616 31,400 179,321
Madagascar and allothers, 128,705 AUSTRALIA, ETC.
other islands, 237,662 4,544,091 Ind.in St.&oth.Terr's, 146,143 Australia. 2,945,229 3,073,000
New Mexico 122,580 153,593 Tasmania .26,215 156,622
TotalAfrica, 11,514,985168,497,091 Oklahoma 39,030 61,834 New Zealand 104,663 673,500
Total a68,49 1 Utah . 84,970 207,905 New Guinea .311,965 837,000
Sandwich Islands. 6,567 92,050
NORTH AMERICA. Total Terr's. .968,460 1,070,860 Other Islands 61,464 851,796
Greenland and Am. Por. Gt. Lakes, 65,177 So. Polar Region .253,678
Iceland 878,202 79,445 -
British America, 3,777,641 5,033,681 Total U.S. 3,668,167 62,979,766 TotalAust.,etc. 3,709,781 5,683,968
(80)








VOCABULARY. 81



VOCABULARY.


KEY.
Fate Me Tin For Firl gem N = ng
Fat Met Pique Do Rude get R= rr in terror.
Care ThOre Firm Food My n as in link a,e, etc., have the
Far Veil Note Foot Hymn f = ny obscure sound.
Last Term N6t Hue Q, 9h = s, sh = z Letters italicized
Fall Fine D6ne Nut c, eh = k th as in thine are silent.

Ab-hs-sin'i-% At'las Br6s'lau Chi'na Dwi'na Guin'Oa (gin'-)
Ad'e-laiide Au-g6s'ta BriS'bane Chi-nest Ee'ua-doR (-wa-) Guy-a'na (g6-)
Ad-i-ron'ddck Aus/tin (6s-) Brus'sels Chip'pe-wd Ed'in-bfrgh Hague
Ad-ri-t'ic Aus-tra'li-a Bck'eye (-i) Chris'tian (-tyan) (-bur-ruh) Ha-i-ti'
--ge' (e-) Aus-tro-Hun'ga-r9 Bu'da Chris-ti-a/ni-a E'gpt Han'ni-bal
Af-ghan-is-tan' Az'ov Bud-dhim (bood-) C-maR-Ron' Elbe Hdrt'ford
Af'ri-ca Bab-l Man'd6b Buenos Ayres 9in-eho'na E'e-phant (-fant) HAt'ter-as
A-gul'has (-yas) Ba-haSmo (bO'nus a'riz) in-in-na'ti England Ha-vn'a
Al-a-bi'mo Ba-hly' Bu'kha-rest gir'cle (ing'gland) Hav're
A-las'ka Bai'kal Biiz'zardt Qiv'il-zed E-qua'tor HOb'ri-die
Al'ba-n& (al-) Bal-kin' C4-bool Cleve'land E'rie H1Ye-na (U. S.)
Al-be-marle' Baltic Ca-ed'o Cll-mate Er'mine (Wr'-) Hem'i-sphere
Al-bu-qunr'que Bal'ti-more Cai'ro (Africa) Co-16nmbi- Es'qui-mog (-ki-) (-sfer)
(-ker'ka) BAng-k6k' Cl--cUt'tta O_'o-ny E-thi-o/pi-4n Him-a-la'ya
Al-ex-6n/dri-a Ban'g6r CAl-e-do'ni-4 COl-o-raida Eu-re'kg Hin-doo Koosh'
Al-ga'ri- Br'ba-ry Cl-i-fOr'ni-a Co-ltim'bi-a EU'r6pe Hin'doos
Al-gior' B.a-ta'vi-4 Cim-b6'di- C6m'pass Ev/'ng-ville Hip-po-pOt'o-mfis
Al-le-gha'ny Bath'first Cam'bridge Con-qep'9ion Falk'lnd Ho-Ang' H1
Al-le-ghe'ny Bt'6n Rouge Cam'ol (-shin) Fiji Ho'bart
Al-li-ga'tor (roozh) Cam pea'chy C6n'c6rd FlIt'ter-4 Hon-du'ras
Al-phe'A Behring CAn'a-da C6n-dor FlOr'i-da H6n-o-lu'lu
Alpine B6l-fast' CAnAv'Or-a1l Con-ga-ree' FOr'eign-Br Hoii'ier (-zhur)
Alps (alps) B"l'gi-fm Cdn'ger Con'go F6r-mo'sa Hou-s0-ton'ic
Al-tal' (al-) Bl1-grade' Cafion (kdn-yUn') Con-n6ct'i-cit Frange Hous't6n
Al-ta-ma-ha'(awl-) Be-lze' Can-tOn' Con-sthn-ti-no'ple Frig'id Hu-e'
Am'a-zon Balle Isle' (-eel) CAp'ri-c6rn C6n'ti-nont Gal-l'Vnds Him'/bldt
A-mor'i-ea Bel-oo-ehis-tan' C/-rAe'/s Co-pen-ha'gen Gil'vos-ton Hi/r6n
A-moor' Ben-gag Cgr'a-vAn C6r-dil/lrr-a* Gn'geS lHy-B'ng
Am'stir-dfm B&r'lin Cgr-ib-be'gn CR-Ri-n'/teg Ga-r6nne' I'ds-ho
A-nAm' Berne Cd3r o-liVna Cr'si-ca Gas-con-ade' Il-li-nois'
An'des Bid/de-fQrd Car-pd'thi-an C6s-ta Ri'a Gin-e-see' (j6n-) In'di-0
An-dr6s-ceg'gin Bir'mah Car-pin-ta/ri-a C6v'ing-t6n Ge6r'gi-a (j6r'-) In'di-an
An-ngp'o-lis Bis'c/y CAs'pi-an Cr6c'o-dile Ger'ma-nj In-di-An'a
Ant-&re'tic Big'marck Cau-ea'sian(shtn) Cauba Gi-bral/tar (ji-) In-di-an-ap'o-lis
An-tilles (an-). BI's6n Cau'ca-sis Cim'ber-land Gi'lA (he'-) In'dies
Ap'*n-nine Bldn'co Cay-enne' 9y'press Gi-rdffe (ji-) In/dits
Ap-pa-l/'chi-an Bloem-f6n'tein Cetinje Da-ko'ta Gla/qier In-gen'ioUs (-yils)
A-ra/bi-an BO'a-con-strict'or (chot-teen'yd) Dal/las GlAs'gow I'o-wa
Ar-a-fu'ra BO-go-ta' 9hhm'ois Dan'Ube G^'bi I-ran' (e-)
Arch-Ji-pl/'-go Boi-ge' Cit' (shAm/mt) Dav'en-port G6n'ddr Ir-kwotsk'
Ara'tic (are-) Bo-kha'rg 9ham-plain' DBad'wood Go-ril'I Isl/and (il-)
Ar'gen-tine (ar-) Bo-liv'i-a Char'i-t6n De'can G6v'rn-mint Isth'mus
Ar-i-zo/'n (Ar-) B6m-bay' Charle't6n D61'a-ware G6v'/r-n6r It'a-ly
Ark'an-sas BoR-deaux' (-do) Char'lotte Din'mark Grand Trav'Orse I-tAs'c,
Ar-ma-dil'lo B6r'ne-O5 (hr'lotte-town DPOS'rt Great Brit'ain Jag-U-air
Asia (a'she-a) BOs't6n Chat-ta-ho'chee Des Moines Greenwich Ja-mai'ea
A-sun'cion (-the- BOth'ni-, Cht-tU-noo'g/ De-troit' (grin'ij) Ja-pan'
on) Brah'min-itm ChOs'a-pBake DniO'per Griq'ua-lind (-wo) Jdp-a-ne'
Atch'I-s6n Brin'co Chest'nut Dnies'ter Gua-do-lupe' Ja'va
Ath'eng Bra-zil' Chey-Onne/ (shi-) Do-min'ion (-ytin) Guar da fui' Je-ru'sa-l1m
At-lan'ta Bra-zil'ian (-yan) 9hi-ca'ga Dub'lin (gwar d, fwee') Kam-chAt'k
At-lan'tic Brizos Chil' Du-buque (-buke) Gua-te-ma'la Ka-na'wha








82 ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY.

Kin-g_-ro-' Ma-nil'a New'foind-land Pi-lot Kn6b' Sin Juan Tem'p6r-ate
Kan'gas Man-is-tee' New Jr/seyr (nu-) Pla-teau' (-t) (hoo-an') Tdn-nes-see'
Kar'nak Min-i-to-ba' New Or'le-ang(6r-) Po-po-cet-a-p6tl' SAn Lu'cas Terre Haute'
K9s-kas'ki-4 Mar'a-mae Ni-Ag'a-ra Prrt'age SAn Lu'is (tdr-rih hdte')
Ka-tAh'din Ma-rl'as Nic-a-ra'gu (gwi ) Prr-to RYV5e San Ra'ifa-l Thi-an' Shan
Ke-lat' Mar-seilles' Ni'ggr Port'u-gal San Sal'va-d6r Thib'6t
Ke-ni'a Mar-tha's Vine- Nile Port-u-guese San-ta BaR'ba-ra Ti-en-Ts'n'
KAn-ne-bec' yard NY-o-bra'ra Po-to'mac San-ta Fe' Tif-lhs'
Ke'o-kflk Mas'-sa-chi'setts N6r'folk Prai/rie SAn-ti-a'go Tim-bile'too
Ke-way'din MAt-a-g6r'da N6r'way Pr6l'i-dnnt Sar-din'i-a Tit-Y-ec/ca
KA'wee-naw Mau-mee' Nd-va Sc'tia Pre-td'ri-a SAv'age To-ky'o
Khe-dive' Med-i-ter-ra'ne-an (shi-a) Pr6m'on-to-r Sa-vAn'nah To-lA'da
Khin Gan' Ml'boflrne Nue/'9F (nwa-) Pr6v'i-d6n9e Scn-di-na'vi-an To-r6n't5
Khi'v9 M6m'phis (-fis) Ny-as'sa (ne-) Pu-eb']o Schuylkill T6a'RuS
Kil-i-man-ja-rd' Men-do-qY'no O'-sed Pu'get (skool'-) T6r'rid
Kia'lsn (kyd'ln) Me-rid'i-an O'bi PSr'q-nees Si-a'ta Trans-vaill
Ki-o'to MWr'ri-mic O'cean (-shuin) Que-bc'/ (kwe-) Se-At'tle Trib'u-ta-ry
Kn6x'ville Mdx'i-ce Oc-mfil'gee Quin'9 (kwin'-) Se-daI-a Trip^o-li
K6ng Mi-a'ni O-co'nee Qui'to (kee-) Seine Tuc-s6n/
KuBn Lin' MiQh'i-gan (mish-) O-ds'sli Ra-.ine' Sel'vis Tn'dra
(kwen-) Mil'an O-gee-chee Ral'eiqh Sn-e-gAm'bi- Tu'rin
LAb'ra-dor Mille Lae' Ok-h6tsk' Read'ing Sdr'vi-a TiiR-kis-tin'
La Crbsse Mil-wau'kee O-lym'pi- Re-gi'na SEv'Brn Un'ion (yun'yfin)
La Fay'Ette' Min-ne-Ap'o-lis O'ma-ha Rein'deer Shas'ta U-ni-vZr'si-ty
La Paz' Min-ne-so'ta O-man' Re-lig'i6n Sho-shine' U'ral
LAr'a-mie Mis-sis-sip'pi Omsk (dmsk) R5e-Br-v'ti6n Shreve'prrt U'ru-guay (-gwa)
Las Ve'gas Mis-sou'ri On-ta'ri-o (-shtn) Si-am' U/tah
LAt'i-tude Mo-bile' Or'ange (dr'enj) Rhe'A Si-be'ri-4 Val-pa-rai'so
LEav'en-w6rth Mo-ham'mid-an Or'e-g6n Rhine Sig'i-ly Van-cou'ver
Le'ng Mo-haVve O-ri-n'ce5 Rhi-n69 e-rbs SI-6R/Ra Led'ne VEn-e-zue'la (zwA)
LBop'*rd Mo'hawk 0-sage' Rhode Isl'and (il-) Si-EA a MaID're Ve-ra Cruz
Lev'ee Mon'arch-5 Osh'kdsh Rich/m6nd SI-BRI ; Ne-viVdAi Vrrde
LI-be'ri-a -[ -.-- I.., Os'trich R'ga Sioux VAr'di-grs
Lymia M.. -.-1. i-..n Ot'ta-wa RY-o de 1a PTlIta Smyr'n (smer-) Vie-to'ri-a
Liri'c6ln Monk'ey O-zark' Ri-o Grande d6l S6l'o-m6n Vi-An'na
Ligb6n Mo-non-ga-he'lW Pa-gific NoB/te So-mau'll Vir-gini-a
Liv'er-pol1 Mon-ro'vi-a Pa'dre Ri-o Ja-nei'ro Sdr'ghifm Vist'u-la
LlA'mi MAn-ta'na Pa'gan Ri-o Pa-ra, Sou-dan' V61-ca'n
Ll/'no Es-ta-cVdo M6n-te-ne'gro Pales-tine Ro-a-noke' Sta-no-voi' Vl6'ga
(lya-) M6n-te-vid'e-o Pa-mir' R6ch'Os-tdr Steppe Wa'bAsh
Lla'no (lya'-) M6nt-g6m'er-y PAm'li-co (rdtch-) Stdr'ile Wil'la Wal'la
Loire (lwaa) M6nt-pe'lier(ly r) Pam'pas Ru-ma'ni-a Still'wa-tdr War'saw
L6n'd6n M6nt-re-al' Pan-a-ma' Russia (rfishsha) St6ck'holm Wa-satch'
Lbn'gi'tide Mo-rbc'co Par'al-16, Sa-bine' Si'cre Wish'ing-t6n
Lou-Y-si-a'na Mos'cow Pa-ra-mar'i-bo SAg'i-naw Su'.z Waslh'i-ta
Lou'is-ville M6s-qui'to (-kee'-) Pa-ra-nii Sa-ha'ra Su-lei-man' Wich'i-ta
Lgup Mt. De-Sert' Pa-ri-na' Sai-gnn' Sil'tan Wil-lam'/tte
Low'ell M5-zam-bique Par'is St. Au'gis-tine Su-ma'tra Win-ne-ba/go
Lynch'brtrg Mis-eat' Pat-a-go'ni-4 St. Clair' Sfin'da Win-ni-pi-seog'ee
Ly',on Mfis-ke'gon Pe'cos St. Croix Su-pe'ri-6r (-s6k'i)
Ma-cas'sar Mis-king'Um Pe King' St. Jo'seph (-zef) SUs-que-han'na Wi-no'na
Ma-9hin'/r-y Nan King' Pem'bi-na St. Law'rrn9e Swe'den Worces-tir
MAck-n'/zie NAn-tUck'et Pen-in'su-la (shu-) St. Lou'is Switz'er-land (woos'-)
MAck'I-nac NA'ples PAnn-syl-va'ni-a St. Paul' de L6- Syd'ney Wttch'ish
Mgd-a-gAs'car Nar-ra-gan'sBtt. Pe-nOb'se6t An'da Syr'i-a Wy-o'ming
Ma-dei'ra Nash'u-a Pe-o'ri-a St. Pe'trs-bfirg Ta-hde' Ya-blo-noi'
Mad-i-son Na-tal' Pdr'sia ('shi-a) Sa-line' Ta-na-nit-rf'v Ya-ko'ba
Mad-ras' NAtch'ez Pe-ru' SAlm'on Tan-gAn-yi'k YAm'pt
Mad-rid' Ne-brAs'ka PestA San An-to'ni-o Ta'pir YAng-tse Ki-ang'
Ma-gAl'lan NB'groes Pet-chs'ra San Bias Tash-kdnd' Yen;I-se'I
Ml-hog-a-ny Ne-o'sho Pe-tro'le-im SAn Do-min'go Ta5-ma'ni-a Yo-sdm'i-te
MAl'a-bar NMth'Zr-lands Phil-a-dBl'phi-a SAnd'wich TchAd Yu-ea-tan'
Ma-lay' Neuse (fil-a-d6l'fi-a) SAn Fran-i9s'ce Te-gu--y-gal'pa Yu'k6n
Ma-na'gua (-gwa) Neu'we-veld Phil'ip-pine (fil'-) San-gre de CrYs'to Te-he-ran' ZAn-zi-bar
Min'9hes-ter (nyd've-v6lt) Pis-ter-mar'itz- SAn Joaquin Te-huan'te-pec ZMa'land
Man'da-lay New'rk (nU'-) burg (Ho-a-keen') (-wan-) Z6'br&











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S-POPULAR BOOKS
ADAPTED FOR USE IN
ELEMENTARY GRADES

Harper's New Readers, six books.
Kickoff's Supplementary First Reader, 25 cents.
Standard Supplementary Readers, six books.
Geographical Reader and Primer, 6o cents.
Johonnot's Historical Readers, six books.
Johonnot's Natural History Readers, six books.
Lockwood's Animal Memoirs:
Part I-Mammals, 6ocents.
Part II-Birds, 6ocents.
McGuffey's Natural History Readers:
Familiar Animals and Their Wild Kindred. 5o cts. /
Living Creatures of Water, Land and Air. 50 cts.
Treat's Home Studies in Nature, go cents.
Natural Speller and Word Book, 20 cents.
Kennedy's What Words Say, two parts, each 45 cts.
Spencerian Copy Books, Revised, I-to.
Milne's New Arithmetics, two books.
Maxwell's Language Series, two books.
Eclectic Geographies. two books.
Eggleston's First Book in American History, 6o cts.
Eggleston's History of the U. S. and its People, Si.o5.
Johonnot's How We Live, 40 cents.
Monteith's Popular Science Reader, 75 cents.

Circular. ,f the above, and many other books tjqul!yv
attrltivc ill bIe t(nt ou application. Sptial terms quoted



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