Royal geographical readers

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Material Information

Title:
Royal geographical readers
Series Title:
Royal school series
Physical Description:
96, 2 p. : ill., maps. ; 19 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Thomas Nelson & Sons ( Publisher )
Publisher:
T. Nelson and Sons
Place of Publication:
London ;
Edinburgh ;
New York
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Textbooks -- 1884   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1884   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1884
Genre:
Textbooks   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
United States -- New York -- New York

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
with numerous illustrations
General Note:
Publisher's advertisements follow text.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002236826
notis - ALH7304
oclc - 63907764
System ID:
UF00053288:00001


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ROYAL


GEOGRAPHICAL READERS.

No. 3.

THE BRITISH EMPIRE.















WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS.


^canbon:
T. NELSON AND SONS, PATERNOSTER ROW.
EDINBURGH; AND NEW YORK.
1884.



















PREFACE.



THESE Geographical Lessons present to the reader a bird's-eye
view of the British Empire. They consist of picturesque
geographical description and interesting information regarding
the several countries and their inhabitants. A light and
graphic style has been adopted, and care has been taken to
avoid the introduction of too many names and figures. The
Illustrations given have a special educational value, and will
be found to produce impressions on the young reader which
words would fail to convey.
Lessons on England and Wales are not given in this volume,
a special book on these being provided in the Second Reader of
the Series.
The present book may be used in any of the higher Standards.
Other volumes are in preparation.

April 1881.
















CONTENTS.





INTRODUCTION:- SO. TASMANIA, .. .. .. .. .. 53
1. THE BRITISH EMPIRE, .. .. .. 10 81. NEW ZEALAND, .. .. .. .. 54
2. THE BRITISH ISLES, .. .. .. .. 11 32. THE FIJI ISLANDS, .. .... 57
3. SCOTLAND: THE LOWLANDS, .. .. 12
4. SCOTLAND: THE HIGHLANDS, .. .. 13 DEPENDENCIES IN AFRICA:-
5. SCOTLAND: THE ISLANDS, .. .. .. 15 33. SOUTH AFRICA, .. .. .. 57
6. SCOTLAND: CHIEF TOWNS AND INDUS- 34. CAPE COLONY, .. .. .. .. 59
TRIES.-(I.), .. .. .. .. 16 35. CAPE COLONY: CLIMATE AND PRODUC-
7. SCOTLAND: CHIEF TOWNS AND INDUS- TIONS, .. .. .. .. .. 60
TRIES.-(II.), .. .. .. .. 17 36. CAPE COLONY: TOWNS, .. .. .. 62
8. IRELAND: NATURAL FEATURES, .. .. 18 7. NATAL, .. .. .. .. .. 63
9. IRELAND: CHIEF TOWNS AND INDUS- 38. THE TRANSVAAL, .. .. .. .. 64
TRIES, .. .. .. .. 20 39. GRIQUALAND WEST, .. .. .. .. 65
10. INDEPENDENT BRITISH ISLES, .. .. 21 40. WEST AFRICA SETTLEMENTS, .. .. 65
41. ISLAND SETTLEMENTS NEAR AFRICA, .. 68
DEPENDENCIES IN EUROPE:-
11. HELIGOLAND, .. .. .. .. .. 22 DEPENDENCIES IN AMERICA:-
12. GIBRALTAR, .. .. .. .. .. 22 42. CANADA: THE DOMINION, .. .. .. 60
13. MALTA, .. .. .. .. .. .. 24 43. CANADA: NATURAL FEATURES, .. .. 71
44. THE ST. LAWRENCE, .. .. ....72
DEPENDENCIES IN ASIA:- 45. THE GREAT LAKES, .. .. .. .. 73
14. CYPRUS, .. .. .. .. 26 46. NOVA SCOTIA, .. .. .. .. .. 74
15. ADEN AND PERIM, .. .. .. .. 26 47. NEW BRUNSWICK, .. .. .... 76
16. INDIA: POSITION AND HISTORY, .. .. 27 48. PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, .. .. .. 77
17. THE HIMALAYAS, .. .. .. .. 28 49. QUEBEC, .. .. ... .. 78
18. INDIA: NATURAL FEATURES, .. .. 31 50. ONTARIO, .. .. .. .. .. 81
19. INDIA: POLITICAL DIVISIONS.-(I.), .. 32 51. MANITOBA, .. .. .. .. .. 82
20. INDIA: POLITICAL DIVISIONS.-(II.), .. 33 52. BRITISH COLUMBIA, .. .. .. .. 83
21. INDIA: GREAT CITIES.--I.), .. .. 35 53. CANADA: THE TERRITORIES, .. .. 84
22. INDIA: GREAT CITIES.--(II.), .. .. 37 54. CANADA: CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS, .. 85
23. INDIA: PEOPLES, MANNERS AND CUS- 55. NEWFOUNDLAND, .. .. .. .. 86
TOMS, .. .. .... .. 39 56. THE BERMUDAS, .. .. .. .. 89
24. CEYLON, .. .... .. 41 57. THE WEST INDIES, .. .. .. .. 89
25. THE STRAIT SETTLEMENTS, .. .. 44 58. JAMAICA, .. .. .. .. 91
59. BRITISH HONDURAS .. .. .. .. 92
DEPENDENCIES IN AUSTRALASIA:- 60. BRITISH GUIANA, .. .. .. .. 93
26. AUSTRALIA: GENERAL VIEW, .. .. 46 61. THE FALKLAND ISLANDS, .. .. .. 93
27. VrCTORIA AND NEW SOUTH WALES, .. 48
28. QUEENSLAND, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, AND CONCLUSION:-
WEST AUSTRALIA, .. .. .. 50 62. GROWTH OF THE EMPIRE, .. .. .. 94
"19. AUSTRALIA: CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS, 51 63. HOW THE COLONIES ARE GOVERNED, .. 95


























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Newfoundland. Fiji islands.
The Bermudas. South America-
British Guiana, &c.
West India Islands- -*_ For thle smaller possessions
Jamaica, &c. see larger Maps.
The Circles on these two Maps are 1000 miles apart, and show the distances from
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Malta. Sierra Leone, &c. Ceylon.
St. Helena. The Strait Settlements.
Australasia-Australi; Tasmania.
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Austraaa -Austalia; Tasania















THIRD GEOGRAPHICAL READER.



INTRODUCTION.

1. THE BRITISH EMPIRE.
1. It is often said that the British the globe. The British Islands comprise
possessions form an empire on which
the sun never sets. The meaning of
this is, that these possessions are so TH E BRITISH
widely scattered over the globe, that
there is always some part of them on The Britih
which the sun is shining.
2. Before the sun has set on the Brit-
ish Islands, it has begun to light up the Aug.
British possessions in North America.
Before it sets on the Dominion of
Canada, its light is spread over New
Zealand and Australia. Then India E M P I R E.
is reached; then Southern Africa; and
at last the light of morning again ap- Largefigure, ,000 miles square. Smallfigure,
pears on the. British Isles. 50 miles square.
3. This only shows, however, that the only 122,500 square miles. The vast
parts of the British Empire are widely dominion ruled over by the Queen of
scattered. But it is also true that its England is therefore seventy times as
extent is greater than that of any other large as the British Islands.
single State in the world. 5. The British possessions are found in
4. The British possessions comprise every quarter of the globe-in Europe,
nearly nine million square miles, or in Asia, in Australasia, in Africa, and
about one-sixth of the land surface of in America.







THE BRITISH ISLES. 11

2. THE BRITISH ISLES.
1. The British Isles comprise the two crown was a gradual process, brought
large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, about by the course of events. Wales
was conquered by
.-- -- W Edward I. in
-I-_- -: -1282, and it has
S- r -: ever since been
I --practically a part
"-- --- ---- --- of England.
-. i -- 3. Scotland was
- -. once or twice over-
runbythe English,
.-d if but it always re-
S gained its freedom.
SI -- At length King
-- a .- JamesVI. of Scot-
I land succeeded to
SI the English throne
S. by right of birth,
-."- in 1603. Since
__ ..that time England
C-- and Scotland have
- had the same sove-
--- reigns. The Eng-
Slish and Scottish
S- .. ,< Parliaments were
--- united in 1707.
4. Irelandyielded
and a number of small ones. All these to Henry II. in 1172, but only in name.
islands now form one sovereignty; but For centuries it was ruled by powerful
they did not always do so. It was only native lords, and had its own Parlia-
at the beginning of the present century ment till 1801.
(1801) that the last act of union was 5. England, Scotland, and Ireland,-
completed-that of the Irish Parliament the three kingdoms of the British Isles,
with the Parliament of Great Britain. -now enjoy the blessings of complete
2. The union of the several coun- union, on equal terms, under one Sove-
tries in the British Isles under one reign and one Parliament.


/'-5







12 SCOTLAND: THE LOWLANDS.


3. SCOTLAND:* THE LOWLANDS.
1. Scotland consists of three divisions, Hogg the poet is known as the Ettrick
-the Lowlands, the Highlands, and the Shepherd; while Robert Burns, the
IslandL The Highlands and the Islands greatest of all Scottish poets, was a
are mucN ke. The Islands are like Lowland ploughman.
fragments the Highlands set in the 7. The two principal rivers of the
sea. Southern Lowlands are the Tweed and
2. The Lowlands of Scotland consist the Clyde. The Tweed is a beautiful
of-(1.) The South Lowlands, forming river, flowing through a lovely pastoral
the southern portion of the country; country. Tweed's silver stream is the
and (2.) The Middle Lowlands, a broad subject of many a poet's song. It has
belt of level land extending from the several tributaries, such as the Teviot
Firth of Clyde across the middle of the and Gala Water, also well known in
country to the North Sea. Scottish song.
3. The south of Scotland is a beauti- 8. The Clyde is the only large river
ful region, chiefly pastoral and agricul- in Scotland that flows to the west.
tural. Though generally level, here and On this river stands Glasgow, the larg-
there the surface is varied by grassy hills. est city in Scotland.
On these hills great numbers of sheep 9. In the south of Scotland the
are reared, and in the valleys there are valleys are called dales, and are named
extensive and well-cultivated farms, after the rivers that flow through them
4. The people are of the same race as -as Teviotdale, Tweeddale, Clydesdale.
those of the north of England. In early 10. The Middle Lowlands extend
times, this part of Scotland belonged across the middle of the country, south
to the kingdom of Northumbria, which of the Grampians. The region is a rich
extended from the Humber to the Firth agricultural one, and is also noted for
of Forth. its coal and iron mines.
5. The border country between Eng- 11. The chief rivers in the Middle
land and Scotland was long a scene of Lowlands are the Forth and the Tay.
constant warfare; but in modern times, The Forth is noted for its numerous
the Lowland Scotch are noted for their windings, which dan best be seen from
industrious and frugal habits. Stirling Castle, far up the river. The
6. It is in the south of Scotland that Tay, the longest river in Scotland, flows
so many examples have been seen of men out of Loch Tay, a beautiful Highland
in humble life rising to eminence. James lake.
The Second Book of the Series is devoted to England and Wales.






SCOTLAND: THE HIGHLANDS. 13




























4. SCOTLAND: THE HIGHLANDS.








1. The Highlands of Scotland com- mountain and moorland; but there are
4. SCOTLAND: THE HIGHLANDS.
1. The Highlands of Scotland corn- mountain and moorland; but there are
prise two divisions:-(1.) The Central fertile lowland regions along the eastern
Highlands, or Grampian Mountains; coasts.
and (2.) The Northern Highlands. They 2. The Central Highlands, or Gram-
occupy the greater part of the northern plans, form the grandest mountain range
half of Scotland. Most of the land is in the British Isles. They extend gener-







14 SCOTLAND: THE HIGHLANDS.

ally from north-east to south-west, but with the neighboring district of mingled
they send out branches in all directions. moorland and forest, hill and dale, called
3. On the borders of Aberdeenshire the Trosachs.
are Ben Macdhui, the second highest 9. This scene was made famous by
mountain in Great Britain, and Cairn- the descriptions of Sir Walter Scott in
gorm, famed for its beautiful rock- "The Lady of the Lake." Fitz-James,
crystals. the hero of the poem, reached a hill-top
4. From the sides of these mountains overlooking the lake-
flow the Don and the Dee, the chief ,
And thus an airy point he won,
rivers that drain the eastern slopes of the Where, gleaming with the setting sun,
Grampians. On Deeside is Balmoral, One burnished sheet of living gold,
the Highland home of Queen Victoria, Loch Katrine lay beneath him rolled.
10. High on the south, huge Benvenue
overlooked by another grand mountain: Down to the lake in masses threw
"The steep frowning glories of dark Lochnagar. Crags, knolls, and mounds, confusedly
hurled,-
5. The chief rivers that drain the The fragments of an earlier world;
A wildering forest feathered o'er
northern slopes of the Grampians are His ruined sides and summit hoar;
the Spey and the Findhorn. Both flow While on the north, through middle air,
through splendid scenery. The Spey is Ben-an heaved high his forehead bare."
the most rapid river in Scotland. 11. Near Loch Katrine is Loch Lo-
6. Ben Nevis, the highest peak in mond-" the Queen of Scottish Lakes "
the British Isles, is a huge mass at the -overlooked by Ben Lomond, one of
southern entrance to the Caledonian the most striking mountain summits
Canal. It is 4,406 feet high. If it in the country. The waters of Loch
had been 150 feet higher, it would Lomond are studded with beautiful
have been within the limit of constant islands.
snow. 12. Glenmore, or the Great Glen, sepa-
7. The moors amid these mountains rates the Northern Highlands from the
are covered with heather. On all of Grampians. This Glen extends from
them grouse and other wild birds are the Moray Firth, on the east coast, to
plentiful. On some of them red-deer Loch Linnhe, on the west.
still run wild, and are hunted by sports- 13. In the trough or lowest part of the
men with deer-hounds. The sport is Glen there is a chain of lakes, which are
called deer-stalking. connected by cuttings so as to form the
8. The Perthshire Highlands contain Caledonian Canal. The passage by
some of the most beautiful as well as steamboat through this canal from Fort
some of the grandest scenery in Scot- William to Inverness carries the tray-
land. Finest of all is Loch Katrine, eller through splendid scenery.







SCOTLAND: THE ISLANDS. 15

5. SCOTLAND: THE ISLANDS.
1. There are no islands of importance 5. Of the Inner Hebrides, the largest
on the east of Scotland. In the far is the island of Skye. It is celebrated
north are the Orkney Islands, separated for the grand scenery of the Coolin
from the mainland by a stormy sea, Hills, near its southern coast. Deep
called the Pentland Firth. These islands within these hills is a small lake, called
are famed for the splendid rock-scenery Loch Coruisk (pronounced Coroosk).
on their coasts. The principal town in The rugged hills tower so high above it
the Orkneys is Kirkwall. that the sun seldom shines on its waters.
2. Still farther north, lying far out in It is the grandest and wildest scene in
the North Atlantic, 200 miles from the the Western Islands.
coast of Norway, are the Shetland 6. Two of the smallest of these Scottish
Islands. They are the most northerly islands are Staffa and lona. They lie
of the British Islands, and are noted- --
for a breed of small ponies. The prin-
cipal town in the Shetlands is Lerwick.
3. The most beautiful islands belong-
ing to Scotland lie on the west coast.
They are generally divided into two
groups-the Outer Hebrides, and the
Inner Hebrides. Those farthest out in
the Atlantic are called the Outer Heb-
rides. The largest of these is the island
of Lewis. Its principal town, Storno- I
way, is the chief seat of the herring
fishery on the west coast.
4. The islands near the mainland are -
called the Inner Hebrides. Among these
islands and the arms of the sea on the
mainland there is some of the finest --F'- L'S CAVE.
scenery in the. British Isles. The sea-
views in this region are lovely, and the on the west side of the large island of
rugged mountain scenery is grand be- Mull. Staffa is uninhabited, but it con-
yond description. The sunsets are often tains the celebrated cavern called Fin-
wonderfully beautiful, as the sun sinks gal's Cave, one of the wonders of the
in the Atlantic, and lights up the sum- world. This cave is formed of natural
mer sea with golden splendour. pillars of dark-coloured stone. It is






16 SCOTLAND: CHIEF TOWNS AND INDUSTRIES.

open to the sea, so that in calm weather And still, between each awful pause,
boats can row into it. When the waves From the high vault an answer draws.
of the Atlantic dash into it, the sound In varied tone prolonged and high,
odThat mocks the organ's melody.
reechoed within the cave is grander
than the finest cathedral music. It is 8. Iona is famous for its historical
thus described by Sir Walter Scott:- relics. There Christianity was planted by
7. That wondrous dome, Columba in the sixth century; and in its
Where, as to shame the temples decked soil many of the earliest Scottish kings
By skill of earthly architect,
Nature herself, it seemed, would raise were buried. From lona, missionaries
A Minster to her Maker's praise! went forth over Scotland and the north
Not for a meaner use ascend of England, and in those dark times
Her columns, or her arches bend;
Nor of a theme less solemn tells spread the light of the gospel over the
That mighty surge that ebbs and swells, land.



6. SCOTLAND: CHIEF TOWNS AND INDUSTRIES.-(I.)
1. Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, 5. Leith, the port of Edinburgh, two
is near the Firth of Forth. It is built miles from it, on the Firth of Forth, is the
on and partly surrounded by hills, chief port in Scotland for grain. Leith
Glimpses of the country and of the sea and Edinburgh are practically one town.
may be got from its busiest streets. It 6. Glasgow, on the Clyde, forty miles
is adorned with splendid buildings and west of Edinburgh, is the largest city in
monuments, and is considered one of the Scotland, and ranks as the third city in
finest cities in Europe. Great Britain. It is the chief centre
2. Its oldest and most striking street of the cotton trade in Scotland, and
is built on the top of a ridge which is famous for its ship-building and its
slopes steeply down from the Castle, manufactures of steam-engines and all
built on a high rock, to Holyrood, the kinds of machinery. Glasgow has a
ancient palace of the Stewart kings. noble cathedral and a university.
3. The Castle stands in the middle of 7. Other large towns in the west of
the city, partly surrounded by public Scotland are Paisley, famous for thread;
gardens-one of the most striking views Renfrew, with manufactures of muslin
in any city of the world. and silk; Greenock, an important sea-
4. Edinburgh is the seat of the Scot- port, with great sugar factories; and
tish law courts. It is famous for its Ayr, the chief town in the "Land of
university and its schools, and its literary Burns," as Ayrshire is often called.
and scientific institutions. 8. Dundee, on the Firth of Tay, the







SCOTLAND: CHIEF TOWNS AND INDUSTRIES. 17

second sea-port in Scotland, is the chief cathedral, and of a castle by the sea.
seat of the linen and jute manufactures. St. Andrews University is the oldest in
9. At Dundee there was a famous Scotland.
railway bridge, two miles long, over the 12. Out in the North Sea, opposite
Firth of Tay. But a great part of it St. Andrews, is the Bell Rock Light-
was blown down in a storm in December house. It is built on the Inchcape
1879, while a train was crossing it, and Rock, the scene of the adventures of
every person in the train perished. Ralph the Rover, commemorated by the
10. Other towns connected with the poet Southey.
linen trade are Montrose, Brechin, For- 13. Aberdeen is in population the
far, and Arbroath, in Forfarshire. Dun- fourth town in Scotland. It is at once
fermline, where the finest linen is made, a university town and a sea-port. It
is in Fife. is famous for its gray granite, of which
11. On the east coast of Fife is St. most of the town is built. A fine red
Andrews, the ancient ecclesiastical granite is found near Peterhead, twenty-
capital. It has the ruins of a splendid seven miles farther north.



7. SCOTLAND: CHIEF TOWNS AND INDUSTRIES.-(I.)
1. Perth and Stirling-two of the Oban, the capital of the Western High-
most ancient towns in Scotland-form lands. It is a great resort of tourists.
the entrances to the Highlands. At 5. The chief towns in the woollen
Scone Abbey, near Perth, the Scottish district in the eastern Borderland are
kings used to be crowned. Hawick, Selkirk, and Galashiels. The
2. Connected with Perth by rail is cloths made there are called tweeds.
Inverness, the capital of the Highlands 6. This district is often called the
in the north. Near it is Culloden Moor, Land of Scott," because it contains
where Prince Charles Edward was de- Abbotsford, where Sir Walter Scott
cisively defeated in 1746--the last lived, and Dryburgh, where he is buried,
battle fought in Scotland. as well as Melrose, and the vales of
3. Stirling Castle, perched on a high Ettrick and Yarrow, in which he de-
rock, was the favourite residence of the lighted.
Scottish kings. Near it is Bannock- 7. At Melrose there are the ruins of
burn, where Robert the Bruce gained a fine abbey. At Kelso and Jedburgh
his celebrated victory over Edward II. there are also picturesque ruins of
of England in 1314. abbeys.
4. Connected with Stirling by rail is 8. The only large town in the south-







18 IRELAND: NATURAL FEATURES.

west of Scotland is Dumfries, on the three counties called "The Lothians"-
Nith. From Stranraer and Portpatrick, Haddington, or East Lothian; Edin-
two towns in Wigtownshire, a line of burgh, or Mid-Lothian; Linlithgow, or
steamers runs to the north of Ireland in West Lothian.
connectionwiththerailwaysonboth sides. 10. There are important fisheries on
9. The Lowlands of Scotland are fam- all the coasts. The chief seats of the
ous for their agriculture. In few parts herring fishery are Wick, Fraserburgh,
of the world has scientific farming been and Dunbar, on the east coast, and
carried to a higher point than in the Stornoway, on the west.





- - - ------------- -- -

















GIANT'S CAUSEWAY.

8. IRELAND: NATURAL FEATURES.
1. Ireland is separated from Scotland 2. On the north coast is the famous
by the North Channel; from England Giant's Causeway. It is so named, the
by the Irish Sea; and from Wales by Irish say, because it was the work of
St. George's Channel. The coasts are giants who wished to make a causeway
very much broken, especially on the or road to Scotland.
west and the south. 3. It is a natural pier, stretching 700







IRELAND: NATURAL FEATURES. 19

feet into the sea, and it is 350 feet in 9. The highest mountains in Ireland
breadth. It is composed of many thou- are the Macgillicuddy Reeks, west of
sands of six-sided pillars of black stone, Cork, near the Killarney Lakes. Their
like that of which Staffa in Scotland highest summit, Carntual, is 3,414 feet
consists. in height. Near Galway, on the west
4. Not far from the Giant's Causeway coast, is a wild and mountainous region
is the island of Rathlin, where Robert called Connemara.
the Bruce took refuge when driven out 10. In the Wicklow Mountains, south
of Scotland by the English. A ruined of Dublin, is the lovely Yale of Avoca,
castle there still bears his name. celebrated by Moore, the national poet
5. Numerous small islands are scat- of Ireland, in his Irish Melodies."
tered along the west coast. The chief 11. The rivers of Ireland flow from
of these are the North Aran Isles, the inland plains to the coasts in all
Achil Island, and the South Aran Isles. directions. The greatest river is the
6. The island of Valentia, off the Shannon. It is 254 miles long, and
south-west coast, is interesting, because flows into the Atlantic.
from it a telegraph cable extends under 12. The other chief rivers are the
the Atlantic to America. Cape Clear Bann and the Foyle flowing northward,
Island is a mountainous island off the and the Barrow and the Suir flowing
south coast. It is the southmost point toward the south. On the Bann is
of Ireland. Lough Neagh, the largest sheet of fresh
7. The surface of Ireland is generally water in the British Isles.
low, consisting of a great central plain, 13. The most beautiful scenery in
round which stand the mountains, chiefly Ireland is that around the Lakes of
in detached masses near the coasts. Killarney. These lakes lie in the midst
8. A large portion across the middle of majestic and lofty mountains, whose
of Ireland, estimated at one-seventh of sides are covered with the most luxuri-
the whole surface, consists of bogs. ant verdure mingled with shrubbery, and
Many of these bogs are covered from 20 in many places with splendid forest-trees.
to 25 feet deep, or even to greater depths, The lakes are dotted with islands, and
with peat formed of decayed mosses on their shores are rushing brooks and
and other vegetable matter. Peat, cut numerous waterfalls. In respect of
and dried in the heat of summer, is ex- scenery, the Killarney region is one of
tensively used as fuel. the finest in the British Islands.





(078) 4







20 IRELAND: CHIEF TOWNS AND INDUSTRIES.


9. IRELAND: CHIEF TOWNS AND INDUSTRIES.
1. There are only six towns in Ireland coasting trade is extensive. Cork is
with more than 20,000 inhabitants. The famous as a market for dairy produce.
number of such towns in England is 9. In the midst of Cork Harbour is
eighty-five, and in Scotland it is ten. Cove Island, on which stands Queens-
2. Dublin, the capital of Ireland, town, a great naval station. There the
stands at the mouth of the Liffey, near Atlantic steamers call to receive the
the middle of the east coast. It is a mails for America, carried there by rail.
handsome city, with many fine public The steamers also call there, to land the
buildings and statues, mails, on their homeward voyage.
3. Dublin is the residence of the Lord- 10. Limerick, at the mouth of the
Lieutenant, who represents the Queen Shannon, is the chief sea-port on the
in Ireland. It is a university city, and has west coast. It is noted for its lace, and
extensive commerce and manufactures, for the manufacture of fishing-hooks.
4. Belfast, in Ulster, at the head of 11. Londonderry, on the Foyle, is one
Belfast Lough, is the second city in Ire- of the chief cities in the north of Ireland.
land. It is a flourishing sea-port, and It has an extensive coasting trade. It
the chief manufacturing town in Ireland. is famous for a siege, in which the in-
It manufactures linen and cotton goods, habitants, headed by a clergyman, held
5. Flax, the plant from the fibres of out for weeks against a powerful army.
which linen is made, is grown very 12. Waterford is an important sea-
largely in the north of Ireland. The port with splendid quays on the banks
linen trade is the chief trade of the of the River Suir. It has very large ex-
country. This trade has its head-quar- ports of provisions.
ters at Belfast. 13. Galway, on the west coast, on Gal-
6. On Belfast Lough stands Carrick- way Bay, is a rising sea-port. It is well
fergus, a very old town with an ancient situated for commerce, and may yet be-
castle. King William III. landed there come important in trade with America.
on his way to the Boyne, where he de- 14. The fisheries of Ireland are less
feated James II. and secured Ireland. productive than they might be. Galway
7. At the mouth of the Boyne is is the chief seat of the herring-fishery.
Drogheda, stormed by Oliver Cromwell The salmon-fishery is carried on on the
in 1649 with terrible slaughter. Shannon, the Bann, and the Foyle.
8. The third city in Ireland is Cork, There are famous oyster-beds in Carling-
at the mouth of the River Lee. It has ford Bay on the east coast, and in Lough
a splendid natural harbour, and its Swilly on the north.







INDEPENDENT BRITISH ISLES. 21


10. INDEPENDENT BRITISH ISLES.
1. Several of the British isles are not End. They now belong to the Duchy
directly under the British Government. of Cornwall; and by the duchy they
They are the Isle of Man, the Scilly are leased to a private gentleman.
Isles, and the Channel Isles. The government of the islands is in-
2. The Isle of Man.-The Isle of Man trusted to a court of twelve persons,
is in the middle of the Irish Sea, at which meets at Hugh Town, the capital.
nearly the same distance from England 5. Only six of the islands are inhab-
and from Ireland. Its natives and ited. The people are engaged in agri-
their old Celtic speech are called Manx. culture and in fisheries. The islands
The island has its own Parliament, its were known to the ancients, who gave
own laws and law courts and judges. them a name meaning the Tin Islands."
3. No law has force till it has been 6. They have been in modern times
proclaimed in English and in Manx the scene of terrible shipwrecks. There
from the Hill of Tynwald-a circular three line-of-battle ships of the Royal
mound near the middle of the isl- Navy of England were wrecked in
1707.
-- 7. The Channel Isles.-The Channel
S- :-- Isles, in the English Channel, lie off
"- the coast of Normandy. Once the
S greater part of the north of France
belonged to the English Crown. The
Channel Islands are all that now re-
mains of these possessions.
8. Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, and
Sark are the largest islands. They
e have governments of their own. Their
t -hiy laws are mainly derived from the old
HILL OF TYNWALD-ISLE OF MAN. laws of Normandy, in France. Their
language, also, is a form of the old Nor-
and. The Parliament meets at Castle- man-French.
town, the capital The largest town is 9. These islands yield large quanti-
Douglas. I ties of fruit, which is exported chiefly to
4. The Scilly Isles.-The Scilly Isles London and Paris. They are also
are a group of islets and rocks about famous for a breed of small cattle called
thirty miles south-west from Land's Alderneys.








22 HELIGOLAND--GIBRALTAR.

DEPENDENCIES IN EUROPE.

11. HELIGOLAND.
1. At the beginning of the present 3. Heligoland is ruled by a native
century, Napoleon, the Emperor of the Council; but the Governor is appointed
French, was in the height of his power. by the Queen, and there is an English
He had conquered the armies of Austria, garrison. Some of the natives are of
Prussia, and Russia. The great nations the same race as the English. These
of Europe lay at his feet. England call themselves "Englishmen." They
almost alone withstood him. Napoleon are bold sailors, and are much employed
could not land his armies on her soil; as pilots on the Elbe. The island is
but he tried to ruin England by shutting frequented in the sea-bathing season by
out her commerce from the Continent. visitors from Germany.
2. It was then, in 1807, that the Eng- 4. Heligoland is only one mile long
lish seized on the rocky islet of Heligo- and one-third of a mile broad. Old
land (that is, "Holy Island"), in the maps show that it was once much
North Sea, and made it a free market larger, and included villages and
for their manufactures. The island, churches long since washed away by
which is thirty miles from the mouth the sea. The ravages of the ocean still
of the Elbe, has ever since belonged to continue, and the island will probably in
England. course of time become a mere sand-bank.

12. GIBRALTAR.
1. Near the southern extremity of length by three-quarters of a mile in
-breadth, stretches southward into the
"sea. This is the famous Rock of Gib-
Sraltar, which has for upwards of a cen-
tury and a half been a possession of
1 England. It is the most famous fort-
-- ress in the world. It is defended by
1.- -- one thousand guns, and the galleries
,'which hold the guns are cut out of the
"- _--- solid rock.
2. The tongue of land on which the
--. Rock stands is connected with Spain by
Spain, a rocky peninsula, three miles in a narrow neck of low and flat ground,








22 HELIGOLAND--GIBRALTAR.

DEPENDENCIES IN EUROPE.

11. HELIGOLAND.
1. At the beginning of the present 3. Heligoland is ruled by a native
century, Napoleon, the Emperor of the Council; but the Governor is appointed
French, was in the height of his power. by the Queen, and there is an English
He had conquered the armies of Austria, garrison. Some of the natives are of
Prussia, and Russia. The great nations the same race as the English. These
of Europe lay at his feet. England call themselves "Englishmen." They
almost alone withstood him. Napoleon are bold sailors, and are much employed
could not land his armies on her soil; as pilots on the Elbe. The island is
but he tried to ruin England by shutting frequented in the sea-bathing season by
out her commerce from the Continent. visitors from Germany.
2. It was then, in 1807, that the Eng- 4. Heligoland is only one mile long
lish seized on the rocky islet of Heligo- and one-third of a mile broad. Old
land (that is, "Holy Island"), in the maps show that it was once much
North Sea, and made it a free market larger, and included villages and
for their manufactures. The island, churches long since washed away by
which is thirty miles from the mouth the sea. The ravages of the ocean still
of the Elbe, has ever since belonged to continue, and the island will probably in
England. course of time become a mere sand-bank.

12. GIBRALTAR.
1. Near the southern extremity of length by three-quarters of a mile in
-breadth, stretches southward into the
"sea. This is the famous Rock of Gib-
Sraltar, which has for upwards of a cen-
tury and a half been a possession of
1 England. It is the most famous fort-
-- ress in the world. It is defended by
1.- -- one thousand guns, and the galleries
,'which hold the guns are cut out of the
"- _--- solid rock.
2. The tongue of land on which the
--. Rock stands is connected with Spain by
Spain, a rocky peninsula, three miles in a narrow neck of low and flat ground,







GIBRALTAR. 23


















--


GIBRAITAR.

The north front of the Rock, facing ever floated there since July 23, 1704.
Spain, rises to a great height; and the Time after time have the Spaniards
hill is continued in an unbroken ridge tried to recover possession of this Key
through the Peninsula. of the Mediterranean," but always with-
3. On the eastern or Mediterranean out success.
side, the Rock is steep and lofty. On its 6. The last attempt they made was the
western side, it slopes down in a series most memorable of all. It occurred
of terraces to the Bay of Gibraltar, on during the war between England and
which the town stands. her North American colonies. France
4. Gibraltar fell into the hands of the and Spain acknowledged the indepen-
English in 1704. At that time Eng- dence of the United States. War with
land was at war with France and Spain. England followed, and in 1779 Gibraltar
Admiral Sir George Rooke had been was attacked.
sent to. the Mediterranean to watch the 7. The siege which followed lasted
French and Spanish fleets. Learning three years. Again and again the enemy
that Gibraltar was poorly defended, he battered the Rock.with their heavy guns.
suddenly attacked and captured it, and A last effort was made by the combined
hoisted the English flag on its summit, fleets in 1782; but the attack proved an
5. That flag is the only one that has utter failure. Several of the great ships








1 MALTA.

and floating batteries of the besiegers 8. Gibraltar is kept up at great ex-
were set on fire with red-hot shot; and pense to England. The garrison numbers
the others, to escape the flames, hastily 6,500, or nearly one-third of the whole
fled. The attempt has never been re- population. The climate is usually
need. healthy, but the heat of summer is trying














...... .. . .





_4-4






GALLERIES CUT OUT 0'O TIE SOLID ROCK.

to Englishmen. On the higher part of found; also the fawn-coloured Barbary
the Rock, which is covered with short ape, the only animal of the monkey tribo
grass, partridges and wood-cocks are found in Europe.



13. MALTA.

1. The Maltese Islands lie near the are three in number. Malta is much
middle of the Mediterranean Sea, sixty the largest island of the group. It is
miles south of the island of Sicily. They about half the size of the Isle of Wight.







MALTA. 25

2. Malta is of great value to England north-east coast. Valetta is both a
as a naval power. It forms an admir- powerful fortress and a beautiful city.
able station for her fleet. It stands on peninsulas separated by
3. The strength of Malta lies in bays and inlets which form a series of
Valetta, its capital and sea-port, on the splendid harbours.












"M111" -: - -"-











4. For two centuries and a half the 6. The surface of Malta is varied,
island was in possession of the Knights part being hilly, but the greater part
of St. John.* They held the place till level. The soil is naturally shallow and
1798, when they were forced to yield poor. Great pains, however, are be-
to the power of Buonrparte, then bent stowed on its cultivation, and it yields
on the conquest of Egypt and the East. grain, sugar, oranges, and olives.
5. In 1800 the island was taken by 7. Malta is believed to be the island
the English; and in 1814 it was secured Melita on which St. Paul was ship-
to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. wrecked on his voyage to Rome. A
bay on the north-east coast, called St.
A religious order of knights. Its founders Paul's Bay, is pointed out as the scene
were merchants trading to the East, who
erected a hospital at Jerusalem for pilgrims, of that remarkable incident.







26 CYPRUS-ADEN AND PERIM.


DEPENDENCIES IN ASIA.

14. CYPRUS.
1. The island of Cyprus, in the east of 3. Cyprus has two sea-ports, Famagusta
the Mediterranean, was in 1878 trans- on the east coast, and Larnaca on the
ferred to Great Britain by Turkey. It south. The climate of the former is
has not become a British possession, like very unhealthy. Nicosia, the capital,
Malta or Gibraltar. England is only is in the interior.
to manage the government of the island; 4. The island has changed hands very
and it may possibly yet be restored to frequently. It has belonged successively
Turkey. to most of the great nations, both of
2. Cyprus is about two-thirds the size ancient and of modern times.
of Yorkshire. The population consists 5. While it was held by the Romans,
of Greeks and Turks. The Greeks are Cyprus was visited by Paul in his first
the more numerous, but the Turks have missionary tour. He had with him
hitherto been supreme in the island. Barnabas, who was a native of the isl-
Both agriculture and manufactures are and. At Paphos, Elymas the sorcerer
in a backward state, owing to the lazi- was struck with blindness; and Sergius
ness of the Greeks and the tyranny of Paulus, the Roman governor, became a
the Turks. Christian.


15. ADEN AND PERIM.
1. The highway to India now lies It is a mere barren rock. Water as
through the Suez Canal and the Red well as food has to be carried to it from
Sea. At the south end of the Red Sea Aden; but its shores abound with turtle.
is the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, or the 3. About one hundred miles east of
"Gate of Tears;" so called because of Perim, on the south coast of Arabia, is
the number of shipwrecks of which it the strongly-fortified town of Aden-
has been the scene, the Gibraltar of the Indian Ocean.
2. Partly to secure command of this Aden stands on a peninsula which has
...,--,I_', and partly to make the navi- an area of eighteen square miles.
gation safe, Great Britain has taken 4. The great value of Aden to Great
possession of the small island of Perim, Britain lies in its position on the way
near the middle of the strait, and has from Suez to Bombay-as a place at
erected a light-house on its highest point, which coal and provisions may be stored







26 CYPRUS-ADEN AND PERIM.


DEPENDENCIES IN ASIA.

14. CYPRUS.
1. The island of Cyprus, in the east of 3. Cyprus has two sea-ports, Famagusta
the Mediterranean, was in 1878 trans- on the east coast, and Larnaca on the
ferred to Great Britain by Turkey. It south. The climate of the former is
has not become a British possession, like very unhealthy. Nicosia, the capital,
Malta or Gibraltar. England is only is in the interior.
to manage the government of the island; 4. The island has changed hands very
and it may possibly yet be restored to frequently. It has belonged successively
Turkey. to most of the great nations, both of
2. Cyprus is about two-thirds the size ancient and of modern times.
of Yorkshire. The population consists 5. While it was held by the Romans,
of Greeks and Turks. The Greeks are Cyprus was visited by Paul in his first
the more numerous, but the Turks have missionary tour. He had with him
hitherto been supreme in the island. Barnabas, who was a native of the isl-
Both agriculture and manufactures are and. At Paphos, Elymas the sorcerer
in a backward state, owing to the lazi- was struck with blindness; and Sergius
ness of the Greeks and the tyranny of Paulus, the Roman governor, became a
the Turks. Christian.


15. ADEN AND PERIM.
1. The highway to India now lies It is a mere barren rock. Water as
through the Suez Canal and the Red well as food has to be carried to it from
Sea. At the south end of the Red Sea Aden; but its shores abound with turtle.
is the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, or the 3. About one hundred miles east of
"Gate of Tears;" so called because of Perim, on the south coast of Arabia, is
the number of shipwrecks of which it the strongly-fortified town of Aden-
has been the scene, the Gibraltar of the Indian Ocean.
2. Partly to secure command of this Aden stands on a peninsula which has
...,--,I_', and partly to make the navi- an area of eighteen square miles.
gation safe, Great Britain has taken 4. The great value of Aden to Great
possession of the small island of Perim, Britain lies in its position on the way
near the middle of the strait, and has from Suez to Bombay-as a place at
erected a light-house on its highest point, which coal and provisions may be stored








INDIA: POSITION AND HISTORY. 27

















ADEN.

for supplying steamers. It was seized 6. In the Middle Ages, when it was a
by the English in 1839, in consequence large and prosperous commercial city,
of a Madras vessel, shipwrecked on the Aden had a splendid system of cisterns, in
coast, having been plundered and its which the rain-water of the surrounding
passengers cruelly treated. The open- hills was collected. When the English
ing of the Suez Canal in 1869 added took possession of the place, they found
greatly to its importance. that these wells, which are cut out of
5. Aden enjoys almost perpetual sun- the solid rock, had fallen into decay;
shine. The drawback from which it is but they cleared out and restored one
apt to suffer is drought. Rain falls hundred and fifty of them at a cost of
only once in three years; but then it one million sterling, and now the" town
falls copiously, and the water is gathered has a constant supply of water, and is a
in great tanks made for the purpose. pleasant place of residence.



16.. INDIA: POSITION AND HISTORY.
1. A voyage of 1,800 miles from Aden banyan trees; of temples, and rock-caves,
across the Arabian Sea brings us to and majestic ruins.
Bombay, one of the chief cities of India; 2. India is more than twelve tirne
-the land of giant mountains, rivers, the size of the British Isles. It meas-
and forests; of the tiger, the elephant, ures 1,900 miles from north to south,
and the crocodile;-the land of palms and and 1,800 miles from east to west. Its







28 THE HIMALAYAS.

population is 240 million, of which 184 the possessions of the English in India
million are directly under English rule. gradually increased, until they exte-id.et
3. The shores of India are washed by from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin,
the two great branches of the Indian and from Afghanistan to Burmah and
Ocean-the Bay of Bengal on the east, Siam.
and the Arabian Sea on the west. The 7. In 1857 -just a century after
coast-line, though not by any means Plassey there occurred the terrible
regular, is not deeply indented by gulfs mutiny in the native army, which for a
or bays, except in the north-west. time threatened to destroy the English
4. The first English settlers in India power in India. Hundreds of English
were a company of merchants trading men, women, and children were cruelly
under the title of the English East India murdered, and their property was de-
Company. The Company began in 1600. stroyed.
In 1664 a French East India Company 8. By extraordinary efforts the mutiny
was formed, and there was great rivalry was quelled, and the English power be-
between the two companies for many came all the stronger for the trial it had
years. undergone. But the East India Com-
5. There was rivalry also between the pany was abolished, and India was
native princes whom each favoured, placed more directly under the rule of
The result was that the trading com- the English Parliament. In 1876, Queen
panies were turned into military powers. Victoria was proclaimed Empress of
After many petty contests, the great India.
victory of the English at Plassey under 9. Since England undertook the
Lord Clive (1757) laid securely the government of India, the country has
foundation of the English Empire in grown in prosperity, and the people
India. have been free from civil war and
6. During the next hundred years, foreign invasion.



17. THE HIMALAYAS.
1. The great natural feature of India crowning summit of the whole is Mount
is the Himalaya range, which contains Everest, which is 29,002 feet above the
the highest mountain summits on the sea-level.
globe. It forms a vast barrier, 1,500 2. To the inhabitants of the plain,
miles long; between the north of India these mountains appear as a wall of
and Central Asia. It has twelve peaks snow from which white pinnacles rise
which exceed 25,000 feet in height. The against the distant sky. Lofty as these












-- -
1A
.v _




N
i ~ Tdl~;IIR3; ,._ ;,rraa i ~ -.-





S$

I
B A OT O E N






BOATS AND BOATMEN ON THE GANGES.







30 TIE HIMALAYAS.

pinnacles are, they look small when corn- 5. As a rule the vegetation changes
pared with the massive range from which as the mountains are ascended. That of
they spring. the lowest region is tropical, that of the
3. As terrace after
terrace is reached in
the ascent of the .. .- ''
Himalayas, the aspect
of nature is found to ,.. I. B E TB
change almost as much '
as it does in passing
from the equator to-
ward the poles. Along .
the foot of the range, -
where it meets the fer-
tile plain, there is a '
belt of swamp and -
jungle 20 miles broad. ..
There the elephant and -.,
the tiger roam at will; a ,
but so deadly are the
vapours that arise from '
the soil at certain sea- ---- -
sons, that human life -p--i -.--
can hardly be main-
tained on it. -:
4. Above this deadly .- -
plain, a terrace is --
reached of smiling fields
and grand forests and
fruitfulvalleys. Higher ..
still, the mountain sides;- .'-- -- -j.'
assume a bolder aspect,
not unlike that of the most rugged middle region is temperate or European,
scenery of the Scottish Highlands. that of the highest region is polar. Yet,
Above this, there is a region, barren, the finest grain is sometimes found in
grand, and snow-clad, resembling the sheltered valleys thousands of feet above
highest ridges of the Alps, but on a the sea. Forests of oak and beds of
vaster scale. strawberries, clumps of cowslips and







INDIA: NATURAL FEATURES. 31

banks of wild roses, are seen wild cat, and the hog are found, and the chamois
at great heights growing with leaps from rock to rock as in the Alps. Higher
a richness unknown in the still is the region of the musk-deer, which is so
valleys below, easily affected by heat that if the young be carried
6. The animal life like the down to a warm station they perish in a few days.
vegetable varies with the ele- 7. The forests are filled with flocks of fowls of
ovation. In the lower plains all kinds. The peacock struts on the lower hills.
the tiger and the elephant Kites and hawks inhabit the cliffs. Pheasants
roam. Higher, the bear, the and partridges are plentiful.
-8-. The domestic animals of the country include
the common black cattle of India, the yak of Tibet,
the sheep and the goat.



"B R lA it 18. INDIA: NATURAL FEATURES.
,, 1. In the Himalayas the two great rivers of
India, the Indus and the Ganges, have their sources.
The Ganges and its tributaries drain the southern
"A, j* '% slopes of the mountains toward the east. It is
L, joined by the Brahmaputra, which rises on the
-L-:- northern side of the Himalayas, and flows round
,-- -:" -'--, their eastern shoulder. The Indus also rises on
S- the north of the Himalayas; but it flows round
their western shoulder, and falls into the Arabian
S: ea.
2. The Ganges is the sacred river of the Hindus.
--.-It has its rise in a glacier or snow-field at an ele-
...vation of 14,000 feet above the level of the sea.
-. ". A temple is built on its banks at the highest point
that can be reached, and it is the greatest privilege
L --_ :l'-. ---, of pilgrims to dip in its waters, or to drink them
there.
:-' 3. The basin of the Ganges and its feeders is
very fertile. It and the Brahmaputra enter the
sea by the same delta. Their interwoven streams
S form a series of swampy islands called the Sundar-
bans, frequented by tigers and crocodiles.







32 INDIA : POLITICAL DIVISIONS.

4. The source of the Indus is even Bengal. On the western side of the
higher than that of the Ganges. Its West Ghits there are no rivers-only a
principal tributary, the Sutlej, rises quite few insignificant streams. The Western
near the Indus, and flows 900 miles be- GhAts are an almost unbroken wall; the
fore meeting it. The Punjab means the Eastern Ghats have their line broken
" Five-Rivers;" and it is so called be- by the valleys through which the great
cause five rivers, forming the main rivers flow.
feeders of the Indus, flow through it. 8. This table-land consists of treeless
5. The plain embracing these two plains, of low ridges, and of flat-topped
great river-basins, extends across the hills. It contains also a great extent of
north of Hindustan-the "land of the jungle. Its chief products are cotton,
Hindus." South of this plain is a wheat, vegetable oils, and dates.
broad table-land, which extends as far 9. A coast plain about 50 miles broad,
as to the Vindhya Hills. South of the and called the Carnatic, lies between the
Vindhya Hills is the river Nerbudda, Eastern Ghats and the sea, and ex-
which separates Hindustan from the tends southward to the point of the
Deccan. peninsula. There are few streams to
6. The Deccan is an extensive table- refresh the soil in this region, and it
land covering the greater part of penin- has to be watered by means of tanks
sular India. It begins at the ridge of and canals.
hills south of the Nerbudda. On the 10. The climate of India depends on
east and the west it is bounded by periodical winds called monsoons. There
the Eastern and the Western Ghats, are three seasons in the Indian year;-
which meet in the south in the Nilgiri the hot season, from April to June;
Hills. the rainy season, from June till Sep-
7. The Deccan has a general slope tember; and the cool season, from
from west to east. This is shown by November till February. At the be-
the flow of the great rivers-Goda- ginning and at the end of the rainy
very, Krishna, and KAvery-eastward season there are frequent and violent
through the East GhAts to the Bay of thunder-storms.



19. INDIA: POLITICAL DIVISIONS.-(I.)
1. The political divisions of India are States, one hundred and fifty-three in
of three kinds. First there are the number; thirdly, the Independent States,
British Provinces, twelve in number; three in number.
secondly, the Feudatory or Dependent 2. The Provinces are ruled by British







INDIA : POLITICAL DIVISIONS. 33

officers, who bear the titles of Gover- Bengal and Bombay. They are a moun-
nors, Lieutenant-Governors, Chief Cor- tainous region, with wide tracts of forest
missioners, and Commissioners. For- and jungle.
merely British India was divided into 8. Madras occupies the south-east of
the three Presidencies of Bengal, Madras, the peninsula. It has a hot climate,
and Bombay, and these names are still and produces much cotton and indigo.
sometimes used. 9. Assam is east of Bengal. It is
3. The chief of the British Provinces famous for its tea. British Burmah ex-
is Bengal, covering the lower part of the tends southward from Assam, along the
plain of the Ganges. It is very fertile, east coast of the Bay of Bengal. It has
and produces great quantities of rice a climate well suited to Europeans.
and indigo. 10. There are four provinces which
4. The province of Bombay is on the have not separate Governors, but are
west coast. Sindh, watered by the lower ruled directly by the Viceroy. They
Indus, is joined with it under one are Ajmeer, Berar, Mysore, and
Governor. Coorg.
5. The Punjab is north of Sindh. 11. Ajmeer is in the middle of Raj-
The natives are a strong and hardy race, pootana. Berar is south-west of the
called Sikhs. The Sikhs are the High- Central Provinces. It is said to contain
landers of India. the richest cotton-fields in India.
6. Between the Punjab and Bengal 12. Mysore is an elevated region in
lie the North-West Provinces, which the south of the Deccan. It is famous
now include Oudh. This is the most for its forests of teak, the hardest and
densely peopled part of India. heaviest wood known. Coorg is a small
7. The Central Provinces lie between province south-west of Mysore.



20. INDIA: POLITICAL DIVISIONS.-(II.)
1. The Feudatory States are ruled 2. There are two classes of native
over by native princes Hindus and princes distinct from the Feudatory
Mohammedans. They are, however, chiefs: first, those who have given up
directed by British political agents resi- their authority, but have been allowed
dent at their courts. These residents to keep their estates; secondly, those who
keep the Government of India informed have given up their territories and have
of what is going on in the several become pensioners on the Government
States, and from it they receive their of India.
instructions. 3. The largest and the most powerful







34 INDIA: POLITICAL DIVISIONS.

of the Feudatory States is the Nizam's 6. In the extreme north of India,
Territory, in the middle of the Deccan. up among the Western Himalayas, is
This compact state is larger than Great the fertile table-land of Cashmere, fam-
ous all over the world
for the fine wool of
S its goats, yaks, and
wild sheep. It lies
S- between the Punjab
and the Highlands of
STibet. The river Jhel-
um flows through the
"e renowned "Vale of
Cashmere," a fertile
-- and beautiful plain, 50
miles in length by 10 in
breadth. In this plain
roses are cultivated for
St he manufacture of per-
fume.
E YA -CAS ERE. 7. The three Inde-
pendent States lie
Britain, though not half so densely north of Bengal, on the southern slopes
peopled. of the Himalayas. They are Nepaul,
4. Considerably larger in area, but Bhotan, and Sikkim. The last-named,
less in population, is Rajpootana, be- which is a small state, separates the other
tween Bengal and Sindh. A great part two. The southern part of it, containing
of the land is desert, and much of it the favourite health-residence of Dar-
is occupied by a brave but half-barbarous jeeling, now belongs to Bengal.
race. 8. Nepaul is a wild and mountainous
5. Two other powerful native states country, occupied by tribes independent
are Sindia's Territory and Holkar's of one another. There is a British resi-
Territory, north and south of the Ner- dent at the capital, but the country is
budda. Both are wealthy provinces, believed to be under Chinese influence.
with armies of their own. About Bhotan very little is known.







INDIA : GREAT CITIES. 35



21. INDIA: GREAT CITIES.-(I.)
1. The great cities of India are of 3. The population includes Hindus,
three kinds : first, those that have grown Mohammedans, Chinese, and Persians,
great under English rule-as Calcutta, as well as Europeans. At the close of
Madras, and Bombay; secondly, great the seventeenth century Calcutta was a
native cities that are now under Eng- small village surrounded with jungle.
lish rule-as Lucknow, Benares, and 4. A memorable event in the history
Allahabad; thirdly, great native cities of the place is the crime of the Black
that are still under native rule, and are Hole:" In 1756 the English factory
purely Eastern in character-as Hyder- was attacked by a large native army,
abad and Baroda. and the little garrison was overpowered.
2. Calcutta is the chief city in Bengal, Of one hundred and forty-six English
and the capital of British India. It prisoners shut up at night in a low
r- "-- -- -- -- dungeon eighteen feet
o\\ / square, one hundred
S I L d e "- and twenty-three died
-' \ before morning.
,- :.'. L 'ti ,, 5. Bombay occupies
i--', '''. a splendid situation
.. for a commercial city.
nar,, It stands on a neck of
l and at the southern
--.---- --se% end of Bombay Island,
-- l and it has an excellent
I CAi-[ harbour. It consists,
r ... like Calcutta, of two
iliatr'o -a-" parts. The one is the
S Be&at old town, also called
stands on the Hoogly, the most westerly the Fort. This is the European divi-
branch of the Ganges. Calcutta ex- sion, and there also the Parsee (Persian)
tends for four and a half miles along merchants reside. The other, the new
the left bank of this river. It consists town, is the native quarter, inhabited by
of two distinct parts-a Native part, with Hindus and Mohammedans. Bombay
narrow streets and bazaars or markets; is a place of very great trade, especially
and a European part, with broad streets in cotton.
and handsome houses. 6. Madras is not well situated for a
(676^ '







36 INDIA: GREAT CITIES.
















:1"


















- .- -----1.- -- -- _._- -2 o =--- ---


MERCHANTS IN THE COTTON MARKET, BOMBAY.

commercial town. It stands on a surf- one hundred yards from the shore. Fort
beaten shore, and has no harbour. Pas- St. George, the citadel, is on the level of
sengers and all kinds of merchandise are the beach, and separates the Black town
landed in boats. Fishing is carried on or native quarter from the official or
from rafts, as fishing-boats would be up- European quarter in the south and
set by the high surf-wave which breaks west.








INDIA: GREAT CITIES. 37


22. INDIA: GREAT CITIES.-(II.)
1. All the great cities of India are the scene of terrible massacres commit-
now connected with one another by rail- ted by Nana Sahib during the Mutiny
way. There is a line from Bombay to of 1857. Near Cawnpore is Lucknow,
Madras, which passes Poonah, the chief which was so gallantly relieved by
military station in the Deccan, and a Havelock, and afterwards by Lord
very healthy place. A branch of it goes Clyde, during the same Mutiny.
to Hyderabad, the Nizam's capital, and 6. Agra is a fortified city of great
famous for its fabrics of silk and gold. extent, and contains many handsome
2. From Bombay there is also a line buildings. Finest of all is the tomb of
of railway to Calcutta. It first takes a Shah Jehan, one of the Mogul emperors,
north-easterlydirectiontoAllahabad; and and his favourite queen,-the grandest
thence it follows the course of the Ganges. specimen of Mohammedan architecture
Some distance from Bombay, a branch in the world. It is called the Taj Mahal,
runs due east to Nagpore, the chief city "the Crown of Empires."
in the Central Provinces, with manufac- 7. The first grand durbar, or meeting
tures in silk, cotton, and woollen goods of the Indian princes, after the Mutiny
3. Allahabad is in the North-West was held in the Taj Mahal in 1866. Sir
Provinces. It is a holy city of the John Lawrence, then Governor-General
Hindus, who make pilgrimages to it, and of India, summoned thither as vassals or
throng it to the number of 200,000 at a allies of the Queen of England the great
time. Eighty miles lower, on the Ganges, chiefs and feudatories of India from
is Benares, the most holy city of the Cape Comorin to the Himalayas. They
Hindus, and the Hindu capital of India. all obeyed, and the scene was one of un-
Still farther down the river is Patna, a example splendour. Delhi, north of
large city, with vast trade in rice, opium, Agra, was the Mohammedan capital of
and indigo. India, and the palace of the Mogul
4. From Allahabad the line of rail- emperors is its grandest building.
way is continued north- westward to 8. There is a railway from Bombay to
Lahore and Mooltan. Lahore is the Hyderabad and Kurachee. Hyderabad
capital of the Punjab, and contains the is the capital of Sindh, and Kurachee is
palace'of its rulers. It is famous for its its sea-port. Si:: miles north of Hydera-
mosques and Hindu temples. Mooltan bad is Meeanue, where Sir Charles
is a manufacturing city. Napier gained a great victory in 1843.
5. The railway from Allahabad to 9. The two most important cities in
Lahore passes Cawnpore and Delhi, and Farther India are Rangoon and Moul-
has a branch to Agra. Cawnpore was mein. Rangoon is fortified like a Euro-










- i "- -" ---- --- _.- ,,

:~--,-=-~=.i-:_--- ;;~':~-,!E-_- - _; _-___. -- ...... ... ---- ':--~-- ------
- -I ------- %;i. r ;---




T TI































THE TAJ MAH-AL.
-- r- -'
-:-= ---- -- -= . -) _
- : ,. j --

1.-.-_:-r- ,' "-

o_: ....... _~---.-"-"'" -- -
S. . . -6 --_
_- _. .. -_ -












iB-_ -. _ -.
L I- I''' TH i AJ MAHAYL ,I 11:-








INDIA: PEOPLES, MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 39

pean fortress, and has valuable exports tensive ship-building yards. The hills in
of teak. Moulmein also exports great rear of the town glitter with the spires
quantities of teak wood, and it has ex- of numerous temples.



23. INDIA: PEOPLES, MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.

1. The majority of the natives of medans are the most numerous; but
India are Hindus. The name means there are three times as many Hindus
"dwellers by the Indus;" and they are as there are Mohammedans.
supposed to have entered the country 3. The religion of the Hindus is
from the north-west. Brahmanism,-so called from Brahma,
2. Next to the Hindus, the Moham- their chief god. Mohammedanism is







V *'*a \ *7 y I|
-: *. *, . ..'- S















BRAHMANS READING THEIR SACRED BOOKS.

the religion of the Turks. It was Christians, Protestant Christians, and
founded by Mohammed, or Mahomet, in Roman Catholics.
622 A.D. There are also, in India, Syrian 4. Hindu society is broken up into








40 INDIA: PEOPLES, MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.

numerous classes called castes. The has given rise to very many classes,
sacred writings of the Hindus specify representing different trades and pro-
only four castes,-the priestly class, or fessions.
Brahmans; the military class; the mer- 6. The ordinary dress of the Hindus
cantile class; the servile class, or sudras. consists of a strip of cloth about three
The members of each caste were pro- yards long wrapped around the waist and
hibited from intermarrying with the loins. A long robe of linen or of mus-
members of any other. Those who lin is worn by those who are in the em-
broke their caste, or lost the privileges ployment of Europeans. The turban is
of their order, were called pariahs, or composed of many yards of fine linen
outcasts, and were regarded as unclean twisted round the head.
and vile. 7. Ornaments of all kinds-ear-rings,
5. This very exact system does not nose-rings, necklaces, bracelets, finger-
now exist. The Brahmans are the only rings, anklets, and toe-rings-are in high
pure caste. The mixture of the others favour with the natives of India. The
S4 ---'- -





I














PALANKEEN.

wealthy natives dress in costly robes are built of mud and thatched with
adorned with jewels and embroidered straw. The interior is dark and com-
with silver and gold. fortless. In towns, the houses are
8. The ordinary houses of the Hindus generally tiled, but they are not very







CEYLON. 41

comfortable inside. At the same time, tune as they go along, keeping time to
the temples and official buildings are the music with their tread.
generally very fine, and are often of 10. The great majority of the people
great magnificence. of India are engaged in agriculture.
9. The ordinary mode of travelling Rice, which forms the staple food of
used by wealthy natives, and adopted the natives, is the most extensive crop;
by Europeans, is in palankeens. A but much wheat is also grown. Cotton
palankeen is a large sedan chair, in and jute are produced in large quantities,
which the traveller may recline at full chiefly for export. India sends to Eng-
length. It is carried, by means of land raw cotton, jute, rice, linseed, flax,
poles, on the shoulders of men called tea, and hides, and receives manufactured
bearers, who chant a strange sing-song cotton and iron in exchange.



24. CEYLON.
1. Fifty miles from the south-eastern tainous, especially toward the south,
coast of India is the beautiful and fer- where one peak rises to upwards of
tile island of Ceylon, in size one-fourth 8000 feet above the level of the sea.
less than Ireland. It is separated from The rest of the island is level, and very
the mainland by Palk Strait and the fertile. The richness and the variety of
Gulf of Manaar. Between these two its vegetation make the island wonder-
seas there is a chain of rocks and shoals ful for the magnificence of its natural
called Adam's Bridge,-so called (accord- scenery.
ing to Mohammedans) because Adam 4. The climate is like that of Southern
after the Fall crossed by these rocks to India, but it is tempered in a remark-
Ceylon. able way by the surrounding ocean. The
2. The Gulf of Manaar was formerly soil owes its fertility to the south-west
the scene of a famous pearl-fishery, but monsoon. Before the rain begins to
it is now carried on to a very limited fall in June, the island is a parched
extent. The divers are carried to the desert. The grass withers; the trees
bottom weighted with a large stone, shed their leaves; the streams and the
Hastily gathering as many shells as ponds are dried up; insects disappear;
they can during the few seconds of birds become fewer; wild animals, pressed
their being below, they are hauled up by the drought, approach the abodes of
to the surface, and store their gleanings men.
in their boats. 5. At last the clouds break, the rain
3. The interior of Ceylon is moun- descends in copious streams, and in a







42 CEYLON.

few days the whole aspect of nature is hands of the English, the forests have
changed. The grass begins to show a been cleared in many places, and the
green hue; the trees put forth buds; ground has been occupied with coffee-
the forest air is filled with the hum of plantations. The cocoa-nuts exported
insects and the joyous singing of birds, every year number hundreds of millions.
6. The chief vegetable products of Ceylon also contains iron and tin, salt
Ceylon are coffee, cocoa-nuts, and cinna- and nitre; but it is most famous for its
mon. Since the island passed into the precious stones.

























ELEPHANT CORRAL, CEYLON.

7. The animals include the bear, the the marshes and rivers; and tortoises
leopard, the flying-fox, and deer of many and lizards abound. The most note-
kinds; but the lord of the forest is the worthy of the snakes is the cobra da
elephant. The birds, of which upwards capello, or "hooded snake," whose bite
of three hundred species have been found is certain death.
in the island, include the eagle, the fal- 8. Few scenes are more exciting than
t- -6













con, the owl, the kingfisher, the swallow, the pursuit and capture of wild ele-
and the robin. The crocodile frequents phants in Ceylon. The natives enclose













An




.._ '.l




f ,,~ ., Li







i::

























PALM-TREES, CEYLON
dq,



-1 Rk


PALM-TREES, CEYLON







44 THE STRAIT SETTLEMENTS.

a large part of a forest with a fence 10. The natives of Ceylon are called
made of strong posts. The enclosure, Singhalese. In religion the majority are
which is called a corral, has only one Buddhists. The first European nation
entrance. From the entrance a long to occupy Ceylon was the Portuguese.
lane, always getting broader, runs out Their rule came to an end in 1658, when
into the forest. A trap is thus formed they were driven out by the Dutch.
to receive the elephants. From the Dutch it was taken by the
9. The natives, to the number of two English. Ceylon is a Crown colony, in-
or three thousand, make a wide circuit dependent of India.
around a herd of elephants, and gradu- 11. The ancient capital of Ceylon is
ally drive the animals toward the lane. Kandy, in the middle of the island.
When they have been collected there, But the seat of Government is now
drums are beat, fires are lit, and guns Colombo, on the west coast, the most
are discharged, to terrify the elephants important sea-port. Point de Galle, in
and drive them into the corral. As the south, is a strongly-fortified packet-
soon as a sufficient number have passed station, at which Australian and other
the entrance, it is closed by means of steamers call. Trincomalee, on the
sliding bars. The captives are after- north-east, stands on an inlet, which
wards secured by sending tame ele- Lord Nelson considered the finest har-
phants into the corral. hour in the world.



25. THE STRAIT SETTLEMENTS.
1. The Strait Settlements take their 3. Singapore.-The island of Singa-
name from the Strait of Malacca, be- pore is about the same size as the Isle of
tween the Malay Peninsula and the Wight, and is separated from the main-
island of Sumatra. The chief settle- land by a deep strait, nowhere more than
ment is the island of Singapore, off the one mile in breadth. The land is low and
south end of the Peninsula. level, and is covered with rich tropical
2. Next in importance is Malacca, on vegetation.
the west coast of the Peninsula. Two 4. It is, however, the flourishing sea-
hundred miles north, on the same coast, port of Singapore, on its south coast,
is Province Wellesley, and.opposite to it that makes the island important. The
is the small island of Penang. These town is of quite recent origin; but so
settlements were combined in one Govern- commanding is its position in the middle
ment in 1867. The seat of Government is of the highway from India to China,
Singapore, on theislandof the samename. and in the midst of the East India 18l-







TIIE STRAIT SETTLEMENTS. 45

island is the tiger, which carries off some
-. -. :, I A scores of natives every year.
8. Malacca.-The province of Mal-
-- acca is low-lying and swampy, but large
-. quantities of rice, sago, pepper, and other
;- tropical produce are exported. The town
ii of Malacca is well built and healthy,
-- and has a fine appearance as seen from
the sea.
-'1 9. Province Wellesley is much smaller
S -- than Malacca. Its produce is similar to
--- that of the other Malay settlements. It
S ';.' is, however, remarkable for the number
- .' and the splendid plumage of its birds,
which include the kingfisher, the parrot,
: the woodpecker, and the pheasant.
.. _. %10. Penang, or Prince of Wales Isl-
---__ - and, is smaller still. It yields in abun-
ands, that it has grown prosperous very dance a great variety of tropical fruits
rapidly. and spices; but its native name, Pulo
5. The produce of all the neighbour- Penang, meaning "Betel-nut Island," in-
ing settlements and of all the surround- dicates the produce for which it was most
ing islands is collected at Singapore, and esteemed. Betel-nut is chewed by the
is there shipped to all parts of the world. Malays, who carry about and exchange
On the other hand, the manufactures of betel-nut boxes as Europeans do snuff-
Europe and Asia are imported at Singa- boxes.
pore, and are thence re-exported to the 11. Sarawak, a small kingdom on the
surrounding peoples. The exports in- north-west coast of Borneo, is not a
elude tin, sago, tapioca, nutmegs, pepper, British colony, but it is entirely under
gutta-percha, camphor, coffee, and British influence. From 1841 till 1868,
ratans or canes, it was wisely and successfully governed
6. The majority of the inhabitants by Sir James Brooke, with the title of
are Chinese. They make excellent bus- Rajah, and at his death it passed to his
iness men, and are highly trusted by nephew. Its most valuable export is
European traders. antimony ore, of which there is an end-
7. Turtles abound on the coasts ot less supply, though it is rare elsewhere.
Singapore, and form a common food of Itscamphor-theproduceof the camphor-
the inhabitants. The scourge of the tree-is considered the finest in Asia.







46 AUSTRALIA: GENERAL VIEW.

12. Labuan, a small island off the of the British establishments in China,
north-west coast of Borneo, was colonized naval and military, as well as commercial.
by England in 1848, on account of the The island is mountainous, and not at all
abundant supply of excellent coal which fertile. Victoria is a large and hand-
it was found to contain. It was unin- some town on the north coast, with
habited when annexed by England; but 10,000 inhabitants, and with a splendid
it now contains 5,000 inhabitants, and' open harbour. The ships of all nations
has a town with a good harbour. The may be seen there, and its streets,
coal is exported to Singapore, for the wharfs, and docks are a scene of constant
use of the many steamers that call there. activity.
Labuan also yields camphor, spices, and 14. Kow-loong, or Cow-loon, a small
a great variety of valuable timbers, in- peninsula on the opposite mainland, was
cluding teak, ebony, rosewood, and satin- ceded to England in 1861. It used to
wood. be infested with pirates, who did great
13. Hong-Kong is an island at the damage to commerce. Since Cow-loon
mouth of Canton River, on the south-east was taken possession of by England,
coast of China. It is the headquarters piracy has been put down.



DEPENDENCIES IN AUSTRALASIA.

26. AUSTRALIA: GENERAL VIEW.
1. If we sail from Point de Galle in than India. Indeed, to reach it, we
Ceylon for 3,000 miles in a south-easterly must cross the equator, and enter the
direction, we shall come within sight of southern hemisphere. At Melbourne,
the coast of Australia-the largest island when you look at the sun at noon, your
on the globe. This is one of the most face is turned toward the north, and
important of British dependencies, and the coldest winds blow from the south.
contains within itself five separate 4. The seasons, also, are the converse
colonies, of those in England. The coldest months
2. Australia is so large that it is are June and July, and the hottest are
sometimes called the Island Continent. December and January. Christmas is
It is twenty-four times as large as the the time for strawberries, and Whitsun-
British Isles, and if it were one-fourth day is the time for warm clothing.
larger it would be as large as the Conti- 5. What strikes one most on looking
nent of Europe. at a map of Australia, is the solid char-
3. Australia lies much farther south acter of the island. Its coast-line is







AUSTRALIA: GENERAL VIEW. 47

-^-i-^ -r:s- 'L : f- r .- .---.-" ":--: ), "-. *- _:.=-- _,.-_'--1 -- z :









2-- ..
SI' -
.:--- ,: :. :- --- I '- -. .- ..-1i --:_-: E-.r. .. -- -?









-very little broken by deep inlets. A 7. Another remarkable feature of Aus-









consequence of this is that the length tralia is the want of great rivers, which
the extent of the island. nation. Its only large river is the

N ,. -







6- In this respect it presents a great Murray. It affords internal navigation
*-' -.-. :: . -- :_-' .Z. .a.. i


: -* -- - _- ."- "- : _- ---- % -t-^- "-- i-- = : f -* --s- - -




"consequene of Europthis is 20,000that the mles;ngth tralia is the wannot ofgreat rivers, which from
henof coastline actis small in comparison with might serve as a means of inland navi-
the nations of oe. hat of nation. Its only large river isr the
6. In this respect it presents a great Murray. It affords internal navigation
contrast to Europe. The length of the extending to nearly 2,000 miles; yet its
coast-line of Europe is 20,000 miles; inland waters cannot be reached from
hence the activity in commerce of most the sea by ships of any size.
of the nations of Europe. That of 8. The tributaries of the Murray
Australia is only 9,000 miles; and it show in a striking way the peculiar
cannot therefore be expected ever to be- character of Australian rivers. The
come a commercial continent to the same largest of its tributaries, the Darling,
extent as Europe is. is fed by streams flowing from the Liver-







48 VICTORIA AND NEW SOUTH WALES.

pool Mountains. About the middle of Kosciusko in the Alps, near the south-
its course, the great river is lost in eastern angle of the island. It is 7,285
marshes and in a maze of channels. feet above the sea-level.
When it regains the form of a current, 12. The interior is nearly treeless, and
it does not receive tributaries; it sends bears only shrubs, heaths, ferns, and
forth numerous offshoots, which are swal- grass. It is a mistake, however, to sup-
lowed up in the dry and thirsty soil, or pose that it is all desert like the Sahara.
end in stagnant swamps. With the exception of a barren region
9. There are many small rivers in the in the middle of the island, the soil of
interior of Australia that never reach Australia is generally fertile. Much of
the sea. Their water is either lost in it is rich grassy country, affording excel-
the soil, in which case they are called lent pasture for sheep and cattle.
"creeks;" or it forms lagoons and lakes 13. Extending along the north-east
which have no outlet. Lake Eyre and coast for 1,500 miles, and at a distance
Lake Torrens in South Australia are from it varying from 150 to 30 miles,
formed in this way. there is a natural wall of coral called
10. In Australia, the highlands arenear the Great Barrier Reef. However rough
the coasts, and the lowlands are in the the sea may be outside the Reef, within
interior. The general aspect of the island it there is smooth water, where ships
is that of a dry plain set in a frame of may go in safety. A few openings occur
hills and fertile coasts, in it, through which ships may pass to
11. The highest hills are in the south- the ocean.
east-in New South Wales and Victoria 14. The native population of Australia
-where the Australian Alps, the Blue belongs to the Black or negro race;
Mountains, and the Dividing Range but they are distinct from the Maories of
form a belt about 150 miles in width. New Zealand. The Australian negroes
The highest peak in Australia is Mount are rapidly dying out.



27. VICTORIA AND NEW SOUTH WALES.
1. The separate colonies in Australia 2. Victoria.-The prosperity of Vic-
are, New South Wales, West Australia, toria is of recent origin, and its growth
South Australia, Victoria, and Queens- has been very rapid. Victoria was
land. The colonies are here named in separated from New South Wales, and
the order of their foundation. Victoria constituted an independent colony so
is now the leading colony in population lately as 1856; yet its population al-
and in commerce, ready exceeds that of its parent colony,






VICTORIA AND NEW SOUTH WALES. 49

though it is only one-fourth of the size hurst and Castlemaine, north-west of
of the latter. Melbourne. Geelong, on Port Philip,
3. Melbourne, its capital, is not only is a rising sea-port, and competes with
the most populous city in Australia; it Melbourne in foreign trade. The whole
is also the greatest '- -- -- ----
sea-port south of the
equator-the Lon- Q U E N SL A4 NID -
don of the Southern L
Hemisphere. Yet,
twenty-five years : ; [ w --' T H
ago, the sites of its : L -
handsomest streets L '
and squares were -- .
wild bush- land, Au iaf tI I
where men went to -
hunt the kangaroo. -
4. The cause of
this remarkable --;-
growth was the dis- --
covery of gold. This -- -
was made in 1851 7
and at once a vio- ----- .
lent gold fever set in. From all parts colony is rich in pasture land, but agri-
of Australia, and afterwards from Eng- culture has made great progress since
land, Scotland, and Ireland, and from the rapid increase of the population con-
all parts of the world, people flocked by sequent on the discovery of gold.
the thousand to the famous gold-diggings. 7. New South Wales is the oldest of
Many became suddenly rich-some by the Australian colonies, and after Vic-
gathering gold, others by supplying the toria it is the most populous and the
gold-workers with food and clothing, wealthiest. It is three times the size of
5. Villages grew into towns, and Great Britain. The land near the coast
towns into cities, with amazing rapidity. is agricultural; the interior is pastoral,
Ballarat, 75 miles west of Melbourne, and is divided into extensive sheep-
grew from a shepherd's hut to a large farms called "runs."
town in a very short time, and it is 8. Sydney, the capital of New South
now a handsome and populous place- Wales, is the oldest town in Australia.
the second town in Victoria. It had its origin in the settlement for
6. There are also gold-fields at Sand- convicts at Port Jackson. By the ad-







50 QUEENSLAND, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, AND WEST AUSTRALIA.

vice of Captain Cook, convicts had been land, Bathurst, and Goulburn. New-
sent to Botany Bay, south of Sydney, castle, at the mouth of the river Hunter,
in 1787; but they were removed to has large exports of coal.
Port Jackson in the following year. 10. Norfolk Island, 1,200 miles north-
The transportation of convicts was en- east of Sydney, belongs to New South
tirely discontinued in 1853. Wales. It was formerly a convict settle-
9. Sydney is now a large and hand- ment; but, having been cleared of
some city, thoroughly English in charac- felons, it was in 1856 occupied by the
ter, with a university and extensive cor- Pitcairn islanders, descendants of the
merce. The other chief towns are Mait- mutineers of the Bounty.



28. QUEENSLAND, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, AND WEST AUSTRALIA.
1. Queensland is an extensive country and agricultural; but it also exports
north of New South Wales, six times copper, obtained in great quantities at
the size of Great Britain. It was made Burra-burra, 40 miles north of Adelaide.
a colony in 1859. As yet, only the 4. Adelaide, the capital, is situated
coasts have been settled; but the interior on the east coast of the Gulf of St.
is very fertile, and is capable of sup- Vincent, a broad natural harbour, the
porting a vast population. The wealth entrance to which is guarded by Kan-
of Queensland in minerals is its most garoo Island. Port Adelaide, seven miles
striking 'feature. It yields gold, copper, south, is its sea-port, and has ship-build-
mercury, and tin, as well as iron and ing yards and active trade.
coal. 5. West Australia embraces all the
2. Brisbane, the capital, is a flourish- rest of the island-an area eleven times
ing city, and an active sea-port. Rock- as large as Great Britain. The greater
hampton, the second sea-port, is 350 part of this wide region is still unex-
miles farther north. plored. As far as it is known, it con-
3. South Australia is a large colony sists partly of grassy plains and partly
west of Victoria and New South Wales. of dry scrub land. The settlements are
Its northern boundary is about 600 confined to the south-west corner.
miles from the coast; but it also governs 6. The capital is Perth, on the Swan
Alexandraland and North Australia- River. Freemantle, its port, at the
that is, the whole middle belt of the isl- mouth of the same river, was a convict
and from north to south. Only the south- settlement till 1868. Albany, on King
eastern corner of the colony has been George Sound, on the south coast, is a
settled. The country is chiefly pastoral coaling-station for steam-ships.







AUSTRALIA: CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS. 51


29. AUSTRALIA: CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS.
1. The northern portion of Australia 5. Other animals peculiar to Aus-
is in the torrid, and the southern por- tralia are several species of bats; the
tion is in the south temperate zone. dingo or wild dog; the duck-bill, an ani-
The climate of Australia is therefore mal partly like a quadruped and partly
partly tropical and partly temperate. like a bird; the emu, a kind of ostrich;
But Australia benefits bybeing an island, and the black swan. The birds of Aus-
The intense heat of the sun is modified tralia have beautiful plumage.
by land and sea breezes, which blow 6. The chief products of Australia are
around it on all sides, wool, gold, and wheat. In both wool
2. Australia is liable to great droughts and gold, Victoria takes the lead. New
and great floods, which do almost equal South Wales ranks next to Victoria as
damage. Sometimes months pass with- a wool- producer, and excels it in the
out a drop of rain falling; the surface number of sheep. The Queensland wool
of the soil becomes as hard as a beaten is noted for its fineness, and the annual
road, the grass withers, and shrubs and crop is steadily increasing. In produc-
plants of all kinds die. At other times tion of gold, Queensland now surpasses
the fall of rain is so great that the rivers New South Wales.
rise forty or fifty feet above their usual 7. The chief wheat-producing colony
level, overflow their banks, and destroy is South Australia. Victoria holds the
the crops that cover the plains, second place, and New South Wales the
3. Nearly all the trees and shrubs third.
are evergreens, so that there is very 8. Coal abounds in New South Wales.
little change in the aspect of the land- It is also found in Queensland, but the
scape from season to season, supply there is limited. Copper is found
4. Most of the mammals of Australia in South Australia, New South Wales,
are marsupial or pouched. The young and Queensland.
are born in a less advanced state than 9. Australia has also acquired a name
the young of other mammals, and are as a wine-producing country. The vine
carried by the mother in an outside flourishes in most of the colonies, and
pouch till they reach maturity. The large quantities of the fruit are used
most familiar specimen of the class is in wine-making. Victoria and New
the kangaroo. Others are the wombat South Wales are the colonies in which
and the bandicoot. the vine is chiefly grown.



(678) 4






52 AUSTRALIA : PRODUCTIONS.

S-- ,- 1 washed away and de-
.- posited in hollows and
in beds of streams.
". The gold is obtained
from the sand by sift-
ing and washing. The
men who do this work
are called gold-washers.
And very laborious
-,A'' work it is, as a very
large quantity of sand
has to be washed be-
fore even a small
10.,i .s l'.. to s quantity of gold can
f .r. be obtained. Some-
d r rl times, however, a gold-
"- '' seeker is so fortu-
nate as to come upon
a considerable lump
of gold, called a nug-
1 get."
11. The greatest gold-
fields in the world are
in Australia and Cali-
I fornia. The latter
were discovered in
1847, and the former
in 1851. The gold
produced in Australia
Since the latter year
I has been valued at
nearly 200 million ster-
_4 _- ling. In 1858, there
... was shown to Queen
COTD-WASHI 1.
Victoria a single nug-
10. Gold in Australia is chiefly get of Australian gold weighing one hun-
found in grains in beds of sand. The dred and forty-six pounds. Its value
sand is the waste of crystalline rocks, was nearly 10,000.







TASMANIA. 53

30. TASMANIA.
1. South of Victoria lies the compact, in large quantities; and as the soil is
heart-shaped island of Tasmania. It takes very fertile, the crops are wonderfully
its name from Tasman, a Dutchman, who abundant.
discovered it. At first it was called Van 6. Many of the trees grow to a great
Diemen's Land, after a governor of Ba- size, and yield valuable timber. Coal and
tavia, whom Tasman wished to honour; iron are abundant. Gold and tin have
but it is now called Tasmania, after its lately been discovered, and are being
discoverer. It is separated from Victoria profitably worked. Some of the deposits
by Bass Strait, 160 miles wide. In size of tin are extraordinarily rich. Most of
it is nearly the same as Ireland. the native animals are pouched, like those
2. The coast-line is very irregular, of Australia. The European animals
especially on .the south east. It is that have been introduced thrive well.
broken up with bays and inlets, which 7. The population is almost entirely
form excellent harbours. The whole of English origin. The natives were of
surface is varied, but the chief moun- the same race as those of Australia; but
tains are toward the north and the they are now extinct.
west. The highest point in the island 8. Most of the settlements, some of
is Mount Humboldt (5,520 feet), in the which have grown into towns, are on
west. Nearly the whole island is well the north coast, and in the basin of the
wooded; some of it is dense forest, two chief rivers, the Tamar and the
3. Near the middle of Tasmania there Derwent.
is an extensive lake region, at a height 9. The capital is Hobart, near the
above the sea of three thousand feet. In mouth of the river Derwent. In 1803 it
that region the chief rivers have their was founded as a convict settlement by
sources, the Government of New South Wales.
4. Tasmania has one of the finest cli- The transportation of convicts ceased in
mates in the world. English fruits and 1853. Hobart is now a town of 24,000
cereals grow in profusion. The summer inhabitants, with a large and secure har-
heat is not so great as that of Australia. bour, active trade, and valuable fisheries.
On the other hand, the winter cold is 10. The second town is Launceston, 40
greater, and covers the mountain peaks miles from the mouth of the Tamar, near
with snow and the lakes with ice. the north coast. It is a great market
5. The people are chiefly employed in for agricultural and mining produce.
the hearing of cattle and sheep, in agri- 11. Tasmania was formerly a depen-
cult ie, felling timber, and mining. The dency of New South Wales, but for many
sapl oduct is wool. Wheat is grown years it has been an independent colony.


I4







54 NEW ZEALAND.


31. NEW ZEALAND.
1. If a line were drawn from London among the mountains, and numerous
through the centre of the Earth, it would rivers flow from them.
come out very near the group of islands 4. North Island has a mountain 9,715
called New Zealand. The New Zealand- feet high. Lake Taupo, near the middle
ers and the English are therefore said to of the same island, is 36 miles long.
be antipodes; that is, literally, "feet South of it there is an active volcano,
opposite to feet." and there are hot springs and hot lakes
2. In area these islands are a little less in the same region.
than the British Isles. They consist of 5. The climate of New Zealand re-
sembles that of the British Isles, but it
is less changeable. The cold of winter,
.-which extends from June to August, is
S. ..- .-- ... ." much less severe than that of the
-- British Isles. In both islands the west
coast is rainy.
--- 6. The vegetation of New Zealand
"--- : ] --- A includes palms, pines, tree-ferns, and
-' -- New Zealand flax. European fruits and
u--a;r-. r ;. .- grains have been introduced, and have
-: .- thriven well. The soil is unusually pro-
*- -- -ductive, and very large crops of wheat,
-' -- .barley, and oats are obtained. The
-- -- chief exports, however, are wool and
S gold. The chief gold-fields are in Otago.
two large islands, North Island and Other important exports are tallow,
South Island, and a number of small hides, preserved meats, flax, and timber.
islands, of which Stewart Island is the 7. As the native trees and shrubs are
chief. North Island is separated from evergreens, the landscape is always fresh
South Island by Cook Strait. and leafy. Magnificent forests of ever-
3. South Island is the more moun- green trees clothe the sides of the moun-
tainous. The greater part of its sur- tains to a great height. The valleys are
face is covered with the Southern Alps, rich with tree-ferns, and ferns of every
the highest of which, Mount Cook, variety. Many of the broad p ins,
is 13,200 feet above the sea. It has especially along the east coast of south
also many large and beautiful lakes Island, consist of the richest me ow













A.

'V ~ -'


pi


















"-'! *
j~f $ .







K d

-~ -.-,

,4' .~I ~ .~

-3--



FORES 04 REFRS E ELN







56 NEW ZEALAND.






-'5





LAKE TAUPO, NEW ZEALAND.
land, and are splendidly adapted both for but it was found to be an inconvenient
pasture and for agriculture. meeting-place for the Parliament of the
8. In New Zealand there is no stop- whole colony, and the capital was there-
page of work either from the heat or fore fixed at Wellington, a small town
from the cold. Cattle do not require in the south of the same island.
protection, as in Italy, during the heat 11. Christchurch, near the middle of
of summer; and in many places no South Island, is the market for the prod-
shelter is deemed necessary, as it is in uce of Canterbury plains, a fertile re-
England, for the work-horses during gion on the east coast. Dunedin, at the
night in the middle of winter, head of Otago Bay, is the principal town
9. At Dunedin, spring and summer in South Island. It was founded in
extend from September to March. Jan- 1848 by colonists connected with the
uary is the hottest month. Autumn Free Church of Scotland, and it has now
and winter are milder than in Scotland. a population of 24,000. Its houses are
A good nosegay can be gathered all built in the style of Scottish houses, and
through the winter ; and excellent many of its streets are named after those
vegetables are obtained all the year in Edinburgh.
round. 12. The Maories-the natives of New
10. The principal towns in New Zea'- Zealand-are a brave and intelligent
land are Auckland and Wellington in race. For a long time they resisted the
North Island; and Nelson, Christchurch, English settlers, but now they are learn-
and Dunedin in South Island. Auck- ing agriculture, and they will probably
land, which contains 16,000 inhabi- soon disappear as a distinct race.
tants, or with its suburbs 40,000, was 13. New Zealand was discovered by
formerly the capital of the islands; Tasman in 1642, and its coasts were








THE FIJI ISLANDS-SOUTH AFRICA. 67

laid down on the map by Captain Cook 1840 the native chiefs ceded the sove-
in 1770. Thereafter the whalers visiting reignty of the islands to Great Britain
the Southern Seas frequently found by treaty, and they were then attached
refuge in its bays and sounds. English- to New South Wales. In 1842 New
men began to settle on the coasts about Zealand was made an independent
the beginning of the present century. In government.



32. THE FIJI ISLANDS.
1. One thousand miles north of New purposes is abundant. Sheep have been
Zealand, and eighteen hundred east of introduced, and already there is a con-
Australia, are the Fiji or Viti Islands, siderable export of wool. Cotton is now
which were annexed to Great Britain in a regular product, and cocoa-nut oil is
1874, by request of the natives. The largely exported.
islands are scattered over a space nearly 3. The appearance of the islands as
as large as the North Sea, though their seen from the sea is enchanting. Most
combined area does not exceed that of of them are begirt with coral reefs, and
Wales. They consist of two large they appear to be clothed with rich vege-
islands, and between two and three station from base to summit. The isl-
hundred small islands and rocks. The ands have a mild climate, but they are
two large islands are Viti and Vanua. liable to occasional hurricanes, which do
2. These islands are said to be the much damage.
most fertile group in the whole of the 4. Levuka, on a small island east of
South Pacific. Every kind of tropical Viti, is the principal European settle-
fruit and vegetable grows abundantly- ment. It has an excellent harbour and
for example, bananas, plantains, the a lighthouse, and is the head-quarters of
bread-fruit, oranges, and pine-apples, the commerce of the group. Suva, on
Excellent timber of all kinds and for all Viti, is the capital.



DEPENDENCIES IN AFRICA.

33. SOUTH AFRICA.
1. Before the Suez Canal was opened, of Africa, and called at Cape Town,
the ships that sailed between Eng- near the Cape of Good Hope. This
land and India went round the south made Cape Town and the surrounding







58 SOUTH AFRICA.
V T _' ----'-- I.___ _' " .1--- -_ -"













country places of great importance. It hands of the English, it included merely
was especially important for England a strip of coast extending two hundred
that they should be in her hands, as miles north of Cape Town, and four or
most of the traffic between Europe and five hundred miles east. It may now be
the East was carried on in English said that the English are supreme over
ships. the whole of South Africa.
2. For more than a century and a 5. This extensive region embraces
half, "the Cape" belonged to Holland. several countries. It includes, first of
The Dutch planted a colony there in all, Cape Colony itself. Then it in-
1652. Their long mastery of the colony eludes the separate colonies of Natal,
is proved by the number of Dutch the Transvaal, and Griqualand, north of
names of places in all parts of it, and the Orange River. It may also be held
by the fact that the Dutch still form the to include the territories of the Hotten-
greater part of the population. tots and the Kafirs.
3. The Dutch having joined France 6. The only territory within this wide
in a war against England, the English region that remains independent is the
seized Cape Town, and the possession of Orange River Free State, south of the
the colony was confirmed to them in river Vaal. It was founded by Dutch
1814. "Boers," or farmers, who were dissatis-
4. Ever since that time Cape Colony fled with the British Government for
has belonged to England. During re- abolishing the slave-trade in 1833, and
cent years, too, it has been growing in who therefore left Cape Colony in a
all directions. When it came into the body.







CAPE COLONY. 59



34. CAPE COLONY.
1. Cape Colony is the south part of pect in thedry season is dreary. Yet when
the continent of Africa. It is bounded refreshed by rain the soil is very pro-
by the Orange River in the north, and ductive: the herbage rushes into vege-
by the River Kei or Kai in the east. station with wonderful rapidity, and the
It is three times the size of the island surface of the country becomes carpeted
of Great Britain, but its population is with heaths and flowers of every hue.
only one-third that of Scotland. 6. Beyond the Great Karoo are the
2. The interior of the country is high, highest mountains in the country. The
and is enclosed by ranges of mountains highest peak is Compassberg, in the
along the coast. In the south, the sur- Snowy Mountains. It is 8,000 feet
face rises from the coast to the interior high.
in a series of steps or terraces, connected 7. On the Atlantic coast there is the
by steep passes through the mountains, same succession of ranges and terraces,
called kloofs." but with less regularity. Table Moun-
3. First, there is a narrow coast plain tain, which overlooks Cape Town, is a
on the shore of the Indian Ocean. Then separate mass with a flat summit, 3,580
there is a low range of hills. Then feet above the sea. The white cloud
comes a broad terrace, bounded on the that frequently rests over it is known
north by a second range of mountains, as the Table-cloth."
-the Black Mountains. The lands be- 8. The colony has numerous rivers,
tween these mountains an4 the sea are but their size varies very much. In the
the most fertile and the most fully rainy season they are foaming torrents;
occupied, in the dry season they are mere threads
4. North of the Black Mountains are of water in the midst of broad channels.
wide, undulating plains called "the Great The greatest river is the Orange River,
Karoo." Throughout this tract, for a which, with its feeders the Vaal and
distance of nearly 200 miles, there are the Nu Gariep, extends from the Draken-
few farms, and these are wide apart. berg Mountains near the east coast to
Water is scarce, and most of the rivers, the Atlantic on the west, a distance of
except during and after thunderstorms, 900 miles.
are dry, or furnish but a few brackish 9. The Olifants River is south of the
pools. Orange River. It drains the west of the
5. There are no trees except along the Great Karoo; and when it overflows its
river-beds; the ground is sparsely covered banks in the rainy season, it covers the
with stunted bushes; and the whol]i country, like the Nile, with rich mud.







60 CAPE COLONY: CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS.

The chief river in the south is the Great in the European fashion, and speak
Fish River, which almost disappears in Dutch or English. There are some
the dry season, but which is liable to negroes in the colony, descendants of
sudden floods in summer, the slaves introduced by the Dutch and
10. The native population of Cape set free by the English.
Colony consists mainly of Hottentots in 11. The European population is chiefly
the west and of Kafirs in the east. The Dutch and English, with, however, a
former are short of stature, good-natured, few Germans, Frenchmen, and Portu-
and lazy; the latter are tall and strong, guese. Speaking generally, there are
quarrelsome and active. Many of the three Europeans for every five natives.
latter have become half-civilized, dress Of the five natives, three are Kafirs.



35. CAPE COLONY: CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS.
1. Cape Colony has a temperate cli- skins. Ostrich-farming has become a
mate, similar to that of the south of common industry. Upwards of twenty
Europe, though it lies nearer to the thousand ostriches are kept on various
equator. The heat of summer is not farms for the sake of their beautiful
very great, and in winter there are some- feathers.
times several degrees of frost. 4. The vegetable products include
2. The great peculiarity of the cli- wheat, Kafir-corn, and maize. Grapes
mate is that the rainy season, on which are widely grown. Those of Constantia,
farm-work entirely depends, occurs at on the Cape Peninsula, are said to be of
different times on the eastern and the unequalled quality. The wine made from
western coast. This is due to the change them is much thought of. The heaths of
of the winds, which carry moisture from the Cape are famous all over the world.
the sea. Farmers on one side of the 5. The larger wild animals-the ele-
"country are ploughing and sowing at phant, the rhinoceros, the giraffe, the
the time when those on the other side lion, and the leopard-have retired into
are reaping. the interior of Africa before the ad-
3. Sheep-farming is the chief occupa- vance of white men. Antelopes and
" tion of the people, and wool is the prin- quaggas, as well as hyenas and jackals,
cipal export. Goats are also reared in may still be met with south of the
large numbers for the sake of their Orange River.













i ', -. .,.,. ~ --^- =--- - ''


Alflr


.-.I,. .,, -_ -L-L- ..--~' *~
k' -"
lr~r
I r%; T





Ilk 4
,.., .


,---- ... ,.


T VI N


i-"




i : o,.- _- ...
r ,- .. Y - c-' -'I--j
--'l- -
-w ~-






-RA L.... N -_- N S _-OUT
TRAVELLING IN SOUTH AFRICA,






62 CAPE COLONY: TOWNS.


36. CAPE COLONY: TOWNS.
1. Cape Town, the capital of Cape while in the valley between, the city lies
Colony, stands between Table Mountain securely.
on the south and Table Bay on the 2. Cape Town had a different appear-
north. The mountain is flanked on ance at the beginning of the present
the right and on the left by lower hills, century from that which it has now. It














AnI



TABLE MOUNTAIN.

was then a Dutch town in the style of ing more and more an English character.
its buildings, in the arrangement of its Streets which used to have Dutch names
streets and gardens, and in the costume now bear English ones. The old streets
and habits of its inhabitants. are flanked by a constantly-increasing
3. Its streets, with canals or water- number of shops and warehouses in the
ways in the middle of them, were ranged English fashion.
at right angles to one another. The 5. Table Bay is a wide harbour, and
houses, flat-roofed and white-washed, affords secure anchorage from Sep-
had terraces and bowers in front of member till May, while the easterly
them, in which the citizens spent the winds are blowing. From June to Au-
evening with their families. gust, however, when the westerly winds
4. As the town extends, it is assum- prevail, it is exposed to heavy swells,






NATAL. 63

and then the ships take refuge in False 7. Kafraria was once an independent
Bay, which lies west of the peninsula, colony, but was joined to Cape Colony
and is sheltered by it. in 1866. It contains many German
6. Graham's Town is the second town villages. The capital is King Williams-
in the colony. It is the capital of the town.
eastern province, and is situated 600 8. Little progress has been made with
miles east of Cape Town. In the same railways in Cape Colony. The only
region is Port Elizabeth, the chief sea- lines in operation are two short ones in
port in the eastern division, the neighbourhood of Cape Town.



37. NATAL.
1. In 1833 slavery was abolished, and enberg Mountains and the Indian Ocean.
slaves were set free, in all the British Basutoland and Kafraria bound it on
dominions. It became impossible, there- the south-west, and Zululand bounds it
fore, for any one to hold slaves in Cape on the north-east. The area of the
Colony. This gave great offence to the colony is equal to two-thirds of Scotland.
Dutch Boers, who already disliked Eng- 5. Three distinct regions may be ob-
lish rule. Rather than submit to the served in Natal-a coast region, a mid-
law, they resolved to leave British terri- land terrace, and a higher table-land
tory. along the base of the mountains. The
2. In 1838 they marched in com- first region produces sugar, coffee, cotton,
panies across the borders, one division indigo, and tobacco; the second produces
going northward, and forming the Trans- maize and wheat; the third is a pastoral
vaal; a second forming the Orange River region, capable of supporting vast num-
Free State; and a third going eastward, bers of sheep and cattle.
and founding Natal. 6. Though partly in the hot region of
3. Natal was then in possession of the Earth, the country has a temperate
the Zulu Kafirs, whose king cruelly climate, neither the heat nor the cold
murdered a party of Boers sent to treat being very great. Sometimes the hot
with him for land. A war followed, wind from the interior of Africa crosses
The interference of the British became the country, and does much damage.
necessary; and in 1843 Natal was pro- Thunder storms are frequent and violent,
claimed a part of the British possessions, especially in summer.
In 1856 it was made a separate colony, 7. The mineral wealth of Natal is be-
independent of the Cape Government. lived to be great. Coal, iron, and cop-
4. Natal is situated between the Drak- per have been found in several places.







64 TIE TRANSVAAL.

Valuable timber abounds, both in the is D'Urban, on Port Natal, with a safe
lower ranges of the mountains and on and large harbour.
the coast. 11. Basutoland, between Natal and
8. The larger wild animals are gradu- the Orange Free State, now belongs to
ally disappearing. The chief exports are Cape Colony. It has been called the
wool, sugar, and hides. Ivory and os- Switzerland of South Africa. The
trich feathers are brought from the natives, who are Kafirs, have given great
Transvaal and the Orange Free State in trouble to the Colonial Government.*
waggons, and are shipped at D'Urban. 12. Most of the tribes occupying
9. The population, which is less than Kafirland or Kafraria (between British
that of Birmingham, consists of Kafirs Kafraria and Natal) are now subject to
and Europeans; but for every European British magistrates. These include the
there are fifteen Kafirs. The Europeans Fingoes, the Pondos, and the Griquas.
are descendants of the Dutch Boers who Zululand, since the war of 1879, has
founded the colony, and Englishmen been intrusted to a number of local chiefs,
who have settled there in recent times, under British direction.
10. The capital, Pietermaritzburg, is
situated in the interior, nearly 60 miles In 1880, after the close of the Zulu War, an
from the sea. It is a small place-half order was issued to disarm the Basutos, who had
been armed to assist the English against the
as large as Windsor. The only sea-port Zulus. The Basutos opposed this, and rebelled.



38. THE TRANSVAAL.
1. The Transvaal, we have seen, was dared their independence and set up a
one of the States founded by Dutch Republic. A short and sharp war fol-
emigrants from Cape Colony in 1838. lowed, in which the Boers gained some
It remained an independent and pros- successes; but they have since yielded,
perous state till 1876, when a boun- and have been granted self-government
dary dispute with the Zulus led to war. under British suzerainty.
2. In that war the Boers of the Trans- 4. The Transvaal (" across the Vaal")
vaal were defeated. Their government is a completely inland state, nearly as
was completely upset, and was all but large as the British Isles. It lies north
bankrupt. To save the state from fall- of the Orange Free State. Although
ing into the hands of the Zulus, the Brit- its northern part extends into the torrid
ish stepped in, and in 1877 the Transvaal zone, it has a temperate climate. This
was proclaimed a British colony, is due to its elevation, which is over all
3. In the end of 1880, the Boers de- 3,000 feet above the sea-level.






GRIQUALAND WEST-WEST AFRICA SETTLEMENTS. 65

5. The wealth of the country consists rivers are useless for navigation; and
in sheep, cattle, and goats, and almost though a railway has been proposed, it
the whole population is engaged in farm- has not yet been commenced.
ing. Wild animals are still numerous, but 7. The Dutch form one-third of the
their number is being gradually reduced, population. The other two-thirds are
6. The chief hindrance to the pros- Kafirs of various tribes, in a half civil-
perity of the country is the want of a ized state. The seat of government
direct outlet for its produce. At present is Pretoria, near the middle of the coun-
its wool, its ivory, and its ostrich feathers try. There are no towns properly so
are conveyed in waggons through the called; there are only villages. The lar-
passes of the Drakenberg to Natal. The gest is Potchefstroom, in the south-west.


39. GRIQUALAND WEST.
1. This colony lies west of the Orange parts of the world. A mixed popula-
Free State, and north of the Orange tion from all nations was gathered in a
"River. It was made a British possession half desert land, where there were no
in 1871, and a separate colony in 1873. villages and very few houses, and where
2. The Griquas are a mixed race, half settlers had to build huts for themselves
Dutch, half Hottentot; and when the as they arrived.
Dutch left Cape Colony in 1836 the 4. The sudden growth of population
Griquas followed them, and settled north caused confusion. The British author-
of the Orange River. ities at the Cape stepped in to give order
3. The discovery of diamonds in 1867 to the new society. The revenue of the
gave Griqualand West an importance colony is derived chiefly from the sale of
which it would not otherwise have de- licences to diggers and to store-keepers.
served. As soon as the discovery be- The capital is Kimberley, and there sub-
came known, there was a wild rush of stantial houses of stone and brick are
men to the diamond fields from all parts taking the place of the sheds with which
of South Africa, and by-and-by from all the early settlers had to be content.


40. WEST AFRICA SETTLEMENTS.
1. The British settlements on the British Government partly in order to
West Coast of Africa are Gambia, check the slave-trade, and partly for
Sierra Leone, the Gold Coast, and Lagos. commercial purposes.
These places have been occupied by the 2. In former times, slave-dealers used






GRIQUALAND WEST-WEST AFRICA SETTLEMENTS. 65

5. The wealth of the country consists rivers are useless for navigation; and
in sheep, cattle, and goats, and almost though a railway has been proposed, it
the whole population is engaged in farm- has not yet been commenced.
ing. Wild animals are still numerous, but 7. The Dutch form one-third of the
their number is being gradually reduced, population. The other two-thirds are
6. The chief hindrance to the pros- Kafirs of various tribes, in a half civil-
perity of the country is the want of a ized state. The seat of government
direct outlet for its produce. At present is Pretoria, near the middle of the coun-
its wool, its ivory, and its ostrich feathers try. There are no towns properly so
are conveyed in waggons through the called; there are only villages. The lar-
passes of the Drakenberg to Natal. The gest is Potchefstroom, in the south-west.


39. GRIQUALAND WEST.
1. This colony lies west of the Orange parts of the world. A mixed popula-
Free State, and north of the Orange tion from all nations was gathered in a
"River. It was made a British possession half desert land, where there were no
in 1871, and a separate colony in 1873. villages and very few houses, and where
2. The Griquas are a mixed race, half settlers had to build huts for themselves
Dutch, half Hottentot; and when the as they arrived.
Dutch left Cape Colony in 1836 the 4. The sudden growth of population
Griquas followed them, and settled north caused confusion. The British author-
of the Orange River. ities at the Cape stepped in to give order
3. The discovery of diamonds in 1867 to the new society. The revenue of the
gave Griqualand West an importance colony is derived chiefly from the sale of
which it would not otherwise have de- licences to diggers and to store-keepers.
served. As soon as the discovery be- The capital is Kimberley, and there sub-
came known, there was a wild rush of stantial houses of stone and brick are
men to the diamond fields from all parts taking the place of the sheds with which
of South Africa, and by-and-by from all the early settlers had to be content.


40. WEST AFRICA SETTLEMENTS.
1. The British settlements on the British Government partly in order to
West Coast of Africa are Gambia, check the slave-trade, and partly for
Sierra Leone, the Gold Coast, and Lagos. commercial purposes.
These places have been occupied by the 2. In former times, slave-dealers used







66 WEST AFRICA SETTLEMENTS.

to make journeys into the interior, on board. Now the trade on the west
and capture whole tribes of negroes. coast is at an end.
--- 4. Gambia and Sierra
Leone are under the
., same governor. The
chief place in Gambia is
S- Bathurst, a small but
'- important sea-port on
-- the Gambia River, with
S -. exports of palm oil, wax,
and ivory.
5. Sierra Leone (" the
S__ Lion Mountain") is a
These they marched to the coast, and rocky peninsula at the mouth of Sierra
sent them, closely packed in ships, to Leone River, 420 miles south of Gambia.
America and the West Indies. It was founded in 1787, and has been
3. Slavery was abolished in the Brit- kept up at ery great expense by the
ish West India Islands in 1807, and an English Government, as a means of
English poet thus commemorated the putting down the slave-trade. The
proclamation of freedom :- greater part of the population consists
,, ,, of the descendants of freed slaves. The
"Thy chains are broken, Africa; be free !"
Thus saith the island-empress of the sea; capital is fitly named Free Town.
Thus saith Britannia. 0 ye winds and waves! 6. The Gold Coast and Lagos are
Waft the glad tidings to the land of slaves; connected in one government. Both
Proclaim on Guinea's coast, by Gambia's side,
And far as Niger rolls his eastern tide, are in Upper Guinea, on the shore of
Through radiant realms, beneath the burning the Gulf of Guinea facing the south.
zone, 7. The Gold Coast lies south of the
Where Europe's curse is felt, her name un- n k o A I
known, native kingdom of Ashantee. It was
Thus saith Britannia, empress of the sea, England's possession of this coast that
Thy chains are broken, Africa; be free !" led her into the Ashantee war of 1873-
MvONGOMER. 1874, the chief object of which was to
Other nations continued the slave-trade secure freedom of trade with the- sur-
on the coast of Africa, and for more rounding native tribes. The products
than fifty years England had to main- of the country are gold dust, palm oil,
tain a number of cruisers constantly and ivory, which are exported from Cape
watching the coast and the outlets of Coast Castle, the chief sea-port.
rivers for slave-ships. The English ships 8. Elmina, east of Cape Coast Castle,
made prizes of all vessels having slaves was formerly a Dutch possession; but in







WEST AFRICA SETTLEMENTS. 67











&A













IsI











1872 it was handed over to Great Britain of Dahomey and the sea. Lagos was a
in exchange for certain advantages given great centre of the slave-trade till it was
to the Dutch in the East Indies. made a British possession in 1861. It
9. Lagos is east of the Gold Coast, on is now the most important sea-port in the
a part of Guinea called the Slave Coast, west of Africa, with exports of cotton
which lies between the native kingdom and palm oil.
(673) 5







68 ISLAND SETTLEMENTS NEAR AFRICA.


41. ISLAND SETTLEMENTS NEAR AFRICA.
1. The island settlements belonging call for stores on their way to and from
to Great Britain around the African the Southern Seas.
coasts are-Ascension and St. Helena in 3. St. Helena is of nearly the same
the Atlantic; and Mauritius, Rodriguez, size as the island of Bute, and also
the Seychelle Islands, and the Amirante of much the same shape. It consists
Islands in the Indian Ocean. of rugged mountains, presenting steep
2. Ascension Island and St. Helena, and inaccessible cliffs to the sea on all
in the South Atlantic, are chiefly useful sides. James Town, the capital, is in a
as places at which English ships may ravine on the north-west.

S--- :-.:--- -












ST. HELENA.
4. The interior is a lofty table-land, others-Mauritius and Rodriguez-once
in the midst of which is Longwood, belonged to France, but they have been
which was the residence of the Emperor British possessions since 1814.
Napoleon while a prisoner of the English 6. Mauritius is equal in size to the
Government. He died there in 1821. county of Surrey. It is famed for its
Many a time he wandered to the heights fertility, its healthy climate, and its
near Longwood and gazed wistfully over beautiful scenery. It produces coffee,
the sea. sugar, spices, and rum. The chief town
5. In the Indian Ocean, about 500 is Port Louis, on the north-west coast.
miles east of the large island of Mada- 7. Rodriguez yields rice and maize.
gascar, there is a group of three small The Amirante Isles and the Seychelles
islands. One of these islands-Bourbon are from 800 to 1,000 miles north of
Island-belongs to France. The two Mauritius. They abound with turtle.








CANADA: THE DOMINION. 69


DEPENDENCIES IN AMERICA.

42. CANADA: THE DOMINION.

1. Starting from Liverpool, a voyage come a British possession? The French
of 2,500 miles across the Atlantic takes were the earliest European settlers in
us to Halifax in Nova Scotia, the sea- the country. They began to colonize it
port in the Dominion of Canada nearest about the middle of the sixteenth cen-
to the British Isles. It is the terminus tury. Early in the following century
of the Intercolonial Railway, by which the New England States were founded
travellers can be carried on their way by the Pilgrim Fathers.
to the Far West. 6. There were thus French colonists
2. In the Far West, vast tracts of in the north and English colonists in
rich land, hitherto covered with prairie the south; and, as was the case in India,
or with forest, are now being farmed, there soon arose the keenest rivalry be-
and are yielding crops of the finest tween them. As often as war broke
*wheat, and supporting great herds of out between the mother countries, it
cattle. Every year hundreds of active extended to their colonies.
men, who find it more and more difficult 7. At length there came to be a great
to get work at home, are emigrating to struggle for the upper hand between the
these fertile fields. French and the English in North Amer-
3. The name Canada, meaning "the ica. It began about 1690, when the
Place of Huts," was originally applied to French tried to prevent the progress of
a small Indian settlement on the river the English westward toward the river
St. Lawrence. It now belongs to nearly Mississippi. It ended in 1759 in the
the whole mainland of North America triumph of the English at Quebec. The
north of the United States, and stretch- Peace of Paris in 1763 gave. England
ing from the Atlantic to the Pacific. complete possession of these colonies.
4. This vast territory is nearly as 8. Twenty years later, the New Eng-
large as the whole of Europe, and it land States separated from Great Brit-
forms the most important dependency ain and formed the beginning of the
of the British Crown. It is twenty- United States of America. Then the
eight times the size of the British Isles; Canadian colonies remained faithful.
but its population does not yet exceed Thousands of the southern colonists, also,
four million, or is little more than that were opposed to separation from the
of London. mother country, and were gladly re-
5. How did this wide region be- ceived within the Canadian borders.










_--., A ,.,_ i .j v, -,. J_.. --- .. .- ..










k~fk







-I--, I

A I A

-F[ h r ^ r' L. _-T ", r - _. -



-- . -i- -, i =-









Il D
,.---"
,- _-_-._)--A.._- '._ ._..__.










NORTH AMERICA.

BRITISH POSSESSIONS.
North America. North America. North America- Central America-
Doniio, of Canada- Domnion of Canada- Newfoundland. British Honduras.
Nova Scotia. Ontario. The Brmiudas.
New Bruswick. Manitoba. South America-
Prince E-dwrd Island British Columbia. West India Islands- British Guiana.
Qubec Ja ahic a-Bahoanms, L. c.

The Map is divided into squares of a miles. The Circles show iec distances from London in 0ooo miles.






CANADA: NATURAL FEATURES. 71

9. From that time till 1867, the Brit- have been received into the Dominion.
ish possessions in North America con- It now embraces the whole of British
sisted of a number of separate colonies. North America except Newfoundland
In that year the chief of them were and Labrador.
united in one State called the Dominion 11. The majority of the inhabitants
of Canada. The Dominion then com- are of English origin, except in the
prised the provinces of Nova Scotia, Province of Quebec, where the French
New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario. are the most numerous. Indians are
10. Since that time the North-West scattered throughout all the Provinces.
Territory, with the Province of Mani- In the North-West Territory they form
toba, and also the Provinces of British nearly the whole population; and they
Columbia and Prince Edward Island, are the majority in British Columbia.



43. CANADA: NATURAL FEATURES.
1. The great natural features of the greater part of the continent. The
Canada are the Rocky Mountains and mountain mass, between the central
the River St. Lawrence, with the Great plain and the Pacific, is fully one thou-
Lakes out of which that river flows, sand miles in breadth. It forms the
These features indicate a western high- western wall of the central plain al-
land region, and an eastern lowland ready described.
region. Between these regions lies a 4. The highest peaks of the Rocky
part of the great central plain of North Mountains lie within the Dominion
America, sloping, as the rivers show, territory. Mount Brown is 16,000 feet,
partly toward Hudson Bay, and partly and Mount Hooker is 15,700 feet,
toward the Arctic Ocean. above the sea. Not only these peaks, but
2. The central plain comprises three also the top of the ridge is always snow-
regions-a wide expanse of barrenss" clad.
in the north, frost-bound most of the 5. Seen from a distance of forty or
year; a region of dense forests in the fifty miles against the western sky, these
middle, yielding valuable timber; and mountains present a magnificent appear-
wide prairies in the south, large por- ance. Beyond the foreground of prairie
tions of which are being made useful to or of forest the dark masses of the lower
man. heights rise grandly, and stand out from
3. The Rocky Mountains form the the pure white wall of the higher ridges
back-bone of North America, stretching sparkling in the sun.
as they do from north to south through 6, Between the main ridge and the







72 THE ST. LAWRENCE.

Pacific there are parallel ranges, which on that side. There are several great
would seem lofty but for their nearness rivers, however, in the central plain.
to the Rocky Mountains. The chief of The Mackenzie River drains it toward
these are the Cascade Mountains and the north-west. The Great Fish River
the Pacific Alps. In the midst of them drains it toward the north-east.
there are table-lands 3,000 and 4,000 feet 8. The Nelson River flows from Lake
above the level of the sea. Winnipeg to Hudson Bay. The St. Law-
7. The mountains are so near to the rence carries the waters of the Great
west coast, that there are no great rivers Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.



44. THE ST. LAWRENCE.
1. At its mouth, where it becomes a English Channel off the Isle of Wight,
gulf, the St. Lawrence is 90 miles wide, or as St. George's Channel at its broad-
-that is to say, it is as wide as the est part. In the mouth of the river is










I --






.__ ,


SCENE ON THE ST. LAWRENCE.

the low, long island of Anticosti, where 2. Nearly 300 miles from the mouth
a few inhabitants live by seal-hunting of the river, we reach the Saguenay, one
and fishing. of the chief feeders of the St. Lawrence.







THE GREAT LAKES. 73

It is a broad river, winding out and in city of Montreal, on an island of the
between lofty walls of rock. Nearly same name, the largest city in the
opposite, on the right bank, is the meet- Dominion, and its commercial capital.
ing-place of the Grand Trunk Railway Near it is the great Victoria Tubular
from Toronto with the Intercolonial Bridge, built by Robert Stephenson,
Railway from Halifax. which carries the Grand Trunk Railway
3. Four hundred miles from the over the St. Lawrence, here nearly a
mouth, after passing the Isle of Orleans, mile and a half in breadth.
we reach Quebec, the oldest city in 5. Near Montreal Island, the St.
Canada, and one of its chief sea-ports. It Lawrence broadens into lakes, one of
consists of an upper town, on the top of a which receives the waters of the Ottawa,
high promontory, and a lower town, near its largest tributary, with Ottawa, the
the level of the river-the two connected Dominion capital, on its banks. This
by steep streets and flights of steps. great river, which has tributaries longer
4. A further passage of 70 miles than the Thames, has a course of 780
brings us to Three Rivers, at the mouth miles, through a region of wonderful
of the St. Maurice, an active river-port, fertility and beauty. To avoid the rapids
with iron-works and timber trade. At between Montreal and Kingston, the
550 miles from the Gulf we reach the canal is used on the upward journey.



45. THE GREAT LAKES.
1. At Kingston we are on the shore immediately below a sharp turn in the
of Lake Ontario, the first of the Great course of the river; and as the channel
Lakes in this region. Immediately be- is there narrowed, the current flows with
low Kingston is the Lake. of the Thou- tremendous force.
sand Isles, a watery maze of rare beauty. 3. The Falls are divided into two dis-
The islands are beautifully wooded. On tinct cataracts by Goat Island, which
the north shore of Lake Ontario is stands much nearer to the American
Toronto, the capital of the Province of than to the Canadian shore. The Great
Ontario, and a university city. Horse-Shoe Fall, on the Canadian side,
2. We pass from Lake Ontario to is 700 yards wide; the width of the
Lake Erie by the Welland Canal. The American Fall is only 200 yards. The
natural connection between the two height of the Falls is about 165 feet.
lakes is the river Niagara. The famous More than a million tons of water are
Falls are 10 miles from Lake Ontario, carried over these Falls every minute.
and 20 from Lake Erie. They occur No one who has not seen them can form






74 NOVA SCOTIA.

any idea from mere description of their the sea-level, but in some places it is
majestic grandeur. 1,000 feet deep, whence it follows that
4. When we have passed through its bottom must sink in these parts 400
Lake Erie, and havereached Lake Huron, feet below the level of the sea. This
we are 1,350 miles from the mouth of lake is nearly as large as Ireland, and is
the St. Lawrence. The eastern part of the largest body of fresh water 6n the
this lake is called Georgian Bay. Several globe.
ports on its shores are connected by rail 7. This great system of rivers and
with Toronto, and through them there lakes is one chief source of the prosperity
is now great traffic in grain, of Canada. It is said to contain nearly
5. The entrance to Lake Superior is one-half of the fresh water on the sur-
1,650 miles from Anticosti. At its face of the Earth. By its water-way the
western extremity we are 2,000 miles produce of the west is conveyed to the
from the mouth of the river. There we river-ports, and is sent thence to all
find Thunder Bay, a deep and land-locked parts of the world. The whole bus-
inlet thirty-two miles long, guarded at iness of Canada is attracted to the
its entrance by magnificent headlands, channel of its great river. Nine-tenths
and surrounded by densely wooded hills, of its population is gathered in its
6. Lake Superior is 600 feet above basin.



46. NOVA SCOTIA.
1. The three provinces on the sea- 3. As the Acadians did not prove
coast-Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, willing subjects, they were expelled from
and Prince Edward Island-are called the colony in 1755. Most of them were
the Maritime Provinces. shipped to the New England colonies;
2. Nova Scotia is a peninsula, form- but the population still includes thou-
ing the most easterly part of the Do- sands of Acadians. The story of the
minion. Together with Cape Breton expulsion of the Acadians is told in
Island, which is under its government, Longfellow's touching poem, Evan-
its area is two-thirds that of Scotland. geline."
The French called the country (which 4. The capital of Nova Scotia is
then included New Brunswick) Acadie. Halifax, in the middle of the south-east
When it was granted to Sir William coast. It has a splendid harbour and
Alexander by King James I., its name dockyard, and is the principal naval
was changed to Nova Scotia (" New Scot- station of the English fleet on the Amer-
land "). ican coast. Yarmouth, the largest town
















tit!

,-_ .r" .iI"I: .,,.I


., I
H--- ,,*4 J .ir'Ji*



"* ':.- "- ;. .' ;* ; '.





























Ik Caidq Sid t. Ike 7?.
.., ,
.-r-.i.: -.--. Ef;-..







76 NEW BRUNSWICK.







I L
T_ -, _ -_ -- ---ti- __T
.... E4_ ". / A L __- _-t -
S- i-- P ---









_. _-_-_. _._.-,- _., _ .... .-. .. ........
i r -I M









in the west of te province, is engaged in stood te fortress of Louisurg, for which
ship-building and commerce, and is the French and the English long strove.
noted for its schools. It was taken by the English in 1745,
5. The chief town on Cape Breton is and again, by Wolfe, in 1758. There-
Sydney. Twenty-three miles south-west after its defences were destroyed.



47. NEW BRUNSWICK.
1. When the loyal colonists quitted the trance to that bay, besides having good
"United States in 1783, several thousands liarbours and important fishing stations,
of them settled in the mainland portion has remarkable cliffs at its northern end,
of Nova Scotia. In the following year which rise in some places 400 feet above
that portion was made a separate colony, the sea.
under the name of New Brunswick. 3. Amid the mountains of the north-
2. As the coasts are much indented, west there is much grand scenery. In
the province has many excellent har- their deeper clefts snow lies all the year
bours. The bold and steep coasts of the round. Deep narrow lakes lie amid tho
Bay of Fundy abound with fine scenery. mountains, shut in by rugged cliffs, and
The island of Grand Manan, at the en- overlooked by bare and lofty peaks.







PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 77

4. The chief river is the St. John, an abundant source of wealth; and the
one of the most beautiful rivers in mineral resources of the province (especi-
Canada. After a course nearly twice as ally in coal, petroleum, and lime) are
long as that of the Thames, it falls into very great.
the Bay of Fundy. Though cataracts 8. The forests are occasionally de-
and rapids are frequent, the St. John is stroyed by fire, and terrible is the alarm
navigable throughout the greater part which it spreads in all directions. The
of its course, most appalling fire on record was that
5. A large part of the country drained which occurred in the north-west of the
by the St. John and its feeders is province in 1825. It overran six thou-
covered with dense forest, and great sand square miles of country, destroying
quantities of timber are carried down timber worth half a million sterling, and
the river in rats. other property worth quarter of a million,
6. Originally the whole of New besides whole herds of cattle and many
Brunswick was covered with forest, ex- human lives.
cept the highest mountain ridges, and 9. Fredericton, the capital, is beau-
the marshy coasts of the Bay of Fundy. tifully situated on the St. John River,
Hence lumbering felling trees and 84 miles from its mouth. It has a
making them into timber-is the leading university, a cathedral, and other public
industry, and forms one of the chief institutions and buildings. The largest
occupations of the people, town is St. John, at the mouth of the
7. Wherever the land has been same river. Its population is five times
cleared, and where it has been reclaimed that of the capital, and its trade is ex-
from a river or from the sea, the soil is tensive. It has a fine harbour, open at
found to be very fertile and well suited all seasons, and it exports great quantities
for farming. The fisheries are also of timber and lime.



48. PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND.
1. Prince Edward Island is a crescent- by the British from the French after the
shaped island in the south of the Gulf capture of Louisburg, and was formally
of St. Lawrence, separated from New given to Great Britain in 1763. It was
Brunswick and Nova Scotia by Nor- at first attached to the Government of
thumberland Strait. It is the smallest Nova Scotia; but it afterwards became
province in the Dominion, but it is the a separate province. The French had
most thickly peopled. called it St. John's Island. It re-
2. Prince Edward Island was taken ceived its present name in honour of







78 QUEBEC.

Edward, Duke of Kent, father of Queen 4. Next to farming, the fisheries yield
Victoria. the greatest profit. The export of
3. Farming is the chief industry, the timber has declined, but ship-building
products being oats, barley, wheat, and has greatly increased. Indeed, most of
potatoes. The absence from the country the boats used in the Newfoundland
of many land-owners and the poverty of fisheries are now built on Prince Edward
the tenants greatly hindered the pros- Island.
perity of the province. In 1875, how- 5. The capital is Charlottetown, on
ever, an Act was passed requiring non- a fine natural harbour at the meeting-
resident land-owners to sell their lands place of three arms of the sea-East,
at a price fixed by Government. North, and West Rivers.



49. QUEBEC.
1. The Province of Quebec lies on the city of Quebec now stands was the
both sides of the St. Lawrence, above beginning of the colony.
...-. -- -- 2. Canada at first
included both Ontario
i and Quebec; but in
S, consequence of the
":A '-jealousy existing be-
r. .J .. tweenthe English and
-. .i the French colonists,
-' the country was di-
vided into two prov-
S..' inces-Upper Canada
and Lower Canada.
S'..-._- 3. Upper Canada
was made an English
-- province. Lower
Canada remained
French. The two
._ ---, -. -- -- _---
' i ,-' '- -- provinces were re-
i_. _._- ----' --_ ~ --' united in 1840, and
the Gulf. It is the oldest of the colonies so they remained till the Dominion was
now united in the Dominion. A wooden formed in 1867.
fort built by thefirst French settlers where 4. The settled portion of Quebec is






























I _-. -1 h,.











Il e
I.. F I',-:-; .
T ;: ,,;~4J ;'i, "




























L E IN







80 QUEBEC.

principally a narrow strip of country dustries of the people. The trees are
along both banks of the St. Lawrence. cut down in winter, as then they can
Beyond, and covering the greater por- be most easily conveyed over the ground
tion of the province, are vast forests of to the nearest river. When thaw comes,
pine, cedar, ash, maple, birch, and other they are floated down the stream. As
useful trees, soon as a part of the river wide enough
5. Lumbering is one of the chief in- for the purpose is reached, the trunks are


"1-










CITY OF QUEBEC.

formed into rafts with huts on them, Plains of Abraham, where General
which are floated and guided down the Wolfe gained the great victory which
current, made the English the masters of Canada
6. The timber is collected at the great (1759).
ports on the St. Lawrence-Montreal, 10. During the night, the English
Three Rivers, Quebec, and other places, soldiers were conveyed in boats to a
and is then shipped to all parts of the creek above Quebec, since called Wolfe's
world. Cove. They silently clambered up the
7. Besides a great amount of timber, steep rocks. When day broke, the Eng-
Quebec exports grain and dairy produce, lish army was seen formed in order of
fish, and furs. battle on the Plains. The French were
8. The chief towns are Quebec and surprised and completely defeated. Three
Montreal. Quebec, the capital, and the days later Quebec surrendered.
oldest city in Canada, stands on the left 11. Nine miles from Quebec are
bank of the St. Lawrence, 400 miles the falls of the river Montmorency.
above its mouth. In winter, the frozen spray of these Falls
9. Near the Upper Town are the forms a huge ice-cone from eighty to one







ONTARIO. 81

hundred feet high, and it is a favourite its glassy slopes in sledges called "tobo-
amusement with visitors to slide down gans."

















MONTREAL AND THE VICTORIA TUBULAR BRIDGE.
12. Moritreal, the commercial capital above Quebec. It is more than twice
of the Dominion and the largest city in as large as Quebec. It is a manufactur-
it, is situated on an island 140 miles ing city as well as a sea-port.


50. ONTARIO.
1. The Province of Ontario lies west dian forests are in spring and summer,
of Quebec, and north of the St. Lawrence they are marvellous when they have
and the great lakes. The growth of this assumed their autumn tints. In that
province has been amazingly rapid. season, especially after the first frosts
About one hundred years ago it was have set in, the forests are seen clad in
almost entirely covered with dense forest. the most brilliant colours.
Now it is one of the most fertile grain 3. Though Ontario is 600 miles from
regions in the world. So fertile is it, the sea, it has a very extensive coast-
that it has been called the "Garden of line. For upwards of 1000 miles, lake
Canada." and river form its boundary. These
2. In the north of the province, a waters are almost everywhere navigable,
large portion is almost entirely covered and the ports on them are scenes of con-
with forests. Beautiful as the Cana- stant activity.







82 MANITOBA.

4. The wells of petroleum or mineral a university city, an active port, and a
oil lately discovered promise to be a railway centre. Kingston, near the east
great source of wealth. It is, however, end of Lake Ontario, is strongly forti-
as a wheat-producing country that On- fied.
tario is now best known. 7. Ottawa is the Dominion capital,
5. The chief towns in Ontario are and there the Viceroy resides. It is
Toronto, Hamilton, Kingston, and also a great centre of the lumber trade.
Ottawa. A few miles above the city are the
6. Toronto is the capital, and the famous Chaudiere (Caldron) Falls, on
largest city. It is a manufacturing city, the river Ottawa.



51. MANITOBA.
1.. Manitoba is a fertile region, has been a great rush of emigration to
reclaimed from the hunting-ground of its fertile fields and its rich pasture-lands,
the Indians. Since it was made a prov- from all parts of America and from
since of the Dominion in 1870, there Europe.
174'





.._.. .. . . .. .. .
-- - --- . -






WINNIPEG, MANITOBA.

2. It is one of the finest farming 3. In 1812 the Earl of Selkirk at-
countries in the world; but it suffers tempted to settle part of this region with
from the long winters. The harvest is Scottish emigrants, but the scheme was
so late that the crops cannot be reaped not successful. The earlier settlers had
and sent to Europe in one season, to endure great hardships ; and in 1835







BRITISH COLUMBIA. 83

the Selkirk settlement was given back 6. The Red River, which flows north-
to the Hudson Bay Company, from ward through the middle of the province
whom the earl had purchased it. to Lake Winnipeg, is navigable through-
4. As Red River Settlement it after- out the greater part of its course.
wards enjoyed some prosperity. But Steamers ply on it between the town of
in 1869, when it was resolved to add Winnipeg in Manitoba and a town in
the Hudson Bay Territory to the Do- the United States, at which the Red
minion, the Red River men declared River is crossed by the Northern Pacific
against the step. They proclaimed their Railway.
independence, and seized Fort Garry. 7. The capital is Winnipeg, on the
5. The rising was easily put down by Red River, 40 miles from its entrance
Colonel Garnet Wolseley, at the head of into Lake Winnipeg. Fort Garry was
an English and colonial force: the rebels till lately a separate station, but Win-
fled as the English troops entered Fort nipeg has grown, so rapidly that it now
Garry. includes Fort Garry within it.



52. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
1. British Columbia is the Highlands year gold was discovered in it; crowds
of Canada. It lies between the Rocky of miners were attracted, and it was
Mountains and the Pacific. found necessary to make the country a
f .' -- -British colony.
S r 3. At the same time the colony of
Vancouver Island, off the coast of Brit-
ish Columbia, was formed. A few years
-- later, these two colonies were united,
and in 1871 the united province was
received into the Dominion of Canada.
-j .C I u. mb "a 4. The surface of the country is
C 0-. 1 u ,' b ia -..
rugged. The soil near the coast is fer-
I tile, but in the interior the climate is
--' '- too dry to admit of tillage, though much
of it affords good pasture.
i' 5. The forests are a great source of
-: ----' ("-___1 wealth. The slopes of the Cascade
2. Till 1858 this country was part of Mountains, and the coast country, are
the Hudson Bay Territory. In that covered with magnificent trees, which.
(678) 6.







84 CANADA: THE TERRITORIES.

attain a great size and yield the most ous. The population includes English,
valuable timber. Chinese, and Indians; but the Indians
6. The mineral wealth, also, of this are twice as numerous as the other two
province is very great. Gold is abun- races.
dant, especially in the courses of the 8. The capital is Victoria, beauti-
Fraser and Thompson rivers. Coal is fully situated on Vancouver Island. It
plentiful in Vancouver; and silver, cop- has a good harbour and active trade.
per, and iron are believed to abound. The chief town in British Columbia is
7. The fisheries of salmon and stur- New Westminster, which stands on
geon, of cod and herring, are very valu- Fraser River, in the midst of grand
able, and fur-bearing animals are numer- scenery.



53. CANADA: THE TERRITORIES.
1. The North-West Territory.-There end, and the country was added to the
is still a wide region in North America Dominion of Canada.
where the Indian holds almost undis- 5. Six years later, this wide region
turbed sway, and where he may follow was divided into two territories. Con-
the chase, or make the round of his traps, tinue the western boundary of Manitoba
without hindrance from the white man. northward to the Arctic Ocean, and
2. It is the wide region between that will indicate the dividing line be-
Hudson Bay and the Rocky Mountains, tween what is now the North-West Ter-
and between the Western United States ritory and the new Territory of Kee-
and the Arctic Ocean. It is the home watin.
of the moose and many other kinds of 6. The North-West Territory com-
deer; of bears, wolves, foxes, and many prises three regions. In the far north
other fur-bearing animals; and of the there is a cold and barren region with
Indians and Eskimos that live on no vegetation save lichens, mosses, and
these animals and their produce. coarse grass. South of this there is a
3. For two centuries before 1870 this forest region, in the upper valley of the
was the chief field of the operations of Mackenzie River and the lower course
the Hudson Bay Company, which had of the Peace River, where most of the
received from the Crown the sole right wild animals are found.
to trade with the Indians, and which 7. Still farther south is the "Fertile
drew vast revenues from the purcbhse Belt," in the basins of the Saskatchewan
and sale of furs. and Assiniboine rivers, comprising rich
4. In 1870 this right came to an prairie land, grassy plains, marshy tracts,







CANADA: CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS. 85

varied with lakes and park-like groves is at Fort York, which belongs to the
of poplar, oak, and other trees. Hudson Bay Company. The territory
8. There are no towns. The seat of is at present managed by the Government
the Government is a mere village, of Manitoba.
9. Keewatin lies between the North- 10. The North-East Territory is a
West Territory and Hudson Bay. In cold and bleak tract between Hudson
general character it resembles that ter- Bay and Labrador. Its value lies in its
ritory, but its slope is mainly toward forests, which yield abundance of tim-
Hudson Bay. It has no towns, but it bcr. Most of the inhabitants are In-
has trading stations, the chief of which dians.



54. CANADA: CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS.
1. The striking features of the Cana- 5. Each province has its own indus-
dian climate are the great extremes of tries and products. Nova Scotia has
heat and cold. The winter cold is as coal mines and fisheries; while its ex-
severe as in Iceland. The summer heat cellent harbours afford great facilities
is as great as in the south of France. for commerce. New Brunswick is noted
2. In Quebec the winter lasts for five for its forests and its fisheries. Farming,
months, during which the St. Lawrence fishing, and ship-building are the em-
is ice-bound. Then, however, the air ployments of Prince Edward Island.
is dry, and the sky is bright; and, in 6. Quebec exports vast quantities of
spite of the great cold, there is much timber and of farm produce. Ontario
that is enjoyable in the season, is one of the richest grain countries in
3. As the ground is covered with hard the world; and it has, besides, valuable
snow, and the rivers and the greater forest lands.
part of the lakes are frozen over, there 7. Manitoba is also a farming coun-
is no hindrance to travelling or sledg- try. British Columbia is noted for its
ing in any direction, gold-mines and its forests. The North-
4. Winter is thought the pleasantest West Territory yields a great quantity
time for travelling and visiting. Sledges of valuable furs.
skim over the ground in all directions; 8. Large herds of bison or buffalo
and on the lakes ice-boats, mounted on roam over the southern plains east of
iron runners, sail before the wind with the Rocky Mountains. The Indians
amazing speed. Places are then brought hunt these animals on horseback. They
into close contact between which at use the flesh as an article of food, and
other times there is no intercourse, they sell the hides to traders, who






86 NEWFOUNDLAND.

make of them the buffalo rugs used in one of the richest and most extensive
sledges, coal-fields in the world-a source of great
9. The grisly bear is a large and wealth in the future.
fierce animal found in the Rocky 13. Iron is found in Nova Scotia, in
Mountains. The white bear is found New Brunswick, and in Quebec.
in the frozen regions of the north, 14. There are six thousand miles of
where the Eskimos have their home. railway in operation in the Dominion,
There also other fur-bearing animals- and about two thousand miles in course
as the fox, the beaver, the otter, and of construction.
the marten-are very numerous. 15. The Intercolonial Railway extends
10. In summer the musk-ox and the from Halifax, in Nova Scotia, to a point
reindeer feed on mosses and lichens and opposite the city of Quebec.
low plants. In winter they retreat to 16. From that point the Grand Trunk
the forests farther south. Railway, continues the line by way of
11. The minerals of the Dominion are Montreal and Toronto to Sarnia, at the
very valuable. Gold is found in Nova south end of Lake Huron. The whole
Scotia and Quebec as well as in British distance is about one thousand three
Columbia. Ontario yields silver, copper, hundred miles.
salt, and petroleum or rock oil. 17. The great Canada Pacific Railway,
12. Coal is obtained in Nova Scotia, now being made, will extend the line
New Brunswick, and British Columbia; westward through Manitoba, the North-
and in the valley of the Saskatchewan, West Territory, and British Columbia,
in the North-West Territory, there is to the Pacific Ocean.



55. NEWFOUNDLAND.
1. One of the first parts of Amer- 3. The Banks of Newfoundland are
ica visited by Europeans was the island the most famous cod-fishing ground in
of Newfoundland-the eastern boundary the world. They are off the south and
of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Very soon east coasts of the island, and are be-
after its discovery, its valuable fisheries lived to be composed of rocks and
attracted the notice of the western gravel deposited by icebergs which melt
nations of Europe. when they enter the Gulf Stream.
2. The island was ceded to England 4. The Banks are about six hundred
by France in 1713. Several small miles in length, and two hundred in
islands off the south coast are still held breadth. The water over them is shallow,
by the French as fishing stations, and swarms with almost all kinds of













,I -,,"' ,




,~ -, ._ -


urr








WINTE SCENE IN -N D
''. I' i-





-- r. -cj ---___ ..





WINTER; SCN IN OAN A







88 NEWFOUNDLAND.

















COD-FISHING, NEWFOUNDLAND.

fish. The coast waters also abound seas dangerous for ships in the months
with seals and porpoises, which yield of May and June.
both oil and skins. 8. St. John's, the capital, is the most
5. The Banks are visited by fishing- easterly city of North America. It is one
boats from the United States and France, thousand six hundred and twenty miles
as well as by English fishers. A line distant from the west coast of Ireland.
with only two hooks is commonly used. 9. The peninsula on which St. John's
Each man has two lines; and when the stands is separated from the mainland
fish are plentiful, he hauls them in as fast of the island by Trinity Bay; and on
as he can put on bait. Trinity Bay is the village of Heart's Con-
6. Fishing and fish-curing are the tent-the landing-place of the Atlantic
chief pursuits of the people. The rich Cable between Newfoundland and Ire-
copper mines, however, are becoming land.
an important field of labour. Having 10. Labrador is that part of the main-
so abundant a harvest of the sea, New- land which lies along the sea-coast from
foundland gives little attention to agri- Hudson Strait to the Strait of Belle
culture. Isle. It is rocky, cold, and barren,
7. The climate is not liable to great with little vegetation except mosses and
extremes; but spring is late and cold, shrubs. In the valleys, woods of birch
owing to the quantities of ice brought and poplar afford shelter to deer, bears,
down by polar currents. The coast is wolves, and foxes. This coast belongs
noted for thick fogs, which make the to Newfoundland.






THE BERMUDAS-THE WEST INDIES. 89



56. THE BERMUDAS.
1. If we sail from Halifax, in Nova They are sometimes called "Somers Isl-
Scotia, to the West India Islands, we hands "
shall call midway at the Bermudas, a 3. The chief islands are Bermuda, or
group of small islands and bare rocks Mainland, the largest island, and St.
about 600 miles east of the coast of the George. On the former is Hamilton, the
United States. capital. The latter is strongly fortified.
2. From the earliest times the islands 4. The islands are of great service to
were said to be dangerous. Sir George England, on account of their secure and
Somers, an English admiral, was wrecked convenient harbours. The climate is
there, and perished with most of his crew exceedingly mild. The seas around are
in 1609; and this circumstance led totheir singularly clear, and reflect the bluest
being taken possession of by England. of skies.



57. THE WEST INDIES.
1. The West Indies owe their name to the torrid zone. They have thus a
a mistake. When Columbus discovered hot climate; but the great heat is tem-
them in 1492, he thought he had reached pered by the surrounding ocean. They
the Indies of the East by a western are visited from time to time by hurri-
route, and the Indies they were called, canes, and earthquakes are frequent.
2. When the mistake was discovered, 5. The hurricanes are often so violent
the name was retained; but to distin- as to endanger human life. They ad-
guish the American islands from those vance with a whirling motion, and are
of Asia, the former were called the called cyclones. They uproot or snap
West Indies and the latter the East in sunder the largest 'trees, and tear the
Indies. roofs off houses, leaving their course
3. The West Indies are several groups distinctly marked.
of islands which lie across the entrance 6. The earthquakes also are destruc-
to the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean tive. In that of 1692, a part of Kingston
Sea. The chief groups are the Bahamas in Jamaica was sunk in the sea; and
in the north, the Great Antilles in the Port Royal, on the same island, was
middle, and the Little Antilles in the almost destroyed.
south. 7. The islands are generally fertile,
4. Nearly all these islands lie within and yield large quantities of what is






90 THE WEST INDIES.















ce. -- i -- ------- --J-t



called "colonial produce "-sugar, to- Salvador, the first land in the New World
bacco, coffee, and spices. Some of touched by Europeans.
,_ ----7- z_- -=------!-.^ ^ F---^ ^ -. :------=- --.-- --- ,;---- -7-^ -^ "-' -









them also yield copper, silver, and 11. There, on Friday the 12th of
gold. October 1492, Columbus landed; and
8. All the islands do not belong to having kissed the earth and returned
England. Cuba, the largest of them, is thanks to God, he drew his sword, and
a Spanish colony. Hayti, the second solemnly took possession of the land in
largest, is divided between two free the name of the King and Queen of
republics. Castile.
9. Of the other islands, some belong 12. The Bahamas yield a great deal
to Holland, some to France, some to of cotton, and send to the English
Denmark, and some to Sweden. market pine-apples, lemons, and oranges.
10. The Bahamas belong to England. They are the Madeiras- of America,
They are separated from Florida by the delicate persons being sent there from
channel through which the Gulf Stream the United States to spend the win-
flows. The largest islands are the Great ter. Nassau, the capital, is on Provi-
Bahama and Andros; but the most in- dence Isle, one of the smallest of the
teresting is Watling, formerly called San group.






VI






JAMAICA. 91


58. JAMAICA.

1. Of the Great Antilles, Jamaica is by two of Cromwell's admirals, and was
the chief island belonging to England. formally given up to England in 1670.
It has bold and rocky shores, on which 4. Unhappily slavery has played a
are many safe harbours. great part in the history of Jamaica.
2. Though on the coast the climate From an early time the sugar-planters
is sultry and weakening, that of the did not hire labourers to do their work,
interior, where the Blue Mountains rise but bought slaves from slave dealers
to a height of 6,000 feet, is healthy; and who had captured them on the shores of
there the vegetation is abundant and Africa.
refreshing to the eye. 5. In 1834, slavery was abolished, and
3. The island was taken from Spain all slaves were set free. Though at first





















BUGAR PLANTATION, WEST INDIES.

thefreedmenworked aslittleastheycould, 6. By-and-by the negroes began to
and many plantations were left without be discontented with their lot, and to
tenants, yet under the reign of freedom claim a share in the government. A
the negroes gradually became industriuss. serious rising occurred in 1865, in put-






92 BRITISH HONDURAS.

ting down which great cruelty was exer- important town is Kingston, on a fine
cised. harbour on the south coast.
7. Since that time the island has re- 9. The Little Antilles stretch in a
ceived a new form of government, curve from Porto Rico to the coast of
Society has become more settled, and South America. The chief islands are
commercial prosperity has begun to re- Antigua, Barbadoes, and Trinidad.
vive. In the population there are forty 10. Trinidad is the largest and the
blacks for every white, and latterly the most important island. It has a remark-
white population has been decreasing, able pitch lake, in which a layer of
while the black has increased, pitch floats on the surface of fresh water.
8. Jamaica sends us, in great quan- It has also mud volcanoes.
titles, sugar, molasses, rum, coffee, and 11. The chief town is Port of Spain,
other tropical products. The capital is which has a splendid harbour. Arrow-
Spanish Town; but the largest and most root is exported in great quantities.



59. BRITISH HONDURAS.
1. If we were to take ship at King- they are floated down the river Belize,
ston in Jamaica, and were to sail due which is a great river navigable fof 200
west for 750 miles, we should come to miles from its mouth. They are then
Belize, the chief town in British Hon- cut up into logs of a size convenient for
- duras. The colony is part of the pen- exportation.
insula of Yucatan, nearly as large as 5. The homeward-bound ships also
Wales. take cargoes of logwood, which makes
2. There are many ships in the bar- deep red dyes and red ink; and of other
bour. They have brought out cargoes valuable dye-woods.
of English goods, which will be dis- 6. From Honduras we also get india-
tributed all over Central America. They rubber and gutta-percha, besides quan-
will take back to England cargoes of titles of the common products of tropical
mahogany and rosewood, of which to countries.
make chairs and tables. 7. It is only one hundred years since
3. The mahogany tree is the largest we obtained possession of this colony.
and most valuable tree that grows in The Spaniards were long jealous of our
this country. The slopes of the hills in presence on these coasts; but at last they
the interior are covered with forests of were forced to acknowledge us, and in
this tree. 1783 the colony was formally secured to
4. When the trees have been felled, England.







BRITISH GUIANA-THE FALKLAND ISLANDS. 93

60. BRITISH GUIANA.
1. A voyage of 320 miles from Trini- with festoons of bright and profuse
dad, in a south-easterly direction, brings climbing plants, which bind tree to tree,
us to the mouth of the River Demerara, and often make the forests impassable.
and to Georgetown, the capital of British 6. Among the trees flocks of parrots
Guiana. and yellow macaws may be seen flying
2. This colony is a part of South about as they fill the air with their
America lying between Venezuela and hoarse cries. Brilliant humming-birds
the colony called Dutch Guiana. It is sparkle in the sunshine.
considerably larger than England and 7. Monkeys glide nimbly from tree to
Wales, yet its population is barely tree. The fierce jaguar-the leopard of
200,000. America-may be seen lying in wait for
3. This colony was originally Dutch, them, or for other animals on which it
as that to the east of it is still. In 1796, preys.
however, it was transferred to England 8. Huge alligators, here called cay-
at the request of the inhabitants, an mans, bask in the sunshine on the banks
arrangement afterwards confirmed by of the river, or lazily swim across it
treaty, with their terrible jaws above water.
4. The largest river in the colony is 9. Georgetown, the capital, is neatly
the Essequibo. If we sail up its stream built, its wooden houses with their trim
for 100 miles, we shall find ourselves in verandas being embosomed in groves of
the midst of scenes that resemble closely orange and palm trees.
the dense and tangled forests of the 10. The climate, being at once hot
Amazon. and moist, is very unhealthy. Yellow
5. The hills on its banks are covered fever is the scourge from which the
with magnificent forests. The trees are people suffer most. The chief exports
of great size, and their foliage is rich are sugar, molasses, rum, coffee, and
and varied in colour. They are covered medicinal plants.



61. THE FALKLAND ISLANDS.
1. The Falkland Islands, in the South 2. These islands were first taken pos-
Atlantic, are the most southerly English session of by France; then they were
colony. They consist of two large and transferred to Spain, and then to Eng-
many small islands, and they lie 300 land.
miles east of the Strait of Magellan. 3. Their value lies in their excellent







BRITISH GUIANA-THE FALKLAND ISLANDS. 93

60. BRITISH GUIANA.
1. A voyage of 320 miles from Trini- with festoons of bright and profuse
dad, in a south-easterly direction, brings climbing plants, which bind tree to tree,
us to the mouth of the River Demerara, and often make the forests impassable.
and to Georgetown, the capital of British 6. Among the trees flocks of parrots
Guiana. and yellow macaws may be seen flying
2. This colony is a part of South about as they fill the air with their
America lying between Venezuela and hoarse cries. Brilliant humming-birds
the colony called Dutch Guiana. It is sparkle in the sunshine.
considerably larger than England and 7. Monkeys glide nimbly from tree to
Wales, yet its population is barely tree. The fierce jaguar-the leopard of
200,000. America-may be seen lying in wait for
3. This colony was originally Dutch, them, or for other animals on which it
as that to the east of it is still. In 1796, preys.
however, it was transferred to England 8. Huge alligators, here called cay-
at the request of the inhabitants, an mans, bask in the sunshine on the banks
arrangement afterwards confirmed by of the river, or lazily swim across it
treaty, with their terrible jaws above water.
4. The largest river in the colony is 9. Georgetown, the capital, is neatly
the Essequibo. If we sail up its stream built, its wooden houses with their trim
for 100 miles, we shall find ourselves in verandas being embosomed in groves of
the midst of scenes that resemble closely orange and palm trees.
the dense and tangled forests of the 10. The climate, being at once hot
Amazon. and moist, is very unhealthy. Yellow
5. The hills on its banks are covered fever is the scourge from which the
with magnificent forests. The trees are people suffer most. The chief exports
of great size, and their foliage is rich are sugar, molasses, rum, coffee, and
and varied in colour. They are covered medicinal plants.



61. THE FALKLAND ISLANDS.
1. The Falkland Islands, in the South 2. These islands were first taken pos-
Atlantic, are the most southerly English session of by France; then they were
colony. They consist of two large and transferred to Spain, and then to Eng-
many small islands, and they lie 300 land.
miles east of the Strait of Magellan. 3. Their value lies in their excellent







94 GROWTH OF THE EMPIRE.

harbours. The chief of these is Stan- stocked with English sheep. The colon-
ley Harbour, in East Falkland. If we ists kill great quantities of fish, especi-
call there, we shall probably find mer- ally of cod.
chant and emigrant ships taking in pro- 5. They also take a great number of
visions, and whalers making ready for seals for the sake of their oil. The
the Southern Seas. rocks on the coast are covered with
4. Homeward-bound ships carry away regiments of stupid-looking penguins,
cargoes of wool, the islands having been large birds highly prized for their fat.



CONCLUSION.

62. GROWTH OF THE EMPIRE.
1. England has acquired most of her houses for her commerce. For such
foreign possessions since the beginning reasons Gibraltar, Malta, Aden, and
of the eighteenth century (1701). The Heligoland have been seized at different
only important places she held before times. In like manner the Falkland
that time were the Bermudas, Jamaica, Islands were occupied on account of the
and settlements at Madras and Bombay. safe harbours they contain.
2. During the eighteenth century and 5. In the case of India, and also in
the early part of the nineteenth, Eng- that of North America, England got the
land was often at war with other coun- upper hand after a severe struggle with
tries, especially with France and Spain. France. She succeeded in both about
The strength of England lay in her the same time. The battle of Plassey
navy, and a very common means she took (1757) was the beginning of the English
to injure her enemies was to seize on empire in India. The taking of Quebec
some of their colonies or foreign posses- (1759) made the English masters of
sions. Canada.
3. In this way England acquired 6. The Australian colonies began in
many of the West India Islands, includ- the custom of transporting convicts or
ing Trinidad and Tobago, both of which prisoners to a distant part of the world.
were taken from Spain. In the same A convict settlement was made at
way Cape Colony was taken from the Botany Bay (near what is now Sydney)
Dutch in 1806. in 1787, and from this sprang the colony
4. Sometimes strong places were seized of New South Wales, the oldest of the
by England that they might afford shel- Australian colonies. Transportation has
ter to her ships, or be used as store- now been given up.