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The Baldwun Library
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Baby and Chickens.
'NATURAL HISTORY SERIES--BOOK SECOND.
FEATHERS AND FUR,
FOR YOUNG FOLKS.
BY JAMES JOHONNOT.
NEW YORK .:- CINCINNATI -:. CHICAGO
-AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY,
A r ,T
Good-morning! good-morning! this glad summer
1 T D. APPLETON AND COMPANY.
B D. APPLETON AND COMPANY.
THE AIM AND METHOD.
"-- A MACHImNE, turned by a crank,
has been made to speak words, but
,',- nothing below a human being has
S I been able to get thought from a
'-. written or printed page and convey
S---it to others. To make the machine
requires a vast amount of labor
expended upon matter; to get the
thought requires the awakening of a
v *' human spirit. The work of the ma-
chine is done when the crank stops;
the mental work, through internal volition, goes
on to ever higher achievements.
In schools much labor has been spent in trying
to produce human speaking-machines. Words are
built up out of letters; short words are grouped
into inane sentences such as are never used; and
sentences are arranged into unnatural and insipid
discourse. To grasp the thin ghost of the thought,
the little human spirit must reverse its instinct to
reach toward the higher, and, mole-like, burrow
6 THE AIM AND METHOD.-(Continued.)
The amount of effort spent in this way, if given
to awakening thought, would much more effective-
ly secure the mechanical ends sought, and at the
same time would yield fruit in other fields of
The matter selected for these higher and bet-
ter purposes must possess a human interest. The
thoughts that bear fruit are those with roots set
in past experiences, but which, outgrowing these
experiences, reach out toward new light.
In this little book we have again given the
initial steps of science rather than the expression
of scientific results. Beginning with familiar
forms of life, the pupil is led to see more clearly
that which is about him, and then to advance into
the realm of the unknown with assured steps, in
the tried paths of investigation and comparison.
While giving prominence to the facts that in-
form, we have not been unmindful of the fancy
that stimulates. The steady flow of description
is frequently interrupted by the ripple of story
and verse. While we have made no effort to se-
cure the favor of Mr. Gradgrind by looking at
facts only on their lower side, we trust that our
effort may prove of some service in the anxious
work of parent and teacher.
III. Chickens' W ays .................. 18
"t- "IV. Stories about Chickens ............ 20
T -- *,.,
V. How Ducks Look and Live ........ 25
VI. Stories about Ducks................. 27
VII. How Geese Look and Live ........... 30
VIII. How Geese Behave.................. 32
IX. What Geese can Do ................. 35
X. About Turkeys..................... 37
,- XI. About Swans .......... ............ 39
XII. Doves and Pigeons.................. 42
Three Little Doves........... 45
XIII. The Little Wren ............................... 47
XIV. The Singing Thrush............................. 49
XV. Robin-Redbreast............. ................... 51
XIII. The Little Wren. ... ...... . .. . 47
XIV. The Singing Thrush. .. .. .. . ... ... . 49
XVI. The Blackbird and the Cat ...................... 54
XVII. How Canaries Live and Sing ...................... 56
XVIII. A Song of Summer............................ .... 58
XIX. How Parrots Look and Talk ..................... 60
XX. Stories about Parrots ............................... 63
XXI. Birds of Prey .................................... '67
XXII. Long Legs with Feathers.....,.,,,,,... ,,........ 70
8 CON TENTS.--(Continued.)
XXIII. Bo-peep and the Rook.......................... 72
XXIV. The Mouse and its Ways ...................... 74
XXV. Stories about Mice............ ................ 76
XXVI. White-paw Starts to see the World.............. 78
XXVII. What the Mice Saw in the Farm-Yard.......... 80
XXVIII. What White-paw Saw in the Kitchen............ 83
XXIX. White-paw's Account of the Great World......... 85
XXX. The Death of Poor Puss .................. ... 87
XXXI. Field-Mice.................. .......... 89
XXXII. How the Rat Looks and Lives .................. 91
XXXIII. Stories about the Rat ......................... 93
XXXIV. About Rabbits ............................ 96
XXXV. More about Rabbits .................. ....... 98
XXXVI. How the Hare Lives .......................... 101
Alice's Bunny .............. ............ 103
XXXVII. Something about Squirrels.................... 104
XXXVIII. More about Squirrels ....... ................. 106
XXXIX. The Flying Squirrel ........................... 109
The Owl................................ 111
XL. Bo-peep and the Squirrel ..................... 112
XLI. How the Mole Looks.......................... 114
XLII. How the Mole Works and Lives................. 116
XLIII. About the Porcupine. ......................... 118
XLIV. About the Woodchuck........................ 120
XLV. Mrs. Brindle's Cowslip Feast.................... 122
XLVI. The Frog and its Home ...................... 124
XLVII. From Tadpole to Frog ........................ 126
XLVIII. More about Frogs ............................. 128
XLIX. The Friendly Toad........................... 130
L. The Snail and its House....................... 132
LI. The Fly and its Ways........................ 134
LII. The Animals' Ball........................... 136
GOOSEY, goosey, gander
Where shall I wander?
In the lady's chamber !
There sits the lady,
Folding up the clothes;
In- comes a blackbird,
And nips off her nose!
Chickens at Home,
LESSON i. 11
HOW FOWLS LOOK.
1. HERE we find the hen and chickens, a new
company of our farm-yard friends. We see that
they are very unlike the other friends we have
been studying, and, though we know them well,
we may find out something new about them.
2. Instead of a coat of hair or fur, the hen is
covered with feathers, all pointing backward and
lying over each other, so that the rain falls off as
from the shingles of a house.
3. When we studied the cat, we found that
she had four legs for walking and running, and
12 LESSON I.--(Continued.)
that she used the paws on her front legs for
scratching and catching her prey.
4. We have but two legs for walking or run-
ning, our fore legs being arms, and our paws, hands.
5. These new friends, the chickens, have but
two legs, and in this way are more like boys and
girls than are cats
6. But the chick-
en has the same num-
ber of limbs as the
others, only those in
front are wings in-
stead of fore legs or
'. Here is a pict-
ure of the legs and
feet of a hen. We
see that the legs are
2 covered with scales,
and that each foot
has four toes, three pointing forward and one
back. Each toe has a long, sharp, and strong
8. Let us look at the hen when she is walking
slowly! As she lifts up each foot, her toes curl
LESSON I.--(Cntinued.) 1i
up, very much as our fingers do when we double
them up to make a
9. When the
chicken is about. a
year old, a spur,
hard like horn, be-
S gins to grow on
the inside of each
S.. i. leg. Upon the
old cocks these
n spurs are long and
sharp, and he can
strike savage blows with them.
10, It is when we look a hen in the face thf,
we see how much it
differ, from all the
animals we have
11. The head
stands up straight,
and the eyes are
placed on each side,
so that it can look
forward, to the side,
14 LESSON I.--(Continued.)
12. Two little ears are just back and below
the eyes; at first we would hardly know what
they are, they are so small and unlike the other
ears which we have seen.
13. All the lower part of the face is a bill,
hard like horn, and running out to a point. The
bill opens and makes the mouth, and two holes in
the upper part make the nose.
14. As the whole bill is hard like bone, the
hen does not need teeth, and does not have any.
She was never known to complain with the tooth-
15. Large bits of food she scratches apart with
her feet, or breaks up with her bill; but, as she
can not chew, the pieces she takes into her mouth
she swallows whole.
16. Upon the top of the head is a red, fleshy
comb, which is much larger on cocks than on hens.
This comb is sometimes single, and sometimes
17. Under the bill on each side there hangs
down a wattle of red flesh that looks very much
like the comb.
18. The tail of the cock has long feathers,
which curl over the rest and give him a very
LESSON II. 16
WHAT FOWLS DO.
-4 :, + .- "s
close by her side; but when she flies, she spreads
them out like a fan. Her body is so heavy that
she can fly but a little ways without resting.
2. At night fowls find a place to roost upon a
tree, or a piece of timber placed high on purpose
for them. Their toes cling around the stick that
they stand on, so that they do not fall off.
3. Fowls live upon grain, bugs, and worms.
16 LESSON I i -(Continued.)
WiIt their long nails and strong toes they scratch
in the earth, and with their sharp bills they pick
up anything which they find good to eat.
4. If the morsel of food found is too large to
"be swallowed whole, they pick it to pieces with
their bills. The old hen always picks the food
to piecesjfor her chickens.
5. The hen lays eggs, usually one every day,
until she.has laid from fifteen to twenty. If her
eggs are carried away, she will continue to lay
for a longer time.
6. When she has a nest full of eggs, she sits
upon them, keeping them warm with her body
for three weeks. At the end of that time the
eggs hatch out into little chicks.
7. When the hatching time comes, the chick
inside the egg picks a little hole in his shell, so
that he can get his bill out, and then he breaks
the shell so that he can step out.
8. When first hatched, the chickens are cov-
ered with a fine down, which stays on until their
feathers grow. They are able to run about the
moment they are out of the shell.
9. The hen is a careful mother. She goes
about searching and scratching for food, and,
when she finds it, she calls her chickens, and
LESSON 1I .-(Continzued.) 17
Coming out in the World.
does not eat any herself until they are sup-
10. At night, and whenever it is cold, she
calls them together and broods them, by lifting
her wings a little and letting them cuddle under
her to keep warm.
11. When anything disturbs her chicks, the
old hen is ready to fight, picking with her bill
and striking with her wings with all her might.
12. The cock is a fine gentleman. He walks
about in his best clothes, which he brushes every
day and keeps clean. He struts a little, to show
what a fine bird he is.
13. In the morning he crows long and loud, to
let people know it is time to get up; and every
little while during the day he crows, to tell the
neighbors that all is well with him and his family.
18 LESSON III
CHICK E.NS' W1AS.
-- -.. 7 ------
1. WHEN first hatched, chickens look about
for something to eat, and they at once snap at a
fly or bug which comes in their way. Here we
LESSON II I.-(Continued.) 19
have the picture of three little chickens reaching
for a spider that hangs on its thread.
2. Then the little chick knows how to say a
great many things. Before he is a week old, if
we offer him a fly, he gives a little pleasant twit-
ter, which says, "That is good!" but present to
him a bee or a wasp, and a little harsh note says,
"Away with it!"
3. When running about, the chick has a little
calling note, which says, "Here I am!" and the
old hen clucks back in answer; but, when there
is danger, he calls for help in a quick, sharp voice,
which brings the old hen to him at once.
4. The hen has also her ways of speech. She
cackles long and loud, to let her friends know that
she has just laid an egg; she clucks, to keep up a
talk with her chicks; she calls them when she
has found something to eat; and she softly coos
over them when she broods them under her
5. But, should she see a strange cat or a hawk
about, she gives a shriek of alarm, which all the
little ones understand, for they run and hide as
quickly as possible. When the danger is past she
gives a cluck, which brings them all out of then
20 LESSON IV.
STORIES ABOUT CHICKENS.
y 1- .1' .
1. SOMETIMES ducks' eggs are placed under the
hen, and she hatches out a brood of young ducks.
As soon as they are out of the shell they make
for the water, and plunge in and have a swim.
for the water, and plunge in and have a swim.
LESSON IV.--(Continued.) 21
2. The old hen can not understand this. She
keeps out of the water when she can. She thinks
her chicks will be drowned, and she flies about in
great distress until they come out.
3. At an inn in Scotland a brood of chickens
was hatched out in cold weather, and they all
died. The old hen at once adopted a little pig,
not old enough to take care of himself, that was
running about the farm-yard.
4. She would cluck for him to come when she
had found something to eat, and, when he shivered
with cold, she would warm him under her wings.
The pig soon learned the hen's ways, and the
two kept together, the best of friends, until the
pig grew up, and did not need her help any more.
5. There is another story of a hen that adopt-
ed three little kittens, and kept them under her
wings for a long time, not letting their mother go
near them. The old cat, however, watched her
chance, and carried off the kittens one by one to
a place of safety.
6. H-ens do not always agree, and sometimes
they are badly treated by one another, as is shown
in this story:
7. An old hen had been sitting on a nest full
of eggs, in a quiet place in the garden, until they
22 LESSON I V.--(Continued.)
were nearly ready to hatch. One day she left her
nest a few moments to get something to eat, and,
while she was gone, a bantam hen, on the watch,
took possession of it.
8. When the real mother came back, she was
Sin great distress; but the bantam kept the nest,
and in a few days hatched out as many of the
eggs as she could cover.
9. She then strutted about at the head of her
company of chickens, and passed them off upon
her feathered friends as her own.
10. Hens are usually timid, and they run or
fly away when they see any danger. But in de-
fence of their chicks they are often very bold.
11. A rat one day went into a chicken-house
where there was a brood of young chickens.
The old hen pounced upon him, and a fierce battle
12. The rat soon had enough of it, and tried
to get away; but the hen kept at him until one
of the family came and killed him.
13. One day a sparrow-hawk flew down into
a farm-yard to catch a chicken. A cock about a
year old at once darted at him and threw him on
14. While lying there he could defend himself
LESSON I V. -(Continued.) 23
with his talons and beak; but when he rose and
tried to take wing, the cock rushed at him and
upset him the second time.
15. The hawk by this time thought more of
getting away than he did of his dinner; but thf
cock kept him down until somebody came and
16. The cock looks after the hens and chicks,
and is ready to fight for them in time of danger.
He scratches for them, and, when he finds some-
thing good to eat, like the gentleman he is, he calls
them to the feast before he touches it himself.
17. He also has his own fun. Sometimes he
will find a tempting worm and call all the hens,
and, just as they are about to seize it, he will swal-
low it, and give a sly wink, as much as to say,
"Don't you wish you may get it!"
-_- TZ 1,. .
s 1;) pl
"A Czy ome
LESSON V. 2D
HOJO DUCKS LOOK AXD LIVfE
1. HERE comes a duck
waddling along, another
of our feathered friends
S, on two legs. Let us take
a good look at her.
S 2. In shape she is like
S' the hen, only her legs are
I shorter and her body flat-
ter. Her feathers are
Y very thick, and next her
skin she has a coat of soft
__ down, which helps to
keep her warm.
3. The duck's wings are strong, and she can
fly to a great distance without being tired. Wild
ducks fly a great many miles without resting.
4. The duck has no comb or wattles on its
head, and its long bill is broad and blunt at the
end. Its tail is short and pointed, and it has no
drooping tail feathers. The duck has the same
number of toes as a chicken, but its foot is webbed
by a strong skin, which binds the toes together.
5. The duck is formed for swimming. It
pushes itself along in the water, using its webbed
26 LESSON V. -(Continued.)
feet for paddles. The down on its breast is filled
with oil, so that no
water can get through
to the skin.
6. When in the
water we will see
the duck often dive,
and stay under so
long that we begin
Sto fear it will never
come up, and we
wonder what it does
"7. If we could
"watch it under the
water, we would see that it thrusts its broad bill
into the mud at the bottom, and brings out worms,
water-bugs, and roots of plants, which it eats.
8. Should a frog or a tadpole come within
reach, the duck would snap it up in an instant;
and even fish are sometimes caught.
9. The old mother duck every morning leads
her brood to the water. As she waddles along on
the land, her gait is very awkward, but the mo-
ment she and her little ones get to the water they
sail out in the most graceful way.
LESSON VI 27
STORIES ABOUT DUCKS.
1. DAME BRIDSON had several families of duck-
lings, and one day as I watched her feeding them
she told me this story:
2. I once put a number of duck's eggs under
a hen, and they all hatched out nicely. When the
ducks were a few days old, the hen left them for
a few minutes to pick up some food.
28 LESSON VI.--(Continued.)
"3. "When she came back I heard a furious
cackling, and ran to see what was the matter.
And what do you think I saw?
4. "There lay my old tabby cat, who had just
lost her kittens, and there were the little duck-
lings all cuddled up around her.
5. "The old cat purred over them and licked
them just as though she thought they were her
6. "The poor hen was wild with fright and
rage, and a little way back stood Toby, the old
watch-dog, trying to find out what was the trouble.
7. From that time, until they were big enough
to take care of themselves, tabby came and slept
with the ducklings every night.
8. "The old hen took her loss very much to
heart, and I had to comfort her by giving her
another batch of eggs to sit on."
9. Another story is told of an old dog who
took a fancy to a brood of young ducks, who
had lost their mother. They followed him about
everywhere, and, when he lay down, the ducklings
nestled all about him.
10. One duckling used to scramble upon the
dog's head and sit down upon his eye; but the
old dog never move, though the pressure upon
LESSON VI.-(Conlinued.) 9
the eye must have hurt him. He seemed to think
more of his little friends than of himself.
11. One day a young lady was sitting in a
room close by a farm-yard, in which there were
chickens, ducks, and geese feeding and playing
12. While busy with her sewing, a drake came
into the room, took hold of her dress, and tried to
pull her toward the door.
13. She was afraid at first, and pushed him
away; but he came back again and again, and she
soon saw that he was not angry, but was trying
to get her to follow him.
14. She got up, and he led her to the side of
a pond, where she found a duck with its head
caught in a railing. She made haste to set the
poor creature free, and the drake flapped his
wings and gave a joyous quack of thanks.
"Quack! Quack! Quack!"
30 LESSON VII.
HOW GEESE LOOK 4AND LIVE.
1. THE goose and
the duck are much
.- alike in looks and ways.
The legs of the goose
/ are longer, so that it
stands higher and can
S. walk better on land.
2. The goose is
Larger than the duck,
S- its neck longer, and its
-r- T-- wings broader. Its
"v--,' f feet are webbed, so that
o "r 2d-k bm ita can swim well in the
3. Its bill is broad and more pointed than that
of a duck. Its wings are very -ti.,iiLZ, and it is
able to fly a great distance without rest.
4. When in the water it does not dive like the
duck, but it thrusts its bill down into the water
or mud the length of its long neck.
5. The feathers of the goose are white or gray,
and very light and soft, and are used for making
beds and pillows. Not a great while ago pens
were made of the quills that come out of the
LESSO N VI I.-(Continued.) 31
wings of the goose, and everybody who wrote
6. Geese make their nests on the ground, where
the old mother goose lays about a dozen eggs be-
fore she begins to sit. These eggs are twice the
size of hens' eggs.
7. The goslings are covered with a thick coat
of down, and are able to run on the land or swim
in the water when they first come out of the shell.
8. The goose and the gander together take
good care of their goslings. When anything comes
near, they stretch out their necks and give a loud
9. Should a strange dog venture too near, they
will take hold of him with their bills and beat
him with their wings until he is glad to get away.
I "., ..
82 LESSON VIII.
HOW GEESE BEH AE.
1. THE feathers of the goose are of great
value. They are plucked out three or four times a
year, at times when the weather is warm and fair.
2. The goose likes cold water. Great flocks
of wild geese live in the swamps and lakes in the
cold northern regions, and we can see them flying
overhead in the spring and fall.
3. A miller once had a flock of geese, and he
lost them all except one old goose, that for a long
time swam round alone on the mill-pond.
4. Now, the miller's wife placed a number of
duck's eggs under a hen, and, as soon as they were
hatched, the ducklings ran to the water.
5. The old goose, seeing the fright and flurry
of the hen, sailed up with a noisy gabble, and took
LESSON VII I .-(Continued.) 8
the ducklings in charge, and swam about with
6. When they were tired, she led them to the
shore and gave them back to the care of the hen,
who, to her great joy, found that they were all
safe and sound.
7. The next day down came the ducklings to
the pond, with the hen fussing and fretting as
before. The goose was waiting near the shore.
8. When the ducklings had taken to the water,
the hen, to get near them, flew upon the back of
the goose, and the two sailed up and down the
pond after the ducklings.
9. So, day after day, away sailed the duck-
lings, and close behind them came the mother
hen, now quite at her ease on the back of the
friendly goose, watching her gay little brood.
10. A lady tells this story of a gander: "My
grandfather was fond of pets, and he had once a
droll one, named Swanny. This was a gander he
had raised near the house, because he had been
left alone by the other geese.
11. This gander would follow him about like
a dog, and would be very angry if any one laid a
hand upon him.
12. "Swanny sometimes tried to make himself
34 LESSON VIII. -(Continued.)
at home with the flock of geese; but they always
drove him away, and then he would run and lay
his head on my grandfather's knee, as though sure
of finding comfort there.
13. "At last he found a friend of his own
kind. An old gray goose became blind, and the
flock turned her out. Swanny took pity on her,
led her about, and provided for her all the food
14. When he thought she needed a swim, he
took her neck in his bill and led her to the water,
and then guided her about by arching his neck
15. "When she hatched out a brood of gos-
lings, Swanny took the best of care of them, as
well as of their mother. In this way they lived
together for several years."
16. Here is another story, showing that geese
have good sense:
17. A flock of geese, living by a river, built
their nests on the banks; but the water-rats came
and stole the eggs.
18. Then the geese made their nests in the
trees, where the rats could not get at them; and
when the goslings were hatched, they brought
them down one by one under their wings.
LESSON IX. 83
WIHAT GEESE CA.N DO.
1. .To show that the
goose has a great deal
S" of good sense, this story
S- is told:
2. At a small coun-
S try church a poor blind
S 'woman used to come in
--* every Sunday ii, lili..iii
as regular as the clock,
S' a minute or two behind
3. She was always
: _. alone, came in the last
.-' and went away the first
"of any. The pastor,
who was a new-comer, was puzzled to know how
she got about so well.
4. One day he set out to visit her, and found
that she lived in a small cottage, more than a mile
5. On his way to her home, he crossed a stream
on a narrow rustic bridge, with a railing on only
6. He rapped at the door, and asked of the
86 LESSON I X.--(Contznued.)
woman who opened it, "Does the blind woman
who comes to church every Sunday live here?"
"Yes, that she does! but she's out in the field
7. Why do you let the poor creature come
all the way by herself, and across the bridge, too ?
She will fall into the water some day and be
8. The woman laughed softly. Sure, she
doesn't go alone-the goose takes her !" said she.
9. "What do you mean by the goose taking
her ?" said the pastor.
10. "Sure," said the woman, "it is the goose
whose life she saved when it was a little gosling.
And now it comes every Sunday at the same
minute to take her to church.
11. "It gets her skirt into its mouth, and leads
her along quite safely. When it comes to the
bridge it puts her next the rail, and keeps between
her and the water.
12. "It stays about the church-door till the
service is out, and then it takes her by the gown
and brings her home just the same."
13. The pastor was greatly pleased with this
story, and soon after he preached a sermon on
kindness to animals.
LESSON X, 37
1. THE turkey is about as large as a goose,
but its legs are longer, and it stands up higher.
Its feet are partly webbed, so that it can swim a
2. Its bill is short, thick, and pointed, and
upon its head, above and between the eyes, grows
a fleshy wattle, which does not stand up like the
38 LESSON X.-(Continucd.,
comb of a cock, but hangs down over the bill,
Upon the breast is a tuft of long, coarse hair
3. The tail
: _-- -' is broad and
ward; but the
turkey can raise
it and spread it
out like a fan.
4. The tur
i -key can fly but
-a little way, but
it can run very
fast. _At night, it roosts on trees or high places
5. The hen-turkey is timid, but the old gobbler
rather lik-es to quarrel. He is a vain bird, and it
is funny to see him strut up and down, with his
tail spread out, and his wings drawn down, his
feathers ruffled, and his neck drawn back, and to
hear him puff, and cry, "Gobble! gobble !"
6. Great flocks of wild turkeys are found in
the West, where they live in the woods upon nuts
and insects. The eagles sometimes pounce down
and carry off young turkeys, as is shown in this
LESSON XI. 39
1. HERE we have the picture of the swan, the
largest bird of the goose kind. It is not often
seen in this country, but is found in the Central
Park, New York, and in a few other places.
2. It has short, stout legs, and webbed feet,
:.,' i - : .. -- '" -
40 LESSON XI.- (Continued.)
like the duck, and it waddles along on the land in
a slow and awkward way. It is clothed with
feathers of a fine quality, like the goose, and those
we see in this country are pure white. Black
swans are found in some countries.
3. Its neck is much longer than that of the
goose, and when it swims, sitting high in the
water, with its long neck arched, it is one of the
most graceful birds in the world. It has strong
wings, and wild swans can fly a long distance
without tiring. Tame swans do not fly far.
4. The bill of the swan is broad, and pointed
like that of the goose, but a little longer. Below
the eyes, and at the base of the bill, a narrow
band of black extends across the front of the head.
5. The swans run in pairs. The mother swan
lays from five to eight eggs, and hatches them in
six weeks. The young swans are called cygnets.
They are covered with down, and are able to
walk and swim when first out of the shell.
6. The father swan watches the nest, and helps
take care of the young ones. He will fly at any-
thing that comes near, and he is able to strike ter-
rible blows with his wings. He can drive away
any bird, even the eagle.
7. Swans usually build nests of a few coarse
LESSON X I.--(Continued.) 41
sticks, and a lining of grass or straw. They have
a curious habit, however, of raising their nests
higher, and of raising the eggs at the same time.
8. At times they seem to know that some
danger threatens them, and then they turn their
instinct for raising their nests to some purpose. A
person who observed all the facts tells this story:
9. For many years an old swan had built her
nest on the border of a park, by the river-side.
From time to time she had raised her nest, but
never more than a few inches.
10. Once, when there had been no rain for a
long time, and the river was very low, she began
to gather sticks and grasses to raise her nest, and
she would scarcely stop long enough to eat.
11. She seemed so anxious to get materials for
nest-building that she attracted the attention of
the family living near by, and a load of straw was
carried to her. This she worked all into her nest,
and never stopped until the eggs had been raised
two and a half feet.
12. In the night a heavy rain fell, the river
flowed over its banks, and the water came over
the spot where the eggs had been; but it did not
quite come up to the top of the new nest, and so
the swan saved them.
42 LESSON XII.
DOV ES AJVD PIGEONS.
1. EVERYBODY likes the dove; it is such a
pretty bird, and is always so clean. It flies all
about the yard, the garden, and the street. Even
the rudest boys do not often disturb it.
2. It is about the size of a half-grown chicken,
and looks more like a chicken than any of the
other birds we have studied.
3. The doves about our houses are usually
white, or a bluish gray. They live in pairs, each
pair having its own nest, or home; but where
LESSON XII.-(Continued.) 43
doves are kept, many pairs live in the same house
4. They have a short, pointed bill, like a
chicken, and strong legs and toes, so that they can
walk and scratch easily.
5. The mother dove lays but two eggs before
then her mate
sits on the nest
half of the time
until the eggs
squabs, are cov-
ered with down
chickens, t h e
old ones must
feed them a week or two before they are able to
go about by themselves.
6. Both the father and mother dove feed the
young ones with a kind of milky curd which
comes from their own crops.
7. When the chicken drinks, it sips its bill full,
44 LESSON XI I.-(Continued)
and then raises its head and swallows; but the
dove does not raise its head until it has drank
8. The pigeon-which is another name for the
dove-has very strong wings, and can fly far and
fast without tiring. When taken from their home
a great distance, pigeons will fly straight back.
9. Before we had railroads and telegraphs, peo-
ple would take pigeons away from home, and
send them back with a letter tied under their
wings. These were called carrier-pigeons.
10. The doves in each home are very fond of
each other. We can hear the father dove softly
cooing to his mate at almost any time when they
11. One day a farmer shot a male dove, and
tied the body to a stake to scare away other
birds. The poor widow was in great distress. She
first tried to call him away, and then she brought
him food. When she saw he did not eat, her cries
12. She would not leave the body, but day
after day she continued to walk about the stake,
until she had worn a beaten track around it. The
farmer's wife took pity on her, and took away the
dead bird, and then she went back to the dove-cote.
THREE LITTLE DOVE'S.
THREE little doves put on their gloves,
And then sat down to dine;
These little doves, they soiled their gloves,
And soon were heard to whine-
"Oh, mother dear, come here, come here,
For we have soiled our gloves !"
"Soiled your gloves, you naughty doves,
You shan't sit up till nine."
"Coo, coo, coo !"
These little doves, they washed their gloves,
And hung them on the line;
These little doves, they dried their gloves,
And thought it very fine.
"Oh, mother dear, come here, come here,
For we have washed our gloves !"
"Washed your gloves, you loves of doves,
Then you shall stay till nine !"
"Coo, coo. coo!"
-- '--._ ..- -" = ~ .- '
The Wren and her Nest.
LESSON XIII. 47
THE LITTLE WREN.
1. ONE of the pret.
tiest birds that fly
about our doors in
summer is the friend.
ly little wren. It
"makes its home near
the house, and its
glad song can be
heard throughout the
2. One kind of
wren builds its nest under the eaves, as shown
in the picture; but the common house-wren builds
in almost any hole it can find in a shed or stable.
3. They have been known to choose an old
boot left standing in a corner, an old hat hanging
against the wall, and one time a workman, taking
down a coat which he had left for two or three
days, found a wren's nest in the sleeve.
4. The wren flies low, and but a little way at
a time. Its legs, like most of the singing birds,
are small and weak, and it does not walk, but
when on the ground it goes forward by little hops.
5. It flies with a little tremor of its wings, but
48 LESSON XII I.-(Continued.)
without any motion of its body or tail. While its
mate is sitting, the father wren will flutter slowly
through the air, singing all the time.
6. The mother wren lays from six to ten eggs,
and hatches them out in ten days. The young
birds are naked of feathers, and seem to have
only mouths, which open for something to eat.
7. The old birds are busy in bringing the young
ones worms and insects, until they are old enough
to fly. In this way a single pair of wrens will
destroy many hundred insects every day.
8. The wren quarrels with other birds if they
try to build nests too near it. It will often take
the nest of the martin or bluebird when the owner
is away, and hold on to it.
9. At one time a wren was seen to go into the
nest which a pair of martins had just finished.
When the martins came back, it beat them off.
The martins kept watch, and, when the wren
was out, they went back into their box, and built
up a strong door, so the wren could not get in.
10. For two days the wren tried to force its
way in; but the martins held on, and went with.
out food during that time. At last the wren gave
up, and built a nest elsewhere, leaving the martins
in quiet possession of their own nest.
LESSON XIV. 49
THE SLN'GLNG THRUSH.
#F-, ^ 'Q.I
1. THE thrush is one of our best singing birds.
It does not come near the house, like the wren, but
it builds its nest in thickets and quiet places,
where it is not liable to be disturbed.
2. It lives on berries and insects. It is a shy
bird; but in the edge of the wood its song may be
heard often during the day, becoming more fre-
quent toward evening.
3. The mother bird lays from four to six eggs,
60 LESSON XIV.--(Continued.)
and both father and mother sit on the eggs and
take care of the young.
4. The thrush is double the size of the wren,
and nearly all the kinds are brown in color, some
having their wings
tipped with red or
"5. The brown
thrush, or brown
thrasher as it is
sometimes called, is
-- bold and strong, and
"when a cat or fox
._ comes prowling
-- about near its nest it
S -flies at him so savage-
ly that he is glad to
get out of the way.
6. It is not afraid of hawks, and it has a special
spite against snakes that come around to rob its
nest. When it sees a snake, it flies at him with
great rage, and kills him or drives him off.
7. The hermit thrush lives in the dark, thick
woods, and many people think its song, which is
heard in the evening twilight, is sweeter than that
of any other bird.
LESSON XV. 51
1. "0 Robin, Robin-Redbreast, ) Robin,
0 Robin sings so sweetly in the falling
of the year !"
So says the old .,,r_., but Robin sings just as
sweetly all the summer long.
2. The robin is better known than most birds.
It comes earliest in the -'l.iiir and goes away late
in the fall. It builds its nest near houses, and
&6 L ESSON XV.-(Continued.)
every day flies about the garden and yard, picking
up such crumbs as may be thrown to it. It is the
special favorite of children.
3. It is three times as large as the wren. Its
color is a dark olive-gray above, with a red breast.
Its head and throat
are streaked with
black and white.
4. It has a pleas-
ant, home-like little
song, and its notes
vary with the weath-
er, being much more
joyous on bright,
5. The English
robin is about half
the size of ours, but
has the same gray coat, and a somewhat redder
6. It lives about yards and gardens, and wakes
people up in the morning with its charming little
song. It does not like to have other birds, or cats,
come too near its nest; and when they do, it flies
at them with great rage.
7. When the robin has once built its nest it
LESSON X V.-(Continued.) 53
is not easily driven away. Once, a wagon loaded
for a journey was left standing a few days in a
yard. Under the canvas covering of this wagon a
pair of robins built their nest.
8. After the wagoner started, he found the
nest, with the young just hatched. The old birds
went along, taking turns in brooding the young
ones and in flying about for worms.
9. The wagon went a hundred miles and back,
and, by the time it came back to the place of start-
ing, the young birds were pretty well grown. You
may be sure that the wagoner did not let any one
disturb the birds on the route.
10. One spring a pair of thrushes were seen
about the garden of a country house. One of
them seemed ill, and could hardly get about. It
would hop a little way, and then stop, too tired to
11. Her mate took good care of her. He got
her into a safe place in a tree, brought her worms
and insects, and cheered her with his music.
12. In the course of three or four days she got
better; and one day, when he came with her din-
ner, she flew a little way to meet him, and in a
short time they went off together, each singing a
84 LESSON XVI.
THE BLCK.7BIRD IAND THE CAT.
1. ThE English
blackbird is about the
size of our robin. It is
a cousin to the thrush,
5is and sings a sweet little
2. It builds its nest
in trees and hedges
near houses, an(l all
day long you can hear
its song as it goes
about busy in taking
i care of its family.
3. One priri". a
couple of blackbirds
built their nest on a
tree that stood by the
garden fence, near a
cottage. All went well
"with them until the
eggs were hatched, and
"four little birds filled
4. But the old cat had been on the watch, and
LESSON XV I.-(Continued.) se
had found out where the nest was. One morning,
while the mother bird was out after worms, the
cat thought it a good time to make her breakfast
on young birds. So she climbed to the top of the
fence, and crept along on its narrow edge until she
came almost in reach of the nest.
5. But Mr. Blackbird, who had been watching
her for some time, with a loud cry of rage now
made a dash at her and hit her square in the face.
6. The cat tried to strike him with her claw;
but she had to hold on to the fence to keep from
falling, and so could not spring upon him.
7. After hitting her several times, the bird lit
upon her back, and struck her with his wings, and
pecked her with all his might.
8. The cat tried to turn and get at him, but
lost her hold and rolled off the fence. But the
bird kept flying at her until she ran away. Then
he perched on a rail and sang a joyous song.
9. The next day the cat came creeping along
again toward the nest; but the blackbird was ready
for her, and gave her another good drubbing until
she again fell off the fence and ran away.
10. Afterward, the bird took to hunting the
cat every time she came about, until he finally
drove her entirely out of the garden.
56 LESSON XVII.
HOW" CINAIRIES LIVE AJND SING.
^ -_ : ~ .- :. '-.
1. CANARY-BIRDS were first found in a warm
"region, and they can not live out-of-doors in our
country. They have lived so long in cages, and
been taken care of, that now they have lost the
power to get their own living, and, if turned out,
would soon starve to death.
2. The canary is one of the sweetest of all the
bird singers, and it is so pretty in its ways, and so
conr. hyhaelvd olngi ags n
LESSON XVI I.-(Continued.) 87
clean, that it is more often made a pet than any
other bird. It has a sweet song of its own, but
it is easily taught to sing a great many new notes.
The songs of the canary, as we hear them, are very
different from its song when wild.
3. A canary will often become so tame that it
will fly about
the room, come |,
w h e n called, -, .-,1=, -
perch on its mis- ,
tress's finger, '.
and eat out of i
her mouth. i '
4. The ca- ''.,
nary lays from
four to six eggs,
and hatches them in about two weeks. Both
father and mother bird take care of the young.
5. In a large cage with two parts, two finches
were in one end and two canaries in the other.
The finches hatched out their eggs, but did not
feed their young ones enough. The father canary,
hearing their hungry cries, forced himself between
the bars into their part of the cage, and fed them.
This he did every day, till the finches were shamed
into feeding the little ones themselves.
88 LESSON XVIII.
Ad SONG OF SUMMER.
A CUCKOO sat on a tree
Summer is coming,
IT. 1 And a bee crept out
From the hive and
'' The frogs, from out the
rushes and reeds,
... Into the water went
And the dragon-fly, with his body of green,
Through the flags went flashing, flashing.
The dormouse put out her head and said,
"Really the sun shines brighter ";
But the butterfly answered, "Not yet, not yet,"
And folded his wings up tighter.
But the thrush and the blackbird began to sing
Ever sweeter and sweeter.
LESSON XVII I.-(Continued.) 59
And the grasshopper chirped, and hopped, and
Ever fleeter and fleeter.
The gnats and the chafers began to buzz;
And the swallows began to chatter:
"We have come from abroad with the summer
How lazy you are what's the matter?"
Then the dormouse said, Summer's really here,
Since the swallows are homeward coming";
And the butterfly spread out his wings, and the
Went louder and louder humming.
And suddenly brighter the sun shone out,
And the clouds away went sailing,
And the sheep nibbled peacefully at the grass,
And the cow looked over the paling.
Yes, summer had come, and the cuckoo sang
His song through woodland and hollow:
"The summer is come; if you don't believe mc
You have only to ask the swallow."
60 LESSON XIX.
HOW PARROTS LOOK AJD TALK.
to the cana-
ry, the par-
rot is the
-, pet bird of
hold. It is
S. kept for its
ors, its curi-
S o s ways,
and its pow-
er to talk.
Size of the
color, those that we see most often are green or
gray. Some parrots are of a bright red, and oth-
ers are gay with bright green, red, and yellow.
3. The parrot has a thick, strong, and hooked
bill. It is so strong that it can take hold of
LESSON I XIX.-(Continued.) 61
the branch of a tree and hold itself up, and
with it it can crack
the hardest nuts.
4. It came from
a warm region, and
must have a warm
room in winter, or
it will die. It lives .
on nuts and seeds,
but when kept in ...
the house it will .
5. The parrot learns to love its master and
those that take care of it; but it is often cross to
strangers, and will give
them a terrible bite with
its hooked bill if they
come too near.
6. Like other birds, the
parrot has four toes on
each foot; but two of these
are in front and two be-
hind. The toes are very
strong, and with them it can grasp things as we
do with our hands.
62 LESSON X I X.-(Continued.)
7. With these toes it climbs easily, reaching
up first one foot and then the other, and some-
times taking hold with its bill. When eating, it
holds its food in its claw, biting off pieces to suit it.
8. When wild, the voice of the parrot is a loud,
unpleasant scream, and it doesn't forget this
scream in its new home. But it also learns to
talk, and it may be taught to say many words as
plainly as boys or girls speak.
9. Parrots can whistle, and some have been
taught to sing. They need good care, which they
repay by their pleasant ways and curious tricks.
Some of the parrot kind are called paroquets, and
some are called cockatoos.
10. This curious story is told of a parrot: One
day, Sarah, a little girl of eight years, had been
reading about secret writing with lemon-juice.
"11. Not having any lemon, she thought she
would try vinegar. -So, after dinner, she took a
cruet, and was just pouring the vinegar into a
- spoon, when her parrot sang out, "I'll tell mother!
Turn it out! Turn it out! "
12. The child, thinking the parrot would really
tell her mother, threw down the cruet and the
spoon, and ran away to the nursery as fast as her
legs could carry her.
LESSON XX. 63
STORIES AtBOUT PARROTS.
-. -- -
1. A GREEN parrot, kept in a family for a long
time, became so tame that she had the free run of
the house. When hungry, Polly would call out,
"Look cook I want potato !"
2. She was very fond of potatoes, and if any-
thing else was put in her pan she would throw it
out, and scream at the top of her voice, "Won't
have it! Turn it out!"
3. The children in the house were all girls, and
Polly for some reason had taken a great dislike to
boys. One day some boys came on a visit, and,
64 LESSON XX.- (Continued.)
as boys do, made a great noise. This was too
much for Polly, who screamed out, "Sarah! Sa-
rah here's a hullaballoo !"
4. Polly was very fond of the mistress of the
house, and was always
s on the lookout for her
at the breakfast-table.
5. If she did not
come down before the
meal was begun, Polly
would say, in the
most piteous tone,.
mother? Is not
dear mother well ?"
/ 6. Another parrot had
learned to sing "Buy a
Broom" just like a child.
Cockatoo. If she made a mistake, she
would cry out, "0 la!" burst out laughing, and
begin again on another key.
7. This parrot laughed in such a hearty way
that for your life you could not help joining with
her, and then she would cry out, "Don't make me
laugh I shall die I shall die!"
8. Next she will cry ; and if you say, "Poo
LESSON XX.--(Continued.) 68
Poll, what is the matter ?" she says, So bad so
bad! Got a bad cold!" After crying some time,
she grows more quiet, makes a noise like drawing
a long breath, and says, "Better now," and then
begins to laugh.
9. If any one vexes her, she begins to cry; if
pleased, she laughs. If she hears any one cough
or sneeze, she says, "What a bad cold "
10. Here is a story which a boy tells of a par-
rot: "Poll was a great friend of mine, and had
been in the house ever since I could remember.
11. "Offy was a pug-dog, so fat that a little
way off he looked like a muff to which some one
had tied a tail. I hated Offy, for he was always
barking at me, and I think he knew I was afraid
of him. Poll hated Offy, too, and with good
12. "The pug was always sneaking round, and
stealing the cake which Poll had laid aside for her
supper. Poll missed her cake and was furious,
but the dog licked his chops and laughed.
13. "One day Poll hid herself on the top of
the cupboard and watched. Offy came as usual
to steal her cake, when she pounced on his back
and gave him such a drubbing that he never stole
any more from her."
Birds of Prey
Birds of Prey,
LESSON XXI. 67
BIRDS OF PREY.
TIMES we see
a bird come
down into the
seize a chicken
with it, and
-- see the same
-' bird pounce
down upon a
robin, a wren, or a dove, and carry it off.
2. This robber
is the hawk. An-
other robber, larger
and stronger than
the hawk, is the 4 7
eagle, which we see -
on the opposite
page. Let us look
88 LESSON XXI.--(Continued.)
3. They are covered with mottled black and
white feathers, which make them look gray.
In some kinds of hawks, the breast is nearly
4. They have very strong wings, and can fly
far and fast with-
out being tired.
The beak is short,
], strong, and point-
', ed, and hooked at
/,". :1 the end. It is made
;' so that it can easily
"tear flesh from the
bones of animals.
5. The claws, or
talons, are strong,
Sharp, and hooked,
and the leg above
is short and strong.
6. The hawk preys upon chickens, the smaller
birds, squirrels, and other small animals. The
eagle will carry off hens, turkeys, rabbits, lambs,
and the like. They have been known to carry off
7. The hawk and the eagle seize their prey,
not with their beaks, but with their talons. They
LESSON XXI.-(Continued.) 69
drive their long, sharp nails into the flesh, and the
chicken or rabbit is dead in a few minutes.
8. They carry their prey to their nests, and
there they hold it in their talons, and, with their
beaks, tear off the flesh, which they eat, and feed
to their young.
9. Both the hawk and the eagle have sharp
eyes, and they can see a long distance. If we
should see an eagle in a cage, we would find that
its eyes are bright and a deep yellow in color; but
they look wild and cruel, and we do not like to go
very near it.
10. The fish-hawk preys upon fish. He sails
slowly over the water until his sharp eyes see a
fish, and then he dives down so straight and
swift that he rarely misses.
11. Sometimes, when he comes up from the
water, an old eagle that has been on the watch
pounces upon him. The hawk tries to get away,
but the eagle soon overtakes him.
"12. With an angry scream the hawk drops the
fish, and the eagle swoops downward so quickly
that he catches the fish before it reaches the water.
With his prey in his talons, he then soars away to
his nest in the tree-tops, or high up among the
rocks on the mountain-side,
70 LESSON XXII.
LOXG LEGS WITH FEATHERS.
1. WE have
here the pict-
ure of a her-
on, a very cu.
Serious bird. It
has long legs,
a large body, a
long neck, and
A 'a long pointed
S2.' Its toes
-- are long and
when spread out they cover a large space. It can
turn its neck and bill so that sometimes it looks
as if it would wring its own neck off.
3. The heron lives on frogs and fish. With its
long legs it can wade out in the shallow water,
and its toes spread out so it does not sink in the
4. When ready for breakfast, it wades in
where the water is half-leg deep. Then it stands
so still that the fish, the frogs, and the water-rate
will swim all about its legs.
LESSO N XXI I.-(Continued.) 71
5. All at once, as quick as a flash, down
plunges the beak, and up comes a frog from the
water, and down it goes, whole, into the long
"feathers with -
its long bill,
and goes to
sleep standing on one leg. Its middle toe has a
double nail, and with this it scratches off the down
that sticks to its bill after cleaning its feathers.
7. The heron flies high in the air. When fly-
ing, its legs extend out straight behind, and its
neck curls over and rests on its back.
8. The stork is another bird with long legs that
wades in the water and eats frogs and fish. In Hol-
land, the stork is so tame that it lives in the farm.
yard, and often builds its nest on the house-tops.
72 LESSON XXIII.
BO-PEEP 4AJD THE ROOR.
L. L. -_^ ".,,"
LITTLE Bo-peep sat down on a heap
Of hay-she was tired with running;
When up came a rook, who at her did look,
And nodded his head and looked cunning.
SLittle Bo-peep said, "Why do you keep
So near to me every day, sir ?
With your very sharp beak, pray what do you
For you always seem just in my way, sir "
LESSON XXIII.-(Continued.) 78
"Little Bo-peep, it is your sheep,
Not you, that I come to see, ma'am;
Their wool is so sot, that I want it oft
In my nest for my young ones and me,
Said little Bo-peep, The wool you may sweep
From the hedges and many a thorn, sir;
But don't make your attacks upon my sheep's
For I will not have their wool torn, sir."
The rook he cawed, and he hummed and hawed,
And muttered, What matter, what matter ?"
Bo-peep she said, "Go-I have said no, no;
So it's useless for you to chatter."
"THERE'S a merry brown thrush sitting up in
He's singing to me! He's singing to me!"
"And what does he say, little girl, little boy ?"
"'Oh, the world's running over with joy !
Don't you hear ? Don't you see ?
Hush Look In my tree
I'm as happy as happy can be."'
74 LESSON XXIV.
THE MOUSE AlN'D ITS WAYS.
T1 I ;I!- ti--: -f )urnear
Iittlk fil11i 'v in fur,
1 :I, -II \*-r- V frit-i lly that
tbt-v \xi it ii- 1vY iii.'ht and by
IJ:I. II III, ni 111 th at home
\\ -, inh tile uiht, we
LESSON X X I V.-(Continued.) 78
hear tiny feet as they patter over the floor, or scam.
per across the pillow, or we find in the morning that
the loaf for breakfast Jb.een gnawed and spoiled,
we are not apt to fet-WH ii'wly toward the mouse.
3. But, as he stands here by the trap, let us
take a good look at him.
We find that he has a
coat of fine fur, which he
always keeps clean, and a
long tail that has no hair.
IIe has whiskers, like the
cat; sharp claws, so that
he can run up the side
of a house, or climb anything that is a little rough;
and eyes that can see in the night.
4. He has large ears, so that he can hear the
faintest sound; and short legs, so that he can creep
into the smallest hole.
5. His nose is pointed, and his under jaw is
shorter than the upper one. In front, on each jaw,
he has two sharp teeth, shaped like the edge of a
chisel, and these he uses to gnaw with.
6. These teeth are growing all the while; and
if he does not gnaw something hard nearly every
day, so as to wear them off, they will soon become
so long that he can not use them.
76 LESSON XXV.
STORIES ABOUT MICE.
When the cat's away
The mice will play.
1. MICE increase so fast that, if we did not
have s6ine: way to destroy them, they would soon
overrun the house, so that we could not live in it.
2. They have their homes in the hollow walls,
and can go about from one part of the house to the
other without being seen; and when they smell food
they gnaw a hole through the wall to get at it.
LESSON XX V.- (Continued.) 77
3. They are playful little animals, and may
easily be tamed. When a mouse comes into the
room where people live, it is ready to run away at
once if anything moves.
4. But if all are still, it will scamper about the
floor, and look over and smell everything in the
room. The next day it will come back, and finally
it will play about the room as if ho one were there.
5. The mice that run about the house have
gray coats; but some mice are white, with pink
eyes, and these are often tamed and kept as pets.
6. A lady once tamed a common gray mouse, so
that it would eat out of her hand. She also had
a white mouse in a cage.
7. The gray mouse would be very angry when
he saw the lady pet the white mouse; and one day
he some way got into the cage, and, when the lady
came back into the room, she found the white
mouse was dead.
8. Music sometimes seems to have a strange
effect upon a mouse. At one time, when a man
was playing upon his violin, a mouse cane out of"
his hole and danced about the floor. He seemed
almost frantic with delight, and kept time to the
music for several minutes. At last he stopped, fell
over on the floor, and they found he was dead.
78 LESSON XXVI.
WHITE-PAW STARTS TO SEE THE WORLD
1. WHITE-PAW was a young mouse that lived
with his mother. Their home was in a barn, be-
hind some sacks of corn, and a very nice home it
2. When a sunbeam flashed in upon them at
midday, "That was the sun," said Mrs. Mouse.
When a ray of the moon stole quietly in, That is
the moon," said the simple-minded creature, and
thought she was very wise to know so much.
LESSON XXV I.-(Continued.) 79
3. But little White-paw was not so contented
as his mother. As he frisked and played in his
one ray of sunshine or one gleam of moonlight, he
had queer little fancies.
4. One morning, while at breakfast on some
kernels of corn and sweet apples which his mother
had brought home, he asked:
5. "Mother, what is the world ?"
6. "A great, terrible place !" was the answer,
and Mrs. Mouse looked very grave indeed.
7. "How do you know, mother? Have you
ever been there ?" asked the youngster.
8. "No, child; but your father was lost in the
great world, my son," and Mrs. Mouse's voice had
a little shaken it.
9. "Ah !" said the son, "that was for want of
10. "Knowing better! Why, he was the
wisest mouse alive !" said the faithful Mrs. Mouse.
11. "I could not have been alive then," thought
White-paw to himself. Then he said aloud,
"Mother, I have made up my mind to go and
see the world; so good-by !"
12. His mother wept. She tried to have him
stay at home and be content-but all in vain; so
she gave him a great hug, and he was off.
80 LESSON XXVII.
WH4AT' THE MICE S.AW IN THE FARM- YARD
1. HE had not gone many steps when he met
Mr. Gaffer Graybeard, a wise old mouse, and a
great friend to the family.
2. "Well, where are you off to, Mr. Pert-
nose ?" he asked, as the young traveler was whisk-
ing by. I'm off to see the world," was the answer.
3. "Then good-by, for I never expect to see
you again; but take an old mouse's advice, and be,
ware of mouse-traps." "What are mouse-traps ?"
LESSON XXVI I.-(Continued.) 81
asked White-paw. "You will know when you
see them," was the answer.
4. White-paw went on his way, and just out-
side he met another young mouse who had also
started to see the world, and the two went on to-
5. "Oh, how big the world is!" said White-
paw, as they went into the farm-yard, and began
to look about them.
6. "And what queer creatures live in the
world!" said the other, as the cocks crowed, the
hens clucked, the chickens peeped, the cow lowed,
the sheep bleated, the pigs grunted, and the old
7. "If we rhe to find out about the world, we
must ask questions," said White-paw.
8. So the two friends went about, stopping
every now and then to admire or wonder at the
new things they saw every moment.
9. Soon they came across a friendly-looking pig.
"Please, sir," asked the wee simple things, are you
a mouse ?"
10. The pig looked down to them through his
"specs as he heard the question in the tiny little
squeaking voice, and he grunted a little as he re-
82 LESSON XXVI I.-(Continued.)
11. "Yes, if you like to call me so," and the
two friends went on.
12. In a little while they came up where the
old cow was feeding; and White-paw, taking off
his hat, said, "Please, are you a mouse ? "
13. The old cow was too busy to answer such
questions, but she shook her head in such a way
that the travelers were glad to get off safe.
14. "There are great friendly mice, and great
unfriendly mice, in the world !" said White-paw, as
they went on their way.
15. Next they met a motherly old hen, who
was busy in scratching up food for her chickens;
and White-paw asked, "Please, ma'am, are you a
mouse ?" "We don't mind what olks call us,"
said the old hen, giving them a friendly wink.
16. As they went on they learned a great many
things about the world; but as yet White-paw had
not heard one word about a mouse-trap.
17. Having gone around the farm-yard, White-
paw and his friend went through the gate toward
the house. Here they met the dog, and asked the
same question that they had asked before.
18. But the dog barked and snapped so that
they could not make him hear, and they ran away
LESSON XXVIII. 88
WHIIT WHITE-PAW SA W IN THE KITCHEN.
1. IN their haste the two friends bolted into
the kitchen of the farm-house, where an old tabby-
cat lay dozing before the fire. But when they
came in she arose to meet them.
2. What a polite fat mouse thought White.
paw. "Please, ma'am-'-" But pussy's eyes were
fixed upon him with a horrid glare, and he could
not go on,
3. Alas his poor little friend! There was a
84 LESSON XXVI I.-(Continued.)
cry and a crunching of bones, and White-paw just
escaped through a hole into the pantry.
4. When he had in part got over his fright, he
smelled toasted cheese-something he had heard of
but never tasted. He sniffed about, and soon saw
it in a little round hole.
5. By this time he was very hungry, and he
reached out for the dainty morsel; but there was a
sudden click, and he turned back-but too late!
His tail and one of his legs were caught by the
cruel teeth of a trap.
6. He pulled with all his might, but could not
get away. He heard a little squeak, and an old
mouse came limping up with only three legs. -
7. "Pull hard, my son; better lose a leg and
tail than your life. See I was caught like you.
How came you here ?" he asked.
8. "I came to see the world, and 'tis a terri-
ble place As White-paw spoke, he pulled him-
self free, but left one paw and the point of his tail
in the trap.
9. The two hopped off together, and, after
some friendly advice from the old mouse, White-
paw limped away to his home, and soon found
himself by his mother's side, where he could have
his wounds dressed, and rest in peace.
LESSON XXIX. 88
"WHITE-PAW'S ACCOUNT OF THE GREAT
1. "MY dear son, what is the world like ?"
asked Mrs. Mouse, after she had hugged White-
paw, and set his supper before him.
2. Oh, it's a grand place! There are great
black mice, and great white ones, and great spot-
ted ones, and great friendly mice with long noses,
and great uncivil mice with horns.
3. Then there are queer mice with only two
86 LESSON XXIX.--(Continued.)
legs, and some terrible mice that make a great
noise." At this moment, Gaffer Graybeard came
in, and White-paw said, Sir, I've learned what a
mouse-trap is." Ah then," said the sage, you've
not seen the world in vain."
THREE BLIND IICE.
THREE blind mice Three blind mice !
See how they run See how they run !
They all ran after the farmer's wife;
She cut off their tails with a carving-knife.
Did you ever see such a thing in your life
As three blind mice ?
LESSON XXX. 87
THE DEATH OF POOR PUSS.
"HERE lies poor Puss !"-
"Who saw her die ?" asked Grandmother Mouse,
Just peeping forth from her hole of a house.
"I," said Tommy Titmouse, "I saw her die;
I think she was choked while eating a fly."
"Who'll dig her grave ? asked Granny again;
In her voice, strange to say, there was no tone
"The honest old dormouse, out in the wood,
He'd dig a good grave, if any one could."
"Who'll be the bearers ?" .The grandchildren all
Were ready at once, at sound of the call.
" We'll carry Puss, since she can't carry us,
And bury her deep, without any fuss."
One seized her fore paw, another her tail,
Another her ear, to make sure not to fail.
Then off they all ran, for Puss winked her eye,
And sprang to her feet, as the mice squeaked
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LESSON XXXI. 89
1. SOME kinds of mice live in the fields and
woods, and never come into the house. The tiny
little harvest-mouse has its home in the grain or
thick grass, and feeds upon grain and insects.
2. It makes a nest of grass neatly woven to-
gether, and places it on the stalks, about a foot from
the ground, where it is out of the way of the wet.
3. The nest is round, and about the size of a
large orange. When the mother mouse goes away,
she closes up the door of her nest, so no one can
see her little ones.
4. The harvest-mouse runs up the corn and
grass stalks easily. In climbing, it holds on by its
tail as well as by its claws. The way it comes
down from its nest is very curious. It twists its
tail about the stalk and slides down.
5. Another of the field-mice is the dormouse,
that lives in the woods. It has a bushy tail, and
makes its nest in hollow trees. It lives upon nuts
and fruit. As cold weather comes on, it rolls it-
self up in a ball, and sleeps until spring.
6. Once a dormouse was caught and kept in a
cage, when it became quite tame, and a great pet
with the children. One day it got out of its cage,
90 LESSON XXX I.-(Continued.)
and the children hunted all over the house, but
could not find it, and gave it up as lost.
7. The next day, as they sat down to dinner,
a cold meat-
pie was put
upon the table.
.; When it was
V'. cut open, there
was the dor-
mouse in the
up, and fast
i- i K asleep.
8. The deer-
mouse lives mostly in the fields, but it also makes
its home in barns and houses. Its back and sides
are of a slate color, but the under part of its body,
and its legs and feet, are white. It is sometimes
called the white-footed mouse, or wood-mouse. It
builds a round nest in trees, that looks like a bird's
nest, and it lives upon grain, seeds, and nuts.
9. This mouse seems fond of music, and once
in a while one sings. Its song is very sweet, some
what like that of a canary, but not so loud. Mr
Lockwood's singing mouse would keep up its won-
derful little song ten minutes without stopping.
LESSON XXXII. 91
HOW THE RBAT LOOKS AND LIVES.
has the same kind of chisel-teeth, sharp claws, and
long tail, and it lives very much in the same way
as a mouse.
2. It eats all kinds of food, and will live where
most other animals would starve. Its teeth are
strong, and it can gnaw its way into the hardest
nuts, or through thick boards.
3. The claws of the rat are sharp, so that it
can run up the side of a house, or up any steep
place where its claws will take hold. When at
92 LESSON XXXI I.-(Continued)
the bottom of a barrel, or kettle of iron, brass, or
tin, it can not climb out.
4. The hind feet of the rat are made in a cu-
rious way: they can turn round so that the claws
point back. This enables a rat, when it runs down
the side of a house, to turn its feet around and
hold on, while it goes down head foremost.
5. The tail of the rat is made up of rings, and
is covered with scales and very. short hair. The
rat uses it like a hand to hold himself up and to
take hold of things.
6. Rats live in houses and barns, or wherever
they can get enough to eat. In cities, they get
into drains, and eat up many things which would
be harmful if left to decay.
7. They are great pests in the house, running
about in the walls, gnawing through the ceilings,
and destroying food and clothing.
8. When rats get into a barn, they are very de.
structive. They eat up grain, and kill young
chickens; and they often come in droves, when the
pigs are fed, to share the food.
9. Rats increase very fast. Each mother rat
produces fifty young ones in a year; and if we did
not take great pains to destroy them, they would
drive us out of our homes.
LESSON XXXIII. 98
STORIES ABOUT THE RAT.
"1. RATS are very fond of eggs; but
they do not like to be disturbed while eat-
ing, and so they contrive to carry the eggs
to their nests, where they can enjoy their
feast in safety.
2. In carrying off eggs, several rats will often
go together. A rat will curl his tail around an
egg, and roll it along. Coming to a staircase, they
will hand the egg one to another so carefully as
not to break it.
3. A lady once watched the rats, which were
at work at her egg-basket. One rat lay down on
94 LESSON XXXII I.-(Continued.)
his back, and took an egg in his arms. The other
rats then seized him by the head, and dragged him
off, egg and all.
4. Rats can easily be tamed, and even a dog
can scarcely love its master better than a rat does
when it is treated kindly. Mr. Wood tells this
story of some tame rats:
5. "Some young friends of mine have a couple
of rats which they have tamed. One, quite white,
with pink eyes, is called 'Snow,' and the other,
which is white, with a brown head and breast, is
6. "The rats know their names as well as any
dog could do, and answer to them quite as readily.
7. "They are not kept shut up in a cage, but
are as free to run about the house as if they were
dogs or cats.
8. "They have been taught a great number of
pretty tricks. They play with their young master
and mistress, and run about with them in the
9. "They sit on the table at meal-times, and
take anything that is offered to them, holding the
food in their fore paws and nibbling it; but never
stealing from the plates.
10. "They are very fond of butter, and they
LESSON XXXI I I.-(Continued.) 9
will allow themselves to be hung up by the hind
feet and lick a piece of butter from a plate, or a
11. "Sometimes these rats play a funny game.
They are placed on the hat-stand in the hall, or
put into a hat and left there until their owners go
12. They wait until they are called, when they
scramble down to the floor, gallop across the hall
and up the stairs as fast as they can go.
13. They then hunt until they find their mas-
ter, climb to his shoulder, and search every pocket
for a piece of bread and butter, which they know
is there for them.
14. "They are very clean in their ways, and
they are always washing their faces and brushing
their mouths and fur with their paws, just as
15. "It is very amusing to see them search the
pockets of those they know: diving into them,
sniffing at every portion, and climbing out in
search of another.
16. "They will not come at the call of a
stranger, nor play any of their tricks with him;
but they will allow themselves to be stroked and
patted, and they never try to bite."
96 LESSON XXXIV.
1. WE here
come to the
rabbit, one of
"friends that is
a great pet
-- with children.
-- .. It is very tim-
S :id and easily
-- scared, but
when treated kindly it becomes tame.
2. The rabbit is about the size of a cat, and
has a short tail. The wild gray rabbit is not so
large as the tame rabbit which we have about the
3. The rabbit has sharp gnawing-teeth like the
rat and mouse, and it gets its food and eats it in
the same way.
4. It eats the leaves and stalks of plants, and
is very fond of cabbage, lettuce, and the tender
leaves of beets and turnips. It sometimes does
much damage by gnawing the bark of young fruit.
LESSON XXXI V.-(Continued.) 97
5. It has whiskers like the cat, so that it can
crawl into holes without making a noise.
6. Its fore feet are armed with strong, blunt
claws. It can not climb, but it is able to dig holes
in the earth.
7. Our wild rabbit lives in the grass,' or in
holes which it finds in stumps and hollow trees,
and among stones; but the English rabbit digs a
hole in the soft ground for its home.
8. The holes that the rabbits dig are called
burrows ; and where a great many rabbits have bur-
rows close together, the place where they live is
called a warren.
9. The burrows have two or more doors, so that
if a weasel or some other enemy goes in at one
door, the rabbit runs out at the other. In a war-
ren, many burrows open into one another, forming
quite a village under ground.
10. The rabbits choose a sandy place for a
warren, near a bank, where they can dig easily,
and where the water will run off. In these homes
they sleep most of the time during the day, and
come out by night to feed on such plants as they
can find. When wild, the dew gives them drink
enough; but when fed with dry grain food, they
98 LESSON XXXV.
MORE .ABOUT RA.BBITS.
1. TIE rabbit has large ears, and can hear the
slightest sound. When feeding or listening, the
ears stand up or lean forward; but when running,
the ears lie back on its neck.
2. When the rabbit hears any sound to alarm
"it, it never stops to see what is the matter, but
scuds away to its hole, plunges in, and waits there
until it thinks the danger has passed away.
3. Then it comes to the mouth of the burrow,
and puts out its long ears. If it does not hear
anything, it raises its head a little more, and peeps
LESSON XXX V.-(Continued.) 99
out. Then, if it does not see anything out of
the way, it comes out again and begins to feed.
4. Rabbits increase so fast that if they were
not kept down they would soon eat up all the
plants of our gardens and fields. So a great many
animals and birds feed upon them, and a great
many are killed for their meat and fur.
5. When first born, the little rabbits are blind,
like puppies and kittens, and their bodies are
naked. The mother rabbit makes a warm nest for
them of dried leaves, and she lines it with fur
from her own body.
6. In about ten or twelve days the little rab-
bits are able to see, and in a few weeks more they
are quite able to take care of themselves.
'. The rabbits that we have for pets are of va-
rious colors, but mostly white or black, or part
white and part black. They do not dig into the
earth as the wild ones do, but they love to have
their homes in snug little places, like holes.
8. The hind legs of the rabbit are longer than
its fore ones, and, instead of walking, it hops
along. When it runs, it springs forward with
great leaps, and gets over the ground very fast.
9. Pet rabbits that have large ears sell most
readily. One of the rabbits, in the picture, looks