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BERK SH I RE.
THE scenery .of some parts of the coIi of
Berkshire, or Barkshire as it used to be calledi
very beautiful, and abounds with fine wood's aand
pastures. The river Thames runs quite through the
county from East to West, and so does the Great
Western Railway. It contains 160,000 inhabitants.
Windsor Castle is the finest royal palace in
England, and the Queen stays there the greater part
of the time that she does not spend in London. It:
is a magnificent place-one of the most interesting in
the world. It was built by King Edward the Third.:
The park is very large and very beautiful, abounding i
with large trees, and containing plenty of fine deer.
There is a part of the castle called the round tower,
from the top of which there is a noble view of the
In the castle there is a very fine collection of
paintings. There is also a very- curious armoury,
containing the weapons and armour of a great many.
kings and great men, who have fought in thie cause
of their country. Every one of our kings, since
Edward the Third, has spent a good deal of time in
"ths palace; and it is a place which all Englishmen
shot d visit who have it in their power.
Soear the town of Newbury, there are the ruins
fDonnington Castle, which are pleasantly situated
on a woody hill. The castle was built in the time of
SRichard the Second, and was so knocked about in
the civil wars, that only the gateway and two towers
are now standing. But what makes this spot most
interestingg is, that Geoffry Chaucer, the great poet,
lived here for some time.
There are many remains of ancient British and
Romian work in this county. One very remarkable
object is called Wayland Smith's cave, which is not far
from Lambourn. It was most likely a Druid's temple;
but the country people say that it was built by an
invisible blacksmith, named Wayland Smith, who
Snow works in it by night.
There is not far from this spot, the figure of a
white horse rudely cut out on the side of a chalk
hill. It is supposed that this was formed to commem-
orate a victory gained over the Danes by Ethelred
m and Alfred.
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CORNWA LL. .
THIS county is at the South-Western extremity of
England, and it is surrounded by the sea on three
sides. The population is 341,000. The dukedom
of Cornwall has always belonged to the eldest son
of the king, since the time of Edward the Black
Prince, and he has peculiar authority in the coiuity.
There is an officer under him called the Lord Warden
of the Stannary Courts; and in these courts all
causes connected with the mines are trie. The
word Stannary comes from the Latin "stannum" tin. :
The greater part of the land of Cornwall is
barren; but in some spots it is famous for the growth
of potatoes. A few places are rendered fertile by
collecting sea-weed, mixing it with turf and weeds,
and then burning it: this produces an excellent
manure. There is but little wood; and in sevel'ri
parts, of considerable extent, there is scarcely.
anything to be seen on the surface but bare irbck of
granite and slate.
There is no part of England which is so famous
for producing metals as Cornwall. It abounds with
copper, lead and tin, and produces also silver and
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antimony. One of the most remarkable of the
mines is the Botallick Copper Mine, the entrance to
which is represented in the plate. It extends a long
distance quite under the bed of the sea.
St. Michael's Mount is a hill which rises from
Sthe sand of the shore, and at high tide it is surround-
ed by water. It is said to have been the place to
which the Phenicians used to come, 2000 years ago,
to purchase tin of the Britons, but this is not certainly
known. For several centuries it was inhabited by
monks; and the place was regarded with such
reverence, that people who wished to show their
repentance for their sins, used to come to it as
pilgrims. Afterwards it was strongly fortified, and
was taken and retaken in the civil wars. There are
now about 200 people living on it.
Some of the rocks of Cornwall are of such strange
shapes, that it has been doubted whether they owe
their form to nature or art. The most remarkable of
these is the Cheese-Ring; and another is the Logan
or rocking stone, which, although it weighs several
tons, may be moved by a touch.
The famous Eddystone Lighthouse stands on
some sunken rocks off the coast of Cornwall.
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THE county of Dorset contains about 174,000
inhabitants. It abounds with rich pasture land, and
produces a great quantity of butter. Flax and
hemp are cultivated in several parts of the county.
Stone is a very important product of Dorsetshire,
and it is quarried in many parts of the coast: the
best kind is called Portland stone, and comes from
the island of Portland. This sort is chiefly used
for building. A coarser kind comes from Purbeck,
and is employed chiefly for paving the streets.
There is also a kind of marble found at Purbeck, of
of which the pillars in many of our old cathedrals
are formed. Some fine specimens of it are to be
seen in the Temple Church in London.
The cliffs of the more Western part of the coast
of this county, produce the stones from which Ropmalii
cement is made. These cliffs, in the neighbourhood
of the town of Lyme Regis, are nearly full of curious
fossils; the most remarkable of which are the bones
of the large reptiles called Icthyosaurus and
Plesiosaurus, and skeletons of these are represented
at the top of the plate. The Icthyosaurus was some-
thing like a crocodile; but, instead of having feet,
it had fins like those of a whale: it appears therefore
that it could not walk on land. It had large eyes
with very strong powers of sight; as is known from
their resemblance to the eye of the eagle. The name
Icthyosaurus is formed of two Greek words signifying
"fish-lizard." It was sometimes more than thirty
The Plesiosaurus also had fins, but it was not
so large or so strong as the Icthyosaurus. 'It had a
Very long neck, much longer even than that of the
swan. The head was small and very weak, compared
with the other. Its length varied from six to fifteen
feet. The name signifies "like a lizard."
The remains of these wonderful creatures are
collected from the cliffs by Miss Anning, whose
collection all should go to see who go to Lyme Regis.
Corfe Castle is a very extensive ruin of a strong
castle, built on the top of a hill by King Edgar: it
is not far from Poole, a town which once carried on
a large trade in salt fish, brought from Newfoundland,
but which has now very much declined.
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WILTSHIRE is an inland county, which contains
260,000 people. There is a great deal of chalk in
it, and the surface of a large part of this is very
bare of trees, and produces little besides short grass.
This part of the county is called Salisbury Plain,
and a great many sheep are fed upon it. The
Northern portion is more thickly wooded, and in
some parts very fine pigs are produced.
Some years ago there was a considerable quantity
of carpet and cloth made in.this county, particularly
in the town of Wilton. But these manufactures
have of late fallen off, and most of the carpet and
cloth we use, is now made in the North of England.
The capital of Wiltshire is the city of Salisbury,
which contains about 13,000 inhabitants. The
Cathedral is a very beautiful building, and the spire
is the highest in England. It was built in the reign
of King Henry the Third.
Nearly close to Salisbury there is a very curious
place, called Old Sarum. It is a low mound of
earth, surrounded by a bank. It was once a Roman
fortress, and in it the old Cathedral stood. But in
consequence of the captain and soldiers who kept it
annoying the Bishop and Clergy, it was determined
to erect the new one in its present situation.
The city of Salisbury is famous for the manufac-
ture of knives, scissars, and other cutlery. It is
said that the water of the place is particularly good
for the tempering of steel.
The most wonderful things in the county are
the two great druidical temples of Abury, or
Avebury, and Stonehenge. The temple of Abury
is the more extensive of the two, but the stones are
much smaller, and there is not nearly so much of it
remaining. Stonehenge is the most interesting
monument of the kind in the world. It consists of
very large stones, which were formerly placed in
two' circles, one within the other, cross stones being.
laid upon the tops of others placed upright, so as to
unite them. The greater number of the stones are
of a white sandstone, such as is found on the
Marlborough Downs, about twelve miles off; but a
few are of granite and black marble. They are
rudely squared, and are fitted together by what
carpenters call a mortice and tenon. Stonehenge
stands near the middle of Salisbury Plain.
GLOUCESTERSHIRE contains 431,000 inhabitants. It
contains the city of Gloucester, and part of the city
of Bristol: the two cities are united in one See, and
the Bishop is called the Bishop of Gloucester and
Gloucestershire comprises some of the most fertile
spots in England. Its produce is very various. The
land affords wood, fruit and corn in abundance; and
the rivers plenty of fish. But the most famous of
all its productions is cheese, which is so good that it
is inferior to none made in England, except the
Stilton and Cheshire.
Coal is found in some parts of the county, and iron
mines used to be worked here; but as the metal
became scarce, they fell into disuse.
Gloucester is well situated, and carries on consi-
derable trade. It was once celebrated for the
manufacture of pins. It is very ancient, and remains
of Roman art are to be found in and near it. Several
of the public buildings are handsome. The Cathe-
dral, which is dedicated to St. Peter, is not only
handsome, but interesting as containing specimens
of many different styles. It appears to have been
built at various periods during nearly four centuries,
from 1050 to 1450. It contains some interesting
monuments, and amongst others, those of Robert
Duke of Normandy, son of William the Conqueror,
and of the unhappy King Edward the Second.
Cheltenham is a town of remarkable beauty,
which has rapidly increased during the last few years,
owing to some medical springs which rise here.
The waters are particularly good for liver complaints,
.and for those people who have suffered from the
Effects of -hot climates. The town'is handsomely
built, with rows of trees on each side of the
principal streets. This gives it a very pretty and
singular appearance. Its situation is also favourable,
for it stands in the midst of a fertile plain surrounded
by tall hills, and from the tops of these hills there
are fine views of the neighboring country.
'". The scenery of the side of Gloucestershire next
o Wales, includes the Malvern hills, and is extremely
beautiful, and in some parts grand.
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THIS is the third in size of the English counties,
Yorkshire being the largest and Lincolnshire the
second. Its length is seventy miles, and its width
about the same. It contains 534,000 inhabitants.
The capital is the city of Exeter.
The scenery of Devonshire is very beautiful,
and not less so on the North coast than on the
South coast, or inland than by the sea side. Beau-
tiful hills and woods and rivers are to be seen in
many parts, with rich pasture and smiling orchards.
Much of the land that is cultivated is on the tops
and sides of very steep hills, and the produce can
only be brought down on the backs of horses.
This appears very strange to one who has been used
only to level country. The pasture is generally
very good; and the red cows of Devonshire are
famous for the milk they give, but which is' more
remarkable for its rich quality than its quantity.
Clouted cream, which is a kind of butter made by
boiling the cream, is almost peculiar to Devonshire.
There are some very excellent sheep fed on the hills.
There are a great number of apples and other
fruits grown in this county; and it has been
remarked that the fruit trees grow here much more
vigorously than in other parts of England, so that
they look almost like forest trees. Most Devonshire
people drink cider, as they get it better than in any
other county, from the fine quality of the fruit.
Exeter is a city and county of itself, so that it
has several privileges apart from the rest of the
county like Southampton and some other places.
The Castle, which was built, or very much improved,
by William the Conqueror, is now in ruins. The
Cathedral is very ancient, but it has been considerably
altered from time to time. The Western front is
considered to be one of the richest pieces of
architecture of its kind existing, and some other
parts of the building are very fine.
Plymouth, Devonport and Stonehome are a
group of towns close together, in some degree
resembling Portsmouth, Portsea and Gosport. Like
them, they have a fine harbour, docks, and a dock-
yard where ships are built for the navy. In order
to improve the harbour, a vast work has been built
called Plymouth Break-Water, which is one of the
most remarkable things of its kind in the world.
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H'AM P S H I RE.
HAMPSHIRE contains 354,000 inhabitants : its capital
is the city of Winchester. The county includes the
Isle of Wight.
The scenery of Hampshire is very pretty and
interesting: the North part abounds with long chalk
ridges and beech woods; while a great part of the
Southern half of the county is occupied by the New
Forest, which is one of the noblest forests in
England. It was either originally planted or very
much enlarged by William the Conqueror, who (it
is said) tyrannically turned out a great many people
from their homes and destroyed many churches, in
order that he might have his way, and get a good
place to hunt in. His son, William Rufus, was
killed while hunting in this forest. An arrow, shot
by a gentleman named Walter Tyrrell, glanced
against a tree, and shot the king in his breast.
The New Forest is famous for fine pigs, and a
very useful hardy sort of ponies, which are bred
there: it also abounds with deer. The scenery in
it is some of the finest of its kind in the country.
Winchester is a very fine old city, and few places
contain a greater number of interesting buildings.
The Cathedral is large, and built in a gra'itt.tyle,
and is of-. -'y great antiquity. The College is also
a fine old Alding. There is a very beautiful Cross,
and several fine Churches; and at the distance of
about a mile and a-half, stands the Hospital of St.
Cross, which is a delightful place, built for the accom-
modation of a certain number of old men, who have a
weekly allowance of money. The custom is kept up
here of giving, to all who ask for it, a slice of bread
and half-a-pint of good beer. What I have mentioned
are not half the curiosities of Winchester, which was
a very famous place in the time of the Saxons, and
existed long before they came to England.
Southampton is a very handsome town, with a
"fine port and very ancient walls. In the principal
street there is a fine gate of great antiquity called Bar-
gate, and over it are the pictures of two giants. Near
Southampton are the beautiful ruins of Netley Abbey.
Portsmouth, Portsea and Gosport are three towns
close together, with a fine harbour, and extensive
dock-yards for the building of ships of war.-
Portsmouth is very strongly fortified.
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THIS is a large county, and contains 436,000 people:
it contains the cities of Bath and Wells, and part of
The soil of Somersetshire is for the most part
very fertile, and its produce is various. A great
quantity of cheese is made in it. The scenery of'
the North part, and especially near Bristol, is
remarkably fine, comprising tall hills, and rocks, and
cliffs, with a fine river running at their feet. There
are few spots to be preferred to Clifton for beauty.
The city of Bristol has a large shipping trade.
Many parts of the county produce coal in abundance.
At one time, there were very considerable manufac-
tures of several kinds carried on here; but of late
they have fallen off, and gloves now form one of the
principal articles of manufacture. Yeovil is the
most famous place for them.
The Cathedral of Wells is a very handsome
one, and is considered a fine specimen of architec-
ture. Bath is the chief city of Somersetshire.
It is a very beautiful place, the buildings being
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handsomely built of stone. The Abbey Church,
or Cathedral, is well worth looking at, though
inferior to Wells Cathedral. It was originally the
church of an Abbey, from whence it is still called the
Abbey Church. Bath, though a remarkable place
for its beauty and antiquity, is chiefly famous for its
natural hot springs, which have some important and
highly useful medical qualities.
r Bristol stands partly in Gloucestershire. It is
a very ancient place, and was most likely founded in
early British times. It has been a very important
town fbr many centuries. The streets are generally
narrow and the appearance of the city is not
Sfavourable. But the neighbourhood (as I have said
already) makes up for the want of beauty in the city
itself. The Cathedral has some beautiful parts, but
it is not a fine building on the whole.
The ruins of Glastonbury Abbey are very
.remarkable from their standing probably on the
very spot where the first church was erected in
England. Some say that Joseph of Arimathea
preached here; but without going quite so far back,
we may be sure that Christianity was preached at
this place at a very early period.
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D#)P' EDS AND TH EIR USES TO
ZOQLQICAL GARDENS oR THE OHIDSEOOIn
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CTS &EPTJ LES WITH THEIR f--US O
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'-- WORtlQ ANDR ITS INH-APITANTS .
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,',' "REUBEN RAMBLE'S TRAVELS IN
" T HE NORTHERN COUNTIES OF ENGLAND. ..4
II. T.HE EASTERN COUNTIES .. -
S ll. THE SOUTH Ei. COUNTIES .. -
.... :. .... THE MIDLAND COUNTIES ..
,,I.E- WESTERN -: ITE .
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