The Baldwin Library
EaSTERN COUNTIES OF EN A1)
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CAMBRIDGESHIRE is an inland county, with a
population of 164,000. The chief places are the
town of Cambridge and the city of Ely.
The land of this county is generally very flat,
but the greater part is fertile, and produces plenty
of corn and fine grass. There is very little wood in
the county, and most of the scenery is therefore
very dull and uninteresting.
Cambridge is a disagreeable town. It takes its
name from a bridge over the river Cam, which flows
through it. The town was an important place at
the time of the conquest, and king Richard II. held
a parliament here.
The University of Cambridge is a very celebrated
place of learning. The colleges which belong to it
do not improve the appearance of the town so much
as those of Oxford, because they do not stand in
such good situations. The largest of them is Trinity
College. The buildings of several are very fine, but
the most handsome of all is King's College, the
Chapel of which is the most beautiful structure of its
kind in England. It was built by King Henry VI.,
and to him the College owes its name.
The Uniersity is very old, and it is said by some
to be older than Oxford; but this is not very likely.
The city of Ely is supposed to have had its name
from the great number of eels which are produced
-in the neighbourhood. The Cathedral is a noble
building, though it was built piecemeal. The
oldest portion was erected in the reign of William
Rufus, and the other parts at various times down to
1534, so that it was more than four hundred years in
building. The interior is remarkably beautiful, and
contains some very fine carving in wood. A great
monastery, founded in the seventh century by Anna,
the Queen of East Anglia, once stood where the
Cathedral now is.
Cambridgeshire was in ancient times a part of
Sthe land of the Iceni, the British tribe, of which
Boadicea was Queen, who fought so bravely against
the Romans, and was at last conquered by them
with great difficulty. Many Roman remains are
found in the county.
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THIS is- a small inland county, containing 59,000
inhabitants. Its capital is the town of Huntingdon.
A great part of the county is destitute of springs,
and is supplied with water by pools or small lakes.
The largest of these are called Meres, like the lakes
of Cumberland, and are in the North corner of the
county. They are called Whittlesea-mere, Ramsey-
mere, and Ugg-mere. They contain plenty of fish,
and are frequented by many water fowl.
Huntingdonshire is not very fertile; but it pro-
duces a large quantity of barley and of mustard.
There are but few trees, and they are generally small,
though in the reign of King Henry II. the whole
county was a forest. The trees were cut down
chiefly by Henry II. and Edward I.
Huntingdon was once a much larger place than
it is at present, and is said to have contained fifteen
churches, though there are now but two. It is
united with a town or village called Godmanchester,
which was founded in Roman times. There are the
remains of an old castle at Huntingdon, which was
built by one of the Saxon Kings, and was afterwards
given by King Stephen to David, Earl of Hunting-
don and King of Scotland, who was a vassal of the
English King. Oliver Cromwell was born at this
At Kimbolton there is a castle, in which the
family of the Dukes of Manchester, whose name
was Montague, lived for several ages. Queen
Catharine of Aragon, after she was divorced from
Henry VIII., lived and died in this castle, and was
buried in Peterborough Cathedral.
St. Ives is an old town, which was called by the
early Saxons "Slepe." It took its present name
from St. Ivo, a Persian missionary, who came to
England about the year 600, and was buried here.
The church is an interesting building, having some
parts very old and others quite new.
Stilton, which has given its name to Stilton
cheese, is in this county; but most of the cheese
which goes by the name of Stilton, is made in
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THIS county contains 413,000 people. It is called
Norfolk, or North-folk, because when the body of
Saxons which took possession of the East part of
England landed, they separated into two parties,
one of which was called Norfolk and the other
South-folk, or Suffolk. The capital of Norfolk is
the city of Norwich.
The land of this county is flat, but fertile, and
produces much corn and grass. There is no part of
England. in which agriculture has been more
Norwich is a large city, containing 62,000
inhabitants, and is famous for the manufacture of
silk and stuff. It was a considerable place in the
time of the Saxons; and in the reign of Edward the
Confessor it was the third city in, the kingdom;
London and York only being larger. The castle
was once a royal residence, and was very strongly
fortified. A portion of it has latelybeen restored.
The Cathedral was founded about thirty years
after the conquest by Bishop Losing, in whose time
the see was removed from Thetford to Norwich. It
is not so large nor so much decorated as some of our
cathedrals, but still it is a fine building, and has a
very graceful spire.
Great Yarmouth stands at the mouth of the river
Yare. It is a flourishing sea port, and is a great
place for fishing. It is called Great Yarmouth to
distinguish it from Yarmouth, in the Isle of Wight,
The herrings which are caught off the coast of
Norfolk are called Yarmouth herrings, and are some
of the finest in the world, It is supposed that this
arises from the nature of the sea-weed on which the
fish feed, for all the herrings we get in this country
come in one great shoal at a certain season of the
year from the North Seas. When they come to
Scotland, they divide into two parties, one of which
takes the East coast of Great Britain and the other
There are many interesting ruins in Norfolk, of
which those best worth notice are the Abbeys of
Thetford, Walsingham and Wymondham, and
Binham Priory, In the time of the Saxon Hep-
tarchy, the county was included with Suffolk and
Cambridgeshire in the powerful kingdom of East
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Tins is the smallest of the English counties, being
only nineteen miles long, and fourteen miles wide.
The population is 21,000. Middlesex, which is the
next in size, is nearly twice as large as Rutland, and
contains more than seventy times as many inhabi-
tants; and Yorkshire, which is the largest county,
is forty times as large. The chief town in Rutland
is Oakham, which contains only 2,500 people, and
is not larger than many villages.
The land of Rutland is well cultivated, and one
half of it produces very fine pasture, and the rest
corn of all kinds and wood. The sheep and oxen
are excellent, the sheep being of the same kind as
those of Leicestershire. There are some extensive
woods, from which fine oak and ash timber is
obtained. Much of the land which was once a forest
is now laid out in fine parks, of which there are
a great many in Rutland, for the size of the county.
There was formerly an ancient castle at Oakham,
built in the reign of Henry II. It was inhabited by
Richard, the king of the Romans, the brother of
Henry III., by Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex,
the wicked Duke of Buckinghai in the time of
Charles II., and many other famous persons. The
Town Hall, in which the assizes are held, is almost
the only remaining part of the castle. There are on
the gate a number of horse-shoes, which were placed
there according to a strange custom. The Lord of
the Castle had authority to demand from every Peer
who passed through his lands, for the first time, a
shoe from one of his horses, or else a sum of money
to buy one. These horse-shoes were all nailed
upon the gate and walls of the outer court of the
Castle. Some of them are gilt and stamped with
the giver's name. There is one shoe that was given
by Queen Elizabeth and another by King George IV.
At Hornfield, in this county, the battle of
Lose-coat-field was fought by King Edward IV.,
against some rebels, who had come out of Lincoln-
shire, in the year 1468. The battle had its name of
Lose-coat-field, because the rebels who ran away,
threw off their coats that they might run the
LEICESTERSHIRE is an inland county, containing
215,000 inhabitants. The capital is the town of
There is very little wood in this county, but the
pasture is remarkably rich. The sheep which are
bred here are very celebrated, and have fine long
wool. It is of their skins that the best sheep-skin
mats are made; and the wool is some of the best in
the world, for the manufacture of blankets and
carpets, from its great length. The cows are also
very fine, and most of them have long horns. The
part of the county in which Melton Mowbray
stands, is very famous for fox hunting and all sorts
of sporting; for it not only contains great quantities
of game, but the country is a good one to ride
Leicester is a large town, containing 50,000
people. It is principally supported, like Notting-
ham, by the manufacture of stockings. The name is
said to be derived from the famous King Lear, the
son of Bladud; and it was probably first called
Lear-chester by the Romans, and this became
changed into Leicester. You may read of how
King Lear was deprived of his kingdom by his
two wicked daughters, and how he and his one good
daughter died in trying to recover their rights, in
Shakspere's play of King Lear.
There is but little remaining now of the castle of
Leicester, which was once a very strong place. It
was held by the friends of Robert, Duke of Nor-
mandy, the son of the Conqueror; and was taken
from them and destroyed by William Rufus. It
was soon rebuilt, and belonged for some time to the
Dukes of Lancaster; and when the Kings of the
house of Lancaster were reigning, several of them
lived in it. In the reign of Charles I. it fell to
ruin, and has never been restored.
There is a piece of an old wall in Leicester,
called the Jewry wall, which was built by the
Romans. There have been found many other
Roman remains in the county, particularly at
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THIS is the second in size of the English counties,
being next to Yorkshire in extent. It is seventy-six
miles long and fifty-two miles wide, and contains
362,000 inhabitants. The capital is the city of
A great part of Lincolnshire is very flat, and you
may travel in it for miles without seeing a hill. The
flat part is called the Fens." The soil is in some
places unproductive, but in others it is very rich and
produces some of the best pasture in England. The
farmers who live in the Fens keep a great number of
geese, and most of the quills which we use come from
Lincoln is a very ancient city, which was founded
by the ancient Britons; and at the time of the
Norman conquest, it was one of the most important
places in England. It contains a gate, which was
built by the Romans, and also a fine tesselated
pavement, which is close to the Cathedral. Coins of
the Emperors Nero, Vespasian and Julian have been
found in considerable numbers. Carausius, who
tried to make himself the Sovereign of Britain
while it was under the Romans, is said to have lived
at Lincoln for some time. One of the great Roman
roads ran through Lincoln, and it may still be traced
reaching in a straight line from the city to the river
The Cathedral is the most beautiful of the
English Cathedrals except York Minster. It stands
upon a very steep hill, overlooking the city; and
the situation is as fine as the building. It may
be seen at the distance of several miles.
There is a famous bell in the Cathedral, called
the Tom of Lincoln, which weighs five tons. It is
the third bell in England, .the largest being the
Mighty Tom of Oxford, which weighs seven tons
and a half; and the second, the Great Tom of
Exeter, which is six tons. The Tom of Lincoln was
cracked a few years ago, and the present bell was
cast in the year 1835.
Lincolnshire is celebrated for its fine churches,
and two of the finest are at Boston and Louth; the
former has a beautiful tower, and the latter a grace-
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NOTTINGHAMSHIRE is an inland county, containing
250,000 inhabitants. The capital is the town of
There is a pleasant mixture of hills and vales in
Nottinghamshire, though there are no very high
hills. In former times a great part of the county
was covered by forests, but these have now been
cleared away, and most of the wood remaining is in
parks, of which there are a great number. Coal is
obtained in several parts. Near Nottingham there
are some very curious caverns dug out of the sand-
stone, on which the town stands. These are
supposed to have been the habitations of some of
the first inhabitants of this part of the country.
The town of Nottingham is a large place, with a
population of 53,000. It is famous for the
manufacture of stockings. The castle, which stands
on a rock, is not now a fine building, but it was
very different in ancient times. It was given by
William the Conqueror to his son William Peverel,
and was the scene of a great many strange eyvnts.
The celebrated Colonel Hutchinson was the governor
of this castle in the time of Charles I.
At Southwell there is a very fine Collegiate
Church, which was most likely built in the reign of
William I. A Collegiate Church is one in which
there are a Dean and Canons, as there are in a
Cathedral, but which is not a Bishop's see.
There have been some very interesting Roman
remains discovered at Mansfield and Newark.
Newstead Abbey is a very beautiful building, which
was founded by Henry II., and was inhabited by
Cistercian Monks. Of late it has become celebrated
as the residence of the poet Lord Byron. Sherwood
Forest was the place in which Robin Hood lived.
This famous man was a member of a good family,
and some say that he was related to the Earls of
Huntingdon. He lived the life of an outlaw and a
robber, though he was always kind to the poor. He
died in 1247, and was buried at Kirklees, in
Yorkshire, where his tomb is still to be seen.
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NORTHAMPTONSHIRE is an inland county, containing
199,000 people. The chief places in it are the city
of Peterborough and the town of Northampton.
The North part of the county is very flat, but
the other parts are pleasantly varied with hill and
dale. Great numbers of cattle are fed here; the
sheep are generally of the Leicestershire sort, alnd
the oxen and cows of the short-horned kind. Tir
barley grown in Northamptonshire is fine and.
abundant, and there is a good quantity of other
corn produced. There are also some fine woods.
Peterborough was founded by Penda, the King
of Mercia; and it takes its name, which means
Peter's town, from St. Peter, to whom the Cathedral
was dedicated when it was part of an Abbey of
Benedictine Monks. The Cathedral was built in
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. It is a very
handsome building, and the situation is a favourable
one. Till the time of Charles I., it was kept in a
very perfect state, but was much injured during the
civil wars. Catharine of Aragon, the Queen of
Henry VIII., is buried here; but there is no tomb
to mark the spot.
Northampton is a pretty town. But little is
known of it in very ancient times, but it seems to
have been founded before the reign of Alfred; and
in the reigns of Richard I., John, and Henry III.,
Sit vas a place of importance, and contained a mint.
The castle at this time was a royal palace, in which
some of the scenes of Shakspere's play of King
John are laid. In the wars, called the Wars of the
ppses, a great battle was fought near the town, in
"which King Henry VI. was overcome and taken
S-prisoner by Edward IV.
The principal trade of Northampton, Towcester,
and several places near them, consists in boots and
shoes; and from these towns most of the ready-
made shoes sold in London come.
The unfortunate Mary Queen of Scots was tried
and beheaded in this county at Fotheringay Castle.
Her son James I. ordered the castle to be destroyed
when he became King of England, in order that it
might not remain as a memorial of the sad event.
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PRICE 'ONE SHILLING EACH.
, rQL.ADRPEDS .AND THEIR USES TO MAN.
* HE: ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS oP THE CHILDS BOOK oF WILD BEASTS
"4)ttDS- AND THEIR USES TO MAN
ITHE OCEAN AND ITS INHABITANTS.
S.NTECTS-& REPTILES WITH THEIR USES TO MAN
46BEAST. THEIR HABITS AND USES. OBLONGI 4
.B.IflE .PICTURE BOOK, OBLon -470/
WORLD AND ITS INHABITANTS
NJE BENJAMIN'S FARM .
LyVIeNG & MOVING oR HORSES. COACHES RAILWAYS
'" ,$. FOR THE NURSERY. A COLLECTION OF THE OLD
NURSERY RHYMYEJ wIrW COLOURED WOOD CUTS
S FAIRY TALES IN VERSE.WITH COLOURED WOOD CUTS
JUST OUT. ON THE SAME PLAN,
PRICE ONE, SHILLI'G EACH
REUBEN RAMBLE'S TRAVELS IN
1. TkhE -ORTHERN COUNTIES OF ENGLAND
II THE EASTERN COUNTIES :.
III. THE SOUTHERN COUNTIES ..
IV. THE MIDLAND COUNTIES ..
"V. THE WESTERN COUNTIES ..