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S SURR E-Y
SURREY is rather larger than Middlesex,.and eont
tains 580,000 people; 317,000 of whom arie in
Southwark, which is a part of Londoln. Surre. is.
a beautiful county, and is overspread with: w0oo0s aMld
streams and gently rising hills. It contains .a great'.
many fine estates and beautiful houses. There -i
long and high hill, called the Hog's Back, whic.ih-lit
between the towns of Farnham and Guildfiord ;
from the top of this hill there are most beautiful
views on both sides. I do not know any spot firon'I
which you may see more beautiful English scenery
than here. The beauty of English scenery is not sot
much in great and wonderful natural objects, such l
as mountains, and cliffs and lakes, water-fhlls taind
rivers; but an English landscape presents a surface (e
of country, varied with low hills and vtlies, richly
cultivated with corn-fields, and fine tillmber trees,
handsome houses in the midst of parks and lawns,
with comfortable-looking cottages for the poor.
This is what you may see in Surrey.
The produce of the county consists chiefly of
corn, hay, and hops. The hops are grown near
Farnham, and are of excellent quality. They make
the neighbourhood look very pretty in the Autumn,
When they are full grown. The grounds in which
they grow are called hop-gardens, and I will tell you
| how they are cultivated. The young plants are
S raised from seed or from young shoots, which readily
-take root. They are planted in rows, six feet a-part;
and as they grow up, they twine round high poles,
stuck in the ground. When a plant has reached the
top of its pole it often stretches across to the next
pole, and twines round it; and as the hops become
ripe, you see them hanging from the branches in
leantifid festoons. In the month of September, the
-plant is cut off near the ground, the pole is
taken down, and men, women, and children are
employed in great numbers in picking off the hops,
which are then dried and packed into large bags
At Farnham there is an ancient castle, where the
Bishop of Winchester now lives. At a short
distance from the town, there are the ruins of the
famous Abbey of Waverley.
Epsom is one of the most famous places in the
kingdom for horse-racing.
At Esher, Cardinal Wolsey, who was a great
man in the time of Henry VIII., had an estate, and
there is still remaining a tower, which you may see
in the picture, called Wolsey's Tower.
There are two railways through Surrey; one the
South-Western, which goes on to Southampton; and
the other goes through Croydon to Brighton.
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K E N T.
THE county of Kent is sixty miles long, and forty
miles wide. It is bounded on the North side by the
river Thames and the German Ocean, and on the
East by the Straits of Dover; and is nearer to the
coast of France than any other part of England.
It contains 548,000 inhabitants. There are several
islands belonging to Kent, the most remarkable of
which is the Isle of Thanet. I shall presently meni-
tion this island to you again. It is now separated
from the main land by a very narrow stream, but it
was formerly divided by a considerable channel.
Some parts of Kent are very beautiful. Its chief'
produce consists of hops, filberts, fruit of various kinds
and vegetables, which are sent to London in large
quantities. The hop-grounds look very beautiful
when the hops are ripe, and the season of gathering
them is a very pleasant time. You will find some-
thing said of the growth of hops in the account of
There are two cities in Kent-Canterbury and Ro-
chester. Canterbury is a famous place, for the Arch-
Bishop of Canterbury is the Primate of all England;
and it is the place where Augustine first founded a
SChurch, when he was sent over to convert the Saxons
by the Bishop of Rome, in the year 596. The
Saxons had overcome the Britons, and driven out
the British clergy, and were living as heathens; and
the Bishop of Rome, learning this, thought it right
to send a missionary to convert them. Rochester,
like Canterbury, is a very ancient place, but it is not
nearly such a pleasant one. It stands on one side
of a river, and is united with the town of Stroud,
which is on the other side, by a bridge.
Dover is a very interesting place, and has a very
old castle. Close by the town is the cliff called
Shakspere's Cliff, which has become so celebrated
from its being described in Shakspere's play of
King Lear." There is a railway from Dover to
London, which runs quite through the county of
When Julius Caesar first came to England, fifty-
two years before the birth of Christ, he landed on
the coast of Kent, between Dover and Deal.
Nearly five hundred years afterwards, the British
King, Vortigern, having invited over the Saxons to
help him against his enemies, gave them the Isle of
Thanet to dwell in. But they did not long remain
satisfied with such narrow limits, but took posses-
sion of the whole county, and set up the kingdom
of Kent, which was one of the states of the Saxon
Heptarchy. Ethelbert was King here when Augus-
tine came to convert the Saxons, as I have told
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THIS county is fifty-three miles in length, and about
twenty miles in width. The county-town is Ayles-
bury and not the town of Buckingham, although it
bears the same name as the county. The whole
county contains about 160,000 people. You may
see in the map that no part of it touches the sea.
There are a great many beech trees in Bucking-
hamshire, and some people have thought that the
name was originally Beech-inghamshire from this
circumstance. The beech trees grow upon and near
a range of chalk hills, called the Chiltern Hills.
The beech timber is made into chairs, wood bowls,
and other articles of the kind, which are carried to
London and to distant parts of the country.
A great part of the county has a very rich soil,
about half of which is in pasture land, and the other
half cultivated for corn. The farmers keep a great
many cows, and make a large quantity of butter,
which is made up into rolls weighing two pounds
each, and packed in nearly square baskets, called
Flats, that are sent to London. A great deal of
the butter that is eaten in London comes out of
Buckinghamshire. It is conveyed sometimes in
waggons, but more frequently by the railways.
There are two railways passing through the county,
the Great Western and the London and Bir-
Many calves and pigs are also sent to London
from Buckinghamshire, and a vast quantity of
ducks. The farmers have a way of getting fine
ducks very early in the season. They hatch the
duck-eggs under hens, and bring up the ducklings
very carefully in the house. It is calculated that
twenty thousand pounds' worth of ducks are sent
every year from the whole county to London.
Near the town of Buckingham is Stowe, the
estate of the Duke of Buckingham. The house
was originally built in the reign of Queen Elizabeth,
"though it has been much altered and enlarged since.
The grounds are very beautiful, and are adorned
with temples, grottos, lakes and bridges. The poet
Pope spent some time here, and has described the
place in his poetry. This county seems to have
been a favourite spot of poets; for at Stoke-Poges,
near Maidenhead, Gray lived for some time; and it
is supposed that his "Elegy in a Country Church-
yard" refers to the churchyard of that place, where
his body now lies buried. At Olney or Oulney,
Cowper lived with his friend, the Rev. John Newton,
who was the Vicar; and from this town the cele-
brated Olney Hymns took their name, some of
them having been written by Cowper and some by
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THis county is situated at the South-eastern corner
of England, and is bounded on the South by the
English Channel. It is seventy-six miles in length,
and twenty in width. The population is :nearly
300,000. The county-town is Lewes.
The Western part of Sussex is fertile, but in the
Eastern part there is a long range of chalk hills, tle
surface of which is only good for feeding sheep.
This tract is called the South Downs, and the sheep
that live upon it are very excellent, though not
large. The middle part of the county is called the
Weald, and was once a forest. A great part of it is
cultivated, but it is by no means fertile.
Sussex was once a kingdom, and was founded
by Ella, the Saxon chief, in 477. The name comes
from the South Saxons, respecting whom I have
told you something in the account of Essex. King
Alfred lived here for some time; and near a small
place named Alfriston, there are the remains of a
castle he built. But the most famous historical
event that ever occurred in Sussex, was the landing
of William the Norman Conqueror. You may read
in the History of England how he laid claim to the
throne, which Harold had taken possession of
immediately after the death of Edward the Con-
fessor. Harold had collected a force to meet him,
when news arrived that the Danes had landed in
the North, and were ravaging the country. He
accordingly marched his army northward as fast as
he could, and gained a great victory over the Danes.
In the mean time, William had landed his troops,
and had taken up his position at Hastings. This
was a bad thing for Harold, for if he had been on
the spot, he probably might have destroyed a great
art of the Norman army as they were landing, or
before they had fortified a camp. He returned
immediately after his victory, and fought a battle
with William, where the town of Battle now stands.
He was conquered, as you know, and it was gene-
rally believed that he was slain; but of this there
is some doubt. William soon afterwards founded
the Abbey of Battle, of which some part is still
Chichester is a very ancient city, and contains
a fine old cathedral. The city was founded by the
Romans, and was a place of great importance in
Brighton is a large and fashionable place, where
there is a very noble pier, constructed chiefly of
iron bars and chains. Here is also a palace of very
strange form, which was built by King George IV.
This town was probably founded in very early times,
but it was quite a small place till within the last
SUFFOLK is bounded on the East side by the Ger-
man ocean. Its length is sixty-eight miles, and its
breadth fifty-two miles. It contains 315,000 people.
The Eastern Counties Railway, which runs from
London to Yarmouth, in Norfolk, passes through
Suffolk. It contains two county-townr, Ipswich
and Bury St. Edmun'ds. "
Suffolk is a famous county for farmers and for.
every thing connected with agriculture. The ploughs
and other farming implements made at Ipswich, by
Ransoms, are celebrated all over England. The
single-hand plough, which you may see in the
picture, is almost peculiar to this county. Many
of the farmers are rich, and take great delight in
having all their farm buildings and instruments of
husbandry very complete. Steam engines are some-
times used here for ploughing and other purposes.
It is one of the best cultivated spots in England,
and its chief produce is corn. The Suffolk pigs and
cart horses, or Suffolk cobs, as they are often called,
are of great excellence.
The name of Suffolk comes from the two words
"South" and Folk." When a party of the Saxons
settled in this part of England, they were divided
into two bodies, the North Folk and the South Folk;
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and from these the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk
had their names. The two were united in the king-
dom of East Anglia. When Ethelred, the brother
of Alfred the Great, ruled over England, Edmund
was king of this part under him. The Danes made
an attack on the coast, and took King Edmund
prisoner. They promised him life and liberty, if
he would renounce his faith in Christ, and become
a heathlien. He refused, and they murdered him
on the spot. His body was afterwards removed to
Bury St. Edmund's, or St. Edmund's Bury, which
took its minme from this circumstance. There are
the.ruins of an old Abbey in this place, which are
very well worth looking at. There are also some
interesting remains of Abbeys-of Sibton Abbey,
near Yoxford; Butley Abbey, near Woodbridge;
and of several others; for there seems to have been
a great number of convents and monasteries in this
county in former days.
Ipswich is an ancient town, and is remarkable for
its never having been much injured by fire or war.
In consequence of this the houses stand in the same
situations as they used to do in very ancient times,
and the streets are narrow and irregular. Cardinal
Wolsey established a grammar school here, which
he intended should be preparatory to Christ Church
College, Oxford, of which he was the founder.
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MIDDLESEX is a very small county, but it contains
a great many people. It is only 23 miles long,
and 15 miles broad; but more than a million and
a half of people live in it, and of these about
1,200,000 are in London. Middlesex is a fertile
county, and contains a great deal of wood. The
parts near London are very beautiful, full of rich
gardens, fields, trees and good houses.
If you look in the map you will see that the
river Thames runs along the South side of the
county, and divides it from Surrey. A large part
of London, which is called Southwark, is in Surrey,
and contains 317,000 people; so that the whole of
London has 1,517,000 inhabitants. The rest of
London is joined to Southwark by six noble bridges
over the river : London Bridge, Blackfriars, Water-
loo and Westminster, which are built of stone; and
Southwark and Vauxhall, which are of iron.
Large ships come up the river Thames nearly
as far as London Bridge, and small steam boats
and boats of all kinds are continually passing
under the bridges, and some of them go up the
river as far as Richmond.
It seems that London has been a great city for
more than two thousand years, though we know but
little of its early state. It was an ancient British
town before the Romans came here under Julius
Caesar, but you may be sure it was very different
.then from what it is now. It was most likely
nothing but some mud cottages, with a bank of
earth-thrown up round them. The Romans, when
they lived in Britain, improved the city very much,
qas we'kiow from. the fine pavements of Roman
workmanship which are sometimes found under the
earth in many of the streets. It is said, that the
part of the Tower of London called the White
Tower -was built by Julius Caesar, but it is more
likely that it was founded by William the Con-
St. Paul's Cathedral and Westminster Abbey
were first built more than twelve hundred years ago
by Sebert, the Saxon King of Essex and Middlesex.
They have both been rebuilt several times since
then, and the present Westminster Abbey was
raised partly in the reign of Edward I. and part in
the reign of Henry VII.; and St. Paul's, of which
Sir Christopher Wren was the architect, in the
reign of James II.
In the year 1666, a great part of London was
burned down, and the Monument near London
Bridge was made to commemorate it.
The new Houses of Parliament, which are
building near Westminster Bridge, will be, when
they are finished, one of the very finest of the
Buildings of London.
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THIS county is about fifty miles from the East to
the West side, and thirty-seven miles from North
to South. One side of it is open to the German
Ocean, and on the South it is bounded by the river
Thames. It contains 345,000 inhabitants. The
county town is Chelmsford, which has its name from
the river Chelmer, which, in ancient times, used to
be forded near this spot.
The land in Essex is generally flat, but in some
parts it is very fertile, and produces great quantities
of corn and hay. Many calves are also fatted here
and sent to London. Most of the produce is now
sent to London by the Eastern Counties Railway,
which is marked in the map. On the coast, a great
quantity of oysters are taken, which are called
Colchester oysters, and are very much celebrated.
Colchester is a very pleasant and interesting
place, being of great antiquity. It was most likely
founded by the Romans, as were perhaps all the
towns of which the names end with chester,"
which comes from the latin word castra," a camp.
The word Colchester signifies a camp, or castle on
the river Colne, which runs by the town. Colchester
Castle is a very ancient building, and most likely
some part of it was built by the Romans. There
are some remains of a Roman road, which may now
be traced running from Colchester to Bishop Stortford.
A great many coins, urns, cups, buckles, tesselated
pavements, and other articles of Roman workman-
ship, have also been found in the neighbourhood.
Colchester was a city; that is, it had a Bishop and
a Cathedral, as early as the year 314, while the
Romans were still ruling in Britain.
When the Saxons had conquered England, Essex
was a distinct kingdom, and then included Middlesex.
The name Essex comes from the East Saxons, anp
the name Middlesex from the Middle Saxons; for
some of the Saxons who first came to England,
separated into four great bodies; the other two of
which were the South Saxons, who peopled Sussex,
and the West Saxons, who formed what was then the
kingdom of Wessex.
As the coast of Essex is opposite the coasts of
Denmark and Norway, it was much exposed to the
attacks of the Northmen or Danes, as they are
often called; and it was here, and especially on
Mersea Island, that the famous chief Hastings lived,
and defied the power of King Alfred for some time,
though at last he was driven out. Hastings was of
a very savage and inhuman disposition. King
Alfred once, having taken his wife and children
prisoners, treated them kindly, and sent them home;
but Hastings did not ever thank him for his gene-
rosity, and went on robbing and destroying as he
had done before.
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THE map will shew you that Hertfordshire is an
inland county. It is thirty-nine miles long, and
twenty-five miles wide. It contains 157,000 people.
The county'town is Hertford. The London and
Birmingham railway runs through the county from
Watford to Tring.
There are a great many orchards and vegetable
gardens in Hertfordshire; and apples, cherries, pota-
toes, pease, and cabbages are sent to London in
great quantities. Much barley is also grown here,
which is made into malt. In the town of Hitchen,
the trade in malt is carried on to a great extent.
The town of Hertford is very ancient, and was
probably founded in the time of the old Britons.
The castle, of which some ruins now remain, was
built by Edward the elder, son of Alfred the Great.
There is in Hertford a school connected with Christ's
Hospital in London, where more than three hun-
dred boys and eighty girls are educated. There is
also a school for preparing boys for the College at
Haileybury, about three miles from Hertford, where
young men, intended for the service of the East
India Company, are taught the Eastern languages.
St. Albans is also a very old place, and contains
a fine Church, which is part of an ancient Abbey
founded by Offa, the Saxon King of Mercia, in 793.
It was named after St. Alban, who .suffered martyr-
dom iin the reign of the Roman Emperor Dioclesian;
and was the first man who laid down his life in this
country for the sake of the Christian faith. He was
converted from Paganism by a clergyman, to whom,
i where pursued by his persecutors, Alban gave shel-
ter fro0m kindness of heart. When he became a
Christian, the Romans beheaded him along with a
Soldier, who had become a Christian through his
Close to St. Albans are a few ruins, which are
the remains of the town of Verulam, which was the
"capital of the kingdom of Cassivelaunus, the British
King, who was conquered by Julius Caesar. It
was here that the great Queen Boadicea gained a
victory over the Romans, in the time of Claudius
Caesay. The place afterwards became a Roman
station. The present town of St. Albans was
founded fifty years before the Norman conquest,
and from that time Verulam declined.
One of the great curiosities of Hertfordshire is
Waltham Cross, which was built by the command of
Edward I. in honour of Queen Eleanor, his virtu-
ous and affectionate wife. She died in Lincolnshire;
and as her body was brought to Westminster Abbey
to be buried, wherever it remained a night, there the
King had a cross built. On the place at which it
stopped last before it reached the Abbey, there once
stood Charing Cross, of which now only the name
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