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TTi bsis the largest of the English counties. It is
eighty-seven miles from North to South, and one
hundred from East to West. Its population is
1,591,000. It is divided into three parts, called
Ridings, which are distinguished as the North, East
and West Riding, These are almost like separate
The WEST RIDING is by far the most populous.
dIt contains more than a million of people. It pro-
duces coal, iron, lead and 'pipe-ay, in great
abundance; and the soil in some parts is very
fertile. Ripon, which is situated in this Riding,
has lately become a city again. There was a Bishop
of Ripon in very ancient times, but the see was
moved to Durham. There was a very fine old
church there, which is now used as a Cathedral.
Near Ripon there is the ruin of an ancient Abbey,
called Fountains Abbey, which is very beautiful,
both from its architecture and its situation. Most
"of the towns in the West Riding, the largest of
which is Leeds, are supported by manufactures of
cloth, linen and woollen goods. Sheffield is a
celebrated place for knives, scissors and cutlery of
all sorts and plated goods. It is said, that it owes
the excellence of its cutlery to the quality of the
water, which is particularly good for tempering
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steel. There is a great curiosity near the town of
Knaresborough, called the Dripping Well. It is a
little stream that runs over the surface of a rock,
and drips into a kind of trough or basin beneath.
The water has the power of incrusting all sub-
stances, which are soaked in it, with a stony matter.
The people who live near put all kinds of things,
such as birds' nests, old wigs, stuffed birds, leaves
and pieces of moss, on the edge of the rock, and in
a few months they seem as if they were converted
The NORTH RIDING is chiefly an agricultural
district. The East part of it, called Cleveland and
Holderness, is famous for its breed of horses and
oxen. In this part, as well as in the West Riding,
near Richmond, there is some very beautiful scenery.
But the most interesting spot in the North Riding
is the city of York. It was founded either by the
Romans, or else before they came here. The
Cathedral, or Minster, as it is generally called, is
the finest building of its kind in the world, and is
very ancient, having been built in the twelfth cen-
tury. York Castle is still older, and was built by
William the Conqueror. The Archbishop of York
is called the Primate of England.
The EAST RIDING is also chiefly agricultural, but
it contains the great sea-port of Hull, or Kingston-
upon-Hull, as its name is written in full,.which is a
very important place.
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THIS is a County Palatine, like Lancashire and
Durlham. The dignity of Count Palatine was held
by the Earls of Chester, but it now belongs to the '
Kin of England. The length of the county is
fifty-eight miles,, and the width thirty-two miles.
It contains 395,000 inhabitants. The city of
Chester is the capital of the county.
The surface of Cheshire is generally flat, and
used to be covered with extensive forests. There is
now a great quantity of timber grown here, es-
pecially oak., There is not much corn produced,
but the pasture is some of the finest in England.
The farmers are not in the habit of growing much
corn, because the grass is so much more valuable.
In most of the farmers' leases, the landlords require
that not more than one-fourth of the land shall be
ploughed for corn. From the good quality of the
grass, the Cheshire cheese has become famous. There
are 100,000 cows kept in the county, which produce
more than twelve thousand tons of cheese every
year. The potatoes of Cheshire are very.excellent,
and are taken in great quantities to Liverpool.
There is plenty of coal in this county, of very
goQd quality. But the most remarkable product is
salt, which is found at Northwich, Middlewich,
Nantwich, and other places. The greater part of it
is found in the form of rock-salt, which is quarried
like stone, and obtained by bloating with gu'n-
powder. Some of it is beautifully white and clear,
but generally it has a brown tinge, from its coh-
tainihg a small quantity of iron; and has nearly
the appearance of sugar-candy. There are also
brine springs, from which a large quantity of salt is
manufactured by boiling and crystallizing.
The city of Chster was built by the Romnans,
and a great many fine remains of Romnan art have
been found in the neighbourhood. A few years
ago there was a stone gateway, which the Romans
had left; but it was pulled down because it was in
the way. The general appearance of the city is
very old-fashioned and remarkable. The Cathedral
is not a fine structure; it was built about the time
of Henry the Sixth. The Castle was built 'by
William the First. The city walls are very fine
remains of the old kind of fortification, and are
rather like those of Carlisle.
The silk manufacture is carried on at Congleton;
and both the silk and cotton at Stockport and
Macclesfield, and other towns in the East part of
There are two railways which run through the
county from North to South; one called the Grand
Junction, and the other the Manchester and Bir-
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THis county is seventy-four miles long and thirty-
four broad. It contains 178,000 inhabitants.
Cumberland is a very mountainous part of the
country; and, in consequence of this, nearly half the
land in it cannot be cultivated, though sheep feed
upon it. The valleys are some of them very fertile
and well cultivated. The poor people are generally
steady and sober; and, in consequence, they live in
comfort. The chief products of the county are slate
and iron, which are found in many parts; and black
lead, of which there are some mines near Scafell.
The mountains and lakes make the scenery
beautiful; and some of the most picturesque spots in
England are in Cumberland. The most celebrated
of the mountains are Skiddaw and Scafell, which is
the highest mountain in England, being 3,166 feet
in height. The most famous of the Cumberland
lakes is Derwent Water, which is surrounded on
all sides by noble mountains. There is a very
curious island upon it, which floats on the surface,
and has probably been formed by wood that has
drifted together, and been united by grass and
weeds growing upon it. On this lake may be seen
the Bottom Wind, as it is called, which is a very
strange thing. When there is scarcely any wind at
all, and the air seems quite still, the water becomes
agitated, almost as if it was boiling. This has
never been clearly accounted for; but it seems
likely that it arises from springs at the bottom, which,
from some cause, act at times much more powerfully
than is usual. Another of the attractions of Der-
went Water is the waterfall of Lowdore.
When the Saxons took possession of England,
Cumberland was one of the places in which the
ancient Britons took shelter. Here they lived on the
mountains, and in the thick forests that were then
standing; and perhaps were too poor, and their land
too barren, to tempt their enemies to dislodge them.
One of the names by which the Britons were called
was the Cumbri," and from this word the county
has its name. There are a great many British
remains, but two of the most remarkable are the
Druid's temples, one of which is near Keswick, and
another near Penrith. The latter is called Long
Meg and her daughters, and consists of a circle of
sixty-six unhewn stones, and one larger one stand-
ing by itself at a little distance.
Carlisle is a city, and was built by the Britons,
and destroyed by the Danes. It was afterwards
restored by William Rufus, who, it is said, built the
castle. During the wars between the English and
Scotch, it was once taken by the Scotch, and suf-
fered several sieges. The Cathedral is built of red
sandstone, but the nave was destroyed by Oliver
Cromwell, and has never been rebuilt.
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THIS is an inland county. It is fifty-six miles long,
and thirty-four wide; and contains 272,000 people.
The county town is Derby.
The South part of the county is flat and well
cultivated. The produce is wheat, oats and barley,
potatoes and very good cheese, though not equal to
that of Cheshire.
The North portion is very different from the
South. It abounds with lofty hills and abrupt
rocks, streams and waterfalls; and is one of the
most beautiful parts of England. There are several
rivers running through it, which have their course
in 'some parts through deep valleys, bounded by
steep rocks; and it is impossible to imagine prettier
scenery. The two most beautiful rivers are the
Dove and the Derwent; and the most beautiful
spots are Dove Dale and Matlock, near which there
is a strangely shaped hill, called the High Tor.
This part of the county abounds with coal, iron
and lead. It is supposed that the lead mines were
worked more than sixteen hundred years ago. The
celebrated Derbyshire spar, or, as chemists would
call it, "fluate of lime," is found in great quantities,
and is worked into vases, basins, bell-pulls, candle-
sticks, and many other articles.
There is a high ridge, called the Peak, and on
this the noted Peverel lived, in the time of William
the Conqueror. The ruins of his castle are still
there, and are called the Peak Castle. Not many
miles from this, is Chatsworth, the magnificent estate
and house of the Duke of Devonshire. The river
Derwent flows through the park, which is ten miles
in circumference, and is one of the most beautiful
parks in England. Mary, Queen of Scots, spent
the greater part of her long captivity on this spot.
The present mansion was finished in the year
There are some Druidical remains in Derby-
shire, and several curiously shaped natural stones,
which have been taken for Druid's altars, without
being so. The Romans had several stations in this
county, which they seem to have considered an
important spot, perhaps, from the lead and iron that
it produced. They founded the town of Derby,
and many Roman remains have been discovered in
and near it. It is now a famous place for the manu-
facture of silk, and was the first place in England
in which that art was carried on. It had before
been exercised in no part of Europe except Italy,
and had been kept a profound secret. But a man,
named Lombe, succeeded in getting the secret
from the Italian spinners, and opened a silk mill
at Derby in the reign of George the Second.
THIS county is about eighty miles in length, and
forty in breadth. It is the most populous county
of England, and contains 1,667,000 persons. Lan-
caster is the county town.
Like Durham and Cheshire, this is a County
Palatine; that is, the Duke of Lancaster, or Lord of
the County, has authority in the county, like that of
the King, in regard to the punishment of offenders
and other particulars. But since the reign of
Henry IV., who was previously Duke of Lancaster,
this authority has belonged to the King, though it
belongs to him by a distinct right as Duke of
Lancaster, and not as King of England.
The North part of the county, which is sepa-
rated from the rest, is called Furness. It contains
some mountains and lakes, and there are also in it
the interesting ruins of Furness Abbey. A large
portion of the rest of the county is flat, and in
some parts it is marshy.
Lancaster was a Roman town, and gave its
name to the county, and derives its own name from
the river Lume on which it stands, and the latin
"Castra," a camp. The castle is a fine old structure,
and part of it was built in the time of King Edward
Liverpool and Manchester are the two largest
towns in England next to London. Liverpool
contains 223,000 inhabitants, and Manchester
Liverpool is a great place for shipping, and has
some of the most extensive docks in the world.
It is situated on the river Mersey, and does not
appear to have existed as a town till after the time
of William the Conqueror. In the year 1700, its
population was only 35,600. You may judge from
this how rapidly it has increased. The number of
ships which are unloaded every year at Liverpool,
amounts to 15,000. One great branch of the trade
is cotton, which is brought from America and the
West Indies, and sent by the railway to Manchester,
where it is manufactured into calico and other arti-
cles. The most considerable of the inhabitants of
Liverpool are merchants.
Manchester is full of factories, and its most con-
siderable inhabitants are manufacturers. It is a
very ancient place, having been founded by the
Romans. There is a very fine church here, which
is shortly to become a Cathedral, and Manchester
will then be a city.
There are many other large town in Lancashire,
which are supported by manufactures, particularly
of cotton goods, which are made better here than
in any other part of the world.
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THIs is the most Northern part of England, except
the small part of Durham, which is separated from
the rest of the county, and forms the North corner
of England. Northumberland is seventy miles in
length, and forty-seven miles in width. The popu-
lation is 250,000. The county town is Newcastle.
The climate of Northumberland is cold; and, in
consequence, the crops are late. But the farmers
cultivate their land very well, and obtain a large
quantity of wheat and other produce. The horses,
oxen and sheep, which are bred here, are of a very
hardy kind, such as can bear hard work and cold
The most important production of the county is
coal, which is better in this county and Durham
than in any other part of England. This kind of
coal is often called in the South of England Sea
coal, or Sea-borne coal, because it comes to London
and other places by sea. There is a different kind
produced in the midland counties, which, instead of
burning into a hard bright cinder, turns to dry
ashes. The coals are taken from the mines, and
generally brought by small railways to the river
Tyne, where they are put on board ship. From the
two counties of Northumberland and Durham there
are taken every year six millions and a half of tons
of coals to different parts of England.
Northumberland was anciently united with the
other counties North of the river Humber, in the
kingdom of Northumberland, which was one of the
states of the Saxon Heptarchy. The name, as you
may see, means, "the land North of the Humber."
In the .time of Edward the Confessor, the same
district formed the earldom of the great Earl
Siward, who fought against the Scotch usurper
Macbeth, of which you may read in Shakspere.
Amongst the curiosities of this county, are the
remains of the Roman wall, built to defend the
county against the Picts, who inhabited Scotland.
The parts of Newcastle that have lately been
built, are some of the finest streets in England.
But one of the most interesting places in the county
is Hexham. It was founded when the Romans
were in England, and was once a city. There was
a large priory here, a very fine building, of which
a great part of the church is still standing.
There was also. a large priory at Tynemouth, of
which the ruins may be seen boldly standing out
upon a rock, overhanging the sea. There are in the
county a great many fine old castles, of which I can
only give you the names of a few. Alnwick Castle,
where the Duke of Northumberland now lives;
Warkworth Castle; Bothwell Castle; Langley
Castle, and a number of others.
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THE part of the county of Durham contained in the
Smap is forty-eight miles long and thirty-nine miles
wide. There are two other small portions, one near
Morpeth, in Northumberland; and the other border-
ing on Scotland, being the North point of England,
and including Holy Island. The population of the
whole of Durham is 324,000. The city of Durham
is the capital of the county, but Sunderland is a
much larger place.
The soil of Durham is not fertile, though the
cows that are bred here are famed all over England.
IBut the most valuable productions of the county are
coal nd lead. You will find something respecting
the cial of this part in the account of Northumber-
l1nd. The most important ports for shipping it are
Shields, Sunderland and Stockton. The lead ore
contains a small proportion of silver, which is
carefully separated from it.
Durham was originally, like Cheshire and Lan-
cashire, a County Palatine; that is, the Lord of the
county had authority in the county almost equal to
that of the King. From the time of the conquest,
this dignity was held by the Bishops of Durham;
but in the reign of William the Fourth, it was
taken away, and is now held by the king.
The city of Durham is very beautifully situated
on a small hill, which it covers, and which is nearly
surrounded by the river Wear. The Cathedral
stands on the highest part of the hill, and forms a
noble object as you approach the city. It is a
fine building, and is very ancient, having been built
during the reigns of William Rufus and Henry the
"First. The original see of the Bishop of this
diocese was Holy Island, or Lindisfarne, where
there are now some interesting ruins; but, as the
Danes often invaded the coast, this was considered
insecure, and the Bishop and Clergy removed to
Chester-le-Street, and there began to build a Cathe-
dral. But as the Danes attacked this part too, the
Bishop went to Ripon, in Yorkshire, which has
lately become a Bishop's see again; and lastly
they came to Durham, where the Bishopric has
continued ever since.
There is a University at Durham, which was
founded by the Dean and Canons of the Cathedral
in the year 1831.
Berwick-upon-Tweed, which is situated to the
North of the North part of Durham, is a very
curious place, for it is in no county, neither is it in
England or Scotland. It was once a very rich place
and strongly fortified. It has always had a kind of
"independence; and when Edward the First granted it
a charter, similar to those of other English borough
towns, he allowed it to retain the old Scotch laws.
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THIS county is forty miles from East to West, and
thirty-three miles from North to South. It contains
56,000 persons. The county town is Appleby.
The county has its name from its being on the
"West" side of England, consisting chiefly of
"moor" land, which is very barren. It produces
slate and a bad sort of coal.
The scenery in this county is very beautiful, and
the lakes are the finest in England. Of these, the
largest is Windermere, or Winandermere, which is
eleven miles long, and about two miles wide. In
some places it is more than one hundred and eighty
feet deep. But the scenery of Ulleswater is still
more beautiful. Grasmere and Rydalmere are also
very beautiful, but much smaller. In most of the
lakes there are small islands, covered with trees;
and the water abounds with fine fish. All round
the lakes are lofty mountains, the tallest of which is
Helvellyn, that stands partly in Cumberland. It is
more than 3000 feet in height. It was on this
mountain that a young man perished some years
ago. He started to go over the mountain without
a guide, accompanied by a little dog. A snow storm
came on, and as he did not know his way, he most
likely wandered about till he sunk down, quite tired
out, and died. Many days afterwards his body was
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found, and by it stood his faithful dog, who had
lived, no one knows how, while he was watching
the remains of his master. The Poet Wordsworth,
has written a beautiful poem on this incident, called
Fidelity; and Sir Walter Scott wrote another, en-
titled Helvellyn. Both these poems are well worth
There are a great many waterfalls in Westmore-
land; but the one which pleased me most is that
called Dungeon Gyll, which is in a deep cleft of one
of the two mountains, called the Langdale Pikes.
You look into a narrow space, between two high
and straight walls of rock; and, in the inner end, the
stream falls down from a great height, into a deep
basin beneath, where the water looks beautifully
pure and clear.
Some of the most beautiful objects in the county
are the Tarns, or little lakes, upon the mountains.
These are generally quite small, very deep, and the
water is as clear as crystal; but, owing to the depth,
looking in the middle quite black.
You ought to know, that the names of the
mountains and lakes of Westmoreland and Cum-
berland are old British names; for this was one of
the counties into which the Britons were driven by
the Saxons, and where they lived for a long time.
The word "Mere" signifies a lake; "Gyll," or
"Force," means a waterfall; and "Tarn," a small
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PICTORIAL I STR TC TIO N1
YOUNG CH D-Ri*.
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PRICE ONE SHILL NG EACH.
QUAD)UPIDS AND THEIR USES 0 AN.
TH' ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS oRTHE CHILDS BOOKor WILD BEASTS
BtI'DS AND THEIR USES 10 MAN.
THE OCEAN AND ITS INHABITANTS.
INSEGCTS & REPTILES WITH THEIR USES TO MAN.
WILD BEASTS, THEIR HABITS' AND USES. OBLONO #'r
THE BIBLE PICTURE BOOK, BL.o/vC 4!'.
THE WORLD AND ITS INHABITANTS i
UNCLE BEN'AJ"AIN'S FARM.
LIVING & MOVING oR HORSES, COACHES &A RAILWAYS.
: SONGS FOR THE NURSEFI. A COLLECTiON OF THE OLD
NURSERY RhY/f h' wnIT/ COLOfRED WOD0 CU7. .
"FAIRY TALES IN VERSE.WjTH COLOURED WORD CUTS
S JUST OUT. ON THE SAME PLAN,
( P RICE OIfE SIHILNG EACH.
Sy REUBEN RAMBLE'S TRAVELS IN
S.' THE NORTHERN, COUNTIES OF ENGLAND.
A. : HE EASTERN COUNTIES ..
S'-lI,,THE SOUTHERN COUNTIES ..
S"iTH' E MIDCLAN.D COUNTIES
..-THE WESTERN COUNTIES