DOM TEOD6SIO CLEMENTE DE GOUVEIA
Cw..I Prmdby.r o Hoy Rome Church, oa Wk Ile
of St. Powr ad Vinculi, by Oe meicy of God and of al
Holy Apoulolk See., Ardhbihop of LoursIo Mwque
THE VOICE OF THE PASTOR
THE VOICE OF THE PASTOR
Sllvas, L.da Lisboa
DOM TEODOSIO CLEMENTE DE GOUVEIA
Cardinal Presbyter of the Holy Roman Church, of the title
of St. Peter cad Vincula>, by the mercy of God and of the
Holy Apostolic See, Archbishop of Lourenco Marques
THE VOICE OF THE PASTOR
To all those who may read the present
writing, health, peace and benediction in
JESUS CHRIST, Our Lord and Saviour
By the favour of Divine Providence, we are to-
day commemorating the 25th. year of Our Episcopal
Destined by the Holy Father Pius XI for Mo-
Cambique, here we have lived during these 25 years,
entirely devoted to the fulfilment of our duties of
spiritual Pastor, without, however, ever forgetting
that we are of Portuguese birth and that Mooam-
bique is a Province of Portugal.
On the present day, more than on any other, in
all conscience, we feel the responsibility of
and teach> alluded to in the Gospel and which is
the foremost duty of pastoral munus.
It was the wish of our immediate collaborators
and diocesans to commemorate this date and perpet-
uate it with a work of social, patriotic and religious
interest which we have long since been desiring for
this town, namely a home for young students.
When tendering thanks for the filial display of
regard and devotion for the Pastor, exactly on the
anniversary of Our Consecration, we considered
we ought to address a few words to all our children,
involving in our affection all those born in Mocam-
bique, as during the first 5 years they have all been
the object of our care, concern and pastoral preoc-
cupations. However, under the present circumstan-
ces, nothing appeared to us as opportune as taking
up the conception of Home and its logical conse-
quences, at a time when a wave of exalted national-
ism spreads over Africa, having upset many minds
and alarmed the Africans.
1) What is meant by Home? What we now
understand to be Home or Nation has not existed
At the beginning of historical times, there existed
the family and nothing else.
As time elapsed, families grouped themselves
under the leadership of the oldest member and
gave source to patriarchies or tribes.
Independent from other older peoples, who are
now known to have existed already organized in
nations, one is mentioned in biblical history, made
famous to the Hebraic people. It was the Kingdom
of Israel under King Saul (See I Sam, 11-9-16).
Simultaneously, other nations and empires star-
ted to appear, covering vast territories, separated
by the sea and populations of different races, such
as the Persian, the Greek and the Roman Em-
Such empires remained in History as the proto-
types of future homes or nations. They may, with
time, have changed in name, territorial extent or
number of citizens, but essentially the homelands
(Nation, Empire or Republic) continued to be an
aggregate of families of the same or of different
races and languages, under the same regime and
the same authority.
This conception of Home was so well accepted
by peoples that Christ did not hesitate to say: <
to God what belongs to God and to Caeser what
belongs to Caesar>. Now, Christ, Our Lord, was a
Jew, and Caesar a Roman Emperor.
Even St. Paul, who was a Jew, appealed to
Caesar when his brethren in race wanted to take
him to Jerusalem in order to murder him on the way:
, he said
The Home, says St. Thomas, is the great family,
without distinction of races or social conditions,
who contributes without rest and in the most effi-
cient manner towards the development of its sub-
jects under the physical, intellectual and moral, civic
and social aspects of their beings (S.T. II. a
In the execution of this national programme an
active part of foremost importance is played by the
authorities or representatives of the Nation.
It matters, therefore, that they should be com-
petent and have a high understanding of their duties
towards the Nation and its citizens.
In what concerns the Nation, our Holy Father
Leo XIII wrote in his famous encyclic <
varum>>: what the Nation in the first place asks
of its representatives is a cooperation of a general
nature, consisting of the total economy of the laws
This general cooperation includes, among other
matters, a moderate imposition and an equitable
partition of public offices, the progress of industry
and trade and a flourishing agriculture.
In connection with the duties of the authorities
towards the subjects, the same Pope wrote: <
special action by the authorities towards citizens
consists of protection and assistance, chiefly to the
weak and the poor.
2) The Nation's Duties. At the moment of
the unction of Saul, first King of Israel, Prophet
Samuel solemnly communicated to him the King's
Israel, administer justice and protect the new Nation
against external enemies>>. (Samuel 1 9-16).
Therefore, reingning means ruling with a view
to the common welfare, to the social and moral pro-
gress of the people and to the maintenance of in-
ternal order and protection against external enemies.
\With more or less explicit alternatives, so has
it been done through the centuries by Monarchs,
Emperors and Presidents of Republics.
A modern jurist summarizes such duties as fol-
peace and public prosperity, to prevent and repress
injustice, to foster the progress of Commerce, In-
dustry, Arts and Science, in a word, to seek the
plenitude of the temporal happiness of all citizens
(E. Vallon, Droit Social, page 57).
We must not, however, forget or ignore that,
beyond natural order, there is supernatural order
and that, beyond earthly happiness, there is also
The order established in the work of creation by
God subordinates the temporal to the moral end-
God and the Nation are, therefore, to collaborate in
agreement for achievement of the great purposes
of Man early happiness and eternal happiness>>.
(E. Vallon, Droit Social, page 57.
3) Subjects' Duties towards the Nation.
a) St. Thomas did not hesitate in naming
ety> the love for the Homeland, or patriotism, and
children's love for their parents. It is a preference
love which is foremost to love for any other person
<, St. Thomas adds,
man be given what is due to him. The greatest cre-
ditor of every rational creature is God. God domi-
nates all beings created with an infinite superiority.
Therefore, the love of religion, the highest and most
ardent love, is due to God. But after God come our
parents and our Homeland, called upon by the will
of the Providence to give us material life and social
life and to guide them for the common good>. (St.
Thomas, IIa, q.Cl-art. 1).
b) Respect. The preference love we owe to our
Homeland imposes on us the obligation to respect
it as we respect our parents.
Such a respect for the Civic Society or Home-
land imposes on us the obligation to prefer it to
any other, although larger, richer or more prosper-
ous, just as we owe to our parents more respect
than to any other person, although wealthier, more
learned or more gifted.
It was from our parents that we received life
and it was in our Homeland that we were born. It
must, theerfore, occupy the first place in our love
and our respect.
That respect is naturally extended to the author-
ities who represent the country. In connection with
the matter, St. Thomas wrote:
persons represent the Nation officially; because it
is through them that the Nation acts and rules;
because the power conferred on the authorities is
that bestowed on the Nation by Providence, in order
to render service to its citizens and obtain from them
surrender to the divine precepts of the natural law;
for such reasons, even if the rank of the authorities
in the hierarchy of functionaries is a low one, and
even if their ruling is not always right and their pri-
vate behaviour is not according to standard, we
must believe that there exists in the representatives
of the Nation which originates from
the piety love we owe to our native lands>. (S.T.
<, St. Thomas adds, we may find in
the authority agents of the Nation defects or vices
when they are manifest and we are not bound, nor
are we entitled to praise them for it or to admire their
vices. But, in spite of defects and indignity, some-
thing of the Fatherland occurs in them-the author-
ity conferred on them, never confused with the
human being, its defects, faults or vices>. (S.T.
IIa-IIa, q.CII, to 2, ad 2.).
c) Obedience. This filial submission, due to the
Fatherland, can only be demanded from us, in cons-
cience, by our native Nation. But when it com-
mands, adhering to the national and divine laws, we
must obey, even if it compels us to leave home and
go to the battle field.
In fact, the Fatherland is one of the instruments
used by God to rule individuals and families and
that is why He confers on it a part of His supreme
power. This is what St. Paul so clearly expressed
when writing: <
It is, therefore, obvious that, all power coming
from God, even civil power, the civil authority's
commands must be adhered to, in conscience, unless
they are against natural law and divine law, as God,
being, the Supreme Legislator, cannot be contra-
From the foregoing it is easily concluded that
neither from the Bible, nor from the History of peo-
ples, is it inferred that a nation is or ought to be
formed only and exclusively by citizens of one race
and living in a continuous territory. The Kingdom
of Israel, only formed by one group of Hebraic
families, brought together other tribes and peoples.
The same path was followed by the Kings and Em
perors of all times, associating neighboring peoples
and others from distant lands, integrating them in
the great national community, under the same and
sole flag that of the Nation.
What, therefore, constitutes a nation is a com-
munity of families or peoples, under an authority
ruling and guiding it to the common welfare, with
the maintenance of order, administration of justice,
elevation and protection against external enemies.
Wrong are, therefore, all those who support
the idea of a single ratial nation and contend that
a nation must only have subjects of the same race or
colour and living in a continuous territory.
Should such a conception of nation be a true
one, how many nations of the present day ought
not to be dismantled?
For four and a half centuries, Portugal has been
ruling this territory through her representatives -
the delegates of the Central Government in Lisbon.
During this long period of time, peace has only been
altered at the end of the last century and, fortuna-
tely, not owing to rebellion by the natives, but by
agents of foreign powers, who attempted to exploit
them to their own advantage.
Apart from that incident, peace and order have
prevailed in this Province, which in itself is a great
and considerable social and political benefit for its
Nobody can, in truth and based on facts, assert
that Portugal has not nobly and humanely accom-
plished in Mozambique her task of a Fatherland.
Just consider peace and order prevailing in the
Province during four centuries! And the elimination,
by Portuguese Law, of the crimes of murder and
mutilation committed under native customs! And
social and cultural improvement, no doubt slow but
real, which has driven natives from the jungle to
bring them into contact with Europeans and to cause
them to take an active part in social and agricultural
It is also fair to emphasize the economic, educa-
tional and sanitary progress achieved in the latest
decades through the construction and equipment of
ports, the opening of roads, the installation of hos-
pitals and sanitary posts, schools, lyceum, profes-
sional institutes and catholic missions, with their
boarding-houses and schools for adaptation and
social assistance. Is there much to be done? But
what privileged country can be satisfied that it has
reached perfection under all sectors?
Here you have, beloved Mozambicans, juridical,
social and historical titles that justify the presence
of Portugal in Mozambique and make of each of
you a son of the Fatherland Portugal.
To deny or ignore such titles, in perfidy, is a
serious fault or crime.
Do not, therefore, allow yourselves to indulge
in fantasy or to be influenced by bad advisers, in
dreams of independence or utopian economic and
Having been the subjects of the Portuguese Na-
tion for four centuries, it is within the Nation that
you ought to wish for material, cultural and moral
progress, in loyal cooperation with the Portuguese
authorities and obeying their commands.
The present Pastoral Exhortation is to be read
in all churches and chapels of parishes and missions
and in missionary schools.
Lourenco Marques, 5th. July 1961.
(sgd.) T. Cardinal Archbishop.
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