• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Historical development of Angolan...
 Characteristic features of Angolan...
 The southern Angolan fishing region...
 The central Angolan fishing region...
 The northern Angolan fishing...
 Conclusion
 Sumário: A pesca no mar e os portos...






Title: Sea fisheries and fish ports in Angola
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053126/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sea fisheries and fish ports in Angola
Physical Description: 30 p. : ill., folded maps ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Van Dongen, Irene S
Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa
Publisher: Sociedade de Geografia
Place of Publication: Lisboa
Publication Date: 1962
 Subjects
Subject: Fisheries -- Angola   ( lcsh )
Fish trade -- Angola   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Irene s. Van Dongen.
General Note: "Separata do boletim da Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa, Janeiro--Junho, 1962."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053126
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 003461221
oclc - 35643037

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Historical development of Angolan fisheries
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Characteristic features of Angolan fisheries
        Page 6
        Page 6a
        Page 6b
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 8a
    The southern Angolan fishing region and its harbors
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Baia Dos Tigres
            Page 11
        Porto Alexandre
            Page 12
        Moçâmedes
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Luciras
            Page 17
    The central Angolan fishing region and its ports
        Page 18
        Sub-zone A and sub-zone B
            Page 19
        Baía Farta area
            Page 20
        Benguela area
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
        Lobito and the regional fisheries
            Page 24
        Novo redondo - Porto amboim fishing belt
            Page 24
            Page 24a
            Page 24b
    The northern Angolan fishing region
        Page 25
        Luanda area
            Page 26
        Santo Antonio do Zaire
            Page 27
    Conclusion
        Page 27
    Sumário: A pesca no mar e os portos de pesca de Angola
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text
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IRENE S. VAN DONGEN
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK







SEA FISHERIES
AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


LISBOA MCMLXII










IRENE S. VAN DONGEN
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK









SEA FISHERIES

AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


SEPARATE DO BOLETIM
DA SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA
JANEIRO JUNIIO 1962
























SEA FISHERIES

AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA m




The Portuguese Overseas Province of Angola has the longest coastline of any
African territory bordering the Atlantic Ocean, some 1,000 miles. Its large and
small shipping points can be conveniently differentiated according to the nature
of their dominant outgoing traffic. Our previous publications have dealt with:
the two major general terminals of Angola, Luanda and Lobito; the secondary
coffee terminals of the north; the timber outlets of the Cabinda Enclave, and
have accessorily covered certain private sugar outlets (2). To complete the series,
this article examines an array of ocean heads whose maritime life is intimately
bound up with the large Angolan exports of fishery products.
Several types of seaboard localities in Angola engage in fishery operations
beyond the strictly subsistence level. First, there are a number of small fishing
hamlets containing from one to a half-dozen fishery firms whose boats put to
sea not far offshore and return to treat the catch at local works. Their output
of fish products is then periodically lifted by their own fishing craft to a main
regional collecting center. Second, there are several fairly spacious fishing harbors
which shelter larger fleets and a larger number of fishery firms. Their maritime


(') This study is one of a series on ports, transport routes, and trade movements of middle
Africa and Madagascar prepared by Professor William A. Hance and the author under a Columbia
University contract with the U. S. Office of Naval Research, Geography Branch, Washington, D.C.
The cooperation during the field work of Portuguese administrative authorities, the head officials
of the capltdnias, the Grdmios dos Industriais de Pesca at Benguela and Moqtmedes, and of
many private individuals is most gratefully acknowledged.
(2) See W. A. Hance and I. S. van Dongen, eThe Port of Lobito and the Benguela Railways,
The Geographical Review, Vol. XLVI, No. 4, October 1956, pp. 461-487 and I. S. van Dongen, ccThe
Port of Luanda in the Economy of Angola), Boletim da Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa,
S6rie 78a, Nos. 1-3, January-March 1960, pp. 3-43; (Coffee Trade, Coffee Regions, and Coffee Ports
in Angola)), Economic Geography, Vol. 37, No. 4, October 1961, pp. 320-346; aEnclave de Cabinda,
Angola Sa vie 6conomique et ses ports,, Cahiers d'Outre-Mer (Bordeaux), forthcoming 1962.









SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


sites permit calls by deepsea vessels; consequently they have developed their
own overseas trade in fish products. Third, there are the three main regional
collecting centers which are also fishing harbors in their own right: Mogamedes
for the south, Benguela for the center, and Luanda for the north. There the
offices of the regional fish producers guilds, Grimios dos Industriais de Pesca,
are located. Lastly, there are some port towns where fishing and fish processing,
although assuming some importance, account for only a minor part of local
economic activities.



HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ANGOLAN FISHERIES

Fishing for commercial purposes off Angola's coast is not new. The first
fishing colonies were established on the southern Angolan seaboard during the
early 19th century on the initiative of some immigrant fishermen from the
Algarve region in southern Portugal. These were soon followed by further fishing
ventures on the central littoral. The development of fishing underwent many
vicissitudes in subsequent decades until the scattered, small-scale producers were
grouped in the 1930's into regional associations called sindicatos. Rudimentary
preparation of fishmeal, fish body oil, and canned fish was then attempted;
earlier processing involved only salting and drying in the sun, with the sun-cured
fish thereafter being distributed within Angola or being forwarded to adjacent
African territories needing a cheap source of animal proteins (3).
The modern development of Angolan fisheries, however, has occurred entirely
after the Second World War. This expansion has parallelled the growth of fish-
ing in the neighboring South West Africa and the Union of South Africa, and
the rise of fishing operations in tropical seas, hitherto barely exploited (4).
Angola's fish landings increased from 26,100 metric tons in 1938 to 113,000 metric
tons in 1948, while the estimated value of the catch quintupled (see Table I).
Over the quinquennium 1953-57, the area rose to the rank of nineteenth world
producer, immediately after the Netherlands, and second in Africa after the
Union of South Africa and South West Africa combined.
Landings of live fish in Angola in the peak year, 1956, were 420,500 tons
valued at 279,663 contos (U.S. $10.0 million), only 50,000 tons below the total
landings of metropolitan Portugal, noted both for its long-distance cod fishing

(3) See pp. 398-425 in J. M. Cerqueira d'Azevedo, Angola, Exemplo de Trabalho, Luanda,
private edition, 1958, 529 pp.; F. Cruz, (ColonizaCio Piscat6ria de Angola), Boletim da Pesca
(Lisbon), No. 32, September 1951, 17 p.; a(Noticia Hist6rica acerca da Pesca nos distritos de Mo-
camedes e Benguelas, Activldade Economtca de Angola, No. 27, January 1951, pp. 5-20; A. Pires,
aIndfistria Piscat6ria de Angola Possibilidades e Necessidadess, Actividade Econ6mica de Angola,
No. 20, September 1948, pp. 31-52.
(4) Doumengue, aL'essor de la pfche maritime dans les mers tropicalese, Cahiers d'Outre-mer,
13th year, No. 50, April-June 1960, pp. 133-199.










SEA FISHERIES AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and for its great sardine-canning industry
based on offshore catches (5). Landings for 1957 were almost as large (395,000
tons), leading to record exports of fishery products of 123,500 tons and 492,800
contos (U. S. $17.2 million) (). Fish products in that year ranked first in volume
and second in value on the national export list. Like the leading Angolan export,
robusta coffee from the North, fish products contributed very significantly to
the foreign exchange earnings of the whole escudo bloc through large sales to
the United States of America and to several Western European countries. In
declared capital investment, fish processing ranked as the second manufacturing
activity of Angola, after the long-established cansugar milling. In appraising
the full economic importance of the fisheries in Angola, capital investment in
ancillary establishments, such as ice and cold-storage plants, boat-building and
repair yards, and numerous salt works which cater in large measure to the needs
of the fish processing industry, should also be considered (7).
The years after 1957, however, were less satisfactory for Angolan fishermen
and culminated in a serious economic crisis. It is not yet known whether the
coastal seas had been overfished or whether the schools of surface fish had
altered their routes of migration further offshore, but fish became alarmingly
scarce in southern and central Angolan waters. Landings decreased to 278,215
tons in 1958 and 252,000 tons in 1960. Exports of fish products in the latter year
were only 67,842 tons valued at 227,000 contos (U.S. $9.2 million). Moreover,
rising production in the late fifties from veteran fishing nations like Japan and
powerful newcomers to fishing like Peru provoked a market glut with a con-
sequent downfall in world prices. The Angolan fishing industry, built up hastily
on a short-term borrowing at high interest rates, and containing many marginal
units with an output of uneven quality, was in a poor position to withstand
such adverse conditions. Urgent appeals were addressed to the government by
the fishery organizations for relief in the form of tax reductions, extension of
credits, technical and scientific advice, and outright financial assistance. The
Angolan authorities responded with a comprehensive plan to reorganize the
industry, replacing the small establishments with several modern cooperative



(5) See R. J. Houk, cThe significance of Portugal's fishing industry), Northwestern University,
Studies In Geography, No. 2, March 1951, pp. 33-48.
(6) Also in 1957, the Union together with South West Africa landed 580,900 tons and exported
143,400 tons valued at U. S. $37 million. (All data cited here are from U. N., F. A. O., Yearbook
of Fishery Statistics, Vol. IX (1958), pp. XXVII, a-30, a-31; and Vol. X (1958-59), pp. 0-18, 0-19,
Rome, 1959 and 1960. It should be noted, however, that these U. N. figures do not always correspond
with the official figures released in Angola itself, and are. in particular, far below regional
estimates made by the gremios. For 1957, for example, the official figures for the southern fishing
region based on Mo~gmedes were only 228,870 tons, while the gr6mto estimates were of over
300,000 tons. The official estimates also do not take into account a sizable quantity of fish caught
by Africans operating on their own along the coast in dugout canoes. The actual fish landings
of Angola in a good year might be 100-120,000 tons higher than the figures reported by the U. N.)
(7) See I. S. van Dongen, c(Industrialization in Angola 1938-1962), forthcoming.









SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


plants located in the chief fishing centers. A permanent fund to aid the fish-
eries' development was also created, as was a technical agency, Instituto das
Industrias de Pesca de Angola ().
The outcome of these new measures should become apparent during the
1960's. Meanwhile, in the summer of 1961, there was a hopeful reappearance
of fish in quantity at several locations on the coast. Just what impact the terr-
orist outbreaks, which began in early 1961 and exacted a heavy toll in lives and
property from the northern coffee farmers, may have on the national fishing
industry cannot yet be appraised. The fishing communities south of the capital
city of Luanda have not been affected directly by any disturbances, but the
heavy expenditures required for maintaining metropolitan Portuguese troops call-
ed to restore peace, and for rehabilitation of the devastated coffee plantations
may make it difficult to extend the previously contemplated large-scale relief
to the fishing industry. Yet, there is little doubt that, the natural environment
conditions on the southern and central seaboard of Angola being what they are,
most of population clusters in that zone will continue in the future to be dep-
endent on the sea for their principal means of livelihood.



CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF THE ANGOLAN FISHERIES


The abundance of fish off the coasts of Angola, South West Africa, and the
Union of South Africa stems from two favorable factors: one, the existence of
a fairly sizable area of continental shelf along that section of the African cont-
inent (elsewhere in Africa the abrupt edge of the continental shelf is often
quite close to the coastline), and two, the presence of a zone of upwelling coastal
waters associated with the offshore trades and the convergence of two marine
currents, a warm current moving southward from the Gulf of Guinea and the
cold Benguela Current flowing northward from the Cape of Good Hope, (Fig. 1).
A rich chain of ocean life from the concentrations of plankton through small
fish to large predatory fish feeds on the mineral and organic nutrients rising to
the sea surface from the shallow bottom. The yearly catches of Angola, however,
are lower than those of her neighbors to the south, in part because the Ben-
guela Current veers away to the open ocean about halfway along the Angolan
coast through most of the year (). The Union of South Africa and South West


(8) See Banco de Angola, RepartliAo de Estudos Econ6micos, (A Indfstria de Pesca em An-
gola)), Boletim Trtmestral, No. 11, July-September 1960, pp. 8-13.
(9) See Figs. 4 and 6 in T. J. Hart and R. I. Currie, The Benguela Current, (National Institute
of Oceanography, (Discovery Reports)), Vol. XXXI, pp. 123-298), Cambridge, University Press, 1960.
Doumengue, op. cit., Fig. 3, shows that the production of organic matter in Angolan and South
African waters exceeds the 50 milligrams per cubic meter, a rare occurrence. Fisheries of this
section of the African seaboard were first described on pp. 238-51 in R. Morgan, World Fisheries,
London, Methuen & Co., 1956, 307 p.











IRENE VAN DONGEN SEA FISHERIES IN ANGOLA


Fig. I Location of Angola, South West Africa, and Union of South Africa in
relation to the flow of the Benguela Current and to the extent of the African continental
shelf. The three localities shown within Angolan territory are the leading centers
of regional fisheries.


STAMP I






IRENE VAN DONGEN SEA FISHERIES IN ANGOLA


//


I

~~a%


Fig. 2 Typical Angolan traineira moored at a fishery jetty.


AAU--


Fig. 3 -African workers engaged in the cleaning of fresh-caught fish.


I. S. v. D.


STAMP II









SEA FISHERIES AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


Africa, in addition to the year-round benefit of the Benguela Current, also have
a longer total coastline, and a greater area of continental shelf.
Fish species are fairly similar in Angolan and South African waters except
for the Union's crop of fish belonging to the cod family, notably hake, for
which the warmer Angolan seas cannot provide a desirable habitat. About half
of the yearly landings in Angola are usually sardines (Clupea- sagax, instead of
Union's Sardinops ocellata), but in some years horse mackerel (Trachurus trac-
churus, locally acarapau))) dominate. Other species of particular commercial imp-
ortance are jacks (Caranx sp., locally acharroa), dog's teeth (Dentex macroph-
talmus, locally acachuchon), Spanish mackerel (Scomber colias, locally acavala),
blue fin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, in Portuguese atum), and little tuna (Euthynnus
alletteratus, locally (merma)). In the north, crustaceans and molluscs, inclusive
of oysters and shrimp, are abundant. Whaling was carried on off the Angolan
coast by American whaling ships in the mid-19th century and by Scandinavians
and Germans in the early 20th century, but now the humpback or sperm whales
that were hunted are seldom reported.
The maritime and fishing skill of the Portuguese has served them in good
stead in Angola, though working with traditional Portuguese fishing craft and
gear has not always brought optimum results under the very different ecological
conditions of the African grounds. No long-distance trawlers, such as those
operated by South Africans on the West Ground off the Cape, are as yet emp-
loyed. The first motor drifters using purse-seines, traineiras (Fig. 2) were intro-
duced in the forties and their number has been steadily increasing as has that
of other powered craft, yet sail and oar propulsion is still important, as can be
seen from Table I. Other types of fishing gear include drag-nets (arrasto or
rasteira), lift-nets (saoada), bag-nets with fixed mouths set at a certain depth,
(armag~o a valenciana), and various line-and-hook apparatus. Most of the fishing
is done in selected grounds at a short distance offshore, each of these grounds
bearing a proper noun and being called by local fishermen a sea (mar). It is
carried on in daytime or at night according to the type of gear, at depths
varying from 45 to 140 meters (150-450 ft.). The majority of the skilled fishermen
are Portuguese for only the northern Angolan African has a seafaring tradition.
On the other hand, much African labor of both sexes is employed in the fish
handling and processing ashore (Fig. 3), while European and Euro-African women
are usually engaged for the preparation of canned fish.
Receiving facilities at the fishing centers consist mainly of fishery-built woo-
den jetties. Live fish are unloaded into hoppers on rails or dumped into a duct
(caleira) and moved by gravity or pumping to the processing plant. In smaller
fishing settlements, the boats may just be pulled out of water onto the beach
and unloaded by baskets.









SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


Fish processing establishments vary in size from cottage-type industries to
firms employing 100 and more Europeans. Some limit themselves to preparation
of sun-cured fish, which does not call for special skills or much capital invest-
ment (Fig. 4). Considered the most profitable form of fish processing in Angola,
sun-curing has the- disadvantage of requiring abundant African labor which can
seldom be secured. Other establishments are more or less adequately equipped
(Fig. 5) to manufacture fishmeal, destined for animal feed; and fish body oil,
the by-product of crushing the mess of cooked fish in the preparation of fish-
meal (1). The development of canning has not fulfilled earlier hopes, the canners
being handicapped by the cost of importing container materials, by competition
in the Angolan market from better-known metropolitan brands of sardines, and
by the relatively restricted catch of other fish valued in canning, such as tuna.
The frozen fish industry is still in its infancy, though cooled fish has been
fairly widely supplied to visiting ships and to towns in the interior which have
good plane or rail connections with the seaboard; formerly, soft fish and crust-
aceans were so dispatched to several European centers in the Belgian Congo.
In the immediate postwar period, about 5 per cent of Angola's total catch
was consumed fresh, 1 per cent was canned, 47 per cent sun-cured, and 46 per
cent milled into guano (a low-value product used as a fertilizer) and some fish-
meal. In the late fifties, 2 per cent was consumed as fresh and cooled fish,
only 16 per cent was sun-cured and 81 per cent was converted into fishmeal
and fish body oil. This emphasis on fishmeal, to allow an easy utilization of
every kind of fish caught, was fairly comparable to the course taken by the
fishing industry of the Union of South Africa and South West Africa between
1948 and 1953. After that date, Angola's neighbors began to concentrate on exp-
orts of frozen fish and canned fish products ("). In the internal markets for
fresh fish, the Union has always had the great advantage over Angola of much
larger European and African populations, although national fish consumption
per capital remains much below that of many European countries (12).
National commerce in fish products in Angola has been successively in the
hands of sindicatos, gremios, and the federation of these three regional bodies,
formed in 1956. The last agency and the gremios not only establish sale prices


(10) It is beyond the scope of this paper to describe Angolan methods of fish processing.
Instructive information on the subject can be found, however, in J. Elias, (Indfistras derivadas da
pesca no distrito de Mocfmedes), Pecudria (Anais dos Servigos de VeterinAria e Indfistria Animal),
1947-48, Vol. I, pp. 105-172, Luanda, Imprensa Nacional, 1949.
(") In 1957 fishmeal represented 40 per cent of all Union-South West Africa fish product
exports by volume and 19 per cent by value; fresh, frozen, and canned soft fish and crustaceans
amounted to 37 per cent by volume and 58 per cent by value. In Angola, by contrast, fishmeal
equalled 71.5 per cent of all fish product exports by volume and 70 per cent by value. (U. N.,
F. A. O.,, Yearbook of Fishery Statistics, Vol. X (1958-59) pp. 0-39, 0-19).
(12) The Southern African fishing industry is well described on pp. 267-277 in Monica Cole,
South Africa, London & New York, Methuen and Co. and E. P. Dutton, 1961, 696 p.








IRENE VAN DONGEN SEA FISHERIES IN ANGOLA


Fig. 4 Fish catch drying in the sun, at a small, family-operated fishery.


Fig. 5 Modem fishmeal-manufacturing plant of medium-size, on the central Angolan seabord.
I. S. v. D.


STAMP III


r .,;.~p









SEA FISHERIES AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


and are entrusted with the marketing and collection of the largest share of the
production, but are also responsible for the social welfare of the fishermen and
their families. They work closely with the Maritime Department, Servigos da
Marinha, which maintains fisheries statistics and controls the fishing operations.
Up to 1955, the United States of America was the greatest overseas purchaser
of Angolan fishmeal. Subsequently, Germany came first, with second place occup-
ied alternately by the United States, the Netherlands, or Italy. Metropolitan
Portugal has also increasingly bid for fishmeal. Germany has been fairly consis-
tently buying almost the entire output of fish oil, while the United States has
been the chief customer for canned tuna ("). Shipped from Angola in large, plain
containers and often prepared in water instead of oil, this product is generally
repacked with oil in small and fancier cans in the United States for the retail
trade. Angolan sun-cured fish packed in bundles (malas) of 30kg. has for a long
time gone overwhelmingly to the Congo, either by coastal vessels to the Lower
Congo ports of Boma and Matadi, or over the central Angolan rail line, the
Benguela Railway, to the Katanga and the Rhodesias. Other important destinat-
ions for the dried fish are Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe, and the count-
ries of former French Equatorial Africa. About 10-12,000 tons of sun-cured fish
are normally absorbed by African markets, both urban and rural, in Angola
proper.



THE SOUTHERN ANGOLAN FISHING REGION AND ITS HARBORS


The southern range of Angolan fishing localities embraces various coastal
settlements between 13o30'S, just above Cabo de Santa Marta, and the mouth
,of the Cunene River which forms a part of Angola's border with South West
Africa (Fig. 6). All this region is within the administrative limits of the Moga-
medes District. Mogbmedes is the most important regional center, being the
headquarters of the civil administration, an old fishing community, the seat of
the southern capitdnia and of the southern fisheries, grimio, and the ocean head
of the southern railway. Its share in southern fish landings, inclusive of several
hamlets to the south and north, does not normally exceed 20-22 per cent of the
total, however, and its share in the output of southern fish products is only
22-24 per cent of the total. Three other centers-Porto Alexandre, Baia dos


(13) In 1954 the United States bought from Angola 28,160 tons of fishmeal, or 54 per cent of
the entire production, and 221 tons of canned fish, or 12 per cent of the total; in 1958 it still
took about one-third of total fishmeal sales, but, in 1960, the American share in fishmeal fell
below 20 per cent although the U. S. A. purchased half of Angola's canned fish exports. (Angola,
RepartigLo Tecnica de Estatistica, Comercio Externo for respective years, Luanda, Imprensa
National).









SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


Tigres and Luciras -are of definite significance in the regional picture("). The
first of these actually surpasses Mocgmedes in fishing fleet, landings, the number
of fish processing plants, and the volume of fish product exports, which rise in
some years to over one-half of the southern total. Baia dos Tigres accounts for
17 to 20 per cent of regional landings and exports, and Luciras for 9-10 per cent.
The bay of Mogcmedes, furthermore, has regional physiographic significance
in that it marks the approximate boundary between two types of the 350-kilometer
(220-mile) long southern coast and of the adjoining interior. To the north of
Ponta do Girafil, the shoreline of the South Atlantic trends almost evenly north-
-northeast in a succession of medium-high cliffs of Cretaceous and Tertiary lime-
stones and sandstones fairly strongly dissected by the ravines of seasonal coastal
streams. Some of these ravines terminate at the ocean end in small beachheads
suitable for the location of minor fishing hamlets, but, as a rule, the beach
area is restricted. Atop the cliffs, flat ground is again fairly scarce, as the foot
of the first subplateau step leading to the mountainous interior of Angola is
soon reached at 215 to 300 meters (900-1,000 ft.) of altitude. To the south of
Praia Amelia, in contrast, the shore is largely low and sandy and is backed by
a vast expanse of dunes and desert sands, an extension of the Namib Desert
of South West Africa. The great sandspit of Baia dos Tigres and the squarish,
sandy peninsula of Ponta Albina with a smaller sandspit sheltering Porto Ale-
xandre protrude from the generally straight north-south trending coast.
Mean annual precipitation in the southern coastal strip is under 250 millim-
eters (10 in.) a year and is confined to 3-3 /2 months from December to April.
Although lowered temperatures and frequently overcast skies retard evaporation,
the water supply is still insufficient for agriculture except where it is sustained
by irrigation from the underground water in some river beds. Barring the proble-
matic development of mining, the human occupancy of that inhospitable land
must perforce depend upon the more generous sea.
At Mogfmedes itself, the rail line, laid with great effort in the years from
1905 to 1923 to Sa, da Bandeira, a center of small agricultural colonization on
the southern plateau, has resulted in a somewhat more diversified economic and
social life. But other fishing communities are strung along the coast like an
archipelago of islands, their land contacts with each other and with the back-
country being restricted to a few ineffectual trails. Thus isolated, they look again
to the sea as their chief link with the rest of Angola and the outside world.



(") See P. Fragoso de Matos, (A Pesca no Distrito de Mocgmedes: Suas Possibilidades e Limi-
tag6ess, Lisbon, IV Nacional Congresso de Pesca, 1955, 38 p. Also, J. N. Sales Grade, (Bafa dos
Tigres--1948: Artes de Pesca e seu Pescados; (Mogfmedes--1948: Artes de Pesca e seu Pescados,
all in Actividade Econ6mica de Angola, Nos. 22-23, May-September 1949, pp. 115-119; Nos. 24-25
January-May 1950, pp. 51-57; No. 26, September 1950, pp. 67-79.









SEA FISHERIES AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA.


BAIA DOS TIGRES

This vast harborage, about 30 square kilometers (125 sq. m.) in area with
depths from 5 to 20 fathoms, is mostly known to English-speaking seamen as Tiger
Bay, but also as Great Fish Bay. It is formed by a long and flat sandy peninsula,
broader at the tip, which offers a welcome shelter to ocean-going ships in the
fairly stormy southern Angolan seas. The entrance to the bay is almost 11 kilom-
eters (7 mi.) wide with a deepwater channel running close to the peninsula's
inner shore (Fig. 6, inset A). The excellence of marine features seems to have
designated the bay for the layout of a great commercial port. But the extreme
barreness of the immediate hinterland has permitted only the rise of a fishing
and fish processing center.
A few Portuguese fishermen, attracted by the wealth of fish, established a
precarious foothold on the peninsula about 95 years ago. Notwithstanding the
tremendous problem of water and food supply, there were, at the turn of the
present century, 7 or 8 European families assisted by some 200 African workers.
In the 1940's, water storage tanks were installed and the precious liquid was
thereafter brought regularly by steamship from Lobito, whereas it had formerly
to be fetched under sail, barrel by barrel, from Mocgmedes. The improved water
supply, provision of better dwellings, and construction of a small airstrip spurred
the progress of the struggling community. The acquisition of motorized craft
also permitted carrying fishing operations outside the bay. From a total harbor
movement of 1,840 tons in 1948, incoming and outgoing cargo movements incre-
ased to a peak of 25,459 tons in 1957, of which 8,614 tons were overseas exports
consisting entirely of fish products valued at 28,895 contos (U.S. $1.0 million).
In that year, the population of the three fishing hamlets on the bay -S5o Mar-
tinho dos Tigres, Ledo, and Saco dos Tigres was 250 Europeans and 900
Africans. Ten fishery firms were registered. Lower fish catches in the following
years, however, resulted in decreased harbor trade, the 1959 overseas exports
being only 5,800 tons.
After 1955, between 22 and 25 ships per year usually called at Baia dos
Tigres to lift locally-manufactured fishmeal (6-9,000 tons) and to bring in a tiny
tonnage of overseas imports, mostly petroleum fuels. Local fish oil (2-2,500 tons)
and sun-cured fish (500-800 tons) are consigned in care of the gremio at Mogo-
medes and carried there either by regular coastal craft or by the fisheries' own
boats which are also used to bring in the fishermen's necessities on the return
trips. Of late, the annual volume of such outgoing and incoming coastwise move-
ments has varied between 1,000 tons and 12,000 tons (").

(15) All data in this paper pertaining to harbor tonnages and to harbor trade values are from
Angola, Repartig4o de Estatfstica Geral, Estatistica de Navegagdo Maritima and from Comdrcio
Externo of respective years. Information on exports of fish products of the southern region is
courtesy of Gremio dos Industrials da Pesca e de seus Derivados do Distrito de Mogdmedes.









SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


A survey was made in 1954-55 of a possible utilization of the bay as an alter-
nate head to the Mocgmedes rail line which the Portuguese authorities have been
extending hopefully toward the Rhodesian border in order to offer to British
Central Africa a second Angolan route to the Atlantic, the first being the Ben-
guela Railway to Lobito. But the Federation of the Rhodesias and Nyasaland
was chiefly interested at the time in the creation of a national routeway to the
western coast, through land purchase or other negotiation, and not in a foreign-
-held exit, while the Union of South Africa was attempting to promote a Rhodesian
rail connection through South West Africa with Walvis Bay as the rail head.
Later, the Angolan transport authorities attempted to interest the Companhia
Mineira do Lobito, with large iron ore properties in central Angola and the south,
in building Baia dos Tigres into a mineral port, but without success. The economic
future of the site is likely to be carefully re-examined again in the next few
years since the Rhodesian government has lately shown more interest in the
southern Angolan route. The southern railway has now reached Vila Serpa Pinto,
c. 740 kilometers (460 mi.) from the sea, and the recent completion of a 90-kilo-
meter canalization from the Lower Cunene has at last provided a permanent
water supply to the population of Baia dos Tigres. Furthermore, the completion
in 1960 of the great dam and hydroelectric power plant at Matala on the Middle
Cunene, with a prospective yearly output of 69 million kwh. to be raised shortly
to 95 million kwh., opens new vistas on the development of the Angolan south,
in which Baia dos Tigres is bound to share.



PORTO ALEXANDRE


The thin, 5-kilometer (3.2 mi.) long sandspit that curves eastward over the
anchorage of Porto Alexandre encloses one of the safest harbors of the Angolan
coast and the leading single fishing center of all Angola. The bay is of lesser
dimensions than Bafa dos Tigres, however, and an extensive shoal shelving into
shallow water along the bayside of the spit further restricts the area of useful
depths to about 5 square kilometers (2 sq. mi.) (Fig. 6, inset B). The 5-fathom line,
on the other hand, hugs the mainland quite closely, and it is along that part
of the shore that the port, the fishing vessel moorings, the older fish processing
plants and the town, sheltered from the desert sands by a plantation of casua-
rinas, are located. New fisheries may be as far as 4-5 kilometers away from the
port area.
Attempts at developing a strong fishing base at Porto Alexandre began in
the second half of the 19th century and continued with variable success until
the end of the Second World War. By that time, the site harbored a sizable
fishing fleet, almost entirely sail and oar manned. Fishing was done mostly









SEA FISHERIES AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


within the bay, and the fisheries employed 90 European and Euro-African fisher-
men and about 1,700 Africans. Nine plants produced some fishmeal and oil; there
were two small canneries, and a number of fish salting-and-drying works.
Purse-seiners were first introduced in the late forties. Increased use of motor-
ized craft and improvement of fish processing facilities proceeded through the
fifties, the largest number of fishing firms being added in 1951-54. In 1958, Porto
Alexandre and vicinity had 20 fishmeal-and-oil manufacturing plants, 57 salting-
-and-drying works, and four small canneries. Salt extraction was also carried on,
notably at Cabo Negro, and 6 small firms were active in boat construction and
repair. Fishing at sea alone employed 260 Europeans and 2,250 Africans, while
the total population of the town numbered 2,300 Europeans and Euro-Africans,
and 5,000 Africans, most of whom were fishermen, their family dependents,
or employees of fish processing plants. In accompaniment to the fishing indus-
try's expansion, total port movements rose from 16,102 tons in 1948 to a
peak of 35,000 tons in 1957, the overseas exports being 27,225 tons valued at
95,576 contos (U. S. $3.5 million). By 1960, however, the fishing crisis had caused
a decline of overseas exports to 16,789 tons and the total port trade value had
fallen to less than one-half of the 1957 level.
Unlike Baia dos Tigres, Porto Alexandre ships out both its fishmeal (14-19,000
tons yearly) and its fish oil (3-5,000 tons yearly) directly overseas. Half of the
sun-cured fish (3-5,000 tons) is also lifted directly in coastal trade to ex-French
or Belgian territories. The other half, destined for Angolan consumption or other
Portuguese African possessions has been shipped to the grimio warehouses at
MoCamedes, either coastwise or lately over a newly-built road connection. Over
the period 1955-60 the volume of coastwise movements has fluctuated from 3,200
to 7,800 tons, according to the vagaries of the catch.
The interest of the Gulf area of the United States of America in Angolan
fishmeal has been evidenced through the last decade by fairly regular appea-
rances of American vessels at Porto Alexandre. Other foreign-flag vessels call
with lesser frequency. Of the 18-28 deepsea ships entering the port yearly, the
majority are Portuguese, with the freighters of Sociedade Geral do Comercio,
Industria e Transportes leading. This shipping concern services the Antwerp-
-Rotterdam-Bremen-Hamburg sea route at three-weekly intervals and is instru-
mental in lifting almost two-thirds of all Angolan overseas exports of fish products.



MO!AMEDES

In contrast to the sandspit protected harborages of the two previous ports,
Mogfmedes site is a fairly wide-open bay with several inner indentations between
the shoal Baixo Amelia, and the rocky Ponta do Girail. Although iroffers a









SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


relatively good refuge to shipping except for winds from the northwest, there is
a certain resurgence of waters and useful anchorage is not extensive, about
4 square kilometers (c. 1 /2 sq. mi.) with epths of 5-20 fathoms (Fig. 6, inset C).
The depositional action of the Bero River has silted the eastern shore conside-
rably and dredging during recent deepwater construction affected only the bay
section between Ponta do Noronha and Fort Sdo Fernando.
Sporadic fishing was being practiced by some Portuguese in Angra do Negro
(the old name for Morcmedes Bay, also sometimes known as Little Fish Bay)
when a group of Portuguese immigrants from Brazil arrived in 1849, seeking to
establish a sugar-and-cotton growing colony. Both crops were much prejudiced
by the aridity of the land, and sugar cane was entirely abandoned in the last
quarter of the 19th century when a government decree prohibited the distillation
of rum from molasses for sale to Africans. But fishing activities had been streng-
thened by new arrivals of metropolitan Portuguese fishermen in 1860. Another
group of colonists was brought from Madeira Island under government sponsor-
ship in 1884 to establish several farming nuclei in the interior highlands around
the nascent settlement of Lubango (now the city of Sa da Bandeira). No perma-
nent communication existed between the Europeans on the coast and those
inland, however, until a link became indispensable to support the military pacifi-
cation campaign against several bellicose tribes on the border of South West
Africa in 1905-14.
With the progress of the narrow-gauge rail line through the declivitous sub-
-coastal ranges to the top of the plateau, Mocgmedes became the gateway to
most of southern Angola, receiving the status of a city in 1901. But economic
development lagged in the interior because the small European farmers settled in
the highlands, lacking investment capital and technological knowledge, clung
largely to a subsistence-type of agriculture, while local African pastoralist tribes
were not interested in the marketing of their extensive cattle herds (1). In 1938,
the traffic flow in both directions on the southern railway did not exceed 32,000
tons, most of the movement being in wood fuel and charcoal. Total overseas trade
at Mocamedes port for the same year was but 17,000 tons and 2,535 head of
livestock; half of the export movements totalling 13,500 tons, consisted of local
fish products ('").


(16) The development of Mogamedes' hinterland is treated at length in A. Albuquerque Felner,
Angola- ColonizaCdo dos planaltos e litoral do Sul de Angola, Lisbon, Ag6ncia Geral do Ultramar,
1940, 3 vols. See also G. Sousa Dias, A Cidade de Sd da Bandeira, Sa da Bandeira, Camara Mu-
nicipal, 1947, 114 p.; and chapter sCaminho de Ferro de MogAmedess in E. G. Albuquerque le
Castro, Portos e Transportes de Angola, Luanda, private edition, 1958.
(11) Information on the traffic over the Mogamedes railway and commodity trade at the
port is courtesy Direegco do Caminho de Ferro e Porto de Mogdmedes, Sa da Bandeira and
MoComedes.








SEA FISHERIES AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


In 1948, MocAmedes' overseas trade stood still at 21,000 tons only, but its
coastwise trade was growing in significance because of the role of the city in
collecting fish products from and distributing supplies to other regional fishing
settlements. Public utilities were installed and a deepwater port project was elab-
orated to fit in with Lisbon's plans for linking the Mogbmedes line with the
Rhodesia Railways. The 248-kilometer (154 mi.), 0.60-meter (2 ft.) gauge track
to Sa da Bandeira was relaid to 1.067 meter (3 ft. 6 in.) standard African gauge,
and a 125-kilometer (73 mi.) branch toward Chibia and Chiange was added.
Deepwater works were started in 1954 and the first alongside berth was inaugur-
ated in 1957.
Prior to 1957, all cargo transfers between ships at anchorage and the shore
had been effected by lighters working from an obsolete wooden jetty just east
of Fort Sao Fernando. Heavy silting around the sides had caused it to be leng-
thened to 73 meters (80 yd.) in 1952, and limited storage and cranage were con-
jointly provided to facilitate the handling of incoming construction materials for
the port and railway works. Anchorage for fishing vessels was at that time
located close to the town shore west of Fort Sao Fernando where some proces-
sing plants, at the rear of the beach, were connected with the small cargo terminal
by a short rail track, As the construction of the deepwater quay progressed, most
of the fishing fleet and fishery installations of Mogcmedes had to be relocated
away from the main harbor area and were moved to the southwestern outer
cove of Praia Amelia.
Some of the cargo loaded and unloaded at Mocgmedes continues to pass
over the old jetty, but the use of the new deepwater wharf, still undergoing addit-
ional construction, is steadily increasing. The marginal stone quay, 380-meter
(415 yd.) long with 10.50-meter (34 ft.) alongside depths is being extended by
another 660 meters (722 yd.), with lesser alongside depths, for the accommodation
of smaller ocean-going ships and coasters. A protruding pier may be built later
on' so that, when fully completed and equipped, the new terminal of Mocamedes
would have a handling capacity close to 1 million tons inclusive of petroleum
receiving facilities (c. 12,450 cubic meters of tankage) recently installed in Saco
do Girail.
Such a capacity is overwhelmingly in excess of Mogcmedes port movements
as they were recorded during the last five years. In 1957, the peak year, MogA-
medes' share in Angolan national overseas commerce was only 1.1 per cent in
export tonnage and 3.7 per cent in export value; in import tonnage it was 4 per
cent and in import value 8 per cent ("). Some 150 deepsea vessels registering
1,154,700 gross tons and 890 coasters entered the harbor in that year, but total
goods traffic was only 119,000 tons. Overseas exports were 22,100 tons and overseas


(18) I. S. van Dongen, aThe .Port of Luanda op. cit. pp. 17 and 32.









SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


imports 19,735 tons; the remaining traffic was in coastwise trade. Except for a
few hundred tons of hides and skins, processed meats, and beeswax from the
interior, all the overseas exports consisted of fish products (1"). Most of the
coastal movements likewise concerned the fisheries, though they also included
the moving from Mocamedes of some 4,600 head of southern cattle to Luanda
for slaughtering.
The southern rail line had for the same year a total traffic of 238,164 tons,
service movements inclusive. Except for wood fuel and locally-consumed maize,
it largely carried construction materials either for the completion of the Matala
Dam, the extension of the rail track toward the Rhodesias, or the needs of a
large Lisbon-sponsored agricultural settlement scheme in the valley of the Middle
Cunene, begun in the mid-fifties. When the fish catches dropped considerably in
the following years and overseas exports at Mog6medes reached a low of 13,600
tons in 1959, the continuing imports of construction items for these three pur-
poses had a somewhat cushioning effect on the declining trade of the port. The,
scarcity of fish in the south had a particularly adverse effect on Mogamedes
coastwise exchanges which decreased from 64,733 tons in 1951 to 34,023 tons
in 1960.
While seeking to tap the potential transit traffic of the Rhodesias to utilize
better the Mocamedes line and its rail head, Angola has also endeavored to
create a higher offering to the route from the domestic hinterland. A group of
E. C. A. experts was, for example, invited as early as 1950 to advise on the deve-
lopment in the South of a meat-packing industry on the basis of African-owned
livestock for export to other points of Angola, metropolitan Portugal, and other
Portuguese territories. A company was formed with that objective in 1957, but
the motive power necessary was not yet available. A cold storage plant has now
begun functioning at Mocmmedes where cattle are being slaughtered until a large
slaughterhouse can be built at Sa da Bandeira. Breeding of karakul lambs for
pelts, as in South West Africa, was also started in the early fifties about 60 kilo-
meters (c. 40 mi.) inland from Mogamedes. The agricultural development plans
both for European and African farmers in the Cunene valley are already resulting
in the production of tobacco and some other crop surpluses. Despite all these
prospects, the high capacity of the new Mog5medes terminal could hardly be
put to full use were it not for recent mineral discoveries of Sociedade Mineira do
Lombige, a subsidiary of Companhia Mineira do Lobito.
An official agreement signed in 1958 between the Angolan government and
those mining interests has laid the basis for the construction of two branches


(19) These exports comprised c. 15,000 tons of fishmeal, fish oil and sun-cured fish from the
Mogmmedes area proper (inclusive of satellite beaches of Praia Amelia to South; and Pipas, Mucuio,
Baba, Mariquita, and Chapeu Armado to North) and 6,635 tons of dried fish and fish oil shipments
handled by Mocamedes on behalf of Bala dos Tigres, Porto Alexandre, and Luciras.









SEA FISHERIES AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


to the southern rail line. One is to tap Cassinga, the site of extensive iron ore
deposits about 200 kilometers (125 mi.) east of Sa da Bandeira: the other is to
serve Cuima, southwest of Nova Lisboa where high-grade iron ore has been mined
since 1955. According to plans, several million tons of ore per year from these
sites would be loaded aboard ocean-going carriers at mechanized mineral facilities
in Mocamedes Bay. Whatever the final outcome of southern Angola's bid for
Rhodesian transit traffic may be, the future of Mocamedes port should see a
marked relative decline in the present importance of fish product trade in favor
of a heavy flow of national minerals.
Mogfmedes city has often been described as one of the least ((African) local-
ities in tropical Africa. It is true that its long-standing fishing vocation and the
agricultural pursuits of a group of Portuguese farmers in the oasis of the Lower
Bero River, where the olive, vine, and pomegranate are grown in small hortas
with underground water raised by windmills to the surface of the desert, remind
one intensely of the Mediterranean world. The European population in the city
exceeds the African by a ratio of 2 to 1 (20). Yet the growth of Mogamedes has
been nurtured essentially by profits from the sales of a typically African comm-
odity, sun-cured fish.
The transition from limited fishing. activities prior to 1950 to the fishing
boom of the mid-fifties was accompanied by intense urban construction of colorful
modern dwellings and a general embellishment of the city (Fig. 7). Petty com-
merce prospered. But the actual increase in local fishery plants was much less
spectacular than in other southern localities. Numerous heads of fishing firms
chose Mogcmedes, because of its greater amenities, for their family residence,
yet located their new fishing and fish processing establishments elsewhere on
the southern coast because of lower land costs and lack of restrictions on the
anchorage of fishing craft.


LUCIRAS

The large, deep harbor of Luciras (also known as Bafa de Santa Marta)
includes several coves east and northeast of Cabo de Santa Marta (Fig. 6, inset D).
Existing beach space in four of these Praia do Cesar, Lucira Grande or Lucira,
Vissonga, and Bonfim has attracted several fishery firms, all of which were
established prior to 1950. Despite good anchorage and abundance of fish in the
bay waters, there were no newcomers to the site during the prosperous fifties
because of local difficulties with fresh food and water supply (only Lucira Grande
has some brackish water) and because of the extreme isolation of this fishing


(2) In the 1950's there were c. 5,000 European and Euro-African residents and 2,510 Africans
in the Mogcmedes area. (Information courtesy Cdmara Municipal, Mocgmedes).









SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


outpost. The population of close to 2,000, of which about 150 are Europeans and
Euro-Africans, has been unable to obtain either the desired monthly calls by
regular coastal steamer, a weekly light-plane service such as that enjoyed by
Baia dos Tigres, or an improvement of the poor dirt trail to Mogamedes. The
small airstrip of Luciras is still used only in emergencies and by the private plane
of the grdmio of Mogcmedes.
In the two best years of its trade, 1957 and 1958, Luciras harbor had a cargo
movement of 7,500 and 8,500 tons of which about 4,000 tons were overseas exports.
By 1960, however, total traffic had fallen disastrously to 2,300 tons and overseas
exports to 650 tons. Only fishmeal is embarked directly, being lifted by the few
deepsea ships, mostly Portuguese, which visit the bay yearly; U. S. vessels call
at Luciras only very occasionally. Fish oil (100-200 tons) and sun-cured fish
(700-800 tons) are normally shipped to Mocamedes by local fishery craft which,
as at Baia dos Tigres, return with the fishermen's frugal necessities.



THE CENTRAL ANGOLAN FISHING REGION AND ITS PORTS

The central Angolan fishing region extends along the 515-kilometer (320 mi.)
long coast of the Benguela and Cuanza Sul districts, from the promontory of
Cabo de Santa Maria in the south to the mouth of the Longa River in the north
(Fig. 8). Prior to the administrative reorganization of Angola in 1951, is was all
within the limits of the Benguela Province ("). In contrast with the southern
fishing region, the fishery operations here are of outstanding significance only
in the coastal belt below Lobito. Even there, Cuio and to some extent Benguela
pursue other economic activities in addition to fishing. Nonetheless, Benguela is
the center of that fishing belt, being the seat of the central Angolan grdmio and
the collecting point for fish products forthcoming from smaller settlements.
A second fishing belt of lesser intensity is observed north of Lobito, between
Cabeca de Baleia and Porto Amboim. At Lobito proper, the fishing fleet is prim-
arily engaged in supplying fresh fish to the city's markets and some cooled
fish to the interior towns along the central Angolan railway.
In the fishing belt south of Lobito, four sub-zones can be distinguished:
A) between Cabo de Santa Maria and Cuio, B) between Cuio and Baia Farta,
C) the Baia Farta area, and D) the Benguela area and the beaches north of
that town.


(21) The regional fisheries existing at that time were well-described in P. Fragoso de Matos,
aA Evolugfo da Indiastria de Pesca na Provincia de Benguelas, Actividade Econ6mica de Angola,
Nos. 31-32, May-September 1952, pp. 87-133.









SEA FISHERIES AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


SUB-ZONE A

The general characteristics of sub-zone A are similar to those of the northern
part of the southern Angolan fishing region. Cliffs normally line the marine shore.
Outside of Baia dos Elefantes, Equimina, and Praia da Lua, the fishing hamlets
are mere footholds on constricted bayhead beaches. The yearly amount of rainfall
received along the coast is no more than 250 millimeters (10 in.), so there
is no crop cultivation. Communications with the rest of Angola are by sea; there
is only a rough land trail toward Benguela, via Dombe Grande, and no routes into
the interior.
In the peak year of catch, 1957, total marketed production of this sub-zone
in fishmeal, oil, and sun-cured fish was 11,900 tons or 18 per cent of the central
region's total. Lesser fishing settlements at Santa Maria, Praia da Meba, Binga,
and Noto accounted together for 1,720 tons consisting principally of dried fish.
Praia da Lua, the largest single producer and the seat of a newly-installed modern
fishmeal plant, had an output of 3,560 tons. Baia dos Elefantes and neighboring
Equimina, also with large processing works, accounted together for 6,730 tons.
Limagens and Nhime produced about 1,800 each (22).
Of all these fishing communities, only Baia dos Elefantes is regularly listed
in Angolan port statistics. This deep and fairly well-sheltered bay (Fig. 8, inset A)
was formerly used as a base by Norwegian whalers; now it is visited only occasion-
ally and solely by coasters. Most of local traffic is moved by the fisheries' own
craft. From a total of 436 tons in 1948, traffic rose to 4,300 tons in 1959. The
dearth of fish, however, caused it to fall to one-third of that volume in 1960.
Almost half of the outgoing fish products are sun-cured fish.



SUB-ZONE B

North of Cuio, the Atlantic shore is a long stretch of sandy beach, trending
first north-northwest and then northeast around Ponta das Salinas. Some small
fisheries existed there prior to 1938, but the present blossoming of fishing ham-
lets dates from no later than the early fifties. The concentration of fishing estab-
lishments is particularly striking on a 24-kilometer sand strip north of Ponta
das Salinas (Fig. 8, inset B), where offshore waters offer good depths and much
land space is available for fish processing and accessory salt works. Cuio bay
itself has a minimal significance in local fishing. The poor anchorage is beaten
by winds and rough seas, and the best-sheltered section is occupied by the small


(22) Production data for all central Angolan fisheries are due to the courtesy of Grdmlo dos
Industrials de Pesca e de seus Derivados de Benguela.









SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


jetty and rail terminal of Companhia de Agflcar de Angola which has extensive
estates of sugar cane and elaeis palm, about 20 kilometers inland. Raw sugar,
some oil palm products, and company imports move at an average of 21,000 tons
a year over their private, 0,60-meter (2 ft.) gauge rail system, while Cuio port
itself has an annual traffic fluctuating between 10,000 and 15,000 tons.
The combined marketed production of fishmeal, oil, and sun-cured fish reached
a peak of 11,300 tons for sub-zone B in 1957, or 7 per cent of the central Angolan
fishing region. Chamume, with five fisheries in operation and a yearly output
often rising to over one-third of the sub-zone's total, is the most important site.
Its preeminence should still increase in the future with the projected building
of a large and diversified processing plant. Tenda Grande, Camucfia, Chome and
Macaca had productions varying between 1,400 and 2,400 tons in 1957. The finished
local product is mainly fishmeal. The entire output of sub-zone I is routed to
Benguela either by sea in fishing boats or, less frequently, by truck over a coastal
road which is passable in dry weather; there are no local shipping points involved
in regular coastal or deepsea trade.



BAIA FARTA AREA


Baia Farta (bay of abundance) is the western segment of a greater coastal
indentation to which the bay of Ca6ta, to the east of Ponta das Vacas, also
belongs (Fig. 8, inset C). Good shelter, fair anchorages, and wide beach space
for the fishery buildings have favored the development of the former as a
leading central Angolan fishing harbor whose output is often close to that of
Benguela; Ca6ta is just a small fishing hamlet.
Dried fish began to be produced at Baia Farta on the eve of the First World
War; the settlement became permanent in 1928 and progressed rapidly through
1953-58 to a population of 2,150 Europeans and 2,300 Africans, dependent entirely
on fishing and fish processing. The proximity of Benguela and Lobito has, how-
ever, prejudiced the development of Baia Farta as a fish-product exporting port
in its own right. After a few attempts at direct loading aboard deepsea carriers
in the mid-fifties, local production began to be trucked to Benguela over a 32-kilo-
meter (20 mi.) road link. This road was reconstructed and partly asphalted in
1958-59, so that there is little likelihood of Baia Farta's changing in the future
to maritime traffic. There are no portuary facilities in the bay, save for various
fishery jetties and small yards for repair of fishing boats.
In an average good year, about 25,000 tons of live fish are landed at Baia
Farta, and the 18 fishery firms located there account for about 18-19 per cent
of central Angolan marketed fish products. This includes 6-8,000 tons of fishmeal,
600-700 tons of fish oil, and 1,500-2,000 tons of sun-cured fish. Of particular signific-









SEA FISHERIES AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


ance is the modern plant of J. Domingues Antunes comprising one of the two
largest fish canneries of Angola and a new section for freezing fish for export to
the urban centers of Mozambique. Future progress for the community of Baia
Farta depends not only upon improved fish catches but also upon provision for
adequate water and public power. To date, only brackish water is available for
processing and household needs; drinking water is bought at high cost in gallon-
-containers from Benguela. Although the Lobito-Benguela area has had, since
1957-58, an ample supply of electricity from the large hydropower plant at Bi6pio,
the fishery firms of Baia Farta still have to produce their own motive power,
as it is customary for outlying fishing localities.



BENGUELA AREA


The city of Benguela fulfills a role of even greater importance for the fisheries
of the central Angolan region than Mocamedes does for the south. The latter, as
has been seen, handles mainly the southern output of sun-cured fish; other
significant fishing harbors there have managed to establish their own maritime
overseas trade in fishmeal and oil. Food, fuels, and other supplies for the south-
ern fishing communities may be delivered in regular coastwise trade from
Luanda or Lobito as well as from the distributors at Mog6medes. Benguela, by
contrast, receives all the fish products of the main central Angolan belt south
of Lobito. The population of the small fishing communities and of Baia Farta
furthermore rely almost exclusively on the shopkeepers of Benguela for their
miscellaneous needs in food the city having long been a collecting center for
the produce of the central Angolan plateau -, for fuel, fishery gear, and other
goods. The excellent choice of imported merchandise in Benguela's stores is res-
pected even among the discriminating shoppers of the larger city of Lobito.
But Mocgmedes has the advantage of being able to handle local overseas exports
and imports, whereas Benguela's seaborne external trade is now entirely handled
by the deepwater wharfs of Lobito, c. 35 kilometers (22 mi.) away to the north
by rail or truck.
The rise of the town and shipping point of Benguela after its foundation in
1617 was favored chiefly by local land features and not by the maritime site.
The abrupt line of arid chalky cliffs, which marks that section of the central
Angolan coastline and stands right at the edge of the mainland shore in the bay
of Lobito, gradually moves inland to the south to form, first, the narrow lowland
of Catumbela and, then, a more extensive area of flats behind Benguela proper.
This section of the Angolan coast still experiences a great scarcity of water in
the dry season, annual rainfall being just over 250 millimeters (10 in.) but the









SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


Lower Cavdco and Catumbela river valleys never run dry. Extensive sugar cane
estates of Sociedade Agricola do Cassequel thrive under irrigation, as do a number
of small market-gardening farms in the vicinity of Benguela city.
The Catumbela and Cavaco valleys long served as the routes of penetration
from the Benguela lowland before construction of the Benguela Railway (C. F. B.)
connecting central Angola with Katanga and the Rhodesias. This was particularly
so in the 17th and 18th centuries when Benguela was famous as a point of slave
embarkation. At the inception of the rail line in 1902, it was still intended that
Benguela serve as its ocean terminal. However, it soon became apparent that the
configuration of the local shoreline and the shallowness of offshore waters (Fig. 8,
inset D) were hardly suitable for the creation of a leading African seaport able to
insure a satisfactory handling of prospective traffic from the Katanga mines.
Lobito, entirely undeveloped but with excellent marine features, was chosen instead
as the terminal port. Dwindling in importance, the harbor of Benguela managed
to hold on to some central Angolan trade until the end of the Second World
War; in 1938, for example, some 50,000 tons of domestic commerce passed through
it as compared with 135,000 tons at Lobito. Outgoing shipments were: maize,
wheat, beeswax, and hides collected on the central plateau by small Portuguese
middlemen situated at various rail centers such as Nova Lisboa; raw sugar from
the coastal lowland; and local fish products. Miscellaneous consumer goods
were imported by Benguela firms for distribution in the interior.
With the postwar acceleration of economic activities in Angola, all overseas
cargo bound to or originating in the central Angolan belt was booked via Lobito.
At present, deepsea vessels call very seldom in Benguela bay, generally for a
quick loading of a few hundred tons of local fish products. All port movements
are in regular coasters and fishery craft belonging to central Angolan fishing
settlements. Incoming cargo consists mainly of fish products from these settl-
ements (Fig. 9), logs from northern Angola for sawmilling at Benguela, and
empty containers. Outgoing cargo is primarily fishery supplies, fibrocement and
metal articles distributed by a local manufacturing plant, and sun-dried fish
moved by coasters for African consumption in Boma, Matadi, and Pointe Noire
in the two Congo republics.
Officially recorded coastal entries average 80-160 vessels per year, which
embark and disembark 3,000 to 6,000 tons of cargo annually. Unofficial estimates,
however, place the annual entries at 450-500 vessels handling about 12,000 tons
of cargo. Improvement of the present very dilapidated portuary facilities con-
sisting of two jetties, a customshouse, and the nearby warehouse of the grimio
has long been demanded. One wood-and-metal jetty, built in 1880, is 78-meter
(85 yd.) long and has a 3-ton crane. The other, 95-meter (104 yd.) long, was
built in 1930 of concrete, but has been weakened by the sea and is dangerous









SEA FISHERIES AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


to work on (23). Repeated delays in the construction of a new pier led to sugges-
tions that the head office and receiving facilities of Benguela's gremio be moved
to Lobito to enable easier overseas shipment of central Angolan fish products.
The suggestion was rejected because of greater distance from the small prod-
ucing centers, possible conflict of traffic in the harbor of Lobito, and the undes-
irable sanitary aspect of sun-dried fish storage.
The development of fisheries in the Benguela area occurred somewhat later
than in the Mocgmedes area. In 1957, the peak year of fish product exports,
the gremio of Benguela had some 80 fishery associates within the main central
Angolan fishing belt. Thirty of these were located in Benguela proper and at
the neighboring beaches of Cavaco, Capiendalo, and Catumbela, producing a total
of 18,550 tons of various types of processed fish. In subsequent years, the
Benguela area probably suffered the most intensely from the fish scarcity. By
1960, landings had declined to less than one-half of the 1957 level and the output
of fishmeal, the main local fish product, was down to one-fifth of the peak
period.
As at Mogcmedes, prosperity of the regional fisheries at Benguela during the
last twelve years has been reflected by an active urban construction and a gen-
eral increase in population. Population changes in the city were, however, more
complex than in the southern center. On the one hand, some Africans moved
to Lobito because of the decline or Benguela as a a port and the number of
civil servants decreased because of the shrinkage of Benguela-administered area
of Angola. On the other hand, new job opportunities were created for middlemen
serving the growing sisal plantations of the backcountry-particulary around
Vila Mariano Machado (Ganda)-and in the several small industries started in
the city. And, in the mid-fifties, the cheaper house rentals, better schooling
facilities and more relaxed pace of Benguela proved sufficiently attractive to
induce quite a few middle-income families of Lobito to locate there and commute
daily to work in Lobito. Expanding employment in the local fishing industry
was a final contributing factor to the consolidation of Benguela as Angola's
fourth population center with a sizable European community (24). In addition to
the interest in fishing itself, Benguela has been active in the construction and
repair of fishing boats; as many as 20 to 24 units up to 90 tons may be built
on the beaches of Benguela in a year.




(23) Information on Benguela port is courtesy Direcgdo dos Portos, Camlnhos de Ferro e
Transportes de Angola, Divisdo dos Estudos, Luanda.
(24) After Luanda, Lobito, and Nova Lisboa. In 1958, Benguela's population was 6,936 Europeans
and Euro-Africans, and 18,914 Africans (Information courtesy Cdmara Municipal, Benguela).









SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


LOBITO AND THE REGIONAL FISHERIES

Fishing at Lobito, as previously noted, caters chiefly to that city's fresh fish
demand, there being only a handful of small processing works whose output
in the peak year 1957 was about 1,500 tons of fishmeal, oil, and sun-cured fish.
Lobito's function in the Angolan economy is above all that of a major general
cargo terminal (also exporting bulk minerals and bulk maize) both for domestic
traffic and for extra-territorial transit trade (25); the port can hardly be classified
as a fishing harbor.
Nonetheless, Lobito plays an important role in the regional fishery picture.
First, the port wharfs handle on behalf of Benguela all the overseas exports of
fish products from the main central Angolan fishing belt together with the
overseas imports of items destined to those fishing communities. In 1948, the
outward movement of such fish products equalled about 2.5 per cent of all Lobito's
domestic outgoing traffic; in 1957, that movement rose to 18 per cent of all
Lobito's domestic port exports. Secondly, the Benguela Railway based on Lobito
is the carrier of central Angolan sun-dried fish shipments destined to the African
markets in central Angola, Katanga and the Rhodesias. Thirdly, on the outskirts
of Lobito is located a thriving salt-extracting industry (Fig. 10) which produces
22-25,000 tons annually and supplies much salt to regional fisheries for the prep-
aration of sun-cured fish. Fourthly, the capitdnia which regulates the fishing
operations in central Angola has its seat at Lobito. Fifthly, Lobito harbor is
becoming prominent in the building of modern fishing craft since the instal-
lation there of (Sorefame) engineering works in 1957.



NOVO REDONDO-PORTO AMBOIM FISHING BELT

Both Novo Redondo and Porto Amboim, on the north-central seaboard of
Angola, are essentially coffee shipping points and were fully described as such
in a previous paper (26). But, also, their offshore waters are quite abundant in
fish, due mainly to the width of the coastal shelf, and fishing has been carried
on sporadically there ever since the mid-17th century. By 1948, the sun-curing of
fish was well established in the area on a small scale. During the fifties, several
new fishery firms located in Quicombo Bay, south of Redondo, and to the north
of Porto Amboim and began manufacturing fishmeal.
Since these two ports are visited at regular intervals by some deepsea vessels
as well as by coasters, their fish products are usually shipped directly to over-


(;) See W. A. Hance and I. S. van Dongen, (The Port of Lobito ... ), op. cit.
(2) See I. S. van Dongen, (Coffee Trade ... ., op. cit., pp. 340-344.









SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


LOBITO AND THE REGIONAL FISHERIES

Fishing at Lobito, as previously noted, caters chiefly to that city's fresh fish
demand, there being only a handful of small processing works whose output
in the peak year 1957 was about 1,500 tons of fishmeal, oil, and sun-cured fish.
Lobito's function in the Angolan economy is above all that of a major general
cargo terminal (also exporting bulk minerals and bulk maize) both for domestic
traffic and for extra-territorial transit trade (25); the port can hardly be classified
as a fishing harbor.
Nonetheless, Lobito plays an important role in the regional fishery picture.
First, the port wharfs handle on behalf of Benguela all the overseas exports of
fish products from the main central Angolan fishing belt together with the
overseas imports of items destined to those fishing communities. In 1948, the
outward movement of such fish products equalled about 2.5 per cent of all Lobito's
domestic outgoing traffic; in 1957, that movement rose to 18 per cent of all
Lobito's domestic port exports. Secondly, the Benguela Railway based on Lobito
is the carrier of central Angolan sun-dried fish shipments destined to the African
markets in central Angola, Katanga and the Rhodesias. Thirdly, on the outskirts
of Lobito is located a thriving salt-extracting industry (Fig. 10) which produces
22-25,000 tons annually and supplies much salt to regional fisheries for the prep-
aration of sun-cured fish. Fourthly, the capitdnia which regulates the fishing
operations in central Angola has its seat at Lobito. Fifthly, Lobito harbor is
becoming prominent in the building of modern fishing craft since the instal-
lation there of (Sorefame) engineering works in 1957.



NOVO REDONDO-PORTO AMBOIM FISHING BELT

Both Novo Redondo and Porto Amboim, on the north-central seaboard of
Angola, are essentially coffee shipping points and were fully described as such
in a previous paper (26). But, also, their offshore waters are quite abundant in
fish, due mainly to the width of the coastal shelf, and fishing has been carried
on sporadically there ever since the mid-17th century. By 1948, the sun-curing of
fish was well established in the area on a small scale. During the fifties, several
new fishery firms located in Quicombo Bay, south of Redondo, and to the north
of Porto Amboim and began manufacturing fishmeal.
Since these two ports are visited at regular intervals by some deepsea vessels
as well as by coasters, their fish products are usually shipped directly to over-


(;) See W. A. Hance and I. S. van Dongen, (The Port of Lobito ... ), op. cit.
(2) See I. S. van Dongen, (Coffee Trade ... ., op. cit., pp. 340-344.










IRENE VAN DONGEN SEA FISHERIES IN ANGOLA


bI


Fig. 7 The central section of
Mog6medes transformed since
1948 into a modern city by the
southern fisheries development.














Fig. 9 Malas of sun-cured
fish from small regional fish-
ing settlements being received
at the Benguela jetty by the
personnel of local gremio.


I. S. v. D.


STAMP VI











IRENE VAN DONGEN SEA FISHERIES IN ANGOLA


Fig. 10- Lobito's salt extracting industry closely asso-
ciated with the regional fisheries. African women-
-workers headloading salt.


Fig. 12-A Mussurongo fisherman mends his nets and
sun-dries his catch atop an overturned canoe on a
beach at Luanda Island.



Fig. 11 ----

The northern Angolan fishing region. Inset gives the
detail of the Congo Estuary in the vicinity of the
fishing center of Santo Antonio do Zaire. (Adapted
from Portuguese hydrographic charts Nos 300, 304, 361).

I. S. v. D


STAMP VI1


' ..,-rL'T1 a4









SEA FISHERIES AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


seas or domestic destinations. Novo Redondo fisheries form a group under the
control of the grdmio of Benguela. Porto Amboim's fisheries, while being contr-
olled by the capitdnia of Lobito, are associated with the gremio of Luanda, a
fact which has led to numerous complaints on the part of local producers who
allege neglect by the northern office and difficulties in communications. This
situation certainly creates confusion in fishing industry data. Moreover, from the
geographical and economic viewpoint, Porto Amboim can hardly be considered
as belonging to the well-defined fishing and fish processing zone extending im-
mediately north and south of Angola's capital city.
In 1957, the firms in the vicinity of Novo Redondo had a total fish product
output of 2,8000 tons or 4 per cent of the central Angolan fishing region. Fish-
meal and body oil equalled about one-fifth of the port's outgoing traffic. A good
share of local sun-cured fish was absorbed in the hinterland of the terminal,
to which it was distributed by truck. The most up to date Angolan fishmeal
plant, that of J. Cardoso Matos & Cia, was then just starting operations in
Quicombo Bay. Porto Amboim's area, with 15 fishery firms, had a production
of 9,700 tons or about 15 per cent of the central Angolan total. In that particular
year, when coffee harvests were at a low level in Porto Amboim's hinterland,
the fisheries accounted for 38 per cent of the outgoing port traffic in volume
though for much less in value. In later years, fishmeal and oil have averaged
about 30 per cent of the port's exports. Some of the local sun-cured fish is still
regularly shipped to the former Belgian and French Equatorial Africa, but most
is moved inland over the Porto Amboim railroad or by truck to African workers
on the coffee plantations.
In contrast with the other Angolan areas there has been no serious decline
in catch along the Novo Redondo-Porto Amboim section of the national seaboard
in the late fifties; the industry has suffered only from low market quotations
for fishmeal. As a result, the coastal waters were sometimes visited by fishing
boats from further south, seeking better luck that could be obtained on their
own grounds. These incursions have been limited, however, by lack of proper
refrigeration aboardship, which prevented long-distance carriage of fresh-caught
fish to the processing bases in the Benguela area.



THE NORTHERN ANGOLAN FISHING REGION

The northern Angolan fishing region covers the remainder of Angola's coast
inclusive of the Cabinda Enclave's shores and of the Congo River Estuary
(Fig. 11). Subsistence fishing by Africans and occasionally by Portuguese is prac-
ticed in almost every coastal locality. Fish processing, on the other hand, is
carried on only in two areas: 1) the harbor and the vicinity of Luanda, and









SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


2) Santo Ant6nio do Zaire in the mouth of the Congo River. The latter was
formerly under the control of the capitdnia and the gr6mio of Luanda. But the
difficulties of land and sea communications for that small port and its progress
in fishing led to the creation in the mid-fifties of a separate capitdnia of Sazaire
for the Congo Estuary area.



LUANDA AREA


Fishing off Luanda's coast was of some importance even before the arrival
of the white man, being commonly pursued by native Mussurongos inhabiting
Luanda Island. The possibility of selling to the European colony founded in
1575 provided a further incentive to local fishermen through subsequent centur-
ies, and the Mussorongos continue to practice their craft to this day (Fig. 12).
Small European fishing firms began to operate in the Luanda area mainly
in the thirties and early forties locating at the neighboring township of Cacuaco,
at Samba, and on the inner margins of the great lagoon of Mussulo. When not
consumed fresh, their catch was converted to sun-cured fish to find ready accep-
tance in the capital's African food markets, such as Pameli, or in Luanda's
hinterland. In the late forties and fifties the number of fishing firms increased
in accompaniment to the rapid growth of the urban European and African
population. Fishing was undertaken along the seaboard as far northward as
Barra do Dande and Catumbo, and two or three fishmeal manufacturing plants.
were started. In 1957, the port of Luanda shipped out the first 7,000 tons of
locally-prepared fishmeal.
Officially published figures of fish landings would tend to be the least accur-
ate for the capitdnia of Luanda, both because of the scattering of small European
producers and because of unrecorded African catches. Although annual landings
have been placed at 7-8,000 tons for years (see Table I), estimates made by
the capitdnia itself of the actual catch were as much as 27,1000 tons of live
fish for 1960. That the capitdnia's estimates are closer to reality would be corr-
oborated by the sight of the ever-increasing fleet of drifters alongside the old.
coastal quay in Luanda's harbor and by a lengthening list of fishery firms in
the capital's trade directories. With respect to the nature of the catch, the
Luanda area is the only one in Angola that regularly lands a fair volume (about.
100 tons a year) of shrimp, spiny lobster, oysters, etc. which are absorbed by
the food-catering establishments of the city.









SEA FISHERIES AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


SANTO ANTONIO DO ZAIRE

This isolated locality has long been a Portuguese outpost on the left bank
of the Congo Estuary, opposite the shore of former Belgian Congo. It maintains
communications across the Estuary, via Banana, with the Cabinda District of
Angola, wedged between the former Belgian and French Congos, and ships out
whatever export commodities may be available in the vicinity of the township.
Usually these have been oilseeds, mangrove wood, and some sisal. Before 1940,
the small port (Fig. 11, inset) was an obligatory point of call for the Portuguese
vessels serving the western African coast. Moreover, foreign-flag ships used to
call in rather frequently, to lift oilseeds. New ship routings, changes in the
oilseed trade now directed to Portugal, and the dwindling of coastwise traffic
in petroleum fuels formerly carried on with Matadi, reduced the shipping mov-
ements at Santo Ant6nio do Zaire in the fifties to one-quarter of its prewar
level. Some 12-16 deepsea vessels and 60-80 coasters may still call in a year.
Two to four drifters and some manually-propelled craft have been operating
for the fisheries at Santo Ant6nio do Zaire; the product is consumed fresh or
sun-cured for export to settlements along the Congo estuary. The total volume
of fish landings is still small (see Table I), but that there are grounds for
further fisheries development in the area is amply illustrated by the activities
of the Congolese firm (Pemarco), which is established at Ango Ango, an append-
age of Matadi. In the late fifties, ((Pemarco) distributed about 5,500 tons of
fresh and frozen fish annually through the Congo basin.
One must note, however, that ((Pemarco) employs long-distance trawlers for
fishing, for which the present harbor facilities at Santo Ant6nio do Zaire would
be inadequate. This port has now two anchorages. First is the outer port about
3 kilometers from the town shore, where deepsea vessels are partly protec-
ted from the open ocean swells by Ponta do Padrio. Its holding grounds in
8-10 meter (25-30 ft.) depths are poor, however, and ships are rolled uncomfort-
ably by the strong currents in the Congo Estuary. Second is the interior port,
partially blocked by a silted bar permitting access only to craft drawing under
3-4 meters (10-13 ft.). Port equipment is restricted to a small wooden jetty
constructed in the 1930's, a 50-ton motor launch, and two sail barges. A govern-
ment survey team was recently assigned to study the site of Santo Ant6nio
do Zaire for possible port improvements, but work was disturbed by the start
of the 1961 hostilities in northern Angola.


CONCLUSION

This study has examined the three fishing regions, the fishing settlements,
the fish-product exporting ports, and the general growth of the fisheries in









SEA FISHERIES AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


SANTO ANTONIO DO ZAIRE

This isolated locality has long been a Portuguese outpost on the left bank
of the Congo Estuary, opposite the shore of former Belgian Congo. It maintains
communications across the Estuary, via Banana, with the Cabinda District of
Angola, wedged between the former Belgian and French Congos, and ships out
whatever export commodities may be available in the vicinity of the township.
Usually these have been oilseeds, mangrove wood, and some sisal. Before 1940,
the small port (Fig. 11, inset) was an obligatory point of call for the Portuguese
vessels serving the western African coast. Moreover, foreign-flag ships used to
call in rather frequently, to lift oilseeds. New ship routings, changes in the
oilseed trade now directed to Portugal, and the dwindling of coastwise traffic
in petroleum fuels formerly carried on with Matadi, reduced the shipping mov-
ements at Santo Ant6nio do Zaire in the fifties to one-quarter of its prewar
level. Some 12-16 deepsea vessels and 60-80 coasters may still call in a year.
Two to four drifters and some manually-propelled craft have been operating
for the fisheries at Santo Ant6nio do Zaire; the product is consumed fresh or
sun-cured for export to settlements along the Congo estuary. The total volume
of fish landings is still small (see Table I), but that there are grounds for
further fisheries development in the area is amply illustrated by the activities
of the Congolese firm (Pemarco), which is established at Ango Ango, an append-
age of Matadi. In the late fifties, ((Pemarco) distributed about 5,500 tons of
fresh and frozen fish annually through the Congo basin.
One must note, however, that ((Pemarco) employs long-distance trawlers for
fishing, for which the present harbor facilities at Santo Ant6nio do Zaire would
be inadequate. This port has now two anchorages. First is the outer port about
3 kilometers from the town shore, where deepsea vessels are partly protec-
ted from the open ocean swells by Ponta do Padrio. Its holding grounds in
8-10 meter (25-30 ft.) depths are poor, however, and ships are rolled uncomfort-
ably by the strong currents in the Congo Estuary. Second is the interior port,
partially blocked by a silted bar permitting access only to craft drawing under
3-4 meters (10-13 ft.). Port equipment is restricted to a small wooden jetty
constructed in the 1930's, a 50-ton motor launch, and two sail barges. A govern-
ment survey team was recently assigned to study the site of Santo Ant6nio
do Zaire for possible port improvements, but work was disturbed by the start
of the 1961 hostilities in northern Angola.


CONCLUSION

This study has examined the three fishing regions, the fishing settlements,
the fish-product exporting ports, and the general growth of the fisheries in










SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


Angola. In recent years, the Food and Agriculture Organization (F.A.O.) of
the United Nations has given considerable attention to the exploitation of sea
resources in underdeveloped areas and was notably instrumental in assisting
such African countries as Ghana and Nigeria to create modern fishing indust-
ries both as a contribution to local food supply and as a possible way of diver-
sifying exports. Offshore conditions for fishing are much more favorable in
Angola than in many other western African territories, mainly on account of the
Benguela Current, and that potential warrants a greater development.
Desirable improvements, which have already been proposed by individuals
and organizations connected with the fisheries, are: consolidation of some small
processing works into cooperative plants, imposition and maintainance of quality
standards for national fish products, a partial moratorium on certain debts, an
improved credit structure, better living conditions for fishermen and their fam-
ilies, and adequate representation for Angola at the international conferences
considering stabilization of prices on the world market. Attention must also be
urgently given to a scientific survey of fish habits in that part of the Atlantic,
and to the introduction of deepsea trawling which would permit the Angolan
fishing industry to draw on the sea wealth farther offshore, rather than be
confined to the sole exploitation of coastal waters.



SUMARIO

A PESCA NO MAR E OS PORTOS DE PESCA DE ANGOLA


A pesca e as indOstrias que dela derivam destacam-se no conjunto da economic de Angola,
representando uma fonte important do comdrcio exportador. Ao long do litoral da Provincia
encontram-se varios tipos de agrupamentos de pescadores e instalag6es fabris, bem como trts
grandes regi6esA pesca.
Primeiro, umas pequenas aglomeracoes localizadas num recorte favorAvel da costa ou numa
praiazinha aco:hedora, cor uma meia dizia de empresas e um nlmero reduzido de embarcag6es
de pesca. Na falta de comunicagoes regulars, quer per terra quer por mar, corn o mundo exterior,
estes centros produtores de derivados da pesca transportam a sua produc5o para o principal centro
regional em barcos pesquerrcs pr6prios. Ha, em segundo lugar, agrupamentos maiores de fAbricas e
frotas, geralmente estabelecidos nas baias de boas caracteristicas hidrogrAficas que permitem as visi-
tas de navios de long curso e suficiente tonelagem para movimentar directamente para os mercados
externos a producdo de derivados da pesca. Em terceiro lugar, apresentam-se tr6s principals centros
regionals: Mogmredes so Sul, Benguela ao Centro, e Luanda ao Norte- donde se oriental, control
e comanda today a accio regional das inddstrias de pesca, per meio de gr6m&os corn a assistincia
das capitanias dos Servigo Maritimos da Provincia. Alfm disso, hA umas cidades-portos ou vilas
ribeirinhas do mar onde a colheita de pescado visa quase irnicamente o abastecimento de peixe
fresco A populagao resident.
A colonizargo piscat6ria foi iniciada no literal sul de Angola por naturals do Algarve,
no comeco do s6culo XIX, estendendo-se mais tarde A part central da costa. A indfstria sofreu
muitas vicissitudes at6 A formaago em 1934 das primeiras associag6es regionais, os sindicatos
A expansao modern da pesca angolana comegou s6 depois da Segunda Guerra Mundial, enoan
A .j pr a florescente indfistria piscat6ria da Uniao da Africa do Sul e da Africa
S do Sul-Oeste.
De 26.100 toneladas em 1938 a quantidade de pescado desembarcado em Angola passou para
113.000 toneladas em 1948 e subiu at6 420.500 toneladas em 1956, ficando s6 50.000 toneladas abaixo











SEA FISHERIES AND FISH PORTS IN ANGOLA


do nivel de Portugal metropolitan no mesmo ano. Em 1957, Angola conseguiu o lugar de 19.0 pro-
dutor mundial de peixe fresco, imediatamente depois da Holanda, e de 2.0 produtor na Africa.
As exportag6es totais de derivados da pesca atingiram, naquele ano, 123.500 toneladas avaliadas
em 498.000 contos, ccupando o segundo lugar no quadro dcs valores de exportagao da Provincia,
em que o primeiro lugar pertenceu ao cafe. O conjunto das indflstrias de-een~ser~ ocupava
tamb6m nessa 6poca o segundo lugar no quadro das indfistrias transformadoras angolanas pela
importancia total do capital investido declarado, seguido da indfistria aoucareira.
Contudo, depois de 1957, as pescas angolanas acusam um retrocesso de ano para ano, des-
cendo a 252.000 toneladas em 1960 videe mapa I). Uma crise s6ria castigou a indistria, juntando-se
a escassez de peixe as perspectives desanimadoras nos mercados estrangeiros cor uma forte com-
petiglo por part dos outros paises produtores e uma quebra de cotacoes para a farinha de peixe,
o mais important derivado da pesca em Angoia. A situagdo agravou sOr'amente as dificuldades
de muitos industrials assoberbados pelos compromissos financeiros e operando muitas vezes com
m6todos rudimentares e pouco rendosos. As entidades governamentais tiveram por isso que encarar
uma remodelagfo da indfistria, promovendo plans para a concentragao de pequenos produtores
em coperativas e criando em 1961 o Institute das Pescas de Angola para amparar t6cnica e cien-
tificamente as pescarias.
A abundAncia do peixe nos mares de Angola, assirn como nos mares imediatamente ao sul,
explica-se pelas condig6es favorAveis a alimentaqco da fauna maritima, que tmr origem na extensfo
submarine local da plataforma continental africana e na corrente de Benguela. As tonelagens
colhidas ao long da costa angolana sao inferiores, por6m, as colheitas da Unido da Africa do Sul
em razdo duma superficie menor da plataforma e ainda pelo facto da corrente de Benguela se des-
viar da costa na maior part do ano, aproximadamente na latitude da cidade de Bengue'a. Metade
do pescado desembarcado anualmente na Provincia 6 de sardinha, pois em certos anos o carapau
domina. Outras esp6cies importantes comercialmente sao o acharros, o cachucho, a cavala,
o atum e a r mmermao. No literal do Norte'pescam-se as lagostas, os camaroes e alguns moluscos.
A antiga pesca a baleia esta agora ao abandon.
A motorizagfo da frota pesqueira desenvolveu-se a partir de 1948; no entanto Angola nao tem
ainda navios apetrechados para a pesca no alto mar como a Africa do Sul. As artes de pesca
incluem traineiras, arrastBes, sacadas, armag6es a valenciana e linhas manuals e motorizadas.
Geralmente os pescadores habilitados sao europeus e euro-africanos, porque s6 no Norte de Angola
os indigenas tem a tradigco da faina do mar. A maioria da moo-de-obra empregada na preparagao
do pescado nas fabricas 6 africana.
A list dos produtos que saem das instalacges fabris compreende a farinha de peixe, o 6leo
de peixe, o peixe salgado e seco, as conservas e uma quantidade muito restrita de peixe refri-
gerado. Nos iltimos anos da d6cada 1950-60, 81 % da colheita total erak utilizadi~para farinacso,
16 % transformads l em peixe seco e cerca de 2 % eram consumidos frescos. At6 1955 os
Estados Unidos da America eram o maior comprador da farinha; hoje a Am6rte esta prin-
cipalmente interessada na pequena producao provincial de conservas, enquanto a Alemanha e a
Holanda passaram a ser bons clients p ao farinha. Os destines principals das mmalass de peixe
seco tem sido desde ha muito tempo of igo belga e o Congo frances, e recentemente as outras
provincial portuguesas na Africa.
A region piscat6ria angolana do Sul estende-se para norte da foz do Cunene ao Cabo de
St.a Marta, abrangendo todo o litoral do distrito de MoeAmedes. A faina do mar reveste-se duma
importancia primacial nesta zona do desert e semi-deserto costeiro onde o fraquissimo total annual
de chuvas proibe a prAtica regular da agriculture e faltam explorag6es mineiras. A bala de
MoqAmedes e praias vizinhas, Porto Alexandre, Baia dos Tigres e a bala das Luciras sfo os grande
locals de pesca. Embora Mogcmedes represent o centro administrative regional, Porto Ale-
xandre tern mais fabricas e embarcao6es e produz nuns anos mais de metade da quantidade
regional de derivados de peixe. O povoamento gradual da Baia dos Tigres, realizado no decurso
de 95 anos por gente excepcionalmente intrepida, acaba de receber o apoio duma canalizaqco
de Agua potAvel proveniente do Cunene. Possivelmente as vantagens maritimas do seu porto
ajudd-la-io a conquistar um dia uma poslgiao d destaque na corrente do trAfego angolano para
os paises de al6m-mar. As Luciras, corn quatro 1 -a dar abrigo As pescarias, tmr demonstrado
pouco progress desde 1950, nao possuindo Agua potavel para uma populacgo resident de mais
de 2.000 pessoas e padecendo da carOncia de services de transportes terrestres e a6reos para
liga-las aos centros civilizados.
Apesar da exist6ncia de uma via ferrea para o interior, destinada A drenagem da produ-
gdo agricola do Sul pelo porto de Mogcmedes, o com6rcio portuArio continue a apoiar-se nas
exportag6es de peixe. No entanto desenha-se no future uma substituigQ.o significativa dos
produtos da pesca por minerios de ferro dos jazigos de Cassinga e Cuima, uma vez que os ramais











SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAFIA DE LISBOA


do caminho de ferro, projectados para o escoamento da produgco mineira, sejam construidos.
A bafa de Mogcmedes foi apetrechada recentemente corn um cais modern para a atracagAo de
navios de longo-curso.
A regiao central da pesca em Angola abrange o litoral dos distritos de Benguela e do
Cuanza Sul, entire o Cabo de St.a Maria e a foz do Rio Longa. A zona primacial das actividades
piscat6rias estende-se para o sul da cidade de Lobito, sendo Benguela o foco do movimento dos
produtos de pesca carregados em barcos pesqueiros das empresas estabelecidas na Baia dos
Elefantes, Equimina, Praia da Lua, Chamume e localidades menores. Benguela 6 tamb6m o maior
e o mais antigo centro de pesca nesta zona, embora a Baia Farta chegue ocasionalmente a uma
produgAo quase igual. Mas o comrrcio hist6rico da bala de Benguela cor os pauses de al6m-mar
findou depois da Segunda Guerra, em virtue do desenvolvimento sempre crescent do porto de
Lobito, e todos os derivados da pesca recolhidios pelo gr6mio de Benguela sdo transportados agora ao
Lobito por camiro ou por caminho de ferro para serem embarcados nos navios de a:to mar.
No Lobito ha poucas fbricas, mas estA 1l Jocalizada uma indafstria active de extraccao de sal,
suprindo as necessidades regionals de salgas de peixe. Tamb6m se constr6em traineiras e outras
embarcag6es de pesca.
Uma segunda zona de actividade piscat6ria na regiAo central estende-se para o norte do
Lobito entire Cabega da Baleia e os arredores de Porto Ambolm. Novo Redondo e Porto Amboim
funcionam ambos como portos de escoamento da produgfo cafelcola do interior. As Aguas ribei-
rinhas, bastante f6rteis em pescado, tem atraido, por6m, pescarias de diverse categoria, incluindo
uma grande fAbrica em Quicombo.
A regiao piscat6ria do Norte cobre o resto do litoral angolano, sendo a pesca commercial
concentrada nas vizinhangas de Luanda e em St.o Ant6nio do Zaire. No passado a produglo
das pescarias de Luanda era toda em peixe seco destinado a alimentar a populagao africana da
capital' de Angola. Desde 1957 exporta-se uma quantidade limitada de farinha de peixe. St.o Ant6nio
ter boas possibilidades de desenvolvimento piscat6rio se melhorar as condicves naturals do porto
e desenvolver a sua frota. Uma firm congolesa explore a riqueza piscat6ria desta parte do Atlan-
tico corn navios capazes de pescar muito long da costa.
Alm das vArias medidas JA solicitadas ao Governo pa:as organizacSes interessadas no apro-
veitamento rational dos mares de Angola, imptem-se urgentemente o exame da possibilidade de
apetrechamento duma frota pesqueira angolana para operar no alto-mar, e o estudo minucioso dos
hAbitos migrat6rios e reprodutivos das esp6cies de pescado que se encontrem quer nas Aguas costeiras
cuer numa zona a certa distAncia da Costa da Provincia.
I. v. D.




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