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THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST
ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY
CEYLON AND INDIA
WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF BORNEO, THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
THOMAS W. KNOX
"THE YOUNG NIMRODS" "CAMP-FIRE AND COTTON-FIELD" "OVERLAND THROUGH ASIA"
"UNDERGROUND" "JOHN" "HOW TO TRAVEL" ETC.
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1881, by
HARPER & BROTHERS,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
All rights reserved.
T HIS volume completes the series of "The Boy Travellers in the Far
East." It attempts to describe Ceylon and India, together with
Borneo, the Philippine Islands, and Burmab, in the same manner that
the preceding volumes gave an account of Japan, China, Siam, Java,
Cochin-China, Cambodia, and the Malay Archipelago.
Frank and Fred have continued their journey under the guidance
of Doctor Bronson, and the plan of their travels is identical with that
previously followed. The words of the last preface may be repeated
in this: "The incidents of the narrative were mainly the experiences
of the author at a recent date; and the descriptions of countries, cities,
temples, people, manners, and customs are nearly all from his personal
observations and notes. He has endeavored to give a faithful account
of Ceylon, India, Burmah, and the Philippine Islands as they appear to-
day, and trusts that the only fiction of the book is in the names of the
individuals who tell the story."
As in the foregoing volumes, the narrative has been interrupted oc-
casionally, in order to introduce matters of general interest to juvenile
readers. The author hopes that the chapters on meteors, sea-serpents,
and outrigger boats will meet the same welcome that was accorded to
the episode of a whaling voyage, in the first volume, and the digressions
concerning naval architecture, submarine explorations, and the advent-
ures of Marco Polo, in the second.
The publishers have kindly allowed the use of illustrations that have
appeared in previous publications, in addition to those specially pre-
pared for this volume. The author has consulted the works of pre-
vious travellers in the Far East to supplement his own information,
and is under obligations to several of them. As in the last volume, he
is specially indebted to Mr. Frank Vincent, Jr., author of The Land of
the White Elephant," for his descriptions of Burmah, and for the use
of several of the engravings relative to that country. Other authorities
have been generally credited in the text of the work, or in foot-notes to
the pages where quotations are made.
In their departure from Bombay, Frank and Fred have left the Far
East behind them; but, as they are yet a long way from home, they can
hardly be said to have finished their travels. It is quite possible that
they may be heard from again, in the company of their good friend, the
Doctor, and may allow us, as they have heretofore, to glance at their
letters to friends at home.
T. W. K.
CHAPTER I. PAGE
DEPARTURE FROM JAVA.-VOYAGE TO BORNEO.......................................... 15
AN EXCURSION IN BORNEO.-STORY OF RAJAH BROOKE .................................. 24
ARRIVAL AT MANILLA.-FIRST DAY ON SHORE.. .................................... .... 37
AN EVENING PROMENADE.-VILLAGE LIFE NEAR MANILLA. ............................. 48
AN EXCURSION TO THE INTERIOR.-BUFFALOES AND AGRICULTURE ......................... 58
HUNTING IN LUZON.-CROCODILES AND GREAT SNAKES ... ................................ 71
HUNTING THE DEER AND WILD BOAR.-RESULTS OF THE CHASE ............................... 83
SHOOTING BATS AND IGUANAS.-VISITING THE HOT SPRINGS ................................ 94
AN EXCURSION AMONG THE MOUNTAINS.-RETURN TO MANILLA.-AN EARTHQUAKE............ 104
FROM MANILLA TO SINGAPORE, AND UP THE STRAITS OF MALACCA.-A DAY AT PULO PENANG. 121
SHOOTING-STARS AND THEIR CHARACTER.-A REMARKABLE VOYAGE .......................... 133
FIRST DAY IN BURMIAH.-THE GOLDEN PAGODA ....................................... 145
A VOYAGE UP THE IRRAWADDY.-SCENES ON THE GREAT RIVER ... ...... ... ......... 156
UP THE IRRAWADDY.-MANDALAY.-AUDIENCE WITH THE KING OF BURMAH.. ................ 170
LEAVING BURMAH.-CAPTURING A SEA-SNAKE.-STORIES OF THE SEA-SERPENT ............... 182
ARRIVAL IN CEYLON.-CINGALESE BOATS.-PRECIOUS STONES OF THE EAST.. ................ 195
SIGHTS IN POINT DE GALLE.-OVERLAND TO COLOMBO.................... .. ................. 207
CHAPTER XVIII. PAGE
SIGHTS IN COLOMBO.-RAILWAY JOURNEY TO KANDY .................................... 219
AROUND KANDY.--BOTANICAL GARDENS AND COFFEE PLANTATIONS.-ADVENTURES WITH SNAKES 230
TRAVELLING IN CEYLON.-ENCOUNTER WITH A BUFFALO.-FROM KANDY TO NEWERA-ELLIA.... 245
SCENERy AT NEWERA-ELLIA.-ASCENT OF ADAM'S PEAK................................... 257
FROM CEYLON TO INDIA.-A MARINE ENTERTAINMENT.-THE STORY OF ROBINSON CRUSOE..... 269
SIGHTS IN PONDICHERRY.-THE FRENCH EAST INDIES.-VOYAGE TO MADRAS................. 282
"SIGHTS AND SCENES IN MADRAS.-THE INDIAN FAMINE ...................................... 293
FROM MADRAS TO CALCUTTA.-THE TEMPLE AND CAR OF JUGGERNAUT .................... 306
SIGHTS AND SCENES IN CALCUTTA..................................................... 322
CALCUTTA, CONTINUED.--DEPARTURE FOR BENARES...... ................ ................... 337
NORTHWARD BY RAIL.-OPIUM CULTURE.-ARRIVAL AT BENARES.. ........................ 348
SIGHTS IN BENARES.-THE MONKEY TEMPLE.-SARNATH.-BUDDHISM ...................... 359
BENARES TO LUCKNOW.-SIGHTS IN THE CAPITAL OF OUDE.-THE RELIEF OF LUCKNOW...... 373
LUCKNOW TO CAWNPORE AND AGRA.-TAJ MAHAL AND FUTTEHPOOR SIKRA.................. 390
IN AND AROUND DELHI.-DEPARTURE FOR SIMLA AND THE HIMALAYAS ............. ........ 406
FROM UMBALLAH TO SIMLA.-EXCURSION AMONG THE HIMALAYAS. ......................... 419
HUNTING-SCENES IN INDIA.-PURSUIT OF THE TIGER ON FOOT AND WITH ELEPHANTS ......... 431
FROM SIMLA TO ALLAHABAD AND BOMBAY.-A GREAT HINDOO FESTIVAL.-CASTES........... 443
A SHORT HISTORY OF INDIA.-THE SEPOY MUTINY.-PRESENT CONDITION OF THE ARMY IN INDIA 457
BOMBAY.-THE TOWERS OF SILENCE.-CAVES OF ELEPHANTA.-FAREWELL TO INDIA.......... 469
An Indian Scene..........................................................Frontispiece
Map........................ ...................................... To face page 15
Outward Bound.......................... 15 A Stampede of Buffaloes................ 64
Chinese Horse-shoeing .................. 17 Shooting a Buffalo..................... 66
The British Isles and Borneo Compared .... 19 A Native Plough in Luzon ............... 67
Ascending the River....... ......... 20 A Buffalo Yoke........................ 68
A Fruit-store in Sarawak. ................... 21 Native Wooden Plough and Yoke for Oxen. 68
A Dyak Youth......................... 23 The Comb Harrow ..................... 69
Scene on the River ....................... 24 Tagal Indians Cleaning Rice.......... 70
Leaf Butterfly in Flight and Repose. ....... 26 Cascade near Jala-Jala ................. 72
A Floating Island....................... 28 The House at Jaia-Jala ................ 73
Bridge of Bamboo in Borneo ............. 30 Stacking Rice in the Philippine Islands ... 74
Remarkable Beetles in Borneo............ 31 The Philippine Locust ................. 75
American Missionary Station in Borneo..... 35 A Native Woman Seized by a Crocodile.... 77
Sunset in the China Sea................. 36 A Huge Captive ....................... 78
Map of the Philippine Islands............... 37 A Wild Boar Attacked by a Boa-constrictor 80
Scene on Manilla Bay ....................... 38 Fight with a Great Snake ............... 81
Coast Scene in the Philippine Islands ...... 40 A Stag-hunt in Luzon with Horses and Dogs 82
Barge and House on the Pasig .............. 41 A Howling Monkey.................... 84
Old Bridge at Manilla. ..................... 43 Deer in a Tropical Forest ............... 85
A Manilla Dandy........................ 43 Pond Scene in Luzon................... 86
A Native Girl in Manilla.................. 44 A Pavava .................... ........ 88
Native Amusements ..................... 45 Skull of Babirusa...................... 90
Spanish Galleons on their Way over the Pa- Frank's Prize-a Butterfly............... 92
cific................................. 46 Fred's Prize- the Mud-laff............... 93
Mouth of the Bay of Manilla............... 47 Indians Hunting Turtles' Eggs ........... 96
View of Manilla from the Binondo Suburb.. 48 How a Bat Sleeps ........................ 98
A Creole in European Dress.............. 50 The Iguana ........................... 98
Spanish Metis .......................... 50 Paul P. de la Gironiere............... 99
Chinese Metis .............. ........... 51 The Girl with the Long Hair............. 100
Spanish Metis of the Wealthy Class........ 52 A Primitive Loom in the Philippine Islands 102
Palm-tree in the Botanical Garden............ 53 The Banana ............................ 103
Life in the Water ....................... 55 An Alcalde and his Constable ............ 105
Horns of the Buffalo .................... 56 An Avenue of Palm-trees ............... 106
Native House in the Suburbs of Manilla.... 57 A Village Clock ....................... 108
A Group of Natives of Manilla............. 58 A Volcano in Repose.. .... .... ..... 109
View on the River Pasig ................. 60 Indians of the Interior ................. 110
Scene on the Shore ...................... 62 Travelling through the Forest in Luzon.... 111
A Bamboo Fishing-raft .................. 63 Street Scene during an Earthquake....... 112
Destructionl of Messina in 1783 .......... 115 Coast of the Andaman Islands............ 183
Italian Peasants Ingulfed by Crevasses.... 116 Sea-snake of the. Indian Ocean and Fox-
A Submarine Eruption .................. 117 shark............................. 185
United States War- steamer "Wateree," Restored Fossil Reptiles of New Jersey.... 188
Stranded at Arica in 1868............. 119 Cuttle-fish Attacking a Chinese Junk....... 189
On the Way to Singapore ................ 121 Captain Lawrence de Ferry's Sea-serpent... 190
Bay on the Coast of Sumatra............. 123 Head of Captain M'Quhae's Serpent....... 192
Coast Scene in the Straits of Malacca...... 124 Captain M'Quhae's Sea-serpent............... 193
Palm-trees in Pulo Penang.................. 127 Outrigger Boat from Ladrone Islands...... 196
A Suburban Cottage ................... 128 Double Canoe, Friendly Islands............ 197
A Penang Butterfly................ ....... 129 Double Canoe, Society Islands............ 197
Humming-birds......................... 130 Feejee Island Canoe .................... 198
A Travelling Blacksmith ............... 131 American Modification of a Savage Boat... 200
First View of the Meteor ............... 133 Scene on the Coast of Ceylon ............ '202
Explosion of the Meteor................. 134 Ruins of a Portuguese Church ........... 203
The Santa Rosa Aerolite ................... 136 A Young Native at Breakfast. ........... 204
Melbourne Aerolite...................... 137 View of the Coast near Galle Harbor...... 206
Structure of the Texas Aerolite........... 138 A Street in Point de Galle ................ 207
River-boats in Burmah ................. 140 An Army of Ants on the Move........... 208
Out on the Waters..................... 140 Entrance to the Cinnamon Gardens ....... 210
A Wreck at Sea.................... .. 141 Donkey and Pack-saddle. ................. 213
A Flying-fish ......................... 142 Gathering Cocoa-nuts.................... 214
Landing on the Beach.................. 144 A Young Cocoa-palm ...................... 215
Creek Leading from the Rangoon River.... 146 Nests of the Toddy-bird.................. 215
Great Shoay Dagon, or Golden Pagoda.... 148 Residence of a Wealthy Foreigner ......... 217
Statue of Buddha in the Golden Pagoda.... 150 Scene on the Coast near Colombo......... 218
"A Burmese Woman ........... ....... 152 A Business Street in the "Black Town"... 220
"A Burmese Judge and his Attendants..... 153 Moorish Merchants of Ceylon............. 221
Burmese River Scene ................... 154 A Suburban Scene ..................... 222
Native Fort Captured by British Troops.... 155 A Group of Tamil Coolies ............... 223
Native Boat on the Irrawaddy ........... 157 Cingalese Men........................ 224
Native House near the River........... 158 Cingalese Women...................... 225
Malay "Sampan," or River-boat.......... 159 A Cheap Comb ....................... 226
A Burmese Temple ................... 161 Cashew-nut...................... .... 226
A Composite Crew........ ........ ..... 164 A Coolie at Prayers ................... 227
An Eastern Water-fall.................. 165 The Wild Forest...................... 228
Monastery at Prome. .................... 166 Young Palms in the Botanic Garden ....... 231
Mrs. Judson Visiting her Husband in Prison 168 India-rubber-tree. ..................... 232
Mrs. Judson Teaching a Class of Native Residence of a Coffee-plante .............. 233
Converts... .............. .......... 169 View on a Coffee Estate ................ 234
Barracks on the Frontier.. ................ 170 Plantation Laborers .................. .236
View of Mandalay, Capital of the Kingdom Shed on a Coffee Plantation ............. 237
of Ava, or Burmah.. ............. 172 Pleasures of a Morning Walk............ 238
Boat Drawn by a Bullock ................ 173 Fight between a Hawk and a Snake ..... 240
The Royal Palace at Mandalay... ......... 177 Fight between a Black Snake and a Rattle-
Copy of an Old Burmese Painting......... 178 snake .............................. 241
Mountain Gorge on the Upper Part of the The Lotos Flower .......................... 243
River........... ................. 180 The Last of the Giants ................. 247
Tank Scene in Ceylon .................. 248 A Madras Palkee ....................... 304
Elephants at Home ..................... 249 Inhabitants of Pooree ....................... 307.
Tying up an Elephant .................. 250 'Plan of the Temple of Juggernaut........ 309'
Elephants under a Banyan-tree .......... 251 Jaganath and his Brother and Sister...... 310
"A Native Treed by a Buffalo Cow and Calf. 252 A Hindoo Devotee. ............. .... 312
"A Dangerous Predicament .................. 253 The Car of Juggernaut ................. 314
Native House and Children.... ........... 255 A Tropical Morning at Sea.............. 316
A Tropical Fern....................... 257 Bayou in Saugur Island..... ...... ... 317
Waiting for the Races................. 259 Diamond Harbor....................... 319
Scorpion................................ 261 Scene on theHoogly.................... 320
Centipede... ....... ................. 261 River Scene below Calcutta ........ .... 322
A View in the Foot-hills ................. 262 Bumboat on the Hoogly.................... 324
Natives of the Forest .............. .... 263 Landing-place at Calcutta .................. 325
Temple on Adam's Peak ................ 265 Street Scene in Calcutta................. 326
Tropical Growth near Ratnapoora ........... 266 A Native Nurse ............... ......... 328
A Morning Caller ..................... 267 The Maidan, or Esplanade, of Calcutta..... 331
Evening Visitors..................... 268 A Collision ............................ 332
Temple and Trees at Tuticorin.. ......... 269 An Unpleasant Occurrence .............. 333
A Fashionable "Hackery "............... 272 Harbor of Calcutta ..................... 335
Eastern Mode of Feeding Oxen............. 273 The Burning Ghaut at Calcutta .......... 338
Part of a Hindoo Pagoda .... ........... 275 Parasitical Vines on a Tree..............339
Robinson Crusoe......................... 277 The Cotton-tree........................ 340
The Shipwreck ........................ 277 Bengalee Water-carriers ............... .342
Landing of Robinson Crusoe............... 277 Native Woman of Bengal. .............. 344
Crusoe's Equipment ..................... 278 Part of Black Town, Calcutta ............ 345
Crusoe and his Gun ..................... 278 Railway Travelling in India ............ 350
Crusoe and his Pets .................... 279 Coolies Going to the Poppy-fields......... 351
Crusoe's Castle ........................'. 279 Shop of an Opium Merchant .............. 353
Arrival of Friday............ ........... 280 Coolies Cooking ....................... 354
Portrait of the Hero. ....................... 280 Scene on the River .. ................. 855
A Sail! a Sail! ........................ 281 Boatmen Ashore..................... 356
Going Ashore ....................... 282 Cooking Breakfast ..................... 357
Natives in the Surf ........................ 283 A Window in Benares ..................... 360
Scene near Pondicherry.................... 284 Part of the Water Front of Benares ...... 362
House in the European Quarter .......... 286 Temple at Manikarnika.................. 364
An Indian Woman ..................... 287 Mosque of Aurengzebe the Great........... 366
An Indian Man........................... 287 A Street near the Great Mosque........... 367
A Serpent-charmer................... 288 An Elephant Ride..................... 369
Masullah-boats in the Surf at Madras ..... 290 Buddhist Tower at Sarnath............... 370
A Catamaran.......................... 291 Carving on the Tower at Sarnath......... 371
Hindoo Native of Madras .................. 292 Water-bearing Ox at Benares ........... 372
Western Entrance of Fort George ........ 293 A Jeweller of Benares .................. 373
Governor's Residence, Fort George........... 294 A Pious Pilgrim ...................... 375
Hump-backed Cow ........................ 295 Religious Beggars at Benares ............ 376
Madras Dhobies, or Washermen.......... 296 The Imambara at Lucknow............. 378
A Madras Bungalow .................... 297 The Martiniere ........................ 380
A PankhA-wallah ..................... 299 Dyers at Lucknow...................... 381
Native Merchant of Madras .............. 301 The Residency at Lucknow ............... 383
Merchants of Lucknow .................. 386 Tiger-hunting from Mycham, or Shooting-box 433
An Old Sikh.......................... 387 An Awkward Predicament.............. 435
Low-caste Inhabitants of Cawnpore....... 391 Procession of Tiger-hunters on Foot....... 436
The Memorial Well at Cawnpore.......... 392 A Grapple with a Tiger ................. 438
View of the Taj Mahal from the Garden... 395 A Narrow Escape ......................... 439
Gate-way of Garden, Taj Mahal .......... 396 A Wild Boar Attacking a Panther......... 441
Front Vew of the Taj Mahal............ 397 Hindoo Fakirs Cutting themselves with
The Princess of Sflah Jehan............. 398 Knives ............................. 444
Gate-way of Secundra Garden. ........... 400 A Pilgrim Carrying Religious Relics....... 446
Tomb of the Emperor Akbar at Agra...... 402 Moslem School at Allahabad...... ........ 448
Entrance to the Great Mosque of Durgah.. 403 Hindoo Robbers in Prison............... 450
The Panch Mahal ......................... 405 Thugs Awaiting Trial at Allahabad....... 451
Scene on the Chandni Chowk, Delhi....... 407 Vestibule of the Great Temple at Ellora ... 453
Merchants of Delhi................. ..... 409 Interior of Temple Hewn from the Rock... 455
The Dewan-i-khas, Delhi................. 411 Mural Sculptures at Ellora ....... ....... 456
Jamma Musjid, or Great Mosque.......... 413 Railway Viaduct in the Mountains. ....... 457
The Kuttub Minar....................... 415 Hindoo Girl of High Caste................ 459
The Iron Pillar ....................... 416 A Native Prince of India, with his Sons .... 462
Trees in the Court-yard of the Mosque..... 417 Reception of Travellers ................. 464
The Dawk Garry....................... 419 Trial of a Mutineer................... 466
Horseback-ride in the Himalayas ......... 420 English Officers in India ................ 467
A Bareilly Dandy...................... 421 Bombay and its Environs............... 470
A Ton-Jon ........................... 422 A Parsee Merchant..................... 471
View of the Himalayas.................. 423 Parsee.School Children.................. 473
Gathering Tea-leaves in India........... 425 A Parsee Tower of Silence, near Teheran.. 475
A Model Cook ......................... 426 A Bunder-boat...................... 476
Climbing-plant in the Himalayas.......... 427 The Caves of Elephanta ............... 478
Door of a Temple, and Praying-machines... 428 Cotton Market at Bombay .................. 479
Saddle-oxen in the Himalayas ............ 429 Serpents Dancing to Music.............. 481
A Thibetan Dog....................... 430 Farewell to India...................... 483
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THE BOY TRAVELLERS
THE FAR EAST.
DEPARTURE FROM JAVA.-VOYAGE TO BORNEO.
T HE conference over the route to be followed from Batavia was long
and animated. Frank and Fred each proposed at least a dozen plans,
but as fast as a scheme was suggested it was overthrown in consequence
of unforeseen difficulties.
While they were in the midst of their discussion, Doctor Bronson left
the room, and soon returned with a newspaper in his hand.- The boys
looked up, and by the smile on his face they at once understood that he
held the solution of the puzzle. So they pushed aside the maps, and
waited for him to speak.
"' We start to-morrow morning," said the Doctor, "and must send our
heavy baggage away in an hour."
16 :THE .BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
"All right," responded the boys, cheerily; "we can be ready in half
that time if necessary," Fred added, as he rose from the table, and was
followed by Frank.
True to their promise, they were back again in less than half an hour,
and declared that all was ready. The Doctor had been occupied with his
trunks while the boys were preparing their effects, and as he had more to
attend to than they, he was not quite as prompt. But before the end of
the hour he joined them, and then the porter of the hotel was summoned
to take away the baggage and see it safely on board the steamer.
"Now we shall know where we're going," said Frank, "and I suppose
the Doctor's newspaper has something to do with our movements."
Quite' correct," the Doctor responded; "it has very much to do with
Then hre opened the sheet, which was nothing more nor less than a
paper printed at Batavia, in the Dutch language. He directed their at-
tention to an advertisement, and they were not long in spelling it out
and divining its meaning. It was to the effect that a steamer was to sail
early the next day for Borneo and the Philippine Islands. The Doctor
explained that he was fortunate enough to find the captain of this vessel
in the office of the hotel, and had arranged for them to take passage on
her to, Sarawak and Manilla.
"I understand," said Frank, "Sarawak is in Borneo, and Manilla is
the capital of tle Philippine Islands. We shall visit both those places."
"Yes," replied Doctor Bronson, "the steamer goes first to Sarawak,
where she has a lot of cargo to leave, and perhaps some to take, and then
she proceeds to Manilla. If you study the map you will see that Sarawak
is almost on a direct line from Batavia to Manilla."
They looked at the map, and found it as the Doctor had stated. Fred
Swished to learn something about Borneo, but the Doctor suggested they
would have plenty of time for that on the voyage, and they had better
devote the evening to a farewell drive through Batavia. The boys at
once assented to the proposal, and as soon as a carriage could be called
they were off.
Their drive led them along the broad avenues of Batavia, and close to
the banks of one of the canals where a number of boys were enjoying an
afternoon bath. Then they passed through a part of the Chinese quarter
where Frank and Fred were greatly amused at the operation of shoeing
a horse. The unhappy beast was tied between a couple of upright posts,
and partially suspended from'a horizontal beam, so that he had very little
chance to kick or struggle. Evidently he had given up all idea of resist-
FAREWELL DRIVE THROUGH BATAVIA. 17
-- ---- --- --
ance, as he stood with his eyes half closed, and presented a general appear-
ance of resignation.
Our friends returned to the hotel in good season for dinner, which
contained the inevitable curry to which the boys had become accustomed
during their sojourn in the tropics. Frank asked if they would bid good-
bye to curry in leaving Java; he was assured that the article was destined
to figure on their bill of fare for an indefinite period, as the countries they
were to visit were inhabited by eaters of curry no less than were Siam
They went early to bed, and by daylight on the following morning
were up and ready for departure.
They rode in a carriage to the boom," or pier, where a small boat
was waiting to take them to the steamer. They went out by the same
canal that they entered on their arrival, and by seven o'clock they were
on board the Osprey, that was to be their home for several days. The
captain was there allead of them, and before eight o'clock they were out-
18 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
ward bound, and leaving behind them the Island of Java, with its dense
population and its wealth of natural products.
They watched the receding coast as long as it was in sight. Grad-
ually it faded to a mere line on the horizon, and then disappeared alto-
gether; but hardly had it vanished before they were in sight of Sumatra.
Allday they were within a few miles of its shores, and the boys longed
greatly to make an exploration of this little-known region. They were
obliged to be content with what they had learned of Sumatra on their
journey to the southward, and recalled with pleasure the stories told
them by their fellow-passenger on the steamer between Singapore and
The adventures of our young friends, Frank Bassett and Fred Bron-
son, up to the time of their departure from Java, have been told in pre-
At the end of the first day the Osprey bore away to the eastward,
near the island of Banca, famous for its mines of tin; and on the follow-
ing morning the coast of Borneo was in sight. The boys declared their
inability to discover any difference between Borneo and Sumatra when
seen from the deck of a ship, as the general appearance of the land was
"Very naturally that is the case," said the Doctor. "Both islands
are tropical, and have the same characteristics in the way of mountains
and valleys, and nearly all the trees of one are to be found on the other.
The animal products are nearly alike, though the naturalists have found
certain things in Borneo that do not exist in Sumatra, and vice versa.
Now, tell me, please, which is the larger island of the two ?"
"Borneo is the larger," Fred answered; "it is about 850 miles long
by 650 broad in its widest part, and is estimated to contain nearly
300,000 square miles. Sumatra is 200 miles longer than Borneo, but
only 250 wide, and its area is thought to be not far from 160,000 square
"Quite right," responded the Doctor; "and now it's Frank's turn.
What are the populations of the islands?"
"The book we have just been reading," was the reply, "says that
Sumatra has between three and four millions of inhabitants, while
"The Boy Travellers in the Far East.-P-iarts I. and II. Adventures of Two Youths in
a Journey to Jaipan, China, Siam, and Java, with Descriptions of Cochin-China, Cambodia, Su-
matra, and the Malay Archipelago. By Thomas W. Knox. Published by Harper & Brothers,
New York, 1880-'81."
THE EXTENT OF BORNEO. 19
Borneo has less than 3,000,000; therefore, Borneo must be very thinly
"To give you an idea of the density of the population, we will make
a comparison. The Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland," Doctor
Bronson continued, "has more than 30,000,000 of inhabitants, with an
area no larger than that of Sumatra, and far less than that of Borneo.
Mr. Wallace, in his 'Malay Archipelago,' says the whole of the British
Islands might be set down in Borneo, and would be surrounded by a sea
of forests. Here is a map in which Borneo and the British Isles have
been drawn to the same scale, and you see that Mr. Wallace's statement
is entirely correct."
Several minutes were passed in the examination of the map, and the
youths confessed their surprise at the information it gave them. They
had no idea Borneo was so large, or, as Fred expressed it, that Great
Britain was so small. The
Doctor set then laughing o
with the story of the Ainer- T
ican who visited England
and said he liked the coun-
try very much, but was
afraid to go out in the b.
evening through fear that i
he would walk off into the
It was a voyage of little
more than two days from
Batavia to Sarawak, the port
in Borneo to which the Os-
prvey was bound. The time
was passed by our friends
in conversation concerning
the curious land they were -
about to visit, and certain _-
features of its history. About
noon of the thirdd day from _
Singapore they were off the
entrance of the Sarawak Riv- THE BRITISH ISLES AND BORNEO COMPARED.
er, and, as the steamer was
small, and of light draughlt, they were not delayed in passing the bar.
Several native craft were on the stream, but they did not see a single
20 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
foreign-rigged vessel until they entered the river and were well on their
way to the town.
Here is what Frank wrote in his note-book:
"The town of Sarawak is about eighteen miles from the sea, and the
voyage up from the bar reminded us of the voyage from the mouth of
the Menam to Bangkok. The banks are lined with tropical trees of all
kinds, and sometimes the foliage is so dense that it would be next to im-
possible to go through it without a hatchet. The houses are built over
the water in many instances, and they have platforms in front where you
can land from small boats just as you land at a wharf from a ship. By
.J~--_-_ -- _-y ~- :-- .-. ... .....
--- -- --: --,-
--=_ --_ .....
ASCENDING THE RIVER.
this arrangement the people are under no expense for drainage, as the
water carries everything away as soon as it is thrown overboard. But
the Doctor says the river abounds in snakes, just as the Menam does; and
they come into the houses without waiting to be invited.
"The town contains about 25,000 inhabitants. They are mostly Ma-
lays and Chinese; the former have come from other parts of the archi-
pelago, and the latter from the southern provinces of China, like their
countrymen in Siam. The original inhabitants of the country do not
get along very well witl the Chinese and Malays, and the most of them
prefer to live farther in tlhe interior. There is nothing very remarkable
A WALK THROUGH SARAWAK. 21
about the place, and you can see the most of it without going on shore,
as it stands on the bank of the river, and none of the houses are very
far from the water. We went ashore in a small boat rowed by Malays,
and they made it go very fast with their strong arms at the oars: these
Malays are excellent sailors and boatmen, and are preferred to any other
nationality of the East, with the exception of the Chinese. Some of the
ship captains say they would rather have a Malay crew than a Chinese
one, as the Malays are less likely to become scared in a storm, and forget
how to do their work.
"We took a walk through the principal street of Sarawak, and saw
lots of men who were doing nothing, and evidently didn't wish to be
employed. The most of the hard work is performed by the Chinese, and
our observation is that they are the most industrious people of the Far
East, and the best at a trade. The commerce here, apart from that which
A FRUIT-STORE IN SARAWAK.
.22 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
the English control, is mostly in Chinese hands, so the Doctor tells us,
and some of their merchants have made large fortunes. They trade in
anything they can buy and sell, and are satisfied with small profits when
they cannot get large ones, and some of their shops manage to get along
with very few goods. We passed a fruit-store, where there were two or
throe boxes of oranges visible near the door, and a large bunch of ba-
nanas was hung outside for a sign,or perhaps to allow them to get ripe
in the open air. One old fellow was smoking on the front step with his
cat behind him, and three others were inside talking something we could
not understand. They all appeared to belong to the establishment,
but the whole stock of fruit, as far as we could see, wasn't worth ten
"The houses are not very substantial, and the Doctor said that an
ordinary building in Sarawak ought not to cost over fifty dollars, while
a cheap one, sufficient for protection against the weather, could be built
for five or ten. There are a few substantial buildings; one is called
the Government House, and is where the governor and his officials live;
and there is an English Protestant church and mission. There is a con-
siderable population of Mohammedans here, and they have a mosque
where they go to worship every Friday. Friday, you know, is the
Moslem Sunday, and on that day the faithful followers of Mohammed
are unwilling to do any hard work; Fred says it must be Sunday all
the time for a good many of them, if we are to judge by their perpetual
idleness. But there isn't much inducement for a man to work here,
when a very little will support him. He does not need any thick
clothes where there is no winter, and if it were not for the rules of po-
liteness some of them wouldn't wear any clothes. at all.
"We should have been surprised to see the English flag flying over
the place if we had not already learned something about the history of
Sarawak. The town was formerly known as Kuching, and to this.day
some of the natives call it by that name. The river was the resort of
the Malay pirates, who used to plunder all the coast and make it impos-
sible for the natives to live there. The natives are called Dyaks; they
seem to belong to both the Mongolian and Malay races, as they have the
oblique eyes of the former, with the complexion and hair of the latter.
They are said to be an honest and inoffensive people, and for this reason
they were robbed by the Malays in former times, and are now cheated
by both Malays and Chinese. They have a good deal of ingenuity about
them, and some of their work would do credit to civilized people.
"We saw a party of them climbing a tree just'back of the town to
HOW THE DYAKS CLIMB TREES. 23
get some cocoa-nuts; it was straight as an arrow, and about two feet in
diameter, and hadn't a branch for at least forty feet. How do you sup-
pose they did it ?
"They made some pegs of pieces from a bamboo pole; then they
drove one of them into the tree about three feet from the ground, and
another the same distance higher up. Next they took a long pole, also
of bamboo, rested one end of it on the ground, and lashed it firmly to
the two pegs. Then a man stood on the lowest peg and drove another
in at about the level of his face, and as soon as it was driven he lashed
the pole to it. So he went on and
on, and when the pole gave out an-
other was passed up and lashed in
the same way as the first. It took
them about fifteen minutes to make
a very nice ladder-one side being
tle tree, and the other the bamboo
)ole; 'and as soon as they had got
to the lower branches of the tree,
the nuts came tumbling to the
ground, and the man scrambled
down after them. The whole thing
appeared very easy and simple, but
it would take an American some
time to accomplish it.
"The Dyaks are -very fond of
ornaments, and where they can af- i
ford it they cover their necks with
beads and brass wire, and decorate .
their arms with large rings of brass DYAK YOUTH.
or silver. Most of them wear gay-
colored handkerchiefs on their heads, and it is easy to distinguish them
from the foreign Malays by this mark alone. We saw one Dyak youth
of ten or twelve years, who had an intelligent face and bright, flashing
eyes; lie belonged to one of the hill tribes, and had come down from his
home in the mountains with his father to see the strangers on the coast.
His hair floated over his shoulders in great masses, and his ears had rings
in them that looked as though they weighed a pound. His only cloth-
ing, apart from the rings and beads and handkerchief, was a strip of cot-
ton cloth around his waist; and he carried a spear to indicate that he
belonged to one of the best families of the country."
24 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
AN EXCURSION IN BORNEO.--STORY OF RAJAH BROOKE.
O UR young friends greatly desired to visit the interior of Borneo; but
as the Osprey would only remain a couple of days at Sarawak, and
they wished to continue in her to Manilla, they were obliged to abandon
the idea. The Doctor engaged a native boat to take them a short dis-
SCENE ON THE RIVER.
tance up the Sarawak River, so that they could see something of the great
island away from the sea, and they gladly accepted the proposal. Half
a loaf is better than no bread," said Frank, and his opinion was promptly
___--- = -::. ._--- -- -
_1.~--~ ---------- 7-
__ --"" __ -. --- ---i- ---_ ----=I-
-- --- --_~ ----_~-- .<---
echoed by his cousin. The captain of the Osprey agreed to wait for
them until the afternoon of the second day, and they promised to be
back early enough to allow the ship to get to sea before dark.
A Dyak village about thirty miles above Sarawak was their destina-
A RIVER JOURNEY IN BORNEO. 25
tion; the crew of the boat was composed of half a dozen natives with
strong arms, and as they had promise of a liberal payment on condition
of making a rapid journey, they applied all their strength to the oars.
Luckily, they were favored by the tide, and by a breeze blowing up
stream, and very soon after getting under way they spread the sail of
coarse matting and laid their oars at one side. The Dyaks along the
coast are excellent sailors, but their boats are not built after the most
approved models of naval architecture; under the best circumstances,
they rarely make more than six miles an hour, and the most of them
are satisfied with three or four. It took about seven hours of rowing
and sailing for our friends to reach'the village; but the time passed
pleasantly, as there was an abundance of things of interest on the shore,
and each bend of the stream revealed something new. The forest was
dense, and contained several varieties of trees they had not yet seen, and
there was an apparent abundance of animal and insect life. Every few
minutes the boys would catch sight of a bright-winged bird or a gaudy
butterfly, and they managed to secure several specimens of the latter.
While they were halted for a few moments under a tree that over-
hung the water, Fred's attention was attracted by a butterfly that fluttered
among the leaves for a moment, and then seemed to disappear like the
harlequin in a play. While he was looking for it there came another and
then another, and each of them in turn vanished like the first. Frank
was as much excited as Fred over the strange phenomenon, and asked the
Doctor what could have become of the butterflies, as he was certain they
had not flown away, and lie could not see them among the leaves.
Look closely at the leaves," said the Doctor, and perhaps you will
"I've looked at every leaf," Fred answered; but there is no butterfly
to be seen."
"I've found one," said Frank, as he took what appeared to be a leaf
between his thumb and forefinger.
Sure enough, he had secured his prize, and then he pointed to another,
which Fred immediately captured. Then the Doctor explained that they
had found the famous Leaf Butterfly of Borneo, that has the peculiarity
of resembling almost to perfection a dead leaf of the tree he inhabits.
" You observe," said he, that his two sets of wings have a dark line run-
ning along them from point to point that exactly resembles the midrib
of a leaf, and there are lines running out from this centre that correspond
to its veins. When the wings are folded, the lower end of them imitates
the stem, and touches the twig when the butterfly is at rest; and their
26 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
upper extremity is pointed in exact imitation of the point of the leaf. It
is the habit of this butterfly to settle where there are several dead or
partly withered leaves, and you must have very sharp eyes to distinguish
him from one of them."
While the Doctor was talking the boys observed that their specimens
were not exactly alike, and they called his attention to their discovery.
LEAF BUTTERFLY IN FLIGHT AND REPOSE.
The latter explained that it was difficult to find an exact resemblance in a
dozen or more specimens, and they appeared to vary about as the leaves
themselves were varied. It was a provision of nature for the protection
and preservation of the butterfly, as he was enabled to escape many of his
enemies by adapting his appearance to his retreat.
SEEING. AN ORANG-OUTANG. '27
"I suppose," said one of the boys, it is on the same principle that
rabbits in our own country are brown in summer and white in winter.
Many a bunny has saved himself from the hunters by changing from
brown to white when the snow falls."
The two butterflies were carefully preserved along with those already
captured, and as soon as the men were rested the boat moved on. Sud-
denly one of the Dyaks called out, Mias! mias!" and pointed to the top
of a tree where there was an animal of considerable size swinging from
one limb to another, and apparently enjoying himself. Our friends look-
ed, and the boys hardly needed the Doctor's explanation that "mias" is
the Malay name of the famous orang-outang.
What a splendid fellow he is," said Frank, "and what a pity we can-
not capture him le looks as though he was six feet high at least."
"The gentleman we met as we went down the coast of Sumatra told
us that none had ever been caught more than four feet and two inches
high," responded Fred, "but this one certainly appears as large as a full-
"Probably a measurement would tell a different story," Doctor Bron-
son remarked. You know," he added, "that the largest fishes are the
ones that are not caught, or get no farther than being hooked and lost."
By this time the mias had seen the boat and taken alarm for his safe-
ty; with one swing he dropped from the limb where he had been exer-
cising, and disappeared in the forest. The boys wished to land and pur-
sue him, but the Doctor told them it would not be of the least use to do
so, as he could easily elude them. "He can travel faster," he continued,
"among the limbs of the trees than you could possibly go on the ground;
he swings from one tree to another, then runs to the farther side along
the horizontal limbs, and is ready for another plunge. We will stick to
the river, and lose no time in reaching our destination."
At a bend in the stream they saw some cattle grazing on a little
island a short distance from a large tree that stood with its roots in the
water. The Doctor said the island was in all probability a floating one
that was attached to the bottom of the river by the long roots of the
plants growing on it, and so flexible that it could rise and fall with the
tide, or with the floods and droughts of the river. These floating isl-
ands," he. explained, are by no means uncommon in tropical countries;
there are many in the Amazon and its tributaries, and some of them are
miles in extent. They are generally attached to the river-bottom, but oc-
casionally they become separated and float away with the current, and in-
stances are not unknown of cattle being swept out to sea on them."
28 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
A FLOATING ISLAND.
When they reached the village, whither they were bound, the boat was
run to the bank, and the three travellers stepped on shore. The natives
came down to meet them, and stood at a respectful distance till the orang-
kaya, or head-man, made his appearance. He was dressed in gay-colored
robes, and his head was wrapped with at least half a dozen handkerchiefs
of silk and bandanna; Fred thought a dozen would not be too large a
guess for the brass rings about his arms, and Frank thought they must be
a heavy burden to wear all the time. The boys and men were similarly
adorned, and Frank thought he had found a partial solution of the ques-
tion, "What becomes of all the brass pins ?" If they were used for mak-
ing Dyak ornaments, the consumption must be enormous.
The chief led the way to the head-house," or strangers' lodging,
which is in every Dyak village, and the whole population followed to
have a look at the visitors. The boys observed that the Dyaks were gen-
erally well formed, and had more intelligent expressions on their faces
than the majority of the natives of Java or the Malay peninsula, and there
was a playful manner among the younger portion that greatly amused
them. The Doctor said the Dyak youths had a great number of games
and sports that were quite unknown to the rest of the Malay race, and in
this particular they resembled the Chinese and Japanese. They have
spinning-tops similar to our own, and they have a game very much like
SCENES IN A DYAK VILLAGE. 29
" base ball," in which they display a great deal of skill. Many of their
sports are of an athletic character, and they are constantly exhibiting
their ability to run, jump, throw the spear, toss heavy stones, and perform
other feats that require more or less muscle. In this way their strength
is developed, and they lay the foundation of the endurance for which
they are celebrated.
The head house proved to be a circular building about thirty feet
in diameter; it stood on posts, and had a platform running all around
it, where persons could sit in the daytime or sleep at night. The head
house is not only a lodging-place for strangers, but it serves as the coun-
cil-chamber for any public business, aud is the dormitory of many of the
young men, especially in time of war, when they are liable to be sum-
moned at short notice. Sometimes it is the largest building in a village,
and the inhabitants take their turns in keeping it in order.
There was no one to act as interpreter between the strangers and
the people of the village, and the conversation was conducted bysigns.
Where neither side could say anything, the talk was necessarily brief:
the Doctor made the chief understand that he had brought nothing to
sell, and did not wish to buy rice or anything else; and therefore lie
had no occasion to occupy their time. Then the chief ordered the
strangers to be served with boiled rice and tea, and he also commanded
some of the young men to exhibit their skill in the various Dyak games.
An hour was spent in this sport, and then the conference came to an
end; the display on the part of the Dyak youths consisted of the games
already mentioned, together with pulling at a rope somewhat after the
manner of the well-known "tug of war." The rope was made of barn-
boo shreds tightly twisted, and its rough surface furnished an excellent
hold for the hands of the contestants.
When the sports were over, the Doctor and the boys took a stroll
among the rice-fields in the neighborhood of the village; and by the
time it was ended the sun was setting. Near the village they crossed
a bridge of bamboo, the first of the kind the boys had ever seen, and
they examined it with a good deal of curiosity. A couple of the longest
and strongest bamboos were thrown over the stream and bound together
with thongs of bamboo-leaves twisted together, and a third bamboo
served as a hand-rail. From an overhanging tree three or four smaller
bamboos were attached to steady the bridge and keep it in place, and it
was further upheld by bamboo poles fastened into the bank. The Doc-
tor said there were hundreds of these bridges in Borneo, especially among
the mountains; and though they were liable to tremble under the feet
30 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
of those who crossed them, they were quite secure. The Dyaks find the
bamboo no less useful than do the inhabitants of other Eastern countries,
r. y -
BRIDGE OF BAMBOO IN BORNEO.
and it would be a serious calamity to them if they were suddenly de-
prived of it.
They slept in the head house at night, and were off by dawn on their
return to meet the Osprey. The Doctor told the boys that if they had
had time they would have visited the diamond-fields of the upper Sara--
wak, where some very fine stones are occasionally secured. The diamond
washings are mostly conducted by Chinese, but they are not said to be
very profitable; now and then a rich deposit is found, but for the most
part the fields on the Sarawak do not more than pay the expense of
working them. In other parts of Borneo they are richer, and some very
large diamonds have been discovered.
While descending the river, the Doctor called attention to a climbing
plant that completely covered a tree overhanging the water. "It be-
longs," said he, "to the family of the pitcher-plants, but is not a very
One of the boys asked what the pitcher-plant was.
"Its name indicates its character," replied the Doctor. "It has a
cup, or pitcher, hanging down very much as a pitcher does when you
hold it by the handle; some of the plants are literally covered with these
pitchers, and they will generally be found full of water, even when there
has been no rain for weeks. The finest of them are in the mountain
PRODUCTS OF THE FOREST IN BORNE. 31
regions of Borneo; there is one known as the Nepenthes Rajah that will
blold two quarts of water in its pitcher, and there is another nearly as
large. They are of great advantage to travellers, and many a man has
been saved from suffering, and perhaps death, by means of tllis plant."
As the men wanted to rest a short time, the boat was brought to shore
L W ,
R A A B/S'i
32 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
near:the tree that supported the wonderful plant, and thus the boys had
an opportunity to examine it. While they were looking at it they dis-
covered some curious beetles on-the trunk of the tree, and succeeded in
capturing several of them; some of their prizes had long antennae, or
feelers, and one had a pair of claws like a lobster, while all of them were
beautifully marked or colored. Their capture led to a talk about the
insect life of Borneo, and the boys learned that the country was partic-
ularly rich in beetles, butterflies, and similar products: more than two
thousand varieties of beetles alone had been found there, with a propor-
tionate number of butterflies.
And if you are not satisfied with such small game," said the Doctor,
you can have the elephant-who is identical with the elephant of India
-and at least ten varieties of monkeys. Then there is a species of pan-
ther; there are deer and wild cattle; and if.you like the sport of hunting
wild pigs, you can be accommodated. Bats and squirrels abound, and the
name of the birds of Borneo is legion; there are crocodiles in the riv-
ers, great pythons in the forests, and a liberal variety of smaller snakes-
enough to fill the wants of the most fastidious."
".," If that's the case," said Frank, "I don't believe I care to stay very
long in Borneo. I don't mind ordinary hunting; in fact, I should like it;
but when it comes to a battle with a python I would rather be left out."
Fred was of the same opinion, and thought that anybody could have
his fill of hunting among the elephants and wild pigs. The Doctor said
the pursuit of these latter animals was much more difficult in Borneo
than in India, owing to the comparatively small part of the country that
had been cleared. He added that it was very hard to keep up with a
pig in the forest, as lie can dart under the trees and keep out of the way
while the hunter is toiling on, and. perhaps finds the bushes so dense that
lie must cut away. the vines and creeping plants before he can proceed.
Then the conversation changed, and for the rest of the way the Doc-
tor interested the boys with the romantic story of an Englishman who
became an Eastern prince. It was about as follows:
"Borneo has three distinct governments. First there is the Kingdom
of Borneo, ruled over by a king, or sultan; it embraces the north-western
and central part of the island, and is divided into several subordinate
principalities. Then tlere are the Dutch possessions on the east, south,
ind west coasts, comprising three provinces under the control of the
Dutch Governor of Java; and, lastly, there is the independent State of
Sarawak, with an English ruler.
"It is concerning this State and its ruler that we are about to talk.
THE ROMANTIC STORY OF RAJAH BROOKE. 33
In the first quarter of this century there was an Englishman, named
James Brooke, in the service of the East India Company; he left it
about 1830, and made a voyage to China, and on his way there he visited
Borneo. There he saw how badly the natives were treated by the Malay
pirates, who devastated the coast and carried the people away to sell as
slaves, after robbing them of all they possessed. He conceived the idea
of forming a civilized government for the people, and with this object
in view returned to England, where he spent several years in prepara-
tions; he bought a yacht out of the royal squadron, and obtained the
same privileges for her as for a regular man-of-war. He came here with
his yacht in 1838, and attacked the pirates wherever he could find them;
their primitive boats and arms were no match for him, and in a year or
two he had freed this part of the coast from their depredations.
In return for his assistance, the prince, or rajah of Sarawak, made
Brooke his successor, with the full approval of the Sultan of Borne6,
and gave him command of the army. English ships and men were sent
out to assist him, and while they were attending to the pirates the new
rajah went to work to teach the natives how to live like civilized people.
He framed laws for them, established a regular government with courts
of justice, built roads, developed trade, and in a good many ways made
the natives feel that he was their friend."
"How did the English Government like this ?" one of the boys asked.
"Did they approve of one of their nation becoming an Eastern prince ?"
"The Government was generally favorable to it, as it was in the in-
terest of peace," the Doctor answered," and besides, it was extending the
power of the British Crown. But there was considerable opposition to it
among some of the English, and in 1847 Brooke was obliged to go to
England to defend himself against the attacks upon his policy. He suc-
ceeded in establishing his claims to consideration, and received the honor
of knighthood, so that he was afterward called Sir James Brooke, though
he is better known as Rajah Brooke. A staff of officers under pay of
the British Government was sent to assist him, and the State of Sarawak
was regarded as a British dependency, though it was and is nominally
independent, and can do as it pleases.
"Under the rule of Rajah Brooke the country prospered, and has
continued to prosper. Sir James died in 1868, after establishing his
nephew as his successor, and the latter rules here now under his uncle's
old title. The nephew is quite as philanthropic as the uncle was, and
has proved himself an intelligent ruler; the trade of the country in-
creases every year by the development of its resources, and from all we
34 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
can learn or observe, the inhabitants have reason to be grateful to the
Englishmen who came among them and taught them the arts of peace
instead of war."
"What is the trade of Sarawak said Fred, "and how is it carried
"It is principally in the products of the forests and of the mines,"
replied the Doctor, "and the latter are especially valuable. Antimony
is abundant, and it is from Borneo that England derives her principal
supply of that metal. There are numerous deposits of coal, and large
quantities are taken out every year and sent to the markets of the East-
ern seas. Those immense piles of coal that we saw at Singapore proba-
bly came from Borneo, and the business of that one port alone is enough
to make the fortune of a small State like Sarawak. The forests are full
of valuable timber, such as ebony, iron-wood, sandal-wood, and teak;
and there is a considerable product of gutta-percha, India-rubber, and
camphor. The export trade is said to amount to more than $3,000,000
annually; the most of it goes to Singapore, and from that point the
goods are reshipped to Europe."
Frank wished to know the extent of the State, and its population.
"The dominions of Rajah Brooke," said the Doctor, extend about
300 miles along the coast, and inland, at the farthest point, about 100
miles. The population is said to be 300,000, and is composed of Dyaks,
Malays, and Chinese. The only hostility ever shown to the first Rajah
Brooke was by the Chinese at the time of the outbreak of the war be-
tween England and China, in 1857. Two thousand Chinese attacked his
house, and he was compelled to swim across the river to save his life.
The insurrection lasted for some weeks, but was finally suppressed with
the assistance of English troops sent from Singapore.
"The religion of the people is principally Mohammedan, but there is
perfect religious freedom through the whole province. There are several
Protestant missionary stations in the interior, some under English, and
others under American management. One of the latter was the scene
of the labors of Rev. Mr. Thomson, an American missionary, who spent
many years'in Borneo; he formed a vocabulary of the Dyak language,
and did much for the education of the people.
"An enterprising American, Mr. J. W. Torrey, of Boston, endeavored
to follow the example of Rajah Brooke and make a colony of his coun-
trymen, and establish an independent State in another part of Borneo;
he obtained the title of Rajah of Ambong and Maroodu, with a grant
of territory,'from the Sultan of Borneo, and quite likely would have suc-
AN AMERICAN RAJAH. 35
needed in his plans if he had possessed the same wealth as James Brooke,
,and been properly supported by his Government. The latter always had
all the capital he wished, together with the support of the British Gov-
ernment, while Torrey had no fortune with which to purchase ships and
employ the needed men and officers; and, furthermore, the President and
Congress of the United States gave him no assistance. He still holds his
title and his claims to territory, and he occasionally visits Borneo to make
sure of their continuance; but up to the present time he has. not estab-
lished his government, and every year makes it less and less probable
AMERICAN MISSIONARY STATION IN BORNEO.
that he will succeed in his hopes of founding an American province in
the Malay Archipelago."
There's the Osprey with steam up," exclaimed Fred, as a bend in the
river brought them in sight of their ship.
"Yes, there she is," echoed Frank; "we're in time to keep our prom-
ise to the captain, and she's ready to sail as soon as we're on board."
The men paddled vigorously, and in a few minutes our friends were
climbing the gangway-ladder. As their feet touched the deck, the cap-
tain ordered the anchor lifted, and in a short time they were steaming
down the river, and were at sea before the setting of the sun. It happen-
36 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
ed that the spectacle of sunset on that occasion was particularly beautiful;
the light seemed to flash in all directions from behind the clouds, and,
formed a pathway of fire along the gently undulating waters. The boys
agreed that it was the most brilliant sunset they had hitherto seen at sea,
and they lingered on deck till the last ray of light had disappeared, and
the stars came out in their places in the sky.
SUNSET IN THE CHINA SEA.
SUNSET IN THE CHINA SEA.
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 37
ARRIVAL AT MANILLA.-FIRST DAY ON SHORE.
THE Osprey steamed on the next day and the next, and on the third
Morning after leaving Sarawak the boys found themselves entering
a broad bay, which the captain told them was the Bay of Manilla, in the
"It's large enough to hold all the ships in the world," Frank remark-
ed, as he looked around him, and gradually took in the extent of the sheet
"Yes," said Fred, "provided they did not object to a little crowding
here and there. It seems to me larger than the Bay of Yeddo, in Japan."
MAP OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.
MAP OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.
"You are quite right," chimes in the Doctor. "It is larger than the
Bay of Yeddo, and Frank is not much out of the way when he thinks all
the ships of the world could assemble here at once. The Bay of Manilla
is 120 marine miles in circumference, and its waters wash the shores of
five provinces. There is good anchorage in the greater part of it, but
owing to its enormous size, it is less secure than a smaller bay would be."
owting to its enormous size, it is less secure than a smaller bay wTould be."
38 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
The captain of the Osprey was standing near them during this conver-
sation, and nodded assent to the Doctor's statement. "'Manilla has no
harbor, properly speaking," he remarked, and the only place for ships,
till they enter the river, is in the open roadstead. During the north-east
SCENE ON MANILLA BAY.
monsoon we are all right, and can drop our anchors a mile or so in front
of the city the same as we do at Batavia; but when the south-west mon-
soon is blowing, and in all the time of the change of monsoons, the road-
stead is dangerous. Then we go to Cavite, a naval port seven miles down
the coast, and all our cargo must be landed there or brought to Manilla in
lighters. No ship of more than 400 tons can enter the river at Manilla
safely, as there is not sufficient water on the bar. We shall anchor in
front of the town, and you will go on shore in a small boat."
The entire shores of the bay were not distinctly visible at the same
moment, owing to the great distance across, but what there was to be seen
was quite picturesque. In the background was a range of mountains, in
front of them was a table-land, and in the immediate foreground lay a
stretch of low coast covered with tropical vegetation, among which the
bamboo and the palm were prominent. As they approached near the
land our friends could see that it was intersected by numerous canals, and
the captain told them that in the rainy season these canals overflowed
their banks, and converted all the low-land into a vast lake. When the
REGULATIONS OF THE PORT OF MANILLA. 39
water recedes, the moist land is planted with rice, and in a few days what
was before a wide stretch of water becomes a most luxuriant field. The
rice product of the Philippines is very large, and the soil seems admirably
adapted to the culture of the article that forms the daily food of more
than half the human race.
There were but few ships at anchor in the roadstead when the Osprey
came to a halt at the spot her captain had designated, and the signs of
great business activity were altogether wanting. The Doctor informed
his young companions that the trade of Manilla was less than that of Ba-
tavia or Singapore, and hence. the smaller number of ships in port. The
Philippine Islands belong to Spain, but there is not a great deal of com-
merce between the two countries, since neither produces much that the
other wants. Down to a very recent date there was a heavy protective
duty that was intended to favor Spanish ships to the detriment of others,
but somehow, while it kept off the vessels of other nationalities, it did not
bring as many Spanish ones as was expected.
The customs duties were formerly seven per cent. for merchandise
imported in Spanish ships, and double that figure if the ships were for-
eign. Then they had a system of levying tonnage dues on foreign ships,
in addition to the duties on the cargo; a ship in ballast paid a certain
rate, while a cargo ship was taxed about. double. If a ship in ballast land-
ed the smallest parcel of any kind whatever, she was immediately taxed
at the higher rate; and it was said that the officials used sometimes to
bribe a sailor on board a ship to carry a small bundle on shore, so that
they could have the pretext of levying the high charge. The conse-
quence was that foreign ships avoided Manilla as much as possible, and
only went there when specially chartered. In 1869 a decree was issued
making a uniform duty on all goods, no matter under what flag they were
imported, abolishing all export duties, and doing away with the objec-
tionable features of the port charges.
Hardly.was the anchor down before a boat from the custom-house
came along-side, and the officials mounted to the deck. A little time was
required to take the declarations of the strangers relative to the objects of
their visit, and the time they intended to remain; the Spanish in the Phil-
ippines have pretty nearly the same regulations concerning strangers as
the Dutch in Java, and for a similar object -to keep the country for
themselves; and if a visitor does not like the restrictions thrown around
him, he is at full liberty to leave.
When the formalities were over, our friends entered a boat and were
rowed ashore. Manilla stands on both banks of the river Pasig, but the
40 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
larger portion is on the southern side. There is a breakwater at the
mouth of the river, to prevent injury from the waves that sometimes
sweep in during the change of the monsoons. On more than one occa-
sion the water has flooded all the lower parts of the city ; but at the time
Sof which we are speaking the weather was at its best, and the breakwater
was more ornamental than useful.
The boys were amused at the appearance of the houses along the
banks; they had expected to see broad windows that would give as much
ventilation as possible, and also allow strangers .to have a peep at the
internal arrangements without taking the trouble to enter. But they
COAST SCENE IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.
found, on the contrary, that the windows were generally narrow, and few
in number, and the inhabitants consoled themselves for the lack of ven-
tilation by spending a goodly portion of their time on the balcony. The
roofs were covered with red tiles after the Spanish manner, and the
Doctor remarked that the Spaniards in the Philippines, like the Dutch
in Java and the English in India, had brought many of their home cus-
toms with them when settling in the eastern half of the world.
They passed a barge laden with merchandise from one of the ships
at anchor in the roadstead; it was propelled by men with long poles,
which they fixed in the bottom of the river after the manner of the set-
HOTELS IN MANILLA. 41
ting poles formerly in use on some of the streams of America. A broad
plank was attached to each side of the barge just above the water-line,
and on this plank two men walked as they pushed against the firmly fixed
poles. The barge was a clumsy affair, with a roof of pandanus leaves,
woven together and arranged in sections, so that it could be lifted off to
receive cargo. There was a broad rudder at the stern of the barge, and
the steersman stood under the mat roof, so that he was quite sheltered
from the rays of the tropical sun.
There were many native craft in the river, and a few vessels of for-
eign rig; but all the latter were of small tonnage, and evidently em-
ployed in coast service among the islands. The boat with the three
travellers pushed on to the custonm-house, where the baggage was in-
spected, and, on being found to contain nothing liable to duty, was al-
lowed to pass. Then the strangers were at liberty to seek a hotel, and
they lost no time in doing so.
There are not many visitors in Manilla, and consequently the hotel ac-
commodations are limited ; there are only two establishments worthy the
name, and even these are far from equal to the pretentious hostelries of
,r .7-" -4k" .. t
""- /- . '- T- ..
,:"--'. :.-,=" < ,v "V I r- ", "., 1-
-i --------- --- -- -
,-- -e -',T"
BARGE AND HOUSE ON THE PASIG.
Madrid and Seville. Frank remarked that they would be quite content
as long as they had a roof to shelter them, and enough to eat; Fred
pointed to a large hole above his bed where several tiles had been re-
42 THE BOY TRAVELLERS JN THE FAR EAST.
moved, and suggested that the shelter was not very promising at the
outset. The attention of the hotel-keeper was called to the opening, and
he quietly remarked that the rainy season was over, and the hole would
do no harm.
The hotel was not in Manilla proper, but in the suburb of Bidondo,
where most of the foreigners reside, and where the bulk of the commerce
is conducted. It is on the northern bank of the Pasig, and those who
livethere are accustomed to regard themselves as of more consequence
than the dwellers on the opposite side of the stream. Back of Bidondo
there are some pleasant villages and private residences, and several of the
latter are fitted up with a considerable attempt at luxury. The boys
thought the houses were not as comfortable as in Singapore and Ba-
tavia, and the Doctor told them that Manilla was a more expensive place
to live in than either of the cities they had named, and consequently the
same amount of money would procure fewer necessaries or luxuries of
life. Those who had only fixed salaries to rely upon frequently found
it difficult to make both ends meet; ard even the merchants were com-
pelled to practise more economy than they desired. The houses were
generally of two stories, but the lower one was rarely inhabited, on ac-
count of the dampness that rose constantly from the ground. It was
generally used as a stable, and consequently the occupants of the upper
floor had the advantage of a variety of smells without extra charge.
Doctor Bronson had a letter to a gentleman residing in Manilla, and
as soon as the party was settled at the hotel, he set out to deliver it.
During his absence the boys took a stroll in the neighborhood, and
crossed the bridge that leads to the city proper, on the southern bank
of the Pasig.
There was formerly a stone bridge of ten arches that spanned the
river; it was erected more than two hundred years ago, and was regarded
with pride by the inhabitants, but the earthquake of 1863 destroyed it.
An iron suspension-bridge was constructed in its place, and the most of the
piers of the old structure were removed in order to facilitate navigation.
Frank and Fred found many things that were new to them in their
walk. They had not gone a dozen yards before they met a man whose
appearance raised a smile on their faces, but they carefully concealed it
tillhe had passed. He was dressed in what he doubtless regarded as
the perfection of wardrobe, and swung a light cane with all the dignity
of the most accomplished promenader of Broadway or Fifth Avenue.
His trousers were of a checked pattern, and his feet-bare of stockings-
were thrust into patent-leather shoes. The rest of his costume consisted
STRANGE COSTUMES. 43
OLD BRIDGE AT MANILLA.
of a shirt, a stove-pipe hat, an eye-glass, and a cigar; and the novel feature
of the dress was that the shirt was worn outside the trousers, and had no
necktie. The boys at first thought they had encountered some one who
did not know how to clothe himself properly; but they soon ascertained
that it is the custom in Manilla to wear the shirt outside the trousers, and
the man they met was a dandy who had gotten himself up "regardless of
A few steps farther on they met a different sort of inhabitant-a
native girl with a jar of water on her head,
and bearing a large leaf in one hand. She
was tall and well-formed, and her dress was
very simple; it consisted of a light chemise,
and a skirt that showed her bare feet as she
walked gracefully along, and paused to take a
glance at the strangers. Her. thick hair was \
braided into a heavy tress, which formed an
excellent cushion for the jar to rest upon;
and her complexion was so light that Frank
could hardly believe she was not a Spaniard,
rather than a native of the islands. After-
ward they met many more of the same type;
and as they also encountered Spaniards and
half-castes, they were not long in learning
how to distinguish the various inhabitants of .
On their return to the hotel, they found A MANILLA DANDY.
44 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
the Doctor was there before them, as the gentleman he sought was not
at his office, and therefore his visit had been very brief. They sat down
to lunch, and just as they finished it there was a call for the Doctor. It
proved to be from Mr. Segovia, a partner of the gentleman to whom he
brought the letter, and he kindly offered to show any courtesy to the
strangers in his power.
"I am afraid," said he, "that you will find Manilla a dull place. We
have no theatre at present, and the
Newspapers contain nothing you
would care to read; the only relief
we have to the prevailing monotony
is the religious processions, and I be-
lieve there will be none of these for
two or three weeks. The amuse-
ment of the people is in cock-fight-
ing, a vice that was introduced by
i the Spaniards, and has been adopted
by every native that can afford to
keep a bird. Some of them never
go out-of-doors without their favor-
ite birds in their arms; and there is
hardly an hour of the day or night
when there is not a fight going on
in a dozen places in Manilla."
After some further talk about
the city and what it contained, it
Swas agreed that the gentleman would
// call late in the afternoon with a car-
\ r' iriage to take the Doctor and his
| young companions to the evening
,, / p promenade. The arrangement con-
eluded, the gentleman retired, and
A NATIVE GIRL IN MANILLA. the party sat down on the veranda
to pass away the hot hours of the
middle of the day and talk about the sights of the city.
The boys brought out their note-books to record what they had seen
in their morning's walk; and when they had finished, they had a conver-
sation with the Doctor relative to the Philippine Islands and their his-
tory since the time the Spaniards went there. They were astonished to
find that the group comprised more than 1200 islands; but their sur-
DISCOVERY OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 45
prise was somewhat diminished when Doctor Bronson told them that
only twenty of the whole number were of any consequence, the rest be-
ing principally rocky islets. The entire group was said to have an area
of about 120,000 square miles, and a population of from five to six mill-
ions. Some of the islands are independent, but the largest and most im-
portant belong to Spain, and have so belonged for more than three hun-
The group was discovered," said the Doctor, "in 1521 by the cele-
brated navigator Magellan, and occupied by the Spaniards about thirty
years later. There have never been more than 10,000 Spaniards here at
any one time, and probably there are not to-day over 5000 or 6000 per-
sons of pure Spanish blood in all this region. For a long time the most
of the trade of the Philippines was with Mexico, and once a year a ship
or galleon was sent from Manilla to Acapulco with a load of silks and
other valuable products of the East, which were sold for more than twice
their cost. The last of these voyages was in 1811, owing to a royal de-
cree that broke up the monopoly held by the rulers of the islands. Some-
times two or more galleons sailed together; the voyage across the Pacific
Ocean was frequently more than one hundred days in length, and in-
stances have been known of one hundred and fifty days being taken be-
tween Manilla and Acapulco. Now a sailing-ship that would not make
the voyage in forty-five or fifty days would be considered slow, and a
steamer would accomplish it in twenty-five."
46 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
One of the boys wished to know what the galleons brought back from
Mexico in return for the silks they carried tlere.
"The greater part of their cargoes," was the reply, was in silver
dollars, and it is from this course of trade that we now find the Mexican
dollar in such general circulation in the Far East. Then they brought
quicksilver, which was sold in China at a large profit; and they brought
cochineal and other dye-stuffs. Sometimes a single cargo would sell for
$2,000,000, but this was unusual; the ordinary value of.a cargo was
SPANISH GALLEONS ON THEIR WAY OVER THE PACIFIC.
about $500,000 at starting, and the returns were double that amount.
There was very little produce of the islands in these cargoes, but mainly
the silks and other Chinese goods which had been bought by the mer-
chants of Manilla with gold-dust, sapan-wood, skins, and edible birds'-
nests, together with the silver dollars, of which the Chinese are very
"The Spaniards kept a monopoly of their trade down to the begin-
ning of the present century. All other Europeans were carefully ex-
cluded from the islands until 1809, when an English house was allowed
TRAVELLING IN THE INTERIOR OF LUZON. 47
to establish itself here, and this concession was followed in 1814 by per-
mission for all foreigners to come here under certain restrictions. The
Spaniards always reserve the right to send away any foreigner who makes
himself obnoxious, but the occasions when they do so are very rare. Even
at the present day it is difficult for a foreigner to obtain permission to
visit the interior of the island; and as late as twenty years ago there was
a royal order that forbade their going there under any pretext whatever."
"Can we go there ?" Fred asked. "I should so much like to see the
interior of the island we are on."
"We have not time," the Doctor answered, to go through the whole
of the island, even if we could obtain permission; but I dare say we can
make some short excursions, so that we will not be entirely ignorant of
the Philippines when we go away."
After some further talk about the country they were in, the party sep-
arated, in order to follow the custom of Manilla, and devote an hour or
two to sleep before going on their evening drive.
MOUTH O THE BAY O MANILLA.
-7 -1 -- == -
MOUTH OF THE BAY OF MANILLA.
48 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
AN EVENING PROMENADE.-VILLAGE LIFE NEAR MANILLA.
"RR. SEGOVIA called at the hotel according to agreement, and found
the party ready to start on the evening drive. The boys enjoyed
it greatly, if we are to judge by the following account which they wrote
after their return:
We have found Manilla very interesting, and have seen so much in
our ride, that we hardly know where to begin. The streets are wide and
straight, and they have solid sidewalks of stone that remind you of some
i t '
VIEW OF MANILLA FROM THE BINONDO SUBURB.
of those in New York or Boston. There is a large square or plaza, with
a statue of one of the Spanish kings in the centre, and a good many peo-
ple were gathered there as we drove along one side and stopped a few
moments to look at the statue. The part of Manilla on the southern
bank of the river is the military city, and contains the cathedral and other
churches, together with the government barracks, the custom-house, and
FEATURES OF A DRIVE IN MANILLA. 49
several other public buildings; the Binondo suburb on the north is not so
well off, and perhaps it is for this reason that the streets are not so well
paved, and not as regular and wide. But there are more people on the
north bank than on the south, and the most of the foreigners live there
and try to enjoy themselves.
"We went along at a good speed in an open carriage drawn by a pair
of lively young horses that were said to have been newly imported from
Australia; they will lose their spirit after a while in this hot climate, and
a year or two from now it will not be easy to get them to go faster than a
slow trot. Everybody takes a drive who can afford it, besides a good
many who cannot stand the expense. .Their doing so has caused a curi-
ous custom to be adopted by the drivers; whenever youhire a cab in the
streets, you must pay for it in advance, or the driver will not go with you.
The drivers have been cheated so much that they have become suspicious
and won't trust anybody, and certainly they are not to be blamed. Mr.
Segovia says that a great many of the Spaniards who come here are with-
out money or character, and think they have a right to swindle any one
who will trust them. The merchants are obliged to be very cautious, but
in spite of all their care they lose a good deal by these adventurers.
"Every little while in our drive we came to a canal, and a portion of
the way we followed the banks of the Pasig. The canals are small, and
only scantily filled with half-stagnant water, and the smells that rise from
them are anything but nice. Dead dogs and cats were floating on the
water, but the men rowing the numerous boats did not seem to mind
them. You can go all around the Binondo suburb in a boat, and some
day we mean to do so, if we can stand the odors.
"As we passed near the river we saw a funny sight-a raft of cocoa-
nuts, with a native on it, floating down the stream. The nuts are tied to-
gether with pieces of the husk, which are partially detached with a knife,
and the whole mass is so buoyant that a hundred of them attached to each
other will support a man. A native starts with a raft of nuts from.some-
where up the river, and floats down to market. He goes to sleep there,
and lets the current carry him along; and if his conveyance runs on shore,
he wakes up, gives it a push out into the stream, and goes to sleep again.
It is an easy and cheap mode of travelling, and when he has sold his raft,
lie walks home, or works his passage on a boat bound in his direction.
"Mr. Segovia pointed out the various classes of people in Manilla, and
it did not take us long to be able to distinguish them from one another.
He divides them into Spaniards, Creoles, Tagals, Chinese, and Mestizoes;
the Tagals are the natives, the Creoles are children of Spanish fathers and
50 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
native mothers, and the Mestizoes are of Chinese parentage on one side,
and native on the other. The word Mestizoes is generally abbreviated
to Metis," as our friend ex-
plained to us, and we will call
them so in this letter.
The first pair he pointed
Sio u t w e re S p a n ish M e tis, o r
Creoles, and they" were dress-
Sed in their best clothes for an
"ad evening walk. The man wore
a pair of gay-colored trousers
that looked as though they
were made of calico, and he
had above them a frock like
a shirt worn outside, of nearly
the same material as the trou-
sers. Then he had an umbrel-
IMF la and a tall hat, and his feet
_-_-_-_____- were in slippers instead of
A CREOLE IN EUROPEAN DRESS. boots. The woman at his side
was likewise in slippers that
showed all of her feet except the toes; she had no bonnet on her head,
but in its place she wore some flowers and a sort of wreath like a pad.
There was a bright handker-
chief around her neck, and
her dress was of an equally
gaudy color. These people
appear to be very fond of
lively colors and contrasts, if
we may judge by the.univer-
sal use they make of them.
Close behind them was jv.' U
another couple that our friend ,
said were Chinese netis, or 115
half-breeds. The costume of
the man was not much unlike
that of the other,'but his trou-
sers were not as gay, his frock
was gathered in at tie waist, "
and his shirt was white. The SPANISH METIS.
POSITION OF HALF-CASTES IN MANILLA. 51
woman was prettier than the other one, and the handkerchief she wore on
her head was very becoming; it fell in graceful folds down to her shoul-
ders, which were covered with
a cape of thin muslin, held in
place by a pin at the throat,
and her dress was very pretty :
it consisted of a skirt or native
sarong, in which there'was a n
"good deal of red, and over the
skirt there was a wide sash of te i
rich Chinese silk in red and
yellow stripes. It is wound
Around the waist in such a way
that it holds the figure quite
closely, and hangs below the
knee. Her feet were in slip-
pers, without stockings, and it
does not seem to be the fash-
ion for anybody to put on -
stockings in Manilla, or at least CHINESE METIS.
"only among the foreigners.
"Frequently we saw people on horseback, and were told that many
of them belonged to the wealthy class of the Spanish Metis. Their dress
was much like that of the pedestrians, except that it was somewhat richer,
and the woman wore a tall hat like t!at of the man; but as the eques-
trian costume for a lady in Europe or America is generally supposed to
include a high chapeau, we suppose the head-covering for the fair rider
in Marnilla will not be considered out of fashion. They say that fashions
change very little in Manilla from year to year, and milliners do not
make fortunes. The. Spanish ladies make some attempt to keep in style,
but, with all their efforts, they do not succeed very well. There is little
chance for variety in a country where it is so hot that only the lightest
garments can be worn with comfort.
"Th6ese Metis are in the same social position as the mulattoes of
the United States-they will not associate with persons whose skins are
darker than their own ; and, on the other hand, the whites altogether de-
spise and look down upon them. But they are the richest and most
enterprising of the population, and it is said that a Chinese Meti can
generally beat a genuine Chinese at a trade, no matter whether he is
buying or selling. One of the wealthiest native merchants is the son of
52 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
a Chinese trader who married a Tagal wife, and he has made his entire
fortune by his own industry and shrewdness.
There is this difference between the Spaniards in the Philippines
and the Dutch in Java: that the former have instructed the natives in
their religion, while the latter have not tried to give the Javanese any
religious instruction whatever. All through the Philippines the natives
have, been converted to the Catholic Church, and in many districts the
only white inhabitants are the priests. They instruct the natives not
only in religion, but in agriculture and manufactures; but it often hap-
SPANISH METIS OF THE WEALTHY CLASS.
pens that, as they have no practical knowledge of the arts they are teach-
ing, their instruction does not amount to much.
"When we reached the promenade, we got out of the carriage for a
stroll. Everybody seemed to be there, as it is the fashion to go to the
promenade whenever the band plays, and it happened to be one of the
musical evenings. All the Spanish officials were in uniform, and the
gentlemen who did not happen to hold office wore their black coats.
Most of the other foreigners followed their example, though there were
.some that did not. The fashion promises to die out; but it will be some
time before it does, as the Spanish are very conservative.
EVENING PRAYER AT THE PROMENADE. 53
The ladies were out in goodly numbers, and Doctor Bronson said
many of them were quite pretty. Most of them wore veils after the
Spanish fashion, and they talked and laughed with the gentlemen, just
as they might do in Madrid or any other Spanish city. The ladies in
Manilla do not appear to spend as
much time in-doors as the Dutch
ladies do in Java, for they go a
good deal among the shops, and
like to turn over silks and other
things by the hour without buying
anything. They give the Chinese
salesmen ever so much trouble, but the latter
have to smile, and pretend to like it, exactly as
the salesmen in a New York store have to do
when the American ladies go on shopping excur-
sions. In every house where they can afford it,
they have a small army of servants to look after '
them; and as the place is in charge of a major-
domo, or house-keeper, there is not much for a
lady to look after. Mr. Segovia says the most of
the ladies who come to Manilla prefer to remain J-
there rather than go back to Spain, and the rea- i
son probably is that they find life much easier.
It is the same with the men, as not more than
one out of ten ever goes home to Spain for more
than a short visit; though it is proper to say
many of them would be glad to go back, only
they never have the means of doing so.
"While we were at the promenade, the bells
suddenly rung the hour for evening prayers.
Everybody- stopped on the instant; not only --
those on foot, but those on horseback and in
carriages. It was like one of the fairy scenes
we read about, where the goddess waves her
"wand, and everybody becomes petrified till she -
waves it again, and restores them to life. The PALMI-TRE IN THE BOTAN-
gentlemen raised their hats, and the ladies bow-
ed their heads, and for a few moments the time was devoted to uni-
versal prayer. Then the bells stopped, and the movement of horses,
carriages, and pedestrians was resumed; the conversation became as
54 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
lively as ever, and we had to rub our eyes to make sure we had not
There is a botanical garden near the promenade, but it is not very
well kept; it reminded us of the gardens at Singapore only by contrast,
as it was overgrown with weeds, and the most of the plants had died or
were dying. A few palm-trees remain, and some of them are quite in-
teresting. We are told that botanical gardens in all the Spanish posses-
sions do not appear to flourish; and if this one is to be taken as a sam-
ple, we can readily accept the statement.
"It was late in the evening when we returned from our drive; the
people were thinning out somewhat at the promenade, but the most of
them did not appear in a hurry to get home. Though they go late to
bed, they rise early in Manilla, at least those who have any business; and
they make up for the short hours of night by sleeping in the middle of
the day. In the best of the houses there are bath-rooms, with bamboo
windows in fine lattice-work, and some of the people manage to keep
cool by bathing several times a day. The water for supplying the city
comes from the Pasig River, several miles above Manilla, but the means
of distributing it are very primitive."
The second morning of their stay in Manilla our young friends were
out in good season, and off on an excursion around the city. Their ride
took them along the river, but further up stream than they had previ-
ously been; they continued it beyond the city to a little village, where
the natives were having so jolly a time in the water that the boys pro-
posed stopping to look at them. The Doctor consented, and so they left
their carriage and sat down on the bank.
Three or four girls were in the shallow water near the edge of the
stream, and they amused themselves by splashing a Chinese boatman
who was urging his craft among them. Evidently he did not like the
sport, as he was threatening to strike them with his oar, of which they
did not seem to have much fear. A boy who had never in all proba-
bility seen a circus was balancing himself on the back of a wide-horned
ox, and urging the beast to join the bathing-party; the ox was not at
all disinclined to the bath, and the Doctor told the boys that the oxen,
or buffaloes, of the Philippines cannot exist without frequent bathing.
They like to lie all day in the water, and, if it is not attainable, they will
readily accept mud as a substitute. Consequently, they are not particu-
larly clean in their general appearance, as they are veneered with mud
for the greater part of the time, and the more mud they can accumulate
the better they are satisfied.
SCENES IN THE SUBURBS. 55
The Doctor called the attention of the boys to the wide horns of the
buffalo, and said they were often six feet in length, while specimens had
been known that measured seven feet from tip to tip. He further re-
marked that the animal knows how to use them, as any hunter in the
interior of the islands can testify; and some are unable to give their per-
LIFE IN THE WATER.
sonal evidence, for the reason that they have been killed by them. The
buffalo is a dangerous beast to encounter when he is enraged; he will
shun the white man as long as he can, but, when pressed and pursued, he
"turns and shows fight. "We shall hear more of him by-and-by," the
LIFE~ IN T~rE ATER
onal eidecfrterao htte aebe ildb hm h
bufloi adngrusbas o noutr hn i i nrgd;h wl
shun te whit man s ln sh abt hn rse n useh
turns and shws fight. We shall her moe f imban-b,"th
56 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
Doctor remarked, "and what you hear will be likely to increase your
respect for him."
On their way back to the hotel, Doctor Bronson pointed to a series
of large buildings, which he said were the Government tobacco-factories.
"CEvery smoker," said he, "is familiar with Manilla cigars-at least all
through the ports of Asia-and this is where they are made. Many peo-
ples prefer them to Havana cigars, and you will often see a gentleman
HORNS OF THE BUFFALO.
decline a Havana and accept a Manilla. The best of the Manilla cigars
rarely get to the United States; and when they do, the price is so high
that they cannot compete with cigars from other countries. Besides,
they seem to lose their flavor in the long voyage over the sea, and per-
haps this is the reason why Havana cigars seem to be lacking- in the
proper taste when brought to Japan or China.
"The tobacco-crop of the Philippines pays a tribute of a million dol-
lars. every year to the Spanish Government, which is the principal reve-
nue they derive from their possessions in the East. It gives employ-
ment, in the factories that you see, to more than 20,000 men and women,
besides a great number in the cities of Spain, where the raw tobacco is
also worked up. The cigars are of three qualities-firsts, seconds, and
thirds; and the prices are graded accordingly. Every box contains a cer-
tificate as to the character of the cigars inside, and there is a label on the
outside to show the date when the cigars were put up. The clever Chi-
nese in Hong-Kong are in the habit of counterfeiting not only the cigars,
'\eygtt h ~iedSae;adwe hydo h rc ss i~
TRICKS WITH CIGARS. 57
but the certificate and date label: some of them were prosecuted for the
fraud a few years ago, and they have latterly been somewhat cautious.
They have also a trick of selling first-quality cigars without the box,
which they then fill with seconds, so as to pass them off as firsts. A
novice will not discover the cheat till he has bought and carried away
his cigars, and then it is usually too late to make a change. The old
residents of Hong-Kong are not to be caught by the trick, and carefully
examine a box before purchasing."
NATIVE HOUSE IN THE SUBURBS OF MANILLA.
58 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
AN EXCURSION TO THE INTERIOR.-BUFFALOES AND AGRICULTURE.
IN the afternoon Mr. Segovia called at the hotel to make a suggestion
for an excursion into the interior. He explained that he was not at
all pressed with business at that season of the year, and could spare a
few days for a trip inland: he offered to make all the needed arrange-
ments, and proposed that they should start on the following morning.
"The island of Luzon," said he, on which Manilla stands, is the
A GROUP OF NATIVES OF MANILLA.
largest of the group; its length is 520 miles, and its greatest breadth
about 140. The estimate of its area is 40,000 square miles, and the next
largest island, Mindanao, contains 33,000 square miles; the remainder
of the group are much smaller, and of less consequence. It would take
STARTING FOR THE INTERIOR. 59
you several months to visit all of the islands, and you would find them
so much alike as hardly to pay for the expense and fatigue. But you can
make a small tour of Luzon, and see the principal features of the Philip-
pines; and if everything is satisfactory, we will set out to-morrow."
The proposition was at once accepted, and the gentleman departed"
to make the necessary arrangements. You need get nothing," he said,
"beyond what you wish to wear, and may take your roughest clothes
for that purpose;'I will see to all the provisions and everything else we
want, and will come with a carriage to take you to the boat that will be
ready for you."
As soon as he had gone, Frank suggested a visit to a book-store he
had seen not far from the hotel, in the hope that they might find some
books about the islands to carry with them on their journey. Fred agreed
to the proposal, and away they went. They soon returned with two
books in the English language and one in French, and they passed the
evening in the study of these works, in which they found much that was
The volumes in English were "Travels in the Philippines," by F.
Jagor, and "Twenty Years in the Philippine Islands," by Paul de la
Gironiere. The latter book was originally published in French, and was
written by Alexander Dumas, from the notes of Gironiere, who had led
the life of an adventurer and planter in the Philippines. It contains a
good deal of truth mixed up with a variety of interesting incidents from
the imagination of the famous French novelist. The work of Jagor is
more recent than the other, and also more authentic.
Their kind entertainer was true to his promise, and came with the
carriage at an early hour; but he was not too early for the Doctor and
his young charges, and it did not require many minutes for them to be
ready to start on their expedition. "We want to get off as quickly as
possible," said Mr. Segovia, "in order to make a good distance before the
heat of the. mid-day sun compels us to halt. You have been long enough
in the tropics to know that the middle of the day should be devoted to
The boat was waiting for them at a landing-place just above the
bridge; it was of native construction, and had a rude appearance; but as
soon as our friends entered it they found it very comfortable. It re-
minded them of a Chinese house-boat, and their guide said it was built
after the Chinese model, with slight changes to suit the wants of the
Philippines. There was a space on the forward deck, where they could
sit under an awning or roof of bamboo and pandanus leaves; it was not,
60 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
sufficiently high to enable them to stand beneath it, but this was no great
inconvenience, as there were plenty of little loop-holes where they could
look out and study the scenery.
The baggage was stowed in a sort of hold beneath the cabin, or in a
space at the stern; in the latter instance, it was under the eyes of Mr.
Segovia's two servants, who sat there, and occasionally gave some needed
assistance to the crew. The latter consisted of six men and a padrone, or
captain; the captain was a Chinese Meti, while his crew were Tagals, or
natives of the islands. They were obedient, but not very energetic, and
it was very soon apparent that the voyage would not be a rapid one.
The route of the excursion was up the Pasig to a large lake known as
VIEW ON THE RIVER PASIG.
the Lake of Bay. The Pasig forms a natural canal, about twenty miles
long, between the lake and the sea, and there are no falls in any part of
the way to obstruct navigation. There are numerous villages and farm-
houses on the banks of the river, and the boatmen made all sorts of pre-
tences for stopping, in order to make the journey as long as possible.
They had been hired by the day, and were anxious not to get through a
good contract in a hurry.
Mr. Segovia finally made the padrone understand very plainly that
he would be held responsible for all delays, and if the men did not do
their duty there would be a deduction from the amount to be paid. This
had the desired effect, and after that they behaved better. Stop as long
FISHING IN THE LAKE OF BAY. 61
as you like at the villages," said the gentleman, "and I will keep a record
of your delays, and make your pay accordingly." Nothing could be more
reasonable than this, and the men were not long in seeing it.
With rowing and sailing it took nearly all day, with a rest of two
hours at noon, to reach the Lake of Bay. They halted for the night at
a little village close by where the river begins, and while the. sun was yet
in the sky our friends took a stroll by the shore of the lake. It seemed
to them a very large lake, and the boys were not at all surprised to learn
that the circumference of this sheet of water was more than a hundred
miles, and that it washed the shores of three fertile provinces-Manilla,
Laguna, and Cavite. It abounded in fish, and their attention was called
to a fishing-raft, with a curious system of bamboo poles, by which the net
was managed. Doctor Bronson explained to the boys that everything
about the concern was of bamboo, with the exception of the fibre of the
net; and even that, he said, might possibly be of bamboo, as this article
can be used for coarse netting, though it is too brittle for fine work.
Their guide informed them that all the waters of Luzon were abun-
dantly supplied with fish, so that this article of food was very cheap. He
said a man could live on five cents a day, and have all he wanted to eat;
this was the price for the interior provinces-three cents for rice and two
for fish and cabbage-but he admitted that in Manilla food was dearer.
There a man can hardly subsist on five cents a day, though he can get
along very well on ten. Most of the fishes are coarse and of a muddy
flavor, and there are not many varieties eaten by foreigners.
They were lodged in the house of a gentleman who was acquainted
with Mr. Segovia, and was glad to have the opportunity of entertaining
strangers. "We are away from civilization," said he, and are delighted
to welcome any one who can give us news of the outer world, and relieve
the monotony of our life. Hardly a dozen persons come here in a year,
and therefore you may be sure that all who do are heartily welcome."
They were bountifully fed at the table of their host; and as he was
anxious to talk on almost every conceivable topic, it was very late before
they went to bed. The next morning the journey was resumed to the es-
tate of Jala-jala; it was formerly owned by the author of Twenty Years
in the Philippine Islands," and was rather extravagantly described in his
book. The shore along the lake is flat, and serves as an excellent pasture
for the cattle belonging to the establishment, and back of the shore there
is a wide area of slightly elevated country, covered with rice and sugar
fields. Beyond these fields is a hilly region backed by a mountain that
is thickly wooded to its summit, and abounds in game birds and animals
SCENE ON THE SHORE.
____ ____ ___ ____ __ __
____ ___ ___ _______ ___ ___ ___ ____ ___ __ '-
__ _______ _______
____ ___ __ ___ ____ ___ ____ ___ ____ __
____ ___ __ ____ ___ ___ ___ ____ ___ ___ ___ ____ ___ ___ __
SCENE--~- ONTH HOE
JALA-JALA PLANTATION. 63
of several kinds. Three sides of the estate are surrounded by water, as
it stands on a broad peninsula; there is another peninsula of nearly the
same extent farther up the lake, which is likewise the home of a wealthy
The owner of Jala-jala was absent; but the manager invited the
strangers to remain as long as they chose, since such was the custom of
the country to all visitors who came properly introduced. He offered
them horses to ride in any excursions they wished to make over the
property, and told them, in true Spanish style, "The house and all
it contains are yours." Mr. Segovia was well known at the place, and
his presentation of Doctor Bronson and the youths was all that could be
desired to make them entirely welcome.
signed to them. Their morning journey had given them good appetites,
A BAMBOO FISI-IING-RAFT.
The invitation was accepted by advice of their introducer, and their
slender baggage was taken to the spacious house, where rooms were as-
signed to them. Their morning journey had given them good appetites,
and they were quite ready for the substantial breakfast of curry, broiled
chicken, and various kinds of fruits to which they were soon called.
Then they rested awhile on the veranda, and strolled through the gar-
dens, which were finely laid out, though somewhat neglected in cultiva-
tion. Early in the afternoon they were invited to a horseback-ride, and
64 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
as soon as the animals were ready they started. A couple of Spanish
Metis accompanied them, partly to show the way, and partly to vouch
for them to any of the herdsmen they might encounter.
"You must know," said Mr. Segovia,. "that this estate has more than
a thousand buffaloes, two thousand bullocks, and six or eight hundred
horses. The horses are about half wild, and the bullocks more so, while
A STAMPEDE OF BUFFALOES.
the buffaloes are the worst of all. It is dangerous to go about here on
foot, as' the cattle are excited at seeing a white man walking, though they
pay little attention to a native. The herds are watched by herdsmnen,
to prevent their straying off the pasture-grounds, and also to guard them
against thieves, who are sufficiently numerous to cause considerable loss
if not closely watched. Sometimes the herds become alarmed from
various causes, and then a frightful stampede occurs, in which they run
for miles. On this very estate I once narrowly escaped being trampled
to death in a stampede of a herd of buffaloes; they had taken fright at
the rumbling of the ground during an earthquake, and in their headlong
flight they nearly ran down my horse and myself. I just managed to
get out of the way; if my horse had stumbled and thrown me, my death
would have been certain.
"They are dangerous animals to encounter in hunting," he continued,
"as they will face a man who attacks them, and attempt to pierce him
with their terrible horns. Perhaps you would like to hear of my first
buffalo-hunt in Luzon."
buffalo-hunt in Luzon."
HUNTING THE BUFFALO IN LUZON. 65
The boys answered that it would give them great pleasure to listen
to the story, as it would certainly be very interesting.
"Then I will tell you about it," was the reply. "It was in the moun-
tains, some distance in the interior, where the country is very thinly set-
tled, and the animals are entirely wild. The mode of hunting is to sta-
tion yourself on the edge of a wood which is known to contain buffaloes;
you must have a gun on which you can depend, and, above all, you must
have full possession of your nerves. When all is ready, you send two or
three Indians with dogs into the woods, to beat up the game and rouse
him to the proper condition of anger. This is what I did, and I stood
for at least half an hour without hearing a sound.
The Indians remove nearly all their clothing, so that they can climb
trees and get out of the way of the infuriated buffalo whenever he
charges at them, and only the most active of the young Indians are se-
lected for this work. By-and-by I heard the barking of the dogs; it
kept coming nearer and nearer, and in a little while one of the Indians
showed himself at the edge of the forest and sprung into the limbs of
the nearest tree. I brought my rifle to my shoulder, and stood ready to
receive the assailant. As he came out of the forest, he stopped a mo-
ment, as if bewildered at not seeing the Indian; when he looked around
his eyes rested on me, and then he came onward, crashing through the
small bushes, and trampling down everything that stood in his way.
"He made straight for me, as if intending to run me down, and did
not pause till he was not ten paces away. Then he halted for a few sec-
onds, and lowered his head to rush upon me with his horns.
This is the critical moment when the hunter should deliver his fire,
and he must aim directly at the centre of the animal's forehead. If the
gun misses fire, or he fails of his aim, he is lost.
I fired just at the right time, and the bullet went straight to its mark.
The buffalo made his plunge as lie had intended, but instead of piercing
me with his horns, he fell dead at my feet. The Indians then came up
and praised my coolness, and predicted that I would become a famous
hunter. I have shot a good many buffaloes since tlen, but it is fair to
say I always have some one near me to deliver a shot in case my rifle
should fail, and I stand close to a tree, and am prepared to jump behind
it if possible. This is a precaution that every one should take, as you
can never be certain that your gun will not miss fire, or your shot may
fail to pierce the thick skull of the buffalo."
Frank asked how much the buffalo of the Philippines was like that of
the United States.
66 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
"iHe is included in the same genus," was the reply, but the species
is quite distinct. The American animal is misnamed when he is called
buffalo; he is properly the bison, and his scientific name is Bos Ameri-
/Ii t K
canus, while the Luzon buffalo is described as the Bos Arna. The buffalo
of the Philippines is an animal of more docility than the ox when prop-
erly domesticated, and is capable of rendering more services to man than
erly domesticated, and is capable of rendering more services to man than
USES OF THE LUZON BUFFALO. 67
his patient brother. But he must be tamed when very young-less than
a year old; if suffered to reach two or three years without restraint, he
is sure to be vicious, and is of no use except to be converted into beef.
He is stronger than the ox, and will live on coarser food; he eats the
bushes and vines that the ox refuses, and he is fond of aquatic plants, as
well as those that grow on the slopes of the hills. When the heat is
great, he takes to the water, and will spend the whole day there, brows-
ing on the lilies and other things that grow in it. He stirs up the roots
with his feet and devours them, and lie will even hold his head under
water to reach what is growing on the bottom.
"It would be difficult to name all the services he performs for the
natives. If you look at Gironiere's book, you will find it stated that the
Indian associates the buffalo with nearly everything he does, and from
my observation I fully believe it. With the buffalo he ploughs, and on
his back he rides or transports articles across mountains, by paths where
A NATIVE PLOUGH IN LUZON.
even a mule would be unable to go. The Indian also uses the buffalo
for crossing rivers and small lakes; he sits or stands on the broad back
of the animal, which patiently enters the water, and often drags behind
him a small cart that floats on the surface. As you go farther into the
country you will see more of the buffalo, and learn how to appreciate
At this point of the conversation the party arrived at the edge of
a field where some twenty or more natives were at work, under the
charge of a half-caste overseer. Some were ploughing with buffaloes or
oxen, and others were driving the same animals in harrows. The boys
stopped to examine the implements used by the natives, and found they
were of a character that would be called exceedingly primitive in Amer-
ica. The plough consisted of only four pieces of wood and two of iron,
and the workmanship was such that almost any man could produce with
68 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
a few rough tools. Their guide told them that the wood came from the
forests of Luzon, and cost only a few cents, and the pieces of iron for
mould-board and share were sold in Manilla for half a dollar the set.
The next thing considered was the yoke for the buffalo; and while
Frank sketched the plough, Fred made a draw-
ing of the yoke, which was a single piece of
wood made to fit the animal's neck, and bring the
draught to the middle of the shoulder. It was
S/ held in place by a short rope passing under the
neck, and the traces were fastened to the ends
A BUFFALO YOKE. of the wood. "A plough, yoke, and traces, for
a single buffalo, ought not to cost more than a
dollar," Fred remarked; and the Doctor quite agreed with him. The
further observation was made that when two or more buffaloes were
used, they were harnessed tandem," and not side by side as with oxen
in most parts of the world.
A stronger and heavier plough was shown to our friends, and Mr.
Segovia explained tlat it was intended for oxen instead of buffaloes,
and was used for stirring the ground where the lighter plough was in-
sufficient. Frank observed that the yoke was not supplied with bows,
after the American plan, but had a couple of upright pins at each end
to enclose the neck of the ox. When the team is to be made up, the
yoke is held over the necks of tle animals, and dropped into place;
and if they are. at all restive, the space at the lower ends of the pins is
NATIVE WOODEN PLOUGH AND YOKE FOR OXEN.
closed by means of a cord. A rope, instead of a chain, forms the con-
nection between the yoke and the beam of the plough. The latter has
only one handle, on the theory that the ploughman needs the use of one
AGRICULTURE IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 69
of his hands for guiding his team, and consequently a double hold on
the plough is impossible.
From the ploughing-ground they passed a little farther on to where
a stretch of muddy ground was being harrowed, so as to make it ready
for planting rice. Two or three inches of water covered the ground, and
the object of the harrowing was to convert the water and earth into a
bed of liquid mud. For this purpose a novel kind of implement was
used; it was called a comb harrow, and liad a single row of iron teeth
fixed in a wooden frame. The traces of the buffalo were fastened so
that they had a tendency to draw the teeth forward, and the machine
was steadied by a handle or cross-bar-parallel to the beam in which the
teeth were placed. It was a simple and very effective instrument, and
Frank thought it might be used to advantage on certain parts of his
father's farm in America.
The soil of the Philippine Islands is, in general, so rich that it yields
very bountifully; and, as it is in the tropics, there is no season of frost
and snow, when cultivation must
cease. Agriculture goes on through
the entire year, and on some parts
of the soil three and occasionally
four crops can be raised. The year
is divided into the wet season and
the dry; in the former, the rain
falls in torrents, and fills the rivers THE COMB HARROW.
and lakes, together with artificial
reservoirs, where water is stored for irrigating the fields in the time of
drought. Crops are made to follow each other so that the soil may not
be exhausted by repetitions; thus, in the mountain districts, it is custo-
mary to plant the ground with rice, and, as soon as it is gathered, it is
followed by a planting of tobacco.
Formerly the island of Luzon produced large quantities of pepper
for exportation, but at present there is hardly enough grown there to
supply the local demand. Fred asked the reason of this, and was told
the following story:
"The price of pepper was fixed by a measure called a ganta, which
was used by both sellers and buyers. The Philippine Company had the
monopoly of the pepper-trade, and were making a fine profit out of it,
but it seems they were not satisfied to let well enough alone. One year,
when the pepper-growers came to Manilla to sell their product for the
season, they found that the agents of the Company had altered the meas-
70 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
ure by making the ganta of the Company double the ganta of the In-
dians, so that the sellers were enormously cheated. The Indians were
angry at this trick, and immediately went home, destroyed their pepper
plantations, and devoted their attention to other articles of culture."
"Served the Company right," said the boys, "provided the poor In-
dians were able to get along with something else."
"As to that," was the reply, "they were not likely to suffer, as they
could raise tobacco, rice, sugar, and two or three other things, on the same
ground; but it is proper to say that there are few articles that can be
cultivated as easily as pepper. Pepper requires very little care; all that
is needed is to take a little twig of it, bend the two ends together, cover
the middle with a little earth, and tie the ends to a prop of wood six or
eight feet long. The plant grows and clings to the prop till it reaches
its top, and there it stays and takes care of itself. The owner has only
to remove the weeds once in a while, and to stir np the earth around the
foot of the plant so that it can absorb plenty of moisture. The grains
are gathered as fast as they change from green to black, and are then
spread out in the sun and dried."
TAGAL INDIANS CLEANING RICE.
INCIDENTS OF THE EXCURSION. 71
HUNTING IN LUZON.-CROCODILES AND GREAT SNAKES.
FROM the fields where they saw the natives at work, our friends pro-
ceeded on their ride. Sometimes they were in the open country,
and-then in the forest; and as they rode along, their guide called their at-
tention to many things of interest. The forest was rich and luxuriant,
and sometimes the vines and creepers were so numerous that it was diffi-
cult to proceed. There were pitcher-plants hanging from the trees, and
two or three times the excursionists drank from them to slake their thirst.
A wild boar was roused from his lair, but, as the party was unprovided
with hunting weapons, lie was not pursued, and the same was the case
with a deer that came bounding across their path. In one part of the
forest several wild monkeys chattered from the tops of the trees, and
made grimaces at the intruders; but they were not otherwise disturbed
than by the presence of the strangers.
They came at length to the shore of the lake, and dismounted. The
boys suggested that a bath in the tepid water would be agreeable; but
their guide shook his head very impressively, and remarked that their
lives would not be worth much after they took their first plunge.
"Why so ?" inquired one of the boys.
"Because," was the reply, "the lake swarms with crocodiles, and you
would be in the jaws of one of them before you could swim a dozen
As he spoke, he pointed to a dark object on the surface of the water
a hundred yards or so from shore. At first glance it appeared like a'log
of.wood, and so the strangers would have considered it but for the spe-
cial direction they had received.
The boys regarded it a few moments with great attention, and then
Fred cried out,
"I believe it's the head of a crocodile!"
"And I, too," said Frank. Perhaps he'd like to have us take a batl
here; but we won't do anything of the kind."
72 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
"It is quite unsafe to bathe here," said Mr. Segovia, "and after what
you have seen you are not likely to venture; but we will mount our
horses, and ride a few miles back from the lake to where there is a pretty
cascade with a fine pool below it; there you may have a bath without the
They suited the action to the word,
and were off on the instant. A smart
ride of half an hour brought them to the ,
cascade, which is on the estate of Jala-jala,
and the boys were soon having a gay time
in the pure water that came rolling over
the rocks. The Doctor sat down on the
bank and made a sketch of the scene, and
"the native guides climbed to a niche half-
way up the rocky
side of the cascade ',-3
by means of a lono
liana, or hanging 47
plant, that abounds
in the forests of ,
the Eastern isl- P.
ands. After half
an hour at the cas- -/
cade the party re- R
turned to their ,
horses, which were
waiting a short dis-
tance away, and as
the afternoon was -
well advanced, it
was determined to
make all haste to
the ]house, where CASCADE NEAR JALA-JALA.
dinner would be
awaiting them, in accordance with thle promise of their host.
On the way back, Mr. Segovia had a short conference with Doctor
Bronson while the boys were riding ahead. It was evidently concerning
Frank and Fred, as the Doctor assured his friend that the youths were
both of excellent disposition, and could be relied upon in an emergency.
"If you take then along," said lie, you will find they will be perfectly
RICE-FIELDS IN LUZON. 73
cool and self-possessed, and will not make the least interference with any
of your plans."
"In that case," the gentleman responded, it is all right, and we will
make the excursion to-morrow."
Frank and Fred overheard the latter part of the conversation, but
they were too well bred to ask any questions. They were satisfied to let
events develop themselves, and meantime they devoted their attention to
the practical matters that surrounded them.
What an interesting ride we've had !" said Fred, as they passed
near a rice-field where the young plants were just pushing above the
ground. "I might get tired of looking at these rice-fields after a while,
but don't see any signs of it yet."
"What I would like to see," Frank responded, "is a string of fields
with all the different kinds of rice growing side by side. How many do
you suppose there are ?"
"I can't tell, I'm sure."
One of the books we bought says there are more than thirty kinds of
THE HOUSE AT JALA-JALA.
rice grown in the Philippine Islands, all quite distinct in color, form, and
weight of the grain. They are divided into two classes-mountain rice
and aquatic rice; but the mountain variety can be treated just like the
aquatic rice, and it will grow."
4 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN TIE FAR EAST.
Mountain rice," Fred continued, "grows on the higher ground, where
it is not liable to inundations from the rivers, but the aquatic rice needs a
great deal of water, and the fields must be very moist all the time it is
growing, or till it gets near ripening. It is like the rice raised in the
United States, and in Japan
and China; and the rice-
Se l swamps of Luzon are prob-
""- ably just as unhealthy as
o_-f __ those of the Southern States
-stac oe tpof America, that we used to
lite dhear so much about."
n a iDo all the kinds of
t _e- pt t rice yield the e sa ?" Frank
41 "" Some of them are bet-
The passd tter than others," Fred an-
swered; l "at least the book
says so. Some kinds return
thirty, some forty, and some
eighty fold-that is, from
a bushel of seed they get
thirty, forty, or eighty bush-
els. The best rice general-
ly does not yield so well as
STACKING RICE IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. the poorer varieties, so that
what they make up in one
way they lose in another by the end of the year."
When the rice is harvested it is put up in high stacks, with a roof
of pandanus-leaves on top to keep out the wet. That must be a rice
stack over there," said Fred, as he pointed to a circular enclosure a
little distance away. "Yes, and there are several stacks with a fence
around them, and a clump of bamboo-trees in the centre. I suppose
they put the rice there to dry, and when it is ready it will be thrashed
They passed. the enclosure, and a little farther on there was a group
of Indians engaged in pounding rice to separate the grain from the husk.
The apparatus was exceedingly primitive, being simply a mortar with a
!ieavy pestle, which -was raised in the air and then brought down with
all the power of the person who was wielding it. Just then the Doctor
and Mr. Segovia rode up, and the latter explained that, while mills for
THE PLAGUE OF LOCUSTS. 75
cleaning rice were in use all over the islands wherever rice was grown,
many of the natives preferred the old process, and were contented with
the mortar and pestle. In the back regions," said he, "where mills are
scarce, they thrash the rice from the stalk by treading it out with buffa-
loes, and remove the hulls as you see them now."
Frank asked if there was any variation in the rice-crop from year to
year, so as to make its cultivation a matter of uncertainty.
"There is not much variation," said the gentleman, "but we can
never be certain of a crop till it is gathered. A short supply of water
may dry up the fields, and too much rain may inundate them and wash
the plants out, but this is not often. The greatest uncertainty is with
the locusts, as they come suddenly, and sometimes destroy an entire crop
in a day or two."
How often do you have the locusts ?" one of the boys asked.
"About once in seven years," was the reply. They come from the
islands farther south, and you can hardly realize the desolation they make
till you have seen it. A reddish-colored cloud is seen on the horizon;
it comes nearer and nearer, and is frequently ten or twelve miles from
one side to the other, and occupies five or six hours in passing over. This
cloud is formed of millions and millions of locusts, and sometimes it is
so dense that the sun is darkened the same as when a thunder-shower
rises. If the locusts perceive a green field they fall upon it, and in an
hour every vestige of verdure has disappeared; then they rise and move
on to join their companions in the air, and the different parts of the
column seem to take turns in feeding.
When enough have come down to cover -.--
a field, the rest move on, and those who
have satisfied their appetites take their
places in the rear. In the evening they
halt in a forest and rest on the limbs of
the trees, and frequently so many of them
cover a limb that it breaks off and falls
to the ground. When they leave in the
morning, the forest looks as though ev- THE PHILIPPINE LOCUST.
ery tree had been struck and shattered
by lightning; the leaves are all gone, the limbs are broken, and the
ground is strewn with the scattered fragments. At certain periods they
remain on broad plains, or the sides of fertile mountains, and lay their
eggs. Three weeks later the eggs are hatched, and the young locusts
appear; they live upon whatever green food they can find till their
76 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
wings are formed, and then they fly away to do their work of devasta-
Dinner was ready on their arrival at the house, and the party sat
down to it with excellent appetites-the result of their ride over the
estate. All went to bed early, as the hint was given that the next day
would be a fatiguing one. But the character of the sport to be provided
was not given.
They breakfasted early, and immediately started in a boat that was
ready at the little pier in front of the house. Two boats- had already
gone ahead of them, and while the boys were wondering what was to be
done, the Doctor called their attention to something below the surface
of the water. The boys looked, and speedily discovered that the strange
object was a huge crocodile.
There's no fear of him," said Mr. Segovia, as he happens to be
How was he killed ?" Frank asked.
"I can't say positively," their guide replied, "but he has probably
been shot at by somebody, and died in consequence."
The crocodile is very difficult to kill, as his scaly hide will turn a
bullet, except in a few places. The most vulnerable point is behind the
foreleg, where the skin is comparatively thin; and if you can creep up
to within fifty yards of a sleeping crocodile, and lodge a ball in that spot,
he is done for. If you make use of explosive balls, so much the bet-
ter, as you then tear a great hole in him, and disturb his organs of
digestion and respiration. Nineteen-twentieths of the crocodiles that
are shot at escape apparently unharmed, but we have the satisfaction
of knowing that many of them afterward die from the effect of their
"How is that ?"
"If a crocodile has ever so small a scratch in his skin, it is his death-
warrant. He lies down to sleep in the mud, the shrimps find the scratch
and begin eating at it, and in a little wlile they enlarge it to a huge
wound. They continue to eat away at it, are joined by other occupants
of the water, and in the course of a week or two the crocodile is literally
devoured. iHe has nothing to do but die, and so he climbs to a sand-bank
or sinks to the bottom of the lake, and ceases to be a terror to the in-
habitants of the shore.
"I was one day down by the shore of the lake," the gentleman con-
tinued, "where a little stream flows in from the forest. One of the fe-
male servants of the house was sitting near the bank, when a huge croc-
ADVENTURE WITH A CROCODILE. 77
the opposite bank of the stream with his rifle; he fired, but apparently
to no purpose, as the crocodile disappeared into the water, and carried
-the unfortunate woman wit him. A month later his body was found
odile rose suddenly from the water and seized her A herdsman was on
the opposite bank of the stream with his rifle; he fired, but apparently
to no purpose, as the crocodile disappeared into the water, and carried
the unfortunate woman with him. A month later his body was found
on a sand-bank several miles away, and an examination showed that the
shrimps had made an entrance through the scratch caused by the bullet,
and as soon as this was done thle death of the crocodile was only a ques.-
T THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
tion of time. The identity of the murderer was established by the ear-
rings of the woman in his stomach.
"I once had a fight of three or four hours with a crocodile that had
entered a narrow lagoon connecting with the lake, and seized a horseman
who was crossing. We made a strong net of ropes, and stretched it across
the entrance of the lagoon to prevent his escape into the lake; then we
lashed two canoes side by side, and with long poles stirred the bottom
till he rose to the surface. As he opened his mouth to attack us, we sent
a couple of explosive balls down his throat with as many Remington
A HUGE CAPTIVE.
rifles, and another was lodged in his skin under the foreleg, when he
turned about to dive. He went down and tried to break through the
net, but it was too strong for him, and then it took an hour or more to
urge him to show himself again. We fired nearly a dozen balls into
him, and at last he caught his head in the net when he was about expir-
ing; we drew him to the shore, and found, on taking his measurement,
that he was twenty-seven feet long, and had a girth of eleven feet around
the body just behind the forelegs.
So much for the crocodile, but we are not going to hunt him to-day;
we are in pursuit of game that lives on land, and is not amphibious. If
AN EXCITING INCIDENT. 79
fortune favors us we will capture a wild boar, and perhaps we may find
something else before the day is over."
Then it became clear to the boys what was meant by the boats in
advance. They contained the dogs, guns, ammunition, provisions, and
other things for the day's sport, together with a dozen or more men to
act as beaters, and stir up the game. The Doctor told them they were
bound for a point half a dozen miles up the shore, where horses had been
sent around by land to meet them.
In due time the hunting-party was at the appointed place, and the
beaters set out for their share of the work, followed by the hunters. It
was expected that a wild boar would be stirred up not more than a mile
or two away, as this kind of game was plentiful, and had not been much
hunted of late. In fact, one was stirred up, but in a manner quite dif-
ferent from what had been looked for.
While the party was on its way through the forest to the point where
the hunt was to begin, the screams of a wild boar were heard, as though
the animal was in great agony. Mr. Segovia was the first to hear the
sound, and immediately he dashed off, and was followed by the rest.
The sound appeared to come from a tall tree that could be seen rising
above the rest; the brushwood near it was so dense that the horses could
not get through, and so our friends dismounted and proceeded on foot.
The sight that met their eyes was an astonishment to the boys!
A great snake had caught a wild boar in his coils, and was slowly lift-
ing him from the ground, while the victim was manifesting his terror
in his loudest tones. The Doctor was about to fire at the snake, but at
a sign from Mr. Segovia he stopped, and the party stood in a place of
concealment to see the end of the combat between, as Frank expressed
it, the boa and the boar."
When lie had lifted the boar clear from the ground the snake swung
him against the tree, crushing his bones and killing him. Then he let
his prey fall, and proceeded to unwind himself and descend preparatory
to eating his breakfast. As he loosened his coil the signal was given for
the Doctor to fire; and, as he had an explosive bullet in his rifle, he shat-
tered the head of the snake completely. The serpent fell to the ground
at once; he lashed the trees and bushes in a frightful way, but as he
was totally blinded by the smashing of his head, he could do no damage
to anybody. The attendants came forward and secured some bamboo
loops around the reptile's neck, and suspended him from the tree, where
he continued to twist and turn till the party moved on. The natives said
that these contortions would continue for hours, and that they rarely
80 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
ceased till sundown, even though the head of the snake had been de-
tached before noon.
As they moved on to their hunting-ground, our friends discussed the
A WILD BOAR ATTACKED BY A BOA-CONSTRICTOR.
incident of the morning, and wondered if they would see anything more
of the same sort. Mr. Segovia told the boys that the boa-constrictor was
a very common snake in the Philippines, and sometimes grew to great
FIGHT WITH A BOA-CONSTRICTOR. 81
size, though less so than in Sumatra and Borneo. "He is far less dan-
gerous than you might suppose," said he,' "as he rarely attacks man, and
there is no poison in his bite; in fact, he has no bite at all, and his mode
of killing his prey is by crushing it as you have just seen. Once in
a while a native is killed by a boa, but the occurrence is rare, and gen-
erally owing to the carelessness of the victim rather than the superior
cunning of the snake. He is not very active in his ordinary movements,
but if roused he can display considerable agility, when the size of his
body is considered.
"I once had a fight with a boa that had taken refuge in a crevice
among the rocks, where my dogs found him. They barked furiously,
FIGHT WITH A GREAT SNAKE.
and the snake tried to reach them with his jaws, but they were very
agile in their movements, and managed to elude him. I caine up with
my men, and sheltering myself behind a rock close to the crevice, took
careful aim, reserving my fire till his head was poised for a blow. I put
a large ball through his head, and soon afterward another through his
body, and then his writhings were furious; he twined himself round
the rocks and bushes within his reach, and in so doing overturned a
large rock, that fell on one of his folds and pinned him down. In this
82 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
position he continued to dart his head from side to side with great ra-
pidity, and with such force that a blow from it would have been no
small matter. In an hour or so his strength gave way; I had sent one
of my men for assistance in skinning the snake, and by the time the
re-enforcements arrived the reptile was in a condition to be lashed up
to the nearest tree. He measured nearly seventeen feet in length, and
his skin was most beautifully marked.
There are several venomous serpents in the Philippines, one of the
most dangerous being the dajon-palay, or rice-leaf. The -only antidote
to its bite is to burn the wound with a red-hot iron or live coal, and this
operation must be performed very quickly, to prevent the spread of the
poison. There is another called the alin-morani, which is as bad as the
other, and perhaps worse, as it makes a wound that is deeper, and there-
fore more difficult to cauterize. It grows to the length of eight or ten
feet, and lives in the thickest part of the forest; its habitation may some-
times be known by observing the movements of the eagles, and the pru-
dent hunter will keep as far away from it as possible. The eagles are
its great enemy, and attack it fiercely; two of them generally fight to-
gether, and in such a case the snake has very little chance of escape."
A STA-HT I LZO WITH HORSES AD DOGS.
A STAG-HUNT IN LUZON WITH HORSES AND DOGS.
PREPARING FOR A BATTUE. 83
HUNTING THE DEER AND WILD BOAR.-RESULTS OF THE CHASE.
A LITTLE while after the incident with the snake the party came to
where the servants were waiting for them with breakfast: accord-
ing to the custom of the East, the early meal taken at the house was a
slight affair, so that by the middle of the forenoon one is apt to get fair-
ly hungry. They sat down under a shady tree, and discussed the good
things before them with a relish that came from the walk and ride
through the open air and the excitement of the scenes of the morning.
The boys were much amused at seeing the way the natives cooked their
rice in a piece of bamboo, and served it up all fresh and hot. This is the
A green bamboo is cut in the forest, and one of the hollow joints is
separated from the rest of the stalk; the rice is put inside the bamboo,
with a sufficient quantity of water to cook it, and then both ends are
loosely closed. The bamboo is then laid in the fire as if to burn it; it
gets somewhat charred on the outside, but, before it reaches the point of
burning through, the rice is cooked and ready to be poured out. Thus
you can always be sure, in the region of the bamboo, of having a kettle
for cooking your rice, although you have not brought one along.
When breakfast was over the hunters were assigned to their various
stands, as the hunt was to be of the kind known as a battue. The beaters
go out and.drive up the game, which is induced to run in the direction
where the marksmen are standing to receive it; the latter have nothing
to do but remain quiet, and shoot at the animals as they go past them.
There was a sufficient number of guns for the three strangers as well as
their host, and so the boys were assigned to places by themselves, instead
of standing with their elders. Quite naturally, they were proud of the
honor thus shown them, and each was hoping very earnestly, though he
did not say so aloud, to do something worthy of the occasion.
They were instructed not to fire except in certain directions, lest they
might endanger the lives of others, and they faithfully promised not to
84 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
violate the order; then, when the horn was blown in a particular way,
they were not to fire at all, as the beaters would be close upon them,
though invisible through the underbrush, and might be hurt through
It is an even chance," the Doctor remarked, whether we get a deer
or a wild boar first. The latter
Share the more numerous in this
forest, but the others are tie
best runners, and the more easi-
ly disturbed. We will see."
So saying, he went to his
post, while the boys went to
theirs. For half an hour or so
aol_ there was nothing to indicate
Sth e p o ssib ility o f a mi e, w ith th e
exception of some monkeys in
S- a neighboring tree, that kept up
SOWLING ONKEY. a perpetual chatter on account
of the disturbance of their se-
clusion. There were several varieties of these brutes, but they kept so
far away that their character could not well be made but. There was one
kind, larger than the rest, that appeared to be a hhlampion howler, as he
occasionally set up a most unearthly noise that could have been heard for
a long distance. Frank had a good view of one, and said he was a sort of
maroon color, with a red beard, and had a swelling under his neck, from
which he brought out the music. "He seems to enjoy it," said Frank,
" and if he can be happy by making such an outrageous tumult, by all
means let him have his fun."
By-and-by the barking of the dogs was heard in the distance; it
slowly approached, and then everybody made ready to do the best possi-
ble work with his weapon. A crash was heard among the brushwood,
and soon a fine deer came bounding out of the wood, and ran directly
toward Fred's place.
Fred brought his gun to his shoulder, and when the deer was not
more than twenty feet away the youth fired. The aim was good, and
the whole charge passed into the shoulder of the animal just over the
region of the heart. With one bound he fell dead at the feet of the
A moment later came the report of Frank's gun, and with a result
equal to that of Fred's shot. The two boys were about to give a lond
DEER IN A TROPICAL FOREST.
s8 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
hurrah, when the Doctor motioned them to silence; it was his turn and
that of their host to have a chance at something.
In less than ten minutes two other deer appeared, and were brought
down by the guns of the elders of the party. Another deer ran past
them, but he was too far away for a good shot, and as they now had
plenty of venison, tfley allowed him to go unharmed.
The beaters soon appeared, and then the deer-hunt was declared at an
end. "We will now go," said Mr. Segovia, "to a place where there are
plenty of wild boars and fewer deer. Unless you have a most excellent
opportunity for a shot, do not trouble yourself about deer, but devote your
attentions to the wild boars, which you will find no easy brutes to kill."
"And perhaps," the Doctor added, "you may as well let the largest of
POND SCENE IN LUZON.
them go undisturbed, and only shoot the young fellows; the old boars
are dangerous when wounded, and we don't want to go home with holes
torn in our skins by their tusks."
The boys promised to obey the directions that had been given, and
took the places assigned to them. They were not far from a little pond,
which had a thick growth of tropical trees and plants all round it, and
there was so little wind blowing that the water was like a mirror, and
reflected its banks with great distinctness. Frank was so intent upon
studying the picture that he did not pay proper attention'to the hunt,
and before he was aware of it a fair-sized pig had dashed by him, and
disappeared in the thick underbrush.
SHOOTING WILD BOARS. 87
A moment later a shot was heard from the Doctor's gun, and then
another came ringing through the woods, followed by a shout from Fred
for assistance. Frank ran to his cousin, and found that he had wounded
a boar, but had not killed him, and while he was reloading his gun the
weapon became clogged, and the cartridge would neither go back nor for-
ward. The boar was dashing wildly about, and threatening danger to the
youth; the latter was endeavoring to keep a tree between himself and the
infuriated beast, and, with his disabled gun in his hand, was somewhat
Finish him! finish him !" said Fred, "and be quick about it !"
Frank performed the finishing touch almost as soon as Fred pro-
nounced the words. The boar fell dead at the shot, and gave Fred the
opportunity to devote his entire attention to putting his gun into a ser-
viceable condition again. In a few minutes the refractory cartridge was
removed, and then the boys surveyed their game.
"Seems to me he's a good-sized one," said Fred; "and see, he has a
pair of tusks; they are not large, but we must keep them as a trophy of
our day's hunting in Luzon."
"Yes," replied Frank, but how shall we divide a pair of tusks? We
must shoot another like him, and then we can have a fair trophy for each
"We'll stay here together," Fred answered, "and when the next one
comes we'll both shoot him, and the honors will be equal."
Just as hie spoke there was another crash in the bushes, and a boar,
that might have been a brother of the dead one, made his appearance.
Frank was first to fire, and Fred immediately followed with a shot. Be-
tween them they killed the animal, and in such a way that neither could
claim all the glory of the slaughter. As Fred had predicted, the honor
was divided, and they were partners in possession of the game.
Other shots soon followed from the Doctor and their host; and then
there was a long interval, with not a sound to break the stillness. Then
the beaters made their appearance; the horn was blown to announce the
end of the hunt, and the party assembled for the return homeward. Ev-
erybody was in fine spirits, as the chase had been successful, not only for
the party collectively, but for each individual. The attendants went to
collect the game, and, when it was all brought together, there was a
goodly amount pf it. Four deer and seven wild hogs comprised the re-
sult of the day's shooting, without counting the snake; Frank thought
the latter should be included, and remarked that snake-shooting was fairly
entitled to be ranked as hunting, when the snake was a large one.
88 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
...-_________" ____- __-- --_-=--_---A$--
The transportation of the game was something to be considered. Mr.
Segovia solved the problem by suggesting that he lhad sent to an Indian
village, a mile or so away, for a pavava. This and the pack-horses would
be sufficient; but he had told the attendant to bring a couple of pavavas
if he could get them.
One of the boys very naturally inquired what a pavava was, as he
had never heard the word before.
"We shall meet it on our way to the boat," was the reply. "It is a
sort of sled or cart made by the Indians, and used for purposes of trans-
portation, and it is drawn by a single buffalo. There are a couple of
runners which curve so that their rear ends only rest on the ground,
while the front of the vehicle is supported by the shafts. The frame
and body of the pavava are of bamboo, and so are the shafts; the collar
of the buffalo is of heavier wood, and the roof of the concern is of pan-
danus-leaves, over a frame of light bamboo. It is so light that a man
can easily lift it, and it will hold as heavy a load as one buffalo can draw."
Having acquired this information, the boys next wished to -know
something about the wild boar, and especially about those they had
killed-whether they were to be considered first, second, or third class.
On this subject the Doctor enlightened them.
I ~ ~E
A PAVAVA.~ 1~.-11~
The transporttion of the ame was somehing to be cnsidered. Mr
Segvi slvd heprble b sggstngtht ie adset o ilInia
\Tilag, inleor o way fr apaava Tis ndthepak-brss wul
Oil this subject the Doctor enlightened them.
PECULIARITIES OF THE WILD BOAR. 89
"The ones you have killed," said he, are probably about two years
old, and therefore are not first class. The boar does not attain his full
size and strength till he is four years old; the proper classification is
like this: first year, pig of the saunder, or briefly 'pig;' second year, hog
of the second, or hog;' third year, hog-steer; and fourth year, and after-
ward, wild boar, or sanglier. You have killed a pair of 'hogs,' and very
good ones they are. They probably weigh about two hundred pounds
each, and when we get to Jala-jala we will put them on the Fairbanks
scales we saw there yesterday, and see how far out I am in my guessing."
Frank wished to know if these animals were natives of the Philippine
Islands, or had been brought there from some other country.
The hog was originally unknown in a natural condition in America,
Australia, and the Pacific islands," replied Doctor Bronson, "and his pres-
ence there is due to the early navigators, who turned pigs loose in the
forests, and allowed them to shift for themselves. The Spaniards did
so in the Philippines three hundred years ago, and it is to them that we
owe the great number in the forests of Luzon. Those you have killed
are descended from the original importations of the Spaniards, just as
the wild hogs in the forests of South America, and on the many islands
of the Pacific, are descended from those left by Captain Cook and other
Fred asked how large these animals became when left to themselves
for years in the forest.
That depends on circumstances," the Doctor answered. Some of
them have been known to weigh four hundred pounds, and occasionally
you hear of one that tips the scale at five hundred. I saw one in India
that weighed four hundred and fifty-six pounds, and had tusks about ten
inches long. The peculiarity of the wild boar is his powerful tusks; they
have an awkward appearance, but he can do terrible execution with them,
ripping up the flank of a horse as though the horn of a bull had passed
through it, and tearing a dog or man to pieces in a few moments. As I
told you, when we started in on the hunt, it is well to be cautious about
attacking a full-grown boar, on account of the danger from his tusks."
"In some of the islands of the Malay Archipelago," he continued,
"there is a species of wild hog called the babirusa, that does not seem
to belong to the hog family as we know it. Its legs are longer, and its
body is more slender than in the rest of the swine species; it does
not root in the ground, but lives on the fruit which falls from the
trees. The tusks of the lower jaw are very long and sharp, but the
upper ones, instead of growing downward in the usual way, are curved
90 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
upward and backward to near the eyes, and sometimes they attain a
length of eight or ten inches. These tusks do not seem to be of any
use, except to protect the eyes from the thorns of the trees and bushes
where the animal lives. The babirusa is quite as fierce as the ordinary
wild boar, and is more fond of the water. He will take to a pond or
river when pursued, and is said to swim with great ease."
SKULL OF BABIRUSA.
"The chase of the wild boar has been a recognized sport in all ages;
we read of it in ancient histories as well as in modern ones, and in cer-
tain periods of the world it was more fashionable than any other form
of hunting. During the Middle Ages it was highly popular in England
and on the Continent, but in our day the wild boar has disappeared from
England entirely, and is only found in a few parts of Europe. The best
localities for hunting him in Europe are in Greece and Italy, but if you
want the sport in all its glory you must go to India. One of the great
amusements of the British officers in India is "pig-sticking," as it is
called, and those who have indulged in it say that the excitement of a
pig-chase equals anything they have ever seen."
The conversation was here interrupted by. meeting the pavava that
had been sent for to bring home the game from the forest. Mr. Segovia
COMMUNICATION WITH THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 91
gave some directions concerning the work in hand, and then the party
rode rapidly to the boat that lay waiting for them. There was a light
breeze blowing in the right direction; and so a quick passage was made
back to Jala-jala. There was enough to talk about for the evening, and
neither of the boys could keep his thoughts away from the fact that he
had shot a deer and a boar on the same day, and assisted in the slaughter
of a boa-constrictor. It was glory enough for twenty-four hours at least,
Frank said, as he went to bed; Fred thought it could be spread over
three or four days without becoming too thin, and even a month would
not be too much.
"A deer, a hog, and a share in a snake," murmured Fred, as he settled
his head on his pillow.
"A wild hog, a deer, and a share in a snake-fight," whispered Frank
to himself, as he dropped off to sleep. "Wonder what Miss Effie and
Mary will say to that? I declare I haven't written home since we left
Java; but then there hasn't been time, and besides we've had no chance
to send letters. I must ask the Doctor in the morning when there is a
mail for America, and how it goes."
A moment later he was in the land of dreams.
The question relative to the postal facilities of the Philippines was
duly propounded in the morning, and received the following answer:
"There is a steamer once a fortnight each way between Manilla and
Hong-Kong; the distance is 650 miles, and the voyage usually occupies
about three days. It is nearly the same distance to Singapore; in the
busy season there is a semi-monthly steamer to Singapore, but it is not
generally maintained through the whole year. For letters to America
the quickest route is via Hong-Kong, whence there is a mail twice a
month to Yokohama and San Francisco. The last mail for Hong-Kong
left Manilla a day before your arrival, and so you have plenty of time
to get your letters ready for the next.
"At the time of year when the crops have been harvested, and the
product is going forward to the European market, there are many irreg-
ular steamers from Manilla to Singapore, and also to Hong-Kong. There
are also sailing-ships bound for European and American ports, though
not as many as from one of the great ports of China or Japan. We
shall have no difficulty in getting away from the islands, as we had no
difficulty in getting here; though we may possibly be compelled to wait
a few days after we are ready to start."
At this moment a servant came to call our friends to breakfast, and
the conversation came to an end. During breakfast it was announced
92 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
that an excursion would be made on the lake that day, and would start
in half an hour.
At the appointed time the boys were at the boat, and with the rest
of the party. Just before they embarked, Frank saw a handsome but-
FRANK'S PRIZE-A BUTTERFLY.
terfly on a stalk near by, and managed to capture it. The Doctor pro-
nounced it a fine specimen, and it was immediately stowed away in the
box kept for prizes of this sort.
"First game for the day," said Frank. "Now, who will have the
Fred made no response, but eyed the water intently, as he saw some-
thing moving in it close to the shore. Seizing a hand-net that lay on
the ground, he made a sudden swoop in the water, and brought up a
Second game for me!" hie shouted, as he deposited on the ground a
strange-looking fish, with a mouth opening directly upward instead of
being placed where the respectable fish is accustomed to have his mouth.
AN ODD KIND OF FISH. 93
Below the head there was a spongy and shapeless mass, with the ventral
fins attached, and the whole length of the fish was covered with a gluti-
nous substance that stuck to the grass and weeds, where he had been
dropped. Along the back was a row of spines, that rose and fell alter-
nately, as though they were trying to pierce something. Both the boys
pronounced the fish the ugliest product of the water they had ever look-
ed upon, and the Doctor said the American sculpin was a model of beauty
compared to this monster.
"His scientific name," said Doctor Bronson, "is Synanceia brachia,
and he is popularly known as the mud-laff. He abounds in tropical wa-
ters, and in most Asiatic countries he is eaten by the natives; but the
Europeans will have nothing to do with him. He lies in the mud and
weeds at the bottom of rivers, and is quite concealed from view. You
observe he has sharp eyes, which peer up through the water and watch
for his prey; when it comes in his reach he sucks it in with a single in-
halation, and this is why his mouth is so oddly placed. The spines on
his back are poisonous, and if you should be pricked with them you
would have a painful wound that might last you for weeks. Mr. Pike,
in his 'Sub-Tropical Rambles,' tells of a, man in the Mauritius who was
stung on the sole of his foot by a mud-laff; the foot and leg swelled
enormously, and after some days the wound sloughed, leaving a large
hole. It was more than two months before the man was able to leave
FRED'S PRIZE-THE MUD-LAFF.
94 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST.
SHOOTING BATS AND IGUANAS.-VISITING THE HOT SPRINGS.
THERE were two boats to-day instead of three, and the course was laid
"- for an island three or four miles away. On the way thither their
host intimated that they were to have a kind of sport they had never seen
in America, and perhaps had never heard of. It might be a disappoint-
ment, as it did not require much skill, but in any event it would be a
novelty. "XWait till we get there," said he, "and then you will know
what it is.
"If we have time," he continued, "I will show you a very curious
place called the Lake of Socolme."
Is it beyond this lake ?" one of the boys asked, as he glanced around,
and concluded that the question of time was very doubtful.
"No, it is in this lake," was the reply, "or rather it is in an island of
the lake. Socolme is an island about three miles in circumference, and is
supposed to be the top of an extinct volcano with a lake or pond in its
crater. The island is two or three hundred feet high, and the pond is in
the centre of it, and at a higher elevation than the great lake. The pond
has been sounded and found to be three hundred feet in depth, while
there are not more than seventy-five feet of water in any part of the
The curious thing about Socolme is the vast numbers of crocodiles
that inhabit it. They are so numerous, and so dangerous, that the In-
dians will not go there alone, and it is with the greatest difficulty that we
can persuade them to accompany us when we make an excursion there.
Sometimes hundreds of these reptiles are visible, and they are of the
largest size; what it is that keeps them there I cannot say, but presume
they find something specially attractive in the depth of the water.
The birds have found that the Indians do not molest them on So-
colme, and so they go there to lay their eggs. Every tree on the shores
of the little lake is white with guano, and the limbs are crowded with
nests which are filled with eggs and birds during the breeding season,
HOW THE INDIANS FIND A TURTLE'S NEST. 95
"O On the shore opposite Socolme there are several springs of hot water,
and the place is generally known as Los Banos,' or The Baths.' There
are plenty of wild pigeons there, and any one who is fond of shooting
pigeons can have all the sport he wants.
"A few miles farther to the east is a sand-bank, where the turtles go
to lay their eggs; unfortunately it is not the season for them now, or I
would take you there. The turtles come up in the night to deposit their
eggs, and return to the water before sunrise, so that when the natives
want any of the turtles they must hunt them by moonlight; but the
eggs are a different matter, and when the Indians know where they are,
they can find them at their leisure."
Fred suggested that if the turtle covered his eggs over, it must re-
quire considerable skill to find a nest.
"You are quite right," was the reply. "The Indians follow the tracks
of the turtles in the sand, but there are so many of them that it is no
easy matter. The turtle digs a trench in the sand about two feet deep
with his broad paws, and then deposits the eggs and covers them. He
smooths the sand over with his shell and goes away, and if he is favored
by a shower just after his departure, you might think he had concealed
his nest completely. But the Indian knows how to discover the deposit;
he takes a blunt stick and thrusts it into the sand, and wherever it goes
in easily he begins to dig with his hands. After a little practice he be-
comes so expert that he never makes a mistake, but invariably comes
upon eggs. They have a thin but tough shell, and the yolk contains a
great deal of oil. The natives eat these eggs raw, but they are too rank
for the European stomach, though we use some of them in making ome-
lets and cakes. The Indians crush them in broad trays, and collect the
oil which soon rises to the top. Turtle oil is quite an article of com-
Frank asked how many eggs were usually found in a nest.
The number varies a good deal," was the response. I have seen a
hundred and forty taken out of one nest, but usually there are not far
from a hundred. It is a curious spectacle to see a dozen or more natives
digging away at the sand, some lying at full length, some on their knees,
and others bearing baskets full of eggs to the boats tied up to the bank."
Conversation on various topics consumed the time till the party
reached one of the islands, and proceeded to land. There were several
eagles flying in circles high above the boats, and keeping up a perpetual
screaming as if in protest at the coming of the visitors. The Doctor
"drew a bead on one of them with his Remington rifle, and brought him
--- -- :-
-_ INDIANS HUTN TU __RTLES.
INDIANS HUNTING TURTLES' EGGS.
BAT-SHOOTING IN LUZON. 97
to the ground-or rather to the lake, where one of the natives paddled
out and secured the prize. He was a fine fellow, measuring nearly six
feet from tip to tip of his extended wings. Frank and Fred wished to
try their skill, and brought up the guns they had used the day before, but
the Doctor told them nothing but a rifle could have any effect on these
birds, owing to the height at which they were flying.
Two or three eagles were shot by the Doctor and his host; the boys
each tried to bring down one of the huge birds, but did not succeed, as
they had not practised with the rifle, and consequently were not expert
in using it. By-and-by the excitement of shooting eagles came to an end,
and the party started for the novel sport that had been promised.
A few hundred yards from the landing-place there was a clump of
trees, to which the attention of the boys was directed; Frank remarked
that the foliage was the darkest he had ever seen on a tree, and Fred sug-
gested that there must have been a shower of ink not long ago, or per-
haps the trees grew out of a bed of chimney-soot. Other reasons were
given for the blackness of the trees-some of them serious and others joc-
ular-but none were correct.
The Doctor raised his rifle and fired at one of the trees. The game
fell to the ground; and Frank ran forward to pick it up.
Why, it's a bat!" he exclaimed, as he held the prize by an extended
wing," and a large one too."
Yes," answered the Doctor, it belongs to the family of vampires;
the naturalists call it a roussette, and its genus is pteropus. Its popular
name is flying-fox, and the natives find it good eating, though Europeans
will not generally touch it. Its fur, you perceive, is soft, and it is often
used for the linings of gloves, but in a tropical climate like this it is not
of a good quality."
But what are they doing here on this island?" Fred asked. "And
look, the trees are covered with them, all hanging down by their claws
and apparently asleep."
"Yes," said Mr. Segovia, "they are asleep, and you may shoot as many
of them as you like. What you supposed to be black leaves were in re-
ality bats, and they take the place of the foliage they have destroyed."
"1But do they live here all the time ?" inquired Frank. "If they do,
I should think they would kill the trees by depriving them of the power
No," was the reply, "they only stay here during the period of the
eastern monsoon. They sleep all day, and go out at night in search of
food, and with the rising of the sun, or before it, they are back again.