Title: A short, comparative description of salt-water/fresh-water relationship on three peninsulas, namely: 1) Interbay Peninsula; 2) Pinellas Peninsula; and 3) the Floridan P
CITATION PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00052832/00001
 Material Information
Title: A short, comparative description of salt-water/fresh-water relationship on three peninsulas, namely: 1) Interbay Peninsula; 2) Pinellas Peninsula; and 3) the Floridan P
Alternate Title: Parker, Garald G., Hydrologic, Geologic & Environmental Management Consultant. Paper: "A short, comparative description of salt-water/fresh-water relationship on three peninsulas, namely: 1) Interbay Peninsula; 2) Pinellas Peninsula; and 3) the Floridan P
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Parker, Garald G. ( Author )
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
General Note: Box 5, Folder 19 ( SF SALT WATER INTRUSION-FLORIDA, PINELLAS AND INTERBAY PENINSULA ), Item 3
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00052832
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text



GARALD G. PARKER, C.P.G.
HYDROLOGIC, GEOLOGIC & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT CONSULTANT


May 12, 1979 ECEIVE


Dear Buddy:

This is in response to your request for a short,
comparative description of salt-water/fresh-water relation-
ship on three peninsulas, namely; 1) Interbay Peninsula;
2) Pinellas Peninsula; and 3) the Floridan Peninsula.

If each of these three peninsulas were underlain by
freely permeable geologic materials of practically no
layering so that no layers were more or less permeable than
others in the geologic section, water would be free to move
any direction dictated only by the differing densities of the
salt and fresh-water and by the hydraulic gradient, not by
layered differences in permeability. As a consequence, a
Ghyben-Hergberg relationship would exist throughout each
peninsula's hydraulic system.

The Ghyben-Hergberg principle has almost become a part
of the conventional wisdom of most Floridians. It has been
explained so many times to audiences of all levels of sophis-
tication, both orally and in print, that few have escaped the
"knowledge" that in Florida where the fresh ground-water level
averages a foot above sea-level, it will be forty feet down to
salt water, or if the average water-table altitude is two feet
above sea level, it will be 2X40 feet or eighty feet to salt
water. This concept is graphically shown in Figure 1, an
idealized hydrogeologic cross section through a freely permeable
geologic section such as the Pinellas Peninsula through the
Coachman High where the water table normally stands as high as
ninety feet above msl (mean sea level) at its crest near Lake
Bowden. It is obvious that other factors than Ghyben-Hergberg
are controlling.

Figure 2 demonstrates by comparison of the potentiometric
map (2A) and the map of the depth to base of potable water (2B)
that fresh water exists in depths somewhat greater than 2,000
feet beneath the Green Swamp High. Figure 3 shows this in a
hydrogeologic section drawn along lines A-A' (2A) and B-B' (2B).
The contact between fresh-water and salt-water is based on USGS
and FBG data and presented by Howard Klein in FBG MS-42. I
have prepared Figure 3 from these data and it demonstrates, as
does the data from Pinellas Peninsula, that the Ghyben-Hergberg
principle does not fit the general occurrences, although it may
on the Gulf Coast in the zone a mile or so wide along the shores.



3303 McFARLAND RD.
CARROLLWOOD
TAMPA, FLORIDA 33618
PH. 933-4716








2


Everywhere in the Floridan Peninsula, except in certain shore-
ward zones of high permeability and good hydrologic connection
with the aquifers, the Ghyben-Hergberg formula does not apply.
For example, over a large part of the Green Swamp High where
the potentiometric surface is 120 to 130 feet above sea level,
the measured depth to the base of the fresh water is only about
2,000 feet below sea level. If the Ghyben-Hergberg principle
were operative there the fresh water would extend to -4,800
feet msl (120' x40).

Interbay Peninsula has not been adequately explored by
hydrogolists and neither the USGS nor the FBG has ever made
detailed fresh-water/salt-water relationships there; neither
has SWFWMD. From the scanty data available there appears to
be a small freah-water lens there (Figure 3).

To sum it up, the Ghyben-Hergberg principle does not
apply inland in large land bodies but it is closely approx-
imated in coastal fresh-water aquifers that are hydraulically
connected with'ocean waters. An excellent example is along
Biscayne Bay in the Gold Coast area; another is on the islands
of the Florida Keys where a shallow Ghyben-Hergberg lens
occurs on each of the larger islands. It also has been demon-
strated al6ng the shores of the North Sea in Holland and
Germany, in the Hawaiian Islands, and many of the South Pacific
Islands, particularly on the atolls and many of the volcanic
islands.

The occurrence of salty water in the Floridan Peninsula
is extremely complex in origin. With sea levels having
fluctuated both above and below present levels (in the order of
250 feet above and more than 600 feet below modern sea level)
with alternate sea-water saturation up to the high levels of
these Ice Age seas and then drained--or partially drained--
during low levels, the residual waters now here do not in
any way reflect the salinity of the Ghyben-Hergberg relation--
ship except, as noted above, in certain coastal zones.

The salt water that underlies the Everglades-Big Cypress
Swamp, Lake Okeechobee and the St. Johns River Valley, for
example, is most likely a remnant of the late Pleistocene
(Ice Age) seas with levels of eight, twenty-five, and forty-
two feet above present levels. Older sea water still remains
at depths below 2,000 feet where it has remained more and less
stagnant since early Pleistocene or as long ago as Miocene
times, twenty-six to forty million years ago. Some of this
saline water is trapped in clayey materials of the Floridan
Acquiclude (largely the Hawthorn Formation) or by other
relatively impermeable formations such as the dense dolomitic
layers in the Lake City and Oldsmar Limestones and even in
parts of the overlying Avon Park. These dense, thick layers
tend to prevent upward movement and hold the ancient sea and
other briny waters in place where they have been at least the
last seventy million years and perhaps much longer.









3


I hope that this memorandum-type report fulfills your
needs. If not, please do not hesitate to call upon me. There
is no charge, good friend. I hope that my delay in making the
response to your request has not been too long. I've been
wrapping up my Saudi Arabian report, and spending much of my
time on my Dade-Metro and West Palm Beach studies, both of
which have kept me working overtime to meet deadlines.

Best regards and good wishes.


S ncerely,


Garald G. Par Sr.
Consultant







,,\. I x\ ; \ /. ~' \ I \ \
,7 /-., o r"- C RES-E \ T ^^^
.1 4

4. 1---t zj.

/ -.- e \
S',.;/O t- ; / ',-\ .t\\



s .\ 'A -- l- i t ,/ : \ oo / ,-~ I \


.A 6 ) (' I'/41

I



\ ( i / ( --

\\\
5" .. .. De. 1 _N





PL8j tc^ i S ACT\ A /\ "t I \ M4'



^ .-2000 .-- -" -
0 t5 I Io to f
S1 ,T i i i .. _

05-- It- 79L
1 XPL 4 AT\oN






Y!'/ c/
TAPTRo AtFTER A. DKLIts, P7l, DOPTU TO BAS OF POTABLE tAATtR X OF 211
I TH FLOR A AqLFE : FLA.UR. VG-L..1. A S 4.

tfdter ''s c'ns/"re dc9 ,tafo' //. >/s cA/or/a^/ot^p7 doe^
'otexc^ei 2^0 fszc /// d '^ di'so!/vc VO//d^ 0o/0M'^ dote

Lane ^ ouiw proyS^^a de^^ to tcase of potk(e CAJQedr
jvv+1e tiort c4*vt AcQ+er
0 1o zo 30 4o 5e MooILES
do I so, *














,f '-
FIGURE 2. oAPS FOR COMP SO OF THE PF TETO-









METREC SURFACE" AND DEPTH TO BASE OF POTABLE E
WATER IN TE FLORI DAF AQUFER. .









f-:~~i:-1!'4I 71 < r241:- T:EE L- tK4 I -
:L- _-_K-"'
II2E-t t i'V
:_: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L .:-::: __ .. .:. .-: -:-t.. ... : i :: -.:_ . ..... ..~. .. .. ::: :: : :::: : : : :: :: 1 I :. ........ ,:,,',, ,
,~~-- . ..... ,,', ' t_, :::{.:ti --l i: :
lc -7
-7t-

: .: ,, ,l . . .- : -Z- i . .
--- t: -: ,r:q ':!2!.,,:,, .... ..I. ... ....... r ~ -t.....
: ... ._


to
I f~~-~- hW I


1 7t; : SU ... ..










:: : :19.H -ji::.' :- - :-"
-~771 L-Z-_:-




Liii
14 --- I CLI .--
Mv 7 r- T7 -















219

VA 4
-I4





4t :-: :--4' -







-750
,li














KV V It~ _--cr









V.-i
ff t. d 4 tciF t V VV
'77 I.... 1.


i-- -t : ......... ... .. ... t .....

. .L .. .

















. .. I .. . . . . .I. . .
I -, .- I V- 1 .








V ~ tl j l.4.t7TIIV- j
kii
rPI~ ~ ......r:f .:jt_2j





'17





B ... 1 -- .4 I ...... -'
'. : :, : -:liTI tj : :
t ; .. .I .. .... !p ~ .. . ...... ... . .
..! .. -- :: ::.-I _-::7:: : Z -.Lq .:::TI:-- :f: L -: -7:. -:.._--. .. ..-'' -,..... --: :':: -" .
.: '. t-- .. .: r .. . .. . .. .. . ... .. .1...9r l- .. -: .. .T -'
S. ::... .. -::: ,: : -: - .t... .. .. : I .. ..i t .. .. "- ... ....; ... -" ::. _ :. i :::: ': -::::i:::: :;: :: i : : :: .; 7: -: :'- -: -::. :i : C,:. .: -ii
Z -:- : .... --- ..---- -.I-,;- *+ .... .... .. 1-.. .... .. '::-r.. .. : ....:__ -.z -"!: .-::-_.-: :_ ,:.z _-': -: -::.; : -: : :._'S F2.. : .. :....
' . .. i .. i . . . t .. . . . ...1t t 1 .. ..
S.. L I . _.:T : . .- .: : : : .. .. .. ... .. .. i. . .. .. .. .
'. .:~~ ~~ .: ..: .1.. .. ..... .. .. f ::.. -- : : :r - -, :. I ---: .
I .. . .. .. .. -I t: L : l: : -. .. .. . .. .:I-. i ." . .
-~~- .. ............ .. ..... .....J [ .... .... ... .... ......... -t .... .. ... .. ..,..... :... l.. -:.. ,..... .. :.. -
.."~~~~~~21 E .. . .. .: = = = = = = = = = = = = = : . ...,. i .I. .. . .
I .. : : .: -. r : -. .. .I . _, : : ; : -
'I [ L I -:- : ---. ..'. -. .. .-- .t... .- .; .. .. .. .T '" : .: -.. 2.2 : : .: :2_.. ,. .L r - -' ' -- + -
ii' :::2- _:_# ... ... !_: I2 .cL ... . .. ...: - .. ..... iL, __ .. . .. ..'. .... ..:::," -:.. :: "__ :L ._.''
:: : .. '. . . : .* .. .'. . ---: : -" ... .. .. . H - .. .. .
.~~~~t o ...... ... .. .... ..... :._.. ... ......... .. .. .... ... ... .. ... . . ,
i j I .A 11~ !
....~L- ..... .. .. ... .. .. ... .. :' :::' : -: ;::;: : : : : : : : : : : : l :--L : :
"- "i . ,. ..:5: T : :: -: -"2.-: : -: ' .. :;- : -.[ .T .:"-2. . :. F .. . '
J ::: :::::: :::: :::: ::: : ::: :: -: :: : :-: f : :::-! : -: ; :i i : -:-:: : .-: : : .. : -:! :.:- ::: : :-: :- : : : : + :-t=
-. : -r-:-. _._..-- 'L- ...--.. .: _.x - .. ... .. .... .... ..... i -- .. .. .. .. .. ..!".. :::: : :-:: ff: -
~~~~ .. ; i. t ,. . . . t .. i .. .. . . ..... ... . ... 2" ....... .... : : : '=-:" ..: : : : : :. : .. . .. .. .
;- :,i :: : :.-::-. : : : :- :-:: -, .. .. .. i. .. : : : : : :- ... :! i : :- i i :i : : [.' : 7 :. .. .
i, t _I !
i- 2i " ':l .. .. 1.. ..'... : L : : : :L-! .. : : -: : -.- : i l : ', : .. .., _: L ,i : :"T ,

;i::-' h It:!H-! 4 _":: C :: I E .'-"! .': :i t-g !: c:=-.:-
[-: - :: : .-: i. . .. : i : : : : : :: :: ::: : :! : : : ::L ;: : : .. I ':: : = ;:L = -: == ::
:'" .... .' .. ... .. I.. ... .. .. .. : : -: : : :: : .. .. .. .. .f ... .. .. .. .. :: :: .. .. : : :: :: : :: : :::: : : : :: ::: : : f _
~ ~ ~ ~~~~~C .. .. .. ... .. y ..... .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .;.. .. ..... .. .. .. r'-~ I -- ;.. .. .

Stt
" (Q i .. .. "f fT- ".. .. .'... .. ..I :: : : ::: t: -: : 'I -:::: : : : .'-. -: .::.-. t.. .:,- . .:. ::-.-::-- :: : _: : .-2 :I:: :: [ )f :: : : -:i: _
: : : : : : : : :: .. . . ... ... . .. .. : ... . i -[ .: -: : : : : :: 1 : : .. .. I.. ... . .. . . ... . ; .
S. . .. .. . .. ., .. : : : : : : : : : : : : : :. .. . .. t . ,. . : .. : : : : : : :


~- :-:- i.- -,-1 :
.___.--L~~~ .... .. . .. -- -- ,." ..- -.- '.: .. .. .. .. . ".. .t... .. -- 2 1 T.. .*. . ... ... .1
S. .. ... .. .: ..: : : :, :.. .t.. .' [ .. . .F i t ~ ..... q:: : : -: :-c .:: : : ::: .: : i -.. .:' : t : t : : '
f : .: : :: : : :.. .. . --: : = = = = = = == = == = = = = = = = = = = == .. .I .. : : : : : : : : :: : : : : .. . .
. . .. . I 1 -' . .. . t . . . .
: : 1 -.: -:: : .:.: -: -- : ::. .. .:: .. .. .. .. ... ; LLt9rV.: T .. .. .- :. . . : .. : : : -
:: :: :-:: :: .. .. ;a .. .t'" : : -:-: ::::[:: ::::' L::::-: ::-1::: ': : :: .. ..... r" l : : : :--:: :::::: :: : : : : : ... ..i" t --: -
I::~~~~~~~~~ :!ii::: :.I: :ii:ii: i-:-:: | .,-:t-: : :-:7 -; : ': :':.-: t -.... ..... ..





U)__ _. A VLL







*.-^ ._.- ^ ^ ^ ^ ^_ __^_._ _ _ _4&~il/1Eki(1 OL~y N
_._ _^ ^W e :_ __
7M ;51 ,^ ^ -- _ _ _ _ :S ^ _q ^,^ _ff
to ___ -^ ^ S :l ___ __ __ __ -^ ^H '/;of




V -TS ts 7 t P FOO '--Al '













I'll "*lOA is 1N "r0 1A) EN 1,VA JkOt IA 10 W JER LO P 1 1Y E RO EF T
- ^ _ - J ^ ^ ~ ~ ~ ~~.1. -- --- --I-_ _-_ -^ ___ i-
I /) f
1(v- TV r:-- ;-, L ^ ----_ ---_ __ __ ___k___ 1 __
P_. r7N _\_ it < 5 ^ o _ ^_ O A ^_ S L
-- ~ ~ ~~ -- i^---- -- C-
^ -- -- ^ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -
r-_ H^i^^ ^~L-l~.Lj 16Lt~ ^i^r ^ ~ ^L F_
.J J 'Q y L!<2^ ^ -_^ IJ ^ __ _ _
_-- _ _ ___ __ ___ __ z_ PTz z_
-____ ^^n^~~~~~-T^^ --^zH.L^^ H- VA;/ ^'~-:*>^^.Kf;:j^ l

____AL N V C )F I A_'
1 .T .-1 T^ "P tE 7 R





University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs