Title: Commission on the Future of Florida's Environment. "Department of Natural Resources - Land Acquisition Techniques." Issue Paper No. 15. April 1989. 36
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Title: Commission on the Future of Florida's Environment. "Department of Natural Resources - Land Acquisition Techniques." Issue Paper No. 15. April 1989. 36
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"Coordination among the foregoing public and private land acquisition
programs has been only partially formalized by rule or statute. However,
since all of these programs acquire lands for their environmental resource
values, the goals and objectives of these programs coincide more often than
not, with the result that favorable coordination between programs is often
established for specific projects. Such coordination is usually evident in
the form of cooperative purchases, where an acquisition project is funded by
two or more different acquisition funds. Such cooperative purchases usually
involve public acquisition programs.

Another form of coordination involves acquisition by one program, and
resale to another program. Private acquisition organizations usually
function in this way, although public acquisition programs occasionally
cooperate in resales also. The advantage of such cooperation is to seize an
acquisition opportunity in the short term when the cost advantage is
greatest, and hold the newly acquired property until partial or full
reimbursement can be made from the trust fund of the appropriate, cooperating

Public and private acquisition programs also coordinate through
identification, design and sponsorship of acquisition projects. Where the
environmental goals and objectives of two or more such programs or
organizations coincide, one program may design and submit an acquisition by
another program. Such cooperation is most evident in the case of
applications to the CARL and State Recreation and Parks (SOC and LATF)
programs, since these programs have a formalized application procedure as
part of the selection procedures specified by Chapter 259, Florida Statutes.

The CARL Program coordinates with other public and private acquisition
organizations to a greater extent than any other acquisition program in
Florida. This is because the criteria or public purposes for which CARL
acquisitions are made more diversified than those of other programs. Since
both the CARL and State Recreation and Parks Land Acquisition Programs are
governed by the provisions of Chapter 259, Florida Statutes, some
coordination between those is explicit, such as selection of acquisition
projects by a single, common Selection Committee, and mutual exclusivity of
the acquisition lists established by the Selection Committee.

The following table (III.F.1.) lists examples of past and present
acquisition projects which have required coordination among public and
private programs.






Department of Natural Resources Land Acquisition Techniques


A. Alternative Acquisition Techniques

Alternative acquisition techniques, for discussion purposes in this
plan, refer to all types of acquisition other than direct, fee simple
purchase using trust fund monies. Accordingly, such alternative acquisition
techniques fall into two broad categories: (1) fee-simple acquisitions and
(2) less-then-fee-simple acquisitions. The use of other land protection
measures such as rezoning at request of landowner, landowner-contact programs
and condemnation through eminent domain are also discussed in this section.
For a more detailed discussion on alternatives to fee simple land
acquisition, especially regarding the ues of easements, see the draft report
(Star Grant 85-041) on Alternatives to Fee Simple Land Acquisition, prepared
by the Florida Atlantic University/Florida International University Joint
Center for Environmental and Urban Problems.

Within the total 38 million acres encompassed by the geographic boundary
of Florida exist over 8 million acres of wetlands (21.8%) and over 3 million
acres (8.3%) of submerged lands. Since such lands are largely undevelopable,
the potential applicability of alternative acquisition techniques for
protection of valuable natural resources, on such lands now in private
ownership, is tremendous.

1. Alternatives to Simple Purchase

a. Donation

Donation of lands by private parties to the State of Florida is highly
desirable since it allows the state to make progress towards resource
protection goals at little or no expense. The incentive to the owner lies in
relief of tax burdens and other liabilities associated with his property,
plus a federal income tax deduction if the donation qualifies as a suitable
contribution in accordance with Section 170(c) of the Internal Revenue
Service Code. Donations are particularly advantageous to owners of
undevelopable wetlands. Additionally, the state can benefit from donations
coupled to acquisition of developable lands, or mitigation agreements as
authorized by the Department of Environmental Regulation in accordance with
Section 403.918(2)(b), Florida Statutes. Donations coupled to mitigation
agreements can be advantageous to both the landowner and the state. In such
agreements the owner may receive a permit for limited land use normally
unattainable, if the preconditional land donation is of sufficient size and
environmental value to offset the damaging impact of the permitted land use.

"Examples of some donations completed by the Department of Natural
Resources are tabulated in 4, page 18 of FSLAP and Table III.B.2., page 127
of FSLAP, Technical Report and illustrated in Figure 5, page 16 of FSLAP and
Figure III.B.1., page 125 of FSLAP, Technical Report.

One current problem facing donations is that while landowners are
willing to donate their lands to the state, they are sometimes unwilling or
unable to pay for local property taxes in arrears, or for documentation
required by the Division of State Lands as specified in Chapter 253.025,
Florida Statutes (Appendix II.). Since the Division lacks authority or

funding to make such payments on behalf of prospective donors, the state is
sometimes unable to consummate donations even though funds to pay for back
taxes or required documentation may amount to a small fraction of the
property value offered by the willing donor.

It should also be mentioned that Recreation and Public Purpose
conveyances from the federal government to the state are essentially
donations from the U.S. Government, for which the state must apply.
Likewise, the state sometimes donates lands to federal agencies for
management purposes, such as submerged lands within the Biscayne National

b. Land Exchanges

Land exchanges between the state and private parties have been executed
in several instances, and have provided for acquisition of environmentally
sensitive areas important to resource conservation and preservation goals
(Table 1 and Table 2). Land exchanges have the advantage to the state of
supplementing its acquisition trust funds while reserving liquidity, and
disposing of, its surplus stands which do not serve environmental conservation
or preservation goals. Land exchanges also may present some tax advantages
to the private landowner. Private developers or agricultural interests, for
whom continued land use is essential, may find exchange preferable to cash

Land exchanges among governmental agencies are not often done, but could
prove advantageous. The state, federal government, water management
districts, counties and municipalities may hold title to lands which are
within or adjacent to each other's management areas.. Such mutual property
interests can sometimes be best resolved through exchange of title.

Private organizations probably use land exchange for acquisition of
environmental lands more frequently than public programs. Private
organizations have greater flexibility to
pursue acquisitions exclusively for exchange purposes, and to conduct
exchanges across state lines. Because of this, private acquisition
organizations are inherently more successful in dealing with timber
companies, which are generally interested in disposing of lands unsuitable
for their timber needs. Since some lands unsuitable for timber production
have other, valuable environmental resources, private acquisition
organizations can acquire such environmentally valuable lands through
exchange with a timber company for agreed-upon lands suitable for timber
production. Such suitable timber lands may be of greater value to a timber
company than the market value of that same property in cash. In this way,
private acquisition organizations can use exchange to function as an
effective intermediary in acquisition of lands for public programs.

2. Less-Than-Fee-Simple Acquisition

The less-than-fee-simple acquisition of lands could be more frequently
applied by Florida's land acquisition programs in order to acquire interests
essential to environmental concerns while permitting other, compatible land
uses to continue. The primary advantages of these techniques are that: (1)

they permit protection of environmental values of properties whose owners are
unwilling to sell total fee interest; and (2) they cost only a fraction of
the trust fund dollars required for fee-simple acquisition, but may
accomplish the same environmental-protection goals.

a) Types of Less-Than-Fee-Simple Interest

There are numerous variations of types of less-than-fee-simple
interests, which are herein divided into four types for conceptual purposes:
(1) title restrictions on future use; (2) reservations; (3) easements; and
(4) leases.

(1) Deed restrictions limit the use of property such that the owner can
not exercise land uses contrary to the restrictions specified in the deed.
In such cases, the property owner must use the property for specific purposes
only, exclusive of restrictions. Such deed restrictions may include a
reverter clause which returns title to a former owner or other, specified
parties if specific land uses prescribed by the deed are not executed, or the
prescribed restrictions are not adhered to.

The advantage of such restrictions are that environmental agencies or
organizations can dispose of properties, and recover much initial cost, while
conserving or preserving critical resource values.

(2) Reservations are specific attributes of real estate which in and of
themselves are marketable apart from remaining attributes of the property,
and which are conveyed or retained separately from other title interests.
Reservations which are commonly sought and of recognized value include: (1)
mining for minerals; (2) oil and gas exploration and recovery; (3) timber
harvesting; (4) water use; (5) hunting rights; (6) development rights; or (7)
for resource conservation.

The primary value of reservations is that the cost of acquisition of the
remaining property interest may be substantially lowered. Also, in conveying
out reservations, a private landowner can obtain a commensurate decrease in
tax burden. This is especially true for reservations with high monetary
value such as mineral or development rights. However, a problem lies in
acquisition of environmental lands to which title includes outstanding
reservations. Such reservations may be held by unwilling sellers who can
exercise their rights to such reservations after an indefinite period of
time, and at the expense of public purposes for which the property was

(3) Easements are property rights which are specified in the deed, and
which serve to permit a specific use, usually relating to attributes on the
surface of the property. Thus, easements usually convey transport rights for
power lines, pipelines, water flow, people (i.e., ingress and egress), etc.

A specialized type of easement of greatest concern to environmental
protection is the conservation easement. This type of easement is defined in
Chapter 704.06, Florida Statutes, and provides for preservation of natural

resources on a given property through enforceable restrictions specified in
that subsection. Conservation easements are additionally defined in Chapter
704.06, Florida Statutes as being undivided, perpetual interests.

The primary advantage to the buyer of the easement is that it provides
for use, or in the case of the conservation easement, protection of valuable
resources, at a fraction of the cost of full interest in the property. The
primary advantage of the easement to the seller, or primary title-holder, is
that the retains full use of the remaining interest in the property, and his
tax burden is reduced.

"The primary problem with easements, particularly conservation easements,
is enforcement. Title for remaining interests in a property may be conveyed
unknown to the holder of the easement, to a new owner how is ignorant of, or
disregards terms of the easement. Thus, in the absence of adequate
enforcement or tracking of changes of title to lands involving conservation
easements, terms of the easement may be seriously violated. Thus,
conservation easements, while advantageous for cost-benefit reasons, still
accrue a need for protective management. Conservation easements, in the
absence of enforceability and manageability, are specious provisions.

(4) Leases permit a land owner to authorize a specific, limited use of
a property under terms of a signed agreement.
A lease actually need not preclude fee-simple ownership, but represents
conveyance of property interests under an agreement separate from the deed.
The great advantages of the lease to te landowner is his authority to
specify terms of the lease,-and to revise those terms when the lease is
renewed. One of the common terms of leasemsis the payment of revenues to the

The primary advantages of the lease to the lessee include: (1)
flexibility of terms of the agreement; (2) short term.use at a fraction of
the cost of title interest; and (3) freedom from taxes or other liabilities
which normally accompany title interests.

b) Methods of Acquiring Less-Than-Fee-Simple Interest

Public or private environmental protection programs can use a variety of
methods for acquiring or otherwise utilizing less-
than-fee-simple interests to achieve their resource protection goals. Some
of the most important such methods are described herein.

(1) Purchase and lease-back can provide the acquiring agency with the
advantages of owning readily enforceable title interests, and flexibility in
negotiating a lease agreement, while accruing reimbursement for acquisition
or management cost from rent paid by the lessee.

(2) Purchase and resale can allow the acquiring agency to modify the
deed to incorporate restrictions or reservations for environmental
conservation purposes, and then dispose of property interests which are
nonessential to those purposes. Alternatively, nonessential fee simple
interests in a fractional area of the property can be disposed of, which may

be appropriate if the original landowner refused to sell only the
environmentally sensitive part of his holdings. In this way, a portion of
the initial cost of the acquisition can be recovered.

(3) Option Contracts provide the prospective buyer and seller with
conditional terms which must be met prior to conveyance of title. In this
way, the acquisition agency may obtain purchasing rights in anticipation of
further clarification, disposition or financing of the property, without
liability if those conditional terms cannot be met. Land acquisition
contracts by environmental protection entities are usually of this type.

(4) Life estates guarantee the seller continued property interests for
the remainder of this life, or the lives of other individuals specified by
the seller. Following the deaths of individuals holding title to such life
estates, those property interests are usually conveyed to the environmental
entity which acquired title interests when the life estate was established.

(5) Transfer of development rights (TDR) can be used for environmental
conservation purposes if: (1) transferred to a part of the same parcel which
is environmentally less sensitive; (2) transferred to different parcels at a
more distant, environmentally less valuable location within the same county;
or (3) voluntarily transferred to a governmental authority to be held in
trust for at least 10 years.

Transferal of development rights can be very useful in local resource
planning and management because it provides for long-term or permanent
resource protection on a given parcel of land, while reserving for the
Landowner the original development rights attributable to that parcel and the
monetary value of those rights. Such transferals are most effective when
coupled with conservation easements or other restrictive agreements applied
to the environmentally sensitive area from which development rights had been
removed. TDR's are applied, at least in concept, by "cluster development"
plans which propose concentration of-development within a limited area, such
that development rights accruing from a larger area must be exercised within
the designated cluster development area. Sometimes, it may be necessary to
TDR to another, more distant location within the same county in order to
achieve adequate resource protection.

Sections 193.501 and 193.505, Florida Statutes, provide for reassessment
of lands for which development rights have been conveyed for protection of
environmentally endangered lands, outdoor recreation lands, archaeological
sites or historic sites. By doing so, the owner can obtain a reappraisal of
his tax-assessed property value which excludes development .rights. The
conditions of such voluntary conveyances for environmental protection in
accordance with Chapter 193 include: (1) the development rights must be held
in trust by either the governing body of the county or Trustees of the
Internal Trust Fund; (2) the lands from which development rights are conveyed
must qualify as environmentally endangered or serve for agreed-upon
recreational or historic-preservation purposes; and (3) the subject land must
be placed under conservation restrictions enumerated in Section 704.06(1),
Florida Statutes.

^ .

The greatest tax benefit of such voluntary conveyance of development
rights is accrued by the owner of highly developable uplands, who does not
wish to undertake development of such uplands in the short term. The great
value of voluntary TDR's to
public, environmental protection programs include: (1) applicability to
areas which cannot be protected by regulatory means; (2) short-term
protection until public funds can purchase necessary title interests to
achieve an adequate measure of environmental protection; and (3) to provide
an immediate means of achieving a measure of environmental protection through
granting TDR's to be held in trust until a suitable location for such TDR's
is identified by the county government.

The tax benefits of voluntary TDR's, as prescribed by Chapter 193.501,
Florida Statutes, apply only to county, ad valorum property taxes.

(6) Partnerships or joint ventures among public, or between public and
private acquisition programs can be very advantageous, because the cost-
burden is shared, and maximal, mutual benefits can be obtained from such
shared efforts and funding.

3. Other Protection Measures

a. Rezoning in Areas of Critical State Concern

A change in zoning implemented by a county as required for compliance
with an Area of Critical State Concern (ACSC) designated in accordance with
Chapter 380, Florida Statutes, can provide opportunities to improve
protection of environmentally endangered lands, as well as decrease the tax
burden on landowners. Changes in zoning which follow ACSC designation may
reclassify environmentally sensitive lands so as to provide for better
resource planning, protection and management. Chapter 193.507, Florida
Statutes, authorizes landowners within any ACSC to request that the county
property tax appraiser reassess their properties subsequent to ACSC
designation, so as to reflect any
reduced valuation consistent with new development regulations allowable under
the ACSC designation.

b. Owner-Contact Programs for Preservation of Natural Features

Owner-contact programs as defined for purposes of this plan, refer to
programs which provide for procurement, establishment, maintenance and
recognition of non-binding agreements by which private landowners voluntarily
protect and preserve unique and irreplaceable natural features on their
property. The potential of an owner-contact program is great because: (1)
it can provide for immediate protection of -an outstanding natural feature;
(2) it can provide for limited access to, and study of that feature; and (3)
it can encourage a landowner to protect or preserve a natural feature until
funds or a means for acquisition become available.

The most obvious disadvantage of such agreements is that they are
entirely dependent upon the good intentions of the landowner, and are
unenforceable. Notwithstanding, if energetically pursued and maintained, and

combined with incent. es such as certificates of recci..tion or property-tax
reassessment by local governments, owner-contact agreements can result in
protection of significant natural features until they can be acquired by a
land acquisition program.

Two examples of owner-contact programs for preservation of natural
features are described herein, one within the Department of Natural
Resources, and the other within The Nature Conservancy.

(1) Program for Registration of Natural Features in Florida

The Natural Features Registration Program was developed by staff of the
Department of Natural Resources, Division of Recreation and Parks, and
approved by the Governor and Cabinet on October 31, 1972.

The purpose of this program is to give recognition through registration,
to the important and unique natural features found throughout the state. By
registering the identified features, their preservation by land owners will
be encouraged.

This proposed program is designed only to identify, designate and
register natural features in order to:

(a) encourage the preservation of representative portions of the
original plant communities, aquatic areas and geological features of Florida;

(b) encourage the preservation of habitats that support rare or
endangered plant communities, as well as species of plants or animals;

(c) enhance the recreational, educational and scientific value of sites
preserved; and

(d) foster a greater concern for the preservation of Florida's natural

This registration program does not duplicate any program already
established under the jurisdiction of the Division of Recreation and Parks or
any other state agency. Rather, it is designed to supplement existing
programs so that the protection of important and unique natural features
throughout the state, regardless of ownership or program status, will be
complete and of high quality.

Features identified by governmental agencies, the Florida Natural Areas
Inventory, or submitted by concerned citizens, will be inspected by personnel
of the Division of Recreation and Parks, or a Technical Advisory Committee.
A description form will be completed on the feature. If it qualifies,*
according to the criteria already established by the Division of Recreation
and Parks, the Executive Director of the Department of Natural Resources
issues an invitation to the landowner to register the identified site as a
state natural feature. If the invitation is accepted, an agreement will be

signed and a certific issued to the landowner desil 'ting the area as an
official state natural feature. The designation and registration will not
involve change in ownership or administration of the property. The
agreement, though not legally binding, will require that if the owner alters
the natural qualities of the feature he must surrender the certificate, along
with the property's status as a state natural feature. It should be noted
that the rights of private landowners who hold title to the land of the
various designated natural features will be strictly upheld. Also, it is
pointed out in the register and in all published information concerning the
natural features, that access to private lands shall be gained only by
invitation of the owner and not by trespass.

The only action which will be taken by the Department of Natural
Resources, Division of Recreation and Parks, other than the designation and
registration of the natural features will be to erect appropriate signs,
prepare public informational material and perform periodic inspections. The
purpose of the periodic inspections is to determine if the natural qualities
for which the area was recommended have been altered other than through
natural processes, and, if warranted, to recommend removal of the feature
from the system.

While the Department of Natural Resources has not had the staff or
resources to aggressively pursue this program in recent years, information
and procedures for administration and maintenance of a natural features
registry are still in place within the Division of Recreation and Parks.

(2) The Nature Conservancy Registry of Natural Lands in Florida.

The Nature Conservancy has developed a non-binding owner contact program
similar to that developed by the Division of Recreation and Parks, under the
name Registry of Natural Lands. TNC has established such registries in 20
states, and has submitted a proposal for funding, through the Nongame
Wildlife Program, of a Florida Registry of Natural Lands. Much of the
following information, provided in that proposal, describes the -asource
needs and resource protection goals of such a program.

The objective of the Florida Registry of Natural Lands would be to
increase the level of protection for the large number of critically
unprotected natural lands in the state. Florida's significant natural lands
are being lost or damaged at an alarming rate. At present, more than 200
animal and plant species are considered endangered in the state. Of these,
more than 150 exist nowhere else in North America. No state east of the
Mississippi River can match Florida for species or habitats. No state is
growing faster. Analysis of the Florida Natural Areas Inventory revealed
--over 200 sites containing globally endangered and threatened elements.
Alarmingly, this analysis revealed that less than 5% of these are adequately
protected. The results of this review demonstrate clearly that the major
land protection tool currently used in Florida -- land acquisition -- cannot
adequately deal with the large number of unique unprotected tracts in the
limited time available. A Florida Registry of Natural Lands could provide an
economical and practical approach to increase protection for hundreds of

design intern determ...es management boundaries and g& .ers ownership
information. Once a preliminary project design is completed, registry staff
representatives can establish personal contact with appropriate landowners
via letter, phone conversation, and/or personal visit. The registry
representative can explain the significance of the natural feature to the
landowner, provide the landowner with information about the management needs
of the species or communities located on the land, and solicit the
landowner's commitment to protect this land through registration.

Registration is totally voluntary and occurs only with the owner's
agreement. The commitment requested of the landowner is threefold:

(a) to protect .the area and its unique elements to the best of his or
her ability;

(b) to notify the registry representative of any threats to the area or
the valuable resources thereon; and

(c) to notify the program representative of any intent to sell or
transfer ownership of the area.

A certificate or plaque usually signed by the governor and the director
of the sponsoring state agency is presented to recognize and re-emphasize the
landowner's commitment to protect his or her land. The registry
representative continues periodic contact with the landowner (once or twice a
year) in order to assist with any problems, build a solid long-term
relationship for the land's protection, monitor the land's condition, and
assess further protection needs and opportunities.

c. Condemnation

Condemnation of environmentally sensitive lands for protection through
acquisition is an authority granted to public land acquisition programs.
Such eminent domain authority is most often invoked in the case of large
tracts with ownerships too numerous to negotiate with on an individual basis
due to time constraints, or individual owners who are unwilling to sell and
might otherwise destroy valuable environmental resources on their property.

Condemnation by agencies of the federal government is under general
authority granted by law for acquisition of public lands, unless specifically
prohibited by congressional legislation accompanying a line-item
appropriation. Likewise, county governments in Florida possess general
eminent domain authority. Condemnation by the water management districts is
also a general authorization provided by Section 273.1961(7), Florida
Statutes. Eminent domain authority for purposes of environmental acquisition
under Chapter 253 or 375 of the Florida Statutes must be granted by the
Legislature as a specific authority for each project. A listing of such
projects is provided in Table 3.

Either of two types of condemnation are typically exercised in eminent
domain proceedings: (1) quick take (declaration of taking); or (2) slow take
(declaration of complaint). In the case of quick take, the governmental

authority files for mediate condemnation, and title 'or the private
property is transferred to that governmental authority within a few days.
The advantage to the agency of exercising quick take is that the property is
immediately acquired in its existing condition, and the expense of paying
legal fees for an extended period of time for both itself and the defendant
(private landowner) can be avoided. The liability is that the court is
obligated to award the landowner a compensatory cost for his property, which
can be in excess of the condemning agency's expectations.

In the case of slow take the governmental agency undertakes litigation
against the private owner to determine the proper market value which should
be awarded to that owner. The courts then determine the appropriate amount
to be awarded, if the governmental agency wishes to pay that amount. The
primary advantages of the slow take procedure, is that it permits the
condemning agency the flexibility to withdraw its suit if the award appears
excessive. The disadvantages of slow take are: (1) liability for legal fees
accruing from lengthy litigation; (2) liability to inverse condemnation; and
(3) complications arising from a change in existing condition of the property
during an extended litigation period.

5. Summary

The potential applicability of acquisition techniques other than
fee-simple purchase is great. This is particularly true in Florida, where
much privately owned land is undevelopable because of its environmental
sensitivity as submerged land or wetland.

Important alternatives to purchase include donation and land exchanges.
Donations can be attractive to landowners if coupled with partial purchase,
or because of tax advantages accrued from donating land for a public purpose.
Land exchanges can provide for acquisition of lands of greater environmental
resource value coupled with disposal of lands of lesser resource value, while
reserving trust fund dollars. Land exchanges may also be more attractive to
landowners with special land-use requirements other than simple purchase.

Four types of less-than-fee-simple interest are discussed, of which
three types constitute long-term conveyances separate from other property
interests: (1) deed restrictions; (2) reservations; and (3) easements.
Leases also constitute less-than-fee conveyances, which are attractive
because of their flexibility.

Methods of acquiring less-than-fee-simple interest are discussed, and
include the following: (1) purchase and lease-back; (2) purchase and resale;
(3) option contracts; (4) life estates; (5) transfer of development rights;
and (6) partnerships or joint ventures. Statute provides for re-evaluation
of the ad valorum property tax if a landowner wishes to temporarily convey
development rights to the state or a local government.

Other methods of resource protection include: (1) statutory provision
for reassessment of property taxes coupled to rezoning in Areas of Critical
State Concern; (2) owner-contact programs for preservation of unique and
irreplaceable environmental resources; and (3) condemnation through eminent
domain authority.


This chapter describes public agencies and private organizations which
are active in acquisition of environmentally sensitive lands in Florida.
Collectively, these environmental land acquisition programs contribute to a
growing public domain in Florida, which is illustrated in Figure III.A.1.,
and tabulated (Table III.A.1.) as consisting of four sectors: Federal,
State, County-Municipal and Special District lands. Part F of this chapter
discusses the current means of coordination among these land acquisition
programs, using recent examples of coordination between the C.A.R.L. Program,
and various, other acquisition programs.


Several agencies of the federal government perform land acquisition or
disposal functions which provide opportunities for achieving some of the
public purposes of State programs. The federal agencies which are most
active in current acquisition of environmentally sensitive lands in Florida
are the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the National Park Service. The
U.S. Forest Service, Department of Commerce (NOAA) and the Department of
Defense also have acquired land in Florida. Figure III.A.2. represents
large-parcel (at least 60 acres) management areas as of August 1984, which
are owned or leased by the federal government. Table III.A.2. lists the
major federal management areas in Florida.

The single, most significant source of federal funds for environmental
land acquisition in Florida is the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF)
established by an act of Congress in 1965. This is a separate fund within
the Treasury of the United States, which receives revenues from several
sources. The usual source of funds for environmental land acquisition is
specific, line-item appropriation to the LWCF by Congress.

Land and Water Conservation Fund

Since 1965, the Land and Water Conservation Fund has provided money for
outdoor recreation land acquisition and facility development. An annual
apportionment from the Fund is made available to the State of Florida for
acquisition and development of high quality outdoor recreation projects
meeting needs identified in the State's comprehensive outdoor recreation
plan. These funds are administered by the Florida Department of Natural
Resources, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 16D-5, Part V,
Florida Administrative Code.

The program is administered in Florida to allow both State and local
projects to be funded. For the last four funding cycles, however, Florida's
entire annual program apportionment has been awarded to local governments.
Since the program's inception in 1965, $32.5 million has been expended for
the acquisition of 69,606 acres of state park property, matched by a like
amount of state funds. In addition, $62.2 million in program grants has been
awarded to local governments for the acquisition of over 74,100 acres. Over
$25 million has been awarded for development. Both figures have been matched
by a like amount from local sources.


Other Federal>programs and procedures for lan4disposal are also of
great importance, since these disposals sometimes volve environmentally
sensitive lands.

The following sections describe significant acquisition or disposal
activities by federal agencies in Florida.

1. United States Department of Agriculture
U.S. Forest Service

The National Forest Service (USFS) does both acquisition and disposal of
National Forest lands. Acquisition is funded through specific appropriation
to the LWCF. Acquisition by the NFS is often accomplished through land
exchanges, which are sometimes coupled with disposals. Much of this
acquisition activity involves consolidation of existing National Forest
lands, which commonly include numerous inholdings.

There is no existing appropriation for acquisition of lands within
Florida's three National Forests (Table III.A.2.). However, acquisition of
inholdings through exchange coupled to disposal may still be done if
recommended by USFS staff as a means for consolidation to further facilitate
management. No disposals of USFS lands in Florida are presently anticipated,
except for those coupled with acquisition of USFS lands.

2. Department of Commrce
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration provides for
regulation and acquisition of lands as is necessary to establish National
Marine Sanctuaries (Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972)
and National Estuarine Sanctuaries (Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972).
Moneys for land acquisition are made available through specific appropriation
by Congress to the budget requested for NOAA by the Department of Commerce.
Since Florida's National Marine Sanctuaries lie entirely within waters under
federal sovereignty, no acquisition within these areas has been necessary.
Acquisition of Florida's National Estuarine Sanctuaries, has been a
cooperative venture, in which the State received a federal grant for land
acquisition, not to exceed $1.5 million per sanctuary, to be matched
value-for-value by state acquisition dollars or in-kind services. While it
is possible that additional acquisition funding could be made available for
the two National Estuarine Sanctuaries in Florida, none is anticipated at
this time.

3. Department of Defense
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) acquires lands for a broad
spectrum of purposes under either of two categories: (1) military
acquisitions, for purposes such as expanding the area or providing facilities
for a military base; (2) civil acquisitions for other public purposes which


are not expressively military. Lands acquired under either of these two
categories may be environmentally sensitive. Military acquisitions are
funded as specific appropriations through the Department of Defense. Civil
acquisitions are usually cooperative, involving contributions from other
federal, State or local agencies. Cooperative agreements between the COE and
other agencies involving land acquisition may include: (1) acquisition by
the COE using funds specifically appropriated through the Department of
Defense; (2) acquisition by the COE using funds provided by the cooperating
agency; (3) acquisition by the cooperating agency provided that the COE
perform necessary engineering and other services to accomplish the purpose
for the acquisition. Most of the land acquisition projects in which the U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers (COE) participates in Florida involve cooperative
agreements with local participation. Several noteworthy projects of
environmental significance in which the COE did the land acquisition include
the Canaveral National Seashore, Biscayne National Park and recreational
sites along the Florida Barge Canal right-of-way.

4. Department of Interior
Bureau of Land Management

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is primarily concerned with
management of lands constituting the original public domain of the United
States, and which have not been conveyed to any public or private agency or
ownership. However, BLM does both land acquisition and disposal, of which
the latter is of importance to Florida's land acquisition efforts.

BLM does little land acquisition per se, and none in the southeastern
United States at this time. However, BLM disposes of much of its holdings in
the Southeast, and has plans to continue such" disposals into the future.
Such conveyances of federal lands to State and local governments are made
under authority of the Recreation and Public Purposes Act, 43 U.S.C. 869, for
use by the general public. The most recent disposal actions which benefited
the State of Florida were those in accordance with the Sanibel/Pine Island
Sound Plan developed by the Eastern States Office (ESO) of BLM. In
accordance with this plan, the Division o'fState Lands applied for Recreation
and Public Purpose (R&PP) conveyance to the State from the federal government
of coastal lands in Charlotte, Lee and Collier counties. These lands are
distributed among seven State management areas, including a National
Estuarine Sanctuary, a State Park, a State Reserve and four Aquatic
Preserves. Conveyance of patents to the State for 450 acres has thus far
been completed.

The ESO anticipates initiation in 1986 of a comprehensive plan for
disposal of federal lands under BLM management in Florida.

5. National Park Service

The National Park Service (NPS) acquires lands for purposes relating to
preservation and managemetn of its Parks, Preserves, Recreation Areas,
Seashores, Monuments, Memorials, and Historic Sites. Lands are acquired by
the NPS through purchase and donation.


Purchase is usually funded through specific line-item appropriations by
Congress to the .F. Past, exceptional funding the NPS was provided by
the State of Florida, which contributed $40 million from the Environmentally
Endangered Lands Trust Fund to the NPS for purchase of lands within the Big
Cypress National Preserve, as authorized under Section 380.05(5)(b)of the
Florida Statutes (Florida Environmental Land and Water Management Act of

The NPS manages ten areas in Florida that total over two million acres
(see Table III.A.2.). The NPS has three, major acquisition projects in
Florida. The Biscayne Bay National Park is being enlarged, primarily through
donation of state lands in Biscayne Bay to the federal government for
management as part of the National Park. The NPS has also received
appropriations from the LWCF for continuing acquisition within the Big
Cypress National Preserve and within the Gulf Islands National Seashore.

6. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) acquires lands for use in
management of its system of National Wildlife Refuges.

Acquisitions by the USFWS have two primary sources: (1) line-item
appropriation through the LWCF; and (2) moneys appropriated from the
Migratory Bird Conservation Fund, which accrues revenues from permit fees
required of hunters of migratory birds. Acquisitions by the USFWS in Florida
are funded primarily through the LWCF.

As is the case with the NPS, acquisitions by the USFSW are usually
"*consistent with the public purposes for which Florida's land acquisition
programs are authorized. Many acquisition projects of the USFWS complement
ongoing State acquisition projects and are well, if informally, coordinated
with ongoing acquisition efforts by the State. The USFWS manages 25 Wildlife
Management Areas in Florida (see Table III.A.2.). Examples of ongoing USFWS
acquisitions which complement acquisition projects by the State are presented
in Table III.A.3.

7. General Services Administration

The General Services Administration (GSA) purchases and leases
properties for official operations of the United States Government. Since
these acquisitions usually involve improved property, they are not germane to
acquisition of environmentally sensitive*'lands. However, one function of GSA
is of importance to Florida's environmental land acquisition programs: land
disposals. GSA disposes of federal properties with the exception of those
managed by the USFS and BLM. Thus, any lands managed by agencies under the
Department of Defense or Department of Interior could be disposed of by GSA
if designated as surplus lands by the managing agency. This underscores h
importance of State agencies providing input to review by federal agepp of
their management areas in Florida, when disposals inconsistent with i$fa$
programs are contemplated.


Following determination of surplus status for a given parcel, the GSA
notifies state and local governments of the pending disposal of that parcel.
The state or local government, if interested in acquiring the proposed
federal disposal, must notify the regional office of GSA as to its interest
within a limited time period specified in the notice of disposal. This time
period may be as short as two to three weeks from when the disposal notice is
dated. Notices of disposals in Florida are usually sent to the Office of the
Governor, Director of the Division of State Lands, and to county and
municipal governments.

If interest in a disposal is registered by a state or local government,
GSA will give that government entity an opportunity to purchase the property
at fair market value. Otherwise, sealed bids are accepted from the private
sector, and conveyance is made to a selected private party.



The Outdoor Recreation and Conservation Program, the first formally
organized and funded effort to acquire and manage land for recreation and
conservation purposes, was not authorized until 1963. However, the first
recorded state acquisition for a historic site, the Gamble Plantation in
Manatee County, occurred in 1926. From 1926 to 1963, the state acquired
through acquisition and donations approximately 98,708 acres of land which
were converted to State Archaeological and Historical sites, Parks,
Preserves, and Recreation Areas which are indicated in Table III.B.1., Table
III.B.2. and Figure III.B.1. Acquisitions were made through funding from the
Park Board totaling approximately $2,740,728. The Division of Forestry also
acquired, previous to 1963 through its own acquisition program approximately
307,208 acres now designated as State Forests.

Since 1963, the State has acquired environmentally sensitive and
archaeologically significant lands and lands suitable for recreational
purposes primarily through donations and through operation of five
acquisition programs (Outdoor Recreation, EEL, CARL, SOC and SOR), and has
disbursed through these programs, as of July 1985, y B_46mQ.e O0t
which has been used to purchase approximately acres. Similarly, /I 7S"
the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission has its own land acquisition trust
fund, and since the 1940's has completed acquisition of over 120,000 acres
within its system of wildlife management areas. Figure III.B.2., indicates
large parcel (at least 60 acres) state owned lands and Table III.B.3.,
describes how these properties are managed. Table III.B.2. and figure
III.B.1., also give the general location of all donations received by the
State of Florida to date. Table III.B.4. summaries the funding for each
major environmental/recreational land acquisition program and the approximate
acreages purchased.

1. Conservation and Recreation

The 1979 Florida Legislature established the Conservation and Recreation
Lands (CARL) Program under the authority of Chapter 253, Florida Statutes,
which replaced and incorporated its predecessor program, the Environmentally
Endangered Lands (EEL) Program. The CARL Program is administered by the.
Division of State Lands of the Department of Natural Resources. Rule 18-8
(Appendix I.) outlines procedures for the evaluation and selection of
projects and Rule 18-1 (Appendix I.) defines actual acquisition procedures.

The 1979 Legislature also created the Conservation and Recreation Lands
(CARL) Trust Fund (Chapter 253.023, Florida Statutes; Appendix II.). The
fund receives not more than 50 percent of the monies collected from the
excise tax on the severance of oil, gas, solid minerals and phosphate rock.
The amount appropriated to the CARL Trust Fund in fiscal years 1979-1980 and
1980-1981 was $3 million. During fiscal years 1981-1982, 1982-1983 and
1983-1984, the appropriation "cap" was raised to $20 million. The 1984
Legislature increased the appropriation to the CARL fund to $25 million for
1984-1985, to $35 million for 1985-1986, and to $40 million for each year
thereafter, not to exceed 50 percent of severance taxes. 1986 legislation
approved a $100 million bonding program for CARL. Proceeds may be used for
projects which may be purchased for 70Z of appraised value or less.

/ 1?4 '

Total rt ipts to the CARL fund include interest income, transfers
from special acquisition trust fund (Hunisport), and U.S. Grants from October
1, 1979 through April 30, 1986 total approximately $153,794,062.
Approximately $122,412,298 has actually been disbursed for land acquisition
and operating expenses. Unofficial projected encumberances through June 30,
1986 on the estimated remaining balance of $31,381,925 (as of April 30, 1986)
total approximately $29,196,540 leaving an unofficial projected unencumbered
balance in the CARL Trust Fund, as of June 30, 1986, of $2,185,384.

The objectives of the CARL Program encompass and extend beyond those of
the EEL Program, which it superseded. Chapter 253.023, Florida Statutes
directs that monies may be allocated by the Governor and Cabinet from the
CARL fund for purchase of fee or any lesser interest in environmentally
endangered lands or other lands serving the following public purpose:

"1. For use and protection as natural floodplain, marsh, or estuary, if
the protection and conservation of such lands is necessary to enhance or
protect water quality or quantity or to protect fish or wildlife habitat
which can not otherwise be accomplished through local and state
regulatory programs;
2. For use as state parks, recreation areas, public beaches, state
forests, wilderness areas, or wildlife management areas;
3. For restoration of altered ecosystems to correct environmental
damage that has already occurred; or
4. For preservation of significant archaeological or historical sites."

To qualify for the CARL priority list, a project must qualify as
environmentally endangered lands, or other lands as defined above.

The CARL evaluation and selection process is a thorough and
comprehensive system which analyzes proposals and designs projects based.on
each proposal's resource value and acquisition feasibility. A group of
projects is evaluated each year, beginning with a preliminary review of all
new and resubmitted proposals that have been accepted prior to a
predetermined deadline. Project assessments are then completed for all
proposals having received 3 votes by the Land Acquisition Selection Committee
(LASC). LASC technical staff, in preparing the project assessments, are
responsible for including all pertinent information about a project area
which might assist the LASC and the Governor and Cabinet in determining its
significance, utility to the general public, and most realistic boundary
configuration. At this stage, after reviewing each project assessment, the
LASC votes on and establishes a preliminary priority list, which is made
available for public testimony at meetings held at different locations in the
State. Staff of the Department of Natural Resources and of the LASC are
responsible for the collection of title information, finalization of project
designs, and the completion of boundary maps'. The final project design, as
developed by the Committee, DSL, and FNAI staff is then reviewed by the LASC
and presented to the Governor and Cabinet in the CARL Annual Report. Figure
III.B.3. presents a diagram of the CARL Selection and Evaluation process.
(Tor proposed technical changes to the CARL evaluation and selection process,
see CARL Draft Rule 18-8, Appendix I.). Acquisition, directed by Chapter
253.025, Florida Statutes, and further outlined by DSL's Rule 18-1, then
begins on new additions to the CARL list.


The acc sition process is the same for .e Outdoor Recreation Program,
the Save Our Coast Program and the CARL Program and is implemented by staff
of the' Division of State Lands (DSL) of the Department of Natural Resources.
Negotiations lead to an option contract with a willing seller. After
approval of such an option contract by the Governor and Cabinet, the DSL
executes the contract, and obtains title in the natme of the Board of
Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund.

Negotiations with landowners are initiated after the completion of
boundary maps and appraisals, but the Bureau of Appraisal depends on the
title information provided by the Bureau of Land Acquisition before entering
into a contract with an appraisal firm. After a successful negotiation, a
survey must be completed and certified by the Division prior to the formal
closing of a land acquisition transaction. Surveys delineate and affirm
topography, project configuration, and ownership patterns. Surveys also
document any encumbrances, encroachments, deed restrictions, liens and other
rights or interests which might affect the value and management of the

Figure III...4. 'illustrates DSL acquisition procedures. Negotiations
are sometimes'unsuccessful for various reasons, and the legislature does
grant eminent domain authority, for some project areas depending on their
ecological importance, and other significant factors.

The EEL and CARL Programs, from 1972 through May 31, 1986, have
purchased approximately 479,000 acres of environmentally endangered,
ecologically significant and recreationally desirable land for Florida's
citizens. Tables III.B.5., III.B.6. and Figure III.B.5. indicates the
location of the public conservation, preservation and recreational areas into
which EEL and CARL monies have been transformed. Areas of importance
continue to be identified and brought to the attention of the CARL Program
through the efforts of the TNAI, state and local agencies and concerned
members of the general public.

Table III.B.7., the current 1985 CARL priority list, represents projects
totally approximately 622,435 acres. Projects in the second grouping, for
which acreages and values have not been included, will assume their place on
the CARL priority list when boundary maps are completed.

2. Outdoor Recreation and Conservation

Authorization to acquire lands for outdoor ircreation and conservation
is defined in Chapter 375, Florida Statutes (Appendix II.). The program is
administered by the Division of Recreation and Parks of the Department of
Natural Resources (DNR). Procedures for "State Recreation and Parks Land
Acquisition Project Selection" are made explicit in Rule 16D-10 of the
Division of Recreation and Parks (Appendix I.).


AcquisitLons, primarily for the establis.lent of state recreation areas,
are funded from the Land Acquisition Trust Fund (LATF). A portion of tax on
various types of documents is imposed at two rates .45 cents per $100 of
consideration on deeds and other instruments relating to real estate (Chapter
201.02, Florida Statutes) and .15 cents per $100 on all other transactions
(Chapter 201.04 201.08, Florida Statutes). Revenue from the documentary
stamp tax is allocated according to Chapter 201.15, Florida Statutes. Before
1985 legislation, 13.3 percent of the revenue collected was budgeted to the

1985 legislation increased the tax on real estate documents to .50 cents
per $100 of consideration on real estate transactions. An analysis by the
Division of Recreation and Parks indicated that the "distribution formula
reduces the LATF's share of the revenue available generally for any purpose
specified in Chapter 375, Florida Statutes from 13.3 percent to 12.5 percent.
At the same time "an additional 3.1 percent is credited to the LATF, and its
use limited 60 percent to acquire coastal lands and 40 percent to develop and
manage lands acquired with monies from the LATF". Legislation affection the
increase and redistribution of the LATF became effective August 1, 1985.
Other sources of funding for the LATF include federal grants, interest and
miscellaneous receipts.

From July 1, 1963, when the Outdoor Recreation Program was authorized,
through July 31, 1985, $93,643,300 has been disbursed from the LATF for land
acquisition, exclusive of SOC and FRDAP funding, and exclusive of expenses
used for park development, operating expenses and debt service. Forty
million of the $240,000,000 1972 bond issue was allocated and spent by the
Outdoor Recreation program, but the LATF is not responsible for the
retirement of those bonds.

SThe selection of lands to be acquired for the Outdoor Recreation Program
is based on the review and assessment of proposals submitted yearly to the
Division of Recreation and Parks. The evaluation and selection process is
identical to that of the SOC Program. Evaluation of projects is also based
on information in the Outdoor Recreation Plan, prepared in 1981 by the
Division of Recreation and Parks and annually updated. This document
analyzes the framework within which recreational activities in the State
exist, documetns the current inventory of recreational resources and
facilities, defines needs and issues, and presents recommendations to solve
problems and implement policies. Staff of both the acquisition programs
funded by LATF routinely contact local area governments to inquire about the
feasibility of local participation in acquisition and development costs. The
acquisition procedures identified in the description of the Conservation and
Recreation Lands (CARL) Program (Figure IIX.B.4.) apply as well to projects
bought for the Outdoor Recreation Program.

LATF Funds from 1963-1986 have been used to purchase approximately
73,500 acres which have been converted to State parks, State recreation
areas, State reserves and preserves and special sites for the enjoyment of
Florida's citizens and visitors. Table III.B.8. lists Outdoor Recreation
projects, and figure III.B.6. shows the general location of these facilities
and unique areas.


The current 1986 LATF Priority List consists of twelve projects with an
estimated total value of $21,407,476. Table III.B.9. is a chart of the
current projects, estimated acreages and values.

3. Save Our Coast

The Save Our Coast (SOC) Program is a result of an increased public
awareness of the necessity of preserving Florida's disappearing undeveloped
beachfront. As part of their 1980 report to the Governor, the Resources
Management Task Force recommended that public ownership of coastal lands be
increased by 102. In response, the SOC land acquisition program was
authorized through an executive order under the existing legislation of
Chapter 375, Florida Statutes, (Appendix II.). the Outdoor Recreation and
Conservation Act of 1963. Chapter 375, Florida Statutes, created the Land
Acquisition Trust Fund (LATF) for the acquisition of land to be used
primarily for State Parks.

The LATF: is the indirect*source of funds for the SOC Program. The
documentary stamp tax defined in Chapter 201, Florida Statutes, 45 cents per
dollar on real estate transactions, provides money to the fund. Current 1985
legislation increased the documentary stamp tax to 50 cents per dollar and
also increased the proportion of the tax allocted to the LATF from 13.3% to
15.6Z. Because the projected LATF funds were determined to be insufficient
to keep up with the rapid escalation of prices and to secure the choice
remaining lands in time, the Governor and Cabinet by a 1981 resolution
approved a $200 million bond validation. The issuance of bonds for the
purchase of lands for outdoor recreation and conservation is authorized in
Article XII, Section 9, Chapter 375, Florida Statutes. This made possible,
and continues to facilitate, immediate increases in available funding by
selling bonds against revenue expected to accrue to the LATP in future years.

Bond series A-D, totalling $100 million, were authorized by the
legislature and sold during 1981-1984. Series E ($25 million) was authorized
and sold in May 1985. The proceeds from Series F ($25 million) was received
in October 1985 and from Series G ($25 million) in December 1985.

Total proceeds or receipts accrued by the SOC program, including
investment income as of May 31, 1986, total approximately $164,307,787. Funds
actually disbursed as of that date todal approximately $157,056,847.
Approximately $280,897 is reserved for projects authorized for purchase,
leaving an uncommitted cash balance, as of May 31, 1986, of $6,970,043 (not
considering outstanding option contracts). Debt service for Series H was
authorized by the legislature in May 1986. Option contracts, if approved,
encumber part of Series B. An additional $50 million in SOC Bonds was also
authorized by the 1986 legislature.

The SOC Program revolves around a yearly cycle of selection and review
which begins in July an ends in January. Proposals are submitted each year
to the Land Acquisition Selection Committee (LASC) by the General public.
State agencies may also sponsor project proposals. Based on a preliminary
evolution, the LASC votes the mroe meritorious projects to full review. The
screening process also separates project proposals pursuant to Chapters 259
and 275, Florida Statutes, into projects with estimated land values ip excess
of $250,000 (referred to as "major" projects due to the amotp of (a ng


involved), and projects with estimated land values of $250,000 or less
(referred to as "minor" projects). Staff of the Division of Recreation and
Parks then prepares and submtis to the LASC detailed assessments of the
projects, including recommended project designs.

Lands selected for inclusion in a given project must support the public
need for acquisition, the suitability of property configurations to provide
resource-based recreation, vulnerability and endangerment of natural
resources and unique features, and the availability and cost of acquiring
individual parcels comprising the project. These and other principals of
configuration design apply to all acquisition projects. The Division staff
exercises some latitude in applying these principals and adjusts the
boundaries for "major" projects accordingly when preparing the project
evaluations which are presented to the Selection Committee and eventually,
the Trustees.

Projects proposed as additions to state park lands, whether "major" or
"minor" projects, are usually responsive to management needs or recreational
needs. The job of designing such additions is usually simpler than that of
new park projects. For additions to existing projects, there are several
principles that are considered in producing an optimal design. These are (1)
inclusion of otherwise protected adjacent natural features of substantial
recreational value; (2) expansion of park boundaries to incorporate natural
boundaries such as shorelines or topographical delineations; (3) inclusion of
road frontage for the control or addition of access to parks; and (4)
straightening the boundaries of park lands having irregular configurations.

The LASC, after reviewing the assessments, recommends a SOC priority
acquisition list to the Governor and Cabinet, sitting as the Board of
Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund. After approval by the
Board, new projects can then be acquired according to the acquisition process
outlined previously for the CARL Program. Figure III.B.7. illustrates the
selection and evaluation process for the SOC Program.

The SOC Program has added or has assisted in the addition of
approximately 5,967* acres of beachfront to the public lands inventory
between its inception in 1981 through July 1985. Those areas which have been
purchased and are being managed as State recreation areas or other State
management areas are indicated in Table III.B.10. and by Figure III.B.8.

The 1986 SOC Priority List is presented in Table III.B.11. The current
list consists of 37 projects, with a total estimated acreage of 17,855 and an
estimated value of $245,908,020.

4. Florida Recreation Development Assistance Program (FRDAP)

Chapter 375, Florida Statutes, authorizes the Department of Natural
Resources (DNR) to assist local governments in providing outdoor recreation
opportunities. Chapter 16D-5, Florida Adminstrative Code further defines
FRDAP policy, administration, and evaluation criteria.

"* Inclusive of the 2,878.9 acres associated with Guana River (option g/3),
even though the State acquires, with the exercise of each option, an
increasing undivided interest in the entire tract.


Assistance to local governments is provided by the DNR through the
issuance of grants. The Land Acquisition Trust Fund (LATF) provides money
for the administration of these grants (see section III.B.2. of this plan for
a discussion of the LATF's sources of revenue). As a general rule, 50% of
the yearly LATF allocation is apportioned to the FRDAP.

FRDAP specifies a funding limitation per project for any consecutive
five year period and also stipulates a required local government revenue
match. If an approved project is to provide areas and/or facilities for
resource based outdoor recreation purposes, then the required match is
two-for-one (State/Applicant). If an approved project is to provide user
oriented outdoor recreational facilities, then the required match is
one-for-two (State/Applicant). Funds are released retroactively and all
projects must be approved by the Governor and Cabinet, as the Board of the
Internal Improvement Trust Fund.

The FRDAP was initiated in 1963 an exists to provide financial
assistance to eligible local governments for the primary purpose of outdoor
recreations a) for development of outdoor facilities and b) for acquisition
of lands for outdoor areas and facilities. Through fiscal year 1984-1985,
$21,528,574 has been expended by the FRDAP Program on 357 acquisition and
development projects. For fiscal year 1985-1986 $3,507,025 has been
authorized. If expenditures are less than authorized funds or if a project
is withdrawn by a sponsor, unused balances revert to the FRDAP for later
uses. Figure III.B.9. illustrates the location of FRDAP projects through
fiscal year 1984-1985.

The FRDAP cycle of review begins with an application submission period,
usually from September to October of each year. The initial screening
criteria is based on the degree to which an applicant has responded to the
application form's requirements with pertinent and timely information.
Having been determined complete, an application is further evaluated and
given a competive ranking score based on the following criteria, further
described in Chapter 16D-5, Florida Administrative Code:

a. extent to which the proposal would implement the goals of the
Outdoor Recreation Plan (defined in Chapter.375, Florida Statutes);

b. extent to which the proposal would satisfy outdoor recreation
resource/facilities needs identified in the State Plan;

c. extent to which the proposal would contribute towards certain types
of recreation and facilities including but not limited to: swimming
and shoreline beach, picnic areas, camping sites, hiking and
horseback trails, and playing fields;

d. extent of the population to be served by the proposed project;

e. accessibility of the proposed project to the public;


f. whether the proposal would be a new facility at an existing park and
whether it could provide needed access to an existing body of water;

g. whether the proposed project has been identified as a priority in
the local comprehensive plan; and

h. extent of local support.

Applications for recreation/environmental land acquisition funding may
receive extra bonus points. Applicants requesting funding for projects which
will enhance state recreation, conservation, and preservation programs are
also at an advantage.

5. Land Acqisition Programs Within Other State Agencies

a. Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Division of Forestry

The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of
Forestry is granted authority to acquire and manage lands for State Forests
and reforestation purposes under Chapter 589.07, 589.18 and 589.19, Florida

Florida Statutes allow proceeds from State Forests to be used for
acquisition of additional land. These funds would normally be deposited and
held in the Division of Forestry's Incidental Trust Fund.

The Divison of Forestry's primary land acquisition objectives are to
acquire lands: 1) for growing and renewing useful timber crops, 2) for use
as demonstration forests; and 3) to provide multiple-use areas for the

Emphasis is placed on acquiring parcels that are important for the
Division of Forestry's operations. This includes inholdings and properties
that are adjacent to State Forests and other Division of Forestry holdings.
Projects are evaluated according to location, availability and manageability.
So far, coordination with other State land acquisition programs (e.g. CARL)
has been unsuccessulf.

All Division of Forestry land purchases are made according to procedures
set down by Chapters 253.025, 216.292 and other applicable Chapters of
Florida Statutes.

Two major problems hamper the Division of Forestry's- land acquisition
program: lack of funding and the time frame required for purchasing land.
Although Florida Statutes authorize the use of State Forest proceeds for land
acquisition, these funds must be appropriated and released by the
Legislature. The parcels which are desirable for acquisition by the Division
of Forestry are generally small parcels that come on the market for a short
period of time when an estate is being liquidated or when the owner needs to
obtain some quick cash.


It appears kat the most effective way to sokve the above mentioned
problems would I to provide a revolving land ac .sition fund for the
Division of Forestry (funded form State Forest proceeds) and to simplify
procedures for purchases made under this fund.

Florida has four State Forests which have been acquired under this
program. These are Blackwater River State Forest (BRSF) obtained as a gift
from the Federal Government in 1955, Withlacoochee State Forest (WSF)
acquired from the Federal Government in 1958 under a. lease purchase
agreement, and Pine Log State Forest (PLSF) and Cary State Forest (CSF) both
of which were purchased with State funds in the late 1930's. Acreages for
these tracts are as follows: BRSF 183,454 acres, WSF 113,431 acres, PLSF
- 6,910 acres, and CSF 3,413 acres.

Current land acquisition projects (FY 1985-1986) for the Division of
Forestry include an addition to Andrews Nursery and an addition to the
Monticello Towersite.

Future land acquisition goals and priorities include the purchase of
State Forest inholdings and additions as they become available, and the
purchase of operational' sites for nursery and fire control activities.

b. Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission land Acquisition Program

Chapter 372.12, Florida Statutes authorizes the Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission to "acquire, in the name of the state, lands and waters
suitable for the protection and propagation of game, fish, and nongame birds
or fur-bearing animals, or for hunting purposes, game farms, by purchase,
lease, gift or otherwise to be known as state game lands." Authority is also
granted to the Commission to build on these lands structures and fences
necessary to properly manage and protect them for the purposes for which they
are acquired. Lands acquired under this section are not exempt from state,
county, or district taxaction.

In the past, land acquisitions have been completed using federal funds
made available through the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act.
Presently, however, most of the funds available to the Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission for acquisition are derived from the sale of management area
and special permits. 30 percent of money collected from the sale of special
permits goes into the Land Acquisition Trust Fund. Approximately $300,000
per year is placed in the fund. In December 1985, approximately $1.3 million
was available in the Land Acquisition Trust Fund.

The objectives of the habitat acquisition program are stated in the Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission's Strategic Plan for Florida's Wildlife and
Freshwater Fish. These are: to preserve habitats of endangered or
threatened species; to obtain inholdings critical to the management of
existing Commission-controlled lands; to obtain public access to existing
public fish and wildlife resources; and to obtain lands for fish- and
wildlife-oriented outdoor recreation.

S. .

Acquisition proposals originate from Commission staff when particular
habitat protection or management needs arise, and from individual land owners
who approach the Commission seeking to sell their wildlife. Projects are
evaluated by Commission staff for their value in satisfying the above
objectives as required, and no specific review cycle and timetables are
employed. Particular acquisition proposals are approved by the 5-member
Commission at a regularly-scheduled Commission meeting, and must also be
approved by the Governor as specified by Chapter 372.12, Florida Statutes,
prior to purchase.

Initially, acquisitions of state game lands largely utilized federal
Pittman-Robertson funds. During the early and mid-1940's, two large areas,
the J. W. Corbett Wildlife Management Area in Charlotte County, were acquired
using these funds. Another large tract, the 600-acre Lake Lafayette
Woodstork Rookery, was acquired in the 1970's by donation. Over the past
five years (1981-1985), approximately $2,436,000 has been spent acquiring
inholdings and additions to these areas. The relatively small amount of
money that accrues to the Land Acquisition Trust Fund precludes the
acquisition of additional large tracts of land suitable for hunting.



The five water management districts (Northwest Florida, St. Johns River,
Suwannee River, Southwest Florida and South Florida) acquire land under the
Save Our Rivers (SOR) Program, as authorized in Chapter 373.59 by the 1981
Legislature. Each district was required to file a 5-year acquisition plan
with the Department of Environmental Regulation by January 15, 1982, and to
file annual updates thereafter. The Department of Environmental Regulation
(DER) disburses monies to the Districts from the Water Management Lands Trust

The original funding for the SOR Program was estimated to be
approximately $320,000,000 over a ten year program life. Seven and
two-tenths percent of the documentary stamp tax ($0.45/$100 on real estate
transactions) provided monies to the Water Management Lands Trust Fund. The
previous 1985 legislation increased the documentary stamp tax to $0.50/$100
an also increased the share going to the Water Managment Districts to 9.8%.
Legislation in 1985 also increased the life of the program to include no
sunset provision. The primary result in the 1985 legislation, as far as the
SOR Program is concerned, has been that funding for the SOR Program has been
increased by at least $100,000,000. Each district has also received $100,000
to be set aside for acquisition planning purposes. Funding for the entire
program will be substantially more since no sunset provision was added by the
1986 legislation.

Funds are allocated to the districts by the following percentages:

30% to South Florida
25% to Southwest Florida
252 to St. Johns River
10% to Suwannee River
10% to Northwest Florida

Funds are spent to date by the water management districts for land
acquisition under the SOR Program are indicated on Table III,C.1.

The objectives of the program defined by Chapter 373.59, Florida
Statutes, instruct each district to use the trust fund for the acquisition of
fee or other interest in lands "necessary for water management, water supply,
and the conservation and protection of water resources". Water Management
Districts may also acquire interest in lands to enhance their natural,
aesthetic, recreational, or hydrological values.

Each of the Water Management Districts has developed rules for the
implementation of the legislative intent of 373.59, Florida Statutes. Each
district's rules are expressed similarly and establish program procedures
regarding the identification and selection of projects, surveys, appraisals,
negotiations and condemnation proceedings. There are two exceptions.

The Northwest Florida Water Management District, before initiating an
appraisal, may contact an owner concerning the owner's willingness to sell
and the availability of the interest the district is interested in
purchasing. The Northwest Florida Water Management District also does not
necessarily make an offer based on a formal, technical appraisal.


The five ,'er management districts have, of December 1985, acquired
approximately 1,539 acres of land through the .OR Program. Table III.C.2.
lists the parcels each district has purchased through the SOR Program and
other acquisition activity as indicated in each districts 1985 five year
plan. Figure III.C.6. indicates large parcels (equal to or greater than 60
acres) owned by special districts in Florida as of August 1984, including the
water management districts and the Canal Authority.

Each Water Management District is required to identify acquisition
priorities in its five year plan. Some districts have already outlined in
detail important priority areas and strategies to acquire them. Others have
been responding to proposal applications when received, and are now using the
recently appropriated planning funds to access their districts' future land
acquisition needs. Table III.C.3. briefly describes the districts' pending
acquisitions and future priorities, as of January 1985.


There are many local-government programs for environmental and
recreational land acquisition planning in Florida. There are a few counties
which already have in place programs and procedures for the identification,
evaluation and purchase of lands for conservation, protection and recreation.
Many county governments, however, accomplish their goals by implementing less
than fee simple acquisition techniques. Several county governments have not
yet incorporated any land evaluation methodology into their local planning
framework, but rely on Federal and State programs to identify and protect
special areas within their jurisdiction.

Regardless of the present level of local government land acquisition
planning activities, many local officials express an awareness of land
acquisition issues and of the need to coordinate Federal, State and local
acquisition planning efforts. As of December 1984, counties and
municipalities of Florida have acquired 379,440 acres of land. Figure
III.D.1. illustrates the general distribution of county and municipality
owned parcels of at least 60 acres, as of August 1984. The following
abbreviated chart (Table III.D.1.) indicates land acquisition/protection
activities and programs of the counties where information was available.
Some local governments provided maps of environmentally sensitive areas and
of those areas targeted for special protection and/or purchase. These maps
and brief descriptive program summaries of selected counties can be found in
Appendix III.



Much land acquisition and biological resource protection in Florida is
made possible through the functions of private organizations. These
organizations perform their essential functions in two ways: (1) land
acquisition; and (2) land stewardship or management.

Private conservation organizations have the flexibility and national
scope necessary to complete complex, or difficult acquisitions which may be
impossible for governmental agencies to consummate because of limitations
imposed by bureaucratic procedure, political boundaries or funding
limitations. Thus, many thousands of acres of environmentally sensitive
lands have been acquired by federal and state governments, only through
intercession and cooperation by private acquisition organizations.

Private acquisition organizations also may have superior programs for
identification, design and management of areas for conservation and
preservation of natural resources. Such private organizations may establish
and retain environmentally sensitive lands under their own programs of active
resource management, or protective stewardship.

The three private conservation and preservation organizations which have
been most instrumental in acquisition and management of environmentally
sensitive lands in Florida are The Nature Conservancy, Trust for Public Lands
and the Audubon Society. Table III.E.I. lists examples of private preserves
and conservation areas in Florida.

1. The Nature Conservancy

The Nature Conservancy (TNC) is the largest private land acquisition/
protection organization in the State of Florida. TNC's origins can be traced
to 1917 when the Ecological Society of America established the Committee for
the Preservation of Natural Conditions which worked in conjunction with its
companion Committee for the Study of Plant and Animal Communities. In 1946
this conservation committee became the Ecologists Union and in 1951 was
incorporated as The Nature Conservancy.

The TNC is a non-profit membership organizations whose staff consists of
professionals and volunteers with interests and backgrounds in various fields
such as biology, ecology, real estate, law and business. The following
matrix is a summary of TNC's organizational network of staff and general
areas of responsibilities.

Level Personnel Responsibilities

National Board of Governors Financial and Program Management

President Accounting and Fiscal Control

Officers Membership Development and Services
Information Management
Personnel Administration


evel Personnel Rest A abilities

Regional Four Regional Review of Real Estate and Law
Directors Issues

Staff Specialists Fund Raising
Preserve Design and Management

State Chapter Board Planning
Director Program Guidance

Staff Specialists Fund Raising

Volunteers Scientific Review
Data Collection and Synthesis

TNC's acquisitions and operations and funded through its General und
and its Land Preservation Fund. Land is acquired through donation and by
purchase. Contributions from individuals, businesses and foundations, all
part of the TNC membership, contribute to the General Fund which supports
TNC's staff involved in acquiring areas through gift. Purchases are made
from the Land Preservation Fund, a revolving $40 million fund, which is
repaid through the money raising efforts of the state chapters. Purchases
are also sometimes made using commercial lines of credit.

The primary objective of the Nature Conservancy is the preservation of
natural diversity. To accomplish this goal the TNC organization focuses on
three programs: identification, protection, and stewardship or management.

As a first step in developing preservation/acquisition priorities in
each state, the TNC, through Beritage Programs operating in 36 states, tries
to determine "what is rare and where it exists". In Florida, this continuing
inventory process is made functional by the Florida Natural Areas Inventory
(FNAI). The FNAI is a cooperative effort between the TNC and the State of
Florida that is producing and is continuing to build an extensive, ecological
data base. This biological information system can be invaluable to any state
agency, private corporation, or interested citizen when making decisions
concerning preservation, regulation, acquisition, and development.
The TNC also relies on this inventory data base to develop natural
diversity scorecards which match rare elements with the places where they
occur. These priorities guide preserve designs and protection efforts.

Once priorities are identified, the TNC considers "safeguarding the key
components of the natural world" either through land acquisition or by other
methods. Protection techniques include: fee simple acquisition and preserve
development and design, acceptance of gifts and donations, purchase of
conservation easements, owner contact or registration in which a landowner
voluntarily agrees to preserve a significant resource, management agreements,
and converting "surplus" lands and "trade" lands .into other more ecological;
significant lands.


"A major thrust of the TNC protection objective is the building of
cooperative partnerships with government agencies. TNC sometimes targets
projects appropriate for consideration by a state land acquisition program.
It ushers a project through and participates in almost all phases of
acquisition, beginning with project planning and design and ending with a
state purchase agreement or option contract. TNC also facilitates the
acquisition of important projects by providing interim and joint financing.

If the appropriate means of protection is determined to be acquisition
by the TNC, then its management practices mirror its underlying philosophy.
Preserves are designed and operated to foster conditions suitable for the
flourishing of rare and endangered species and ecosystems. While most of
TNC's preserves are managed by volunteers, some of the larger preserves have
professional managers. Even the professionals, however, must rely on
volunteer assistance. The preserves are generally designated for passive
recreation which encourages activities such as hiking, nature study, bird
watching, photography, and education.

According to TNC publications, The Nature Conservancy operates and
maintains the largest private nature preserve system in the world and is
responsible for the protection of more than 2 million acres in over 3000
separate projects nationwide. The TNC has been active in Florida since 1954
and "has protected some 170,000 acres in 72 projects" through land
acquisition. Florida projects in which The Nature Conservancy has
participated in whole or in part are represented on Table III.E.2. and Figure
III.E.2. Figure III.E.1. indicates private conservation/preservation lands,
including those owned by TNC, with acreages greater than or equal to 60

2. Trust for Public Lands

The Trust for Public Lands (TPL), a national non-profit land
conservation organization, was formed in 1973 by Huey Johnson, The Nature
Conservancy's (TNC) former western regional director. The TPL now employs
ninety professionals and operates from offices in San Francisco, New York,
Boston, Tallahassee, Cleveland, Santa Fe and Tacoma. Like TNC, TPL's
employees have diverse backgrounds in subjects such as banking, government
service, natural science and law.

Unlike TNC, which focuses on the protection of endangered species and
natural habitat, the TPL works to conserve and protect land in urban and
rural areas. The organization is as concerned with ensuring green spaces in
urban and rural areas and in keeping land in agricultural production as with
preserving wilderness. Part of TPL's statement of purpose emphasizes their
mission to "pioneer methods of land conservation". TPL's efforts reflect its
broad view of land conservation needs. It has participated in the creation
of parks in urban areas, in protecting wild and scenic rivers, in
establishing agricultural land trusts, and in saving land with partial
development strategies.


TPL ac"'nplishes. land protection and artsition cost effectively by
being thorou,aly familiar with and adept at -Ial estate land acquisition
techniques and negotiation strategies. It actively involves citizens in the
land transactions affecting them. TPL usually becomes involved in a project
or land use issue at the request of a government agency, another non-profit
group and/or the landownerss. This includes sharing land transaction skills
and information, coordinating public and private land conservation interests
and facilitating environmentally sound land uses. If the TPL accepts a
project, it sees its primary task as being a liaison in the transfer of title
or rights from one entity to another. The TPL does purchase and hold
property, but more often is responsible for its transfer to governmental

The TPL is able to provide interim financing for projects ultimately
destined for public ownership from its Property Acquisition Revolving (PAR)
fund. "Approximately two-thirds of TPL's operating income is derived from
completing land preservation transactions." TPL often buys land for less
than fair market value. It passes part of the savings on to acquiring public
agencies and also retains a portion for operating and capital needs. TPL
also receives financial support for its conservation activities from
foundations, corporations and individuals.

As funding does become more scarce, TPL becomes more creative by using
various protection techniques. It specializes and is very effective in
bringing a "mosaic" of interests together. The concept of Urban Land and
Land Trust programs, which the TPL uses extensively, is a good example of the
inventive mindset TPL promotes for "the benefit of local residents who want
to safeguard their land for the long term". TPL's continuing efforts in teh
future will center around trying to engage local participants in the land
transactions impacting them.

Table III.E.3. summarizes TPL's involvement in Florida, and the results
of its accomplishments through Fiscal Year 1984-1985.

The TPL is currently working in and expects to place futureemphasis on
three areas in Florida: the Florida Keys, the Everglades, and more broadly,
Seaboard's abandoned railroad rights-of-way. Through a grant, the TPL is
investigating the Seaboard's abandoned rights-of-way and whether it might be
feasible to use the land for future bike ways, park additions or hiking
trails. TPL is negotiating acquisitions in the lower Florida Keys for the
Great White Heron and National Key Deer Refuge. It is also involved in
acquisition in North Key largo. It supports and is working with other
private conservation organizations on the Governor's Save Our Everglades
Program and is cooperatively assisting the State in acquisition of additions
to the Pakahatchee Strand State Preserve under the CARL Program. The TPL has
also previously successfully worked with the City of Winter Baven on the
acquisition of rights-of-way.

3. Audubon Society

The Audubon Society, a private, non-profit, membership organization has
been in existence for over seventy-five years and is supported by membership
dues, and individual, corporate and foundations contributions and bequests.



It operates ten "^ional offices throughout the ",'. and has more than 500
local chapters. *t manages a system of eighty sa..tuaries and five
educational centers, has produced a television series, numerous publications,
and conducts ongoing scientific research in such eclectic fields as energy,
toxic chemicals, land use, water and demographics.

The Audubon Society maintains a permanent staff of scientists augmented
by outside experts. As do other private non-profit organizations, the
Audubon Society also relies on volunteers and naturalists to round out its
staff and to keep its many programs and activities operating smoothly.

The President of the Florida chapter operates with three vice
presidents, fifteen staff scientists and other staff support. There are 47
local chapters. The President of the Florida chapter also communicates his
views and shares information through the monthly publication of "Outreach".

The goals of the Audubon Society are far reaching and are described in
its literature as the dedication to:

1. Long-term protection and the wise use of wildlife, land, water and
other natural resources;

2. The promotion of rational strategies for energy development and use,
stressing conservation and renewable resources;

3. The protection of life from pollution, radiation, and toxic
substances; and

4. The solution of global problems caused by overpopulation and
depletion of natural resources.

One of the ways in which the Audubon Society implements the objective of
wildlife and natural areas protection is by managing and operating wildlife
sanctuaries in Florida and the Florida division is responsible for five
sanctuaries. The sizes of the sanctuaries range from the 11,000-acre
Corkscrew Swamp to the 3-acre Boswell Tract. The Society also helps to
establish and protect wildlife refuges, wilderness areas, parks, wild and
scenic rivers and ecological reserves.

"To promote strategies for energy development and use, the Society
maintains a dialogue with government officials at all levels. Specific
tactics include: (1) encouraging energy policies recommending the
conservation of energy; (2) promoting appropriate decentralization and
diversification of energy production systems promoting the development of
renewable life-supporting sources of energy; (3) supporting measures to
eliminate waste in development, transportation, and use of fossil fuels; and
(4) supporting transportation policies that emphasize energy efficiency in
the movement of goods and people.

The Audubon Society supports effective pollution control programs,
encourages recycling of all recoverable resources, advocates elimination of
highly mobile pesticides and other toxic substances, and supports laws and
programs reducing radiation exposure, in an effort to protect life from
pollution, radiation and toxic substances.


To contend with global problems involving the interaction of population
resources and the environment, the Society encourages an integrated,
participatory approach. Solutions the Audubon Society advocates include:
(1) an increased awareness of long-term worldwide biological consequences of
nuclear war; (2) national and international conventions for the protection of
wildlife; (3) emphasis on the relationship between population pressures and
environmental problems; and (4) only sustainable development of natural
resources, as opposed to development that needlessly squanders our global

The Audubon Society does not "actively" purchase land. It does,
however, hold fee title to properties acquired through donations. The
National Audubon Society owns approximately 45,200 acres in Florida, while
the Florida chapter manages approximately 2,480 acres. Table III.E.1. lists
all conservation or protection areas owned by the Audubon Society in Florida
and Figure III.E.. provides the locations of all private conservation lands,
including those of the Audubon Society, as of August 1984, which are at least
60 acres or more.

While the Florida Audubon Society does not have an ongoing land
acquisition program, it actively participates in the land acquisition
activities of the major state acquisition programs.


*~ ~ ~ i *-*ir" ** *< -*-wrCr>" ...-. .^^ -***'*> ^<^<< 'I W rt-^ ^t^'\^Vr'iH1 -w **'-Y v i j---v'^. II .


"Coordination among the foregoing public and private land acquisition
programs has been only partially formalized by rule or statute. However,
since all of these programs acquire lands for their environmental resource
values, the goals and objectives of these programs coincide more often than
not, with the result that favorable coordination between programs is often
established for specific projects. Such coordination is usually evident in
the form of cooperative purchases, where an acquisition project is funded by
two or more different acquisition funds. Such cooperative purchases usually
involve public acquisition programs.

Another form of coordination involves acquisition by one program, and
resale to another program. Private acquisition organizations usually
function in this way, although public acquisition programs occasionally
cooperate in resales also. The advantage of such cooperation is to seize an
acquisition opportunity in the short term when the cost advantage is
greatest, and hold the newly acquired property until partial or full
reimbursement can be made from the trust fund of the appropriate, cooperating

Public and private acquisition programs also coordinate through
identification, design and sponsorship of acquisition projects. Where the
environmental goals and objectives of two or more such programs or
organizations coincide, one program may design and submit an acquisition by
another program. Such cooperation is most evident in the case of
applications to the CARL and State Recreation and Parks (SOC and LATF)
programs, since these programs have a formalized application procedure as
part of the selection procedures specified by Chapter 259, Florida Statutes.

The CARL Program coordinates with other public and private acquisition
organizations to a greater extent than any other acquisition program in
Florida. This is because the criteria or public purposes for which CARL
acquisitions are made more diversified than those of other programs. Since
both the CARL and State Recreation and Parks Land Acquisition Programs are
governed by the provisions of Chapter 259, Florida Statutes, some
coordination between those is explicit, such as selection of acquisition
projects by a single, common Selection Committee, and mutual exclusivity of
the acquisition lists established by the Selection Committee.

The following table (III.F.1.) lists examples of past and present
acquisition projects which have required coordination among public and
private programs.



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