Title: Save Our Rivers, Water Management Lands Trust Fund
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00052554/00001
 Material Information
Title: Save Our Rivers, Water Management Lands Trust Fund
Alternate Title: SWFWMD. Resource Evaluation of the Proposed Anclote River Floodway Water Management Land Acquisition: "Save Our Rivers, Water Management Lands Trust Fund."
Physical Description: 74p.
Language: English
Publication Date: June, 1986
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
General Note: Box 5, Folder 5 ( SF LAND ACQUISITION ), Item 1
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00052554
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text
S .. .. _.. .. .., .. .. .

r "

Land Acquisition
of the
M d

LandsT-ust Fund

Snu>wnest Florida Water Managerletrf Disriwt

r '* .-* .' .



JUNE, 1986





LIST OF FIGURES........ .............................. ii

LIST OF TABLES................ ......... ........ ii

PREFACE ..................................... ............. iv

INTRODUCTION................................................... 1

EVALUATION..................................................... 3
CRITERIA FOR ACQUISITION................................. 3
STATUS OF THE AREA....................................... 6
WATER MANAGEMENT........................................... 8
Drainage Basin Hydrology.............. ......... 8
Conveyance.............................................. 13
Natural Flood Control and Water Retention/Detention..... 14

Natural/Ecological Conditions of the Area............... 24
Water Quality Preservation/Enhancement.................. 30

m WATER SUPPLY......................................... ..... 33
Recharge................................................ 33
Preservation of Existing Water Supplies................. 36
Potential Water Supply.... ........................... 38

Wildlife Resources/Values of the Area.................. 39
om Maintenance and Self-Perpetuation of the Site .......... 48
Regulation and Zoning............................... 50

LAND USE TASK FORCE CONCLUSIONS........................... 64

REFERENCES..................................................... 67



FIGURE 1 Location of Site Relative to Anclote Water
Storage Lands................................... 2

FIGURE 2 Anclote River Watershed............................ 9

FIGURE 3 Anclote River Floodway 10-year Floodplain.......... 15

FIGURE 4 Anclote River Floodway Floodplain and Depressional
Soils......................... ............... 18

FIGURE 5 Anclote River Drainage Basins in the Headwaters
Area................. ............................. 20

FIGURE 6 Anclote River Drainage Basins in the Headwaters
Area............... ......... .. .................... 21

FIGURE 7 Anclote River Drainage Basins in the Headwaters "
Area...................... ............... .. ....... 22

FIGURE 8 Vegetation and Land Cover Types at the -
Anclote River Floodway Site........................ 25

FIGURE 9 Generalized Areas of Upward Leakage in the Immediate ,
Vicinity of the SOR Site........................... 34

FIGURE 10 Approximate Delineation of DER and District
Jurisdictional Wetlands Within the Site............ 56 "

FIGURE 11 Land Ownership Adjoining the Anclote River
Floodway Site............... .. .............. 60 -

FIGURE 12 Anclote River Floodway Zoning..................... 61




TABLE 1 Duration of Daily Flow.......................... 11

TABLE 2 Magnitude and Frequency of Annual Low Flows.......... 11

TABLE 3 Acreage of Plant Communities and Land Cover Types
within the Anclote River Floodway Site.............. 26

TABLE 4 Range of Data for Selected Chemical Parameters for
One Station on the Anclote River 1982-1983......... 31

TABLE 5 Water Quality in a Well on the Study Site Compared
to Potable Water Standards........................... 37
TABLE 6 Wildlife Species in the Anclote River Floodway
Project Area ......................................... 41

TABLE 7 Endangered, Threatened, and Species with Special
Status in the Anclote River Floodway Project Area.... 46

M- TABLE 8 Zoning District Minimum Requirements For
Pasco County..... .................. .... .. ....... 62



Section 373.59, Florida Statutes (F.S.), establishes the Water Management

Lands Trust Fund, commonly known as Save Our Rivers (SOR), from which funds

may be used by the five water management districts for certain land acqui-

sitions. Land acquisitions qualifying for purchase with these funds are lands

in the Four River Basins, Florida Project areas and lands included in the -

Southwest Florida Water Management District's (District) Five-Year Plan of

Acquisition. The lands eligible to be included in the Five-Year Plan are

lands necessary for water management, and for the conservation and protection

of water resources. Any lands acquired should be managed in such a way as to

restore and protect their natural state and condition where practicable. "

Additionally, any lands purchased shall be used for general public recreation

where not inconsistent with the purposes for which it was acquired.

The purpose of this report is specific in nature: to determine whether the

subject lands qualify for acquisition under the SOR program and to evaluate i

the benefits of acquisition. This evaluation is based on the statutory

criteria contained in Section 373.59, F.S. Results of the evaluation will be

used in determining whether acquisition by the District of the subject lands

contributes substantially to the water management benefits discussed on

page 3. ..

The District has used the best available information from existing literature II

and its own studies in performing this SOR evaluation. The information

contained in this report was developed solely for the purpose of analyzing the

study area in terms of water resources and water management benefits for

acquisition. Therefore, use of this report and the information contained

herein for purposes other than evaluation of lands for purchase with SOR funds *

may be inappropriate.



The Anclote River Floodway study site covers an area of approximately 5,000

acres in west-central Pasco County. The study site includes many of the

tributaries that form the headwaters area of the Anclote River. The narrow,

forested tributaries are located north of State Road 54 (S.R. 54) and are

approximately 7 miles upstream from Seven Springs, or 3-4 miles northeast of


Throughout the site the various tributaries as well as the Anclote River are

characterized by narrow forested floodplains. The lands adjoining the river

have been developed primarily for agricultural and silvicultural uses. Large,

o extensive areas are managed as pine plantations for timber and pulp

production. Other areas are maintained as improved pastures for cattle

production. Within the floodplains and isolated swamps, cypress trees and

hardwoods are harvested for marketable uses. Up to the present time lands in

the immediate area surrounding the site have also been developed primarily for

M- agricultural purposes.

SThe study site abuts an area of District-owned lands to the west known as

Anclote Water Storage Lands. This area includes the J.B. Starkey Wilderness

Park (which contains the Starkey Wellfield) and an area along the Anclote

River south of the park (see Figure 1). In 1982, the District entered into an

agreement to acquire the land south of the park, which has been divided into

five parcels. To date four parcels have been acquired, and closing on the

fifth parcel is scheduled for July, 1986. This land purchase is being funded

through the Water Management Lands Trust Fund. Acreage within the Anclote

Water Storage Lands site will total 8,225 acres, including all five parcels

and the Starkey Wilderness Park.


1 I I I I I I I I I I I i I I I I I 1

----- Figure 1. Location of site relative to
S.R. 52 S. R. 52
-- Anclote Water Storage Lands

\ \

Study Site 0


S.5 I 2 3 4 Miles




Section 373.59, F.S., established a Water Management Lands Trust Fund to

provide for acquisition of lands necessary for water management, water supply,

and the conservation and protection of water resources. In addition, Section

373.59 states that following acquisition, these lands "shall be managed and

maintained in an environmentally acceptable manner, and to the extent

practicable, in such a way as to restore and protect their natural state and

condition." Guided by Section 373.59, District staff developed a criteria

list of eight water management benefits, used to select sites for further

study and possible purchase.

1. Natural flood control and water detention and/or retention:

The floodplain associated with the site boundaries; the site's
ability to retard or delay runoff (detention); the site's ability to
keep or retain water which is then dissipated by evaporation,

transpiration or percolation rather than leaving the site as runoff

2. Preservation and/or Restoration of Natural Systems:

The potential to preserve the site in an unaltered natural condition
or return/restore it to a natural functioning
ecologic/hydrologic/hydraulic system.

3. Water Conveyance:

The manner in which water is transported through the site; the
ability of the site to transport flood flows.


4. Structural Flood Control:

The potential for the site to be used in conjunction with dikes,
levees, and control structures to reduce the severity of flooding
through the impoundment of runoff. -

5. Water Quality Enhancement:

The processes functioning within the site which will benefit or -
influence the quality of the water leaving the site over that
entering the site. -

6. Recharge:

The ability of a site to replenish the water supply of a groundwater

7. Potable Water Supply:

The existing or potential ability of a site to function as a potable
water source.

8. Recreation:

The compatibility of recreational activities the site presently
supports, or could support, with the other water management

These eight benefits were divided into four major categories for evaluation ,,

and discussion purposes.

water management: drainage basin hydrology, conveyance, natural flood control
and water retention/detention, structural flood control. "

4 .

Conservation and protection of water resources: natural/ecological conditions
of the area, water quality preservation/enhancement, recharge.

water supply: preservation of existing supplies, potential water supplies.

preservation and/or restoration of natural systems: wildlife resources/values
of the area, restoration and self-perpetuation of the site, zoning and

It is believed that an evaluation using these criteria will create a

comprehensive picture of each site's contribution to the goals of the SOR




The Anclote River Floodway study site as well as most of the surrounding area

in west-central Pasco County historically has been an area devoted to

agricultural activities. Presently some large ranches still exist; however

like most of Florida, the area is experiencing increased development with -

residential and commercial land uses being the most common. Urban and

suburban development in the vicinity of the study site can be expected as the

western portions of Pasco County expand (the County's population grew from

about 80,000 in 1970 to about 233,000 in 1985, a 190% increase in 15 years).

Under Chapter 17-3, Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.), Florida Department

of Environmental Regulation (DER) Rules, as waters of the state, the Anclote

River is designated as Class III (Recreation-Propagation & Management of Fish

and Wildlife). Specific water quality criteria applicable to this

classification are designed to maintain water quality sufficient for the -

protection and propagation of fish and wildlife, as well as for recreation in

and on the water. Water quality information from several downstream stations

suggest that water quality in the Anclote River, in general, is within the

prescribed chemical, physical and biological standards for Class III waters.

However, there have been problems with excessive ammonia levels and low -

dissolved oxygen levels. To date, no other special water quality based

designation has been given to the site.

Through the regulatory authority of federal, state and county agencies, the

study site falls under the jurisdiction of various protective regulatory


6 "

O These programs include:

S1. Applicable United States Army Corps of Engineers regulations.

2. The Development of Regional Impact (DRI) review program, managed by the
Florida Department of Community Affairs (DCA);

3. The DER rules on dredge and fill activities, and water pollution source

4. The District's rules for Consumptive Use Permits (CUP), Management and
Storage of Surface Waters (MSSW), and Stormwater Management; and

5. Applicable Pasco County regulations.

Additionally, the Anclote River is designated as a Work of the District (WOD)

pursuant to Rule 40D-6.031, F.A.C. The District requires permits to connect

to, withdraw water from, discharge water into, place construction within or

across, or otherwise make use of a WOD.

_ 7


Drainage Basin Hydrology

The Anclote River watershed encompasses about 110 square miles (mi2) in south-

western Pasco County, northern Pinellas County, and northwestern Hillsborough -

County (Figure 2). The river flows westward from its headwaters in the

Drexel Land O'Lakes area approximately 28 miles to where it discharges into

the Gulf of Mexico at Tarpon Springs. Land elevation within the drainage

basin varies from sea level at the river mouth to about 80 feet above mean sea

level at the eastern edge of the watershed. Discharge in the upper portion of -

the river is intermittent, whereas discharge in the lower portion of the river

is continuous due to outflow from groundwater storage.

The headwaters of the North Branch are formed by a series of cypress heads

which are hydraulically interconnected only during wet periods. Further

downstream the river is more continuous and becomes a narrow cypress/hardwood

swamp through which runoff flows mainly during the wet season. The study site "

is located along the headwaters of the North Branch (Figure 2).

The South Branch, the Anclote River's other major tributary, intersects the

North Branch near Odessa. Flow in the river at this point is more continuous,

but again is mainly confined to the wet season. The river channel in this ,-

area is more pronounced and is predominantly a narrow, shallow, braided


Downstream from this point the river gradually becomes more defined and

becomes a deeply-encised channel in the Seven Springs area where a United

8 "

1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 I I 1 1 I I


i g ur A t R (Approximaete) /


0 1 02.





States Geological Survey (USGS) stage recording gage (Anclote River near -

Elfers) is located at the S.R. 54 bridge. During the period of record (1946 -

current), this gage has never recorded a zero flow condition within the "

river. The gage is situated just downstream from Seven Springs, where several

springs are located in the river bottom. From Seven Springs to the Perrine

Ranch Road area, the channel remains incised. Towards the mouth, the river -

becomes estuarine in character, with large areas of black rush marsh beginning

near the Perrine Ranch Road bridge crossing. ,

From the mouth to the Seven Springs area, where the watershed is the most

heavily populated, there is some residential, commercial and industrial

development along the river. The watershed area upstream from Seven Springs

is less populated and a majority of the land is utilized for agricultural -

purposes. The Starkey Wellfield is also located in this area. On the eastern

side of the watershed in vicinity of U.S. Highway 41 (U.S. 41) there are also

some developed areas.

In 1973 the USGS completed a study which included an evaluation of stream

flows within the Anclote River basin (Coble, 1973). Figure 2 shows the gaging

stations where streamflow data were collected. Tables 1 and 2, taken from the t

USGS study, give duration of daily flows and magnitude and frequency of annual

low flows. One station (A-l) was located within the study area, and as can be

seen by Tables 1 and 2, both this site and site A-3 have long periods of no -,

flow or low flow conditions. Stream flow and rainfall within the basin have

generally followed the same seasonal patterns. On the average, almost half of -

the yearly precipitation (average of 52.6 inches) has occurred from July

through September and almost 45% of the annual flow at site A-4 has occurred in

August and September. Discharge at site A-4 was lowest in May and June and ,,


I I I I 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I

Table 1. Duration of daily flow

Station Drainage Period Number Average Flow, in cubic feet per second, which was equaled or exceeded for indicated percent of time
number area of of discharge------------
(sq. mi.) record measure- 99.5 99 98 95 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 5 2 1 0.50
used ments (cfs)
A-1 9.0 1964-67, 19 a16 0 0 0 0 0.03 0.43 1.2 2.4 4.4 7.5 12 19 34 49 70 87 104
A-3 25.3 1964-66, 20 a16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .41 .86 3.6 9.9 23 53 91 145 203 285
A-4 72.5 1947-69, (b) a83.2 1.6 2.0 2.5 3.1 3.7 4.8 6.5 10 19 32 56 104 230 370 600 800 1,140

estimated for 1947 to 1969.
b continuous records
To convert cubic feet per second to million gallons per day, multiply the cfs value by 0.646.

Table 2. Magnitude and frequency of annual low flows
Lowest average flow, in cfs, for indicated recurrence intervals
Station 3-day 7-day 30-day 60-day 183-day
2 10 20 2 10 20 2 10 20 2 10 20 2 10 20
year year year year year year year year year year year year year year year
A-1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.30 0 8.8 2.4 1.4
A-30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.7 .40 .06
A-4 2.8 1.4 1.1 2.9 1.6 1.3 3.2 2.2 2.1 4.3 2.5 2.3 40 11 6.9

November and December. Runoff accounted for about 30% of the total yearly .

rainfall volume. The study also noted that base flow in the Anclote River was

being reduced by wellfields diverting groundwater which had previously been

available for discharge into the river.






Discharge within the study site is conveyed through the cypress and hardwood

swamps which have a high resistance to flow. The dense vegetation coupled

with the gradual channel slope (an average of 4 feet per mile) produces low

velocities of flow. Average velocity for a 10-year frequency discharge as

computed by the District step-backwater analysis of the North Branch was on

the order of one-half foot per second.

Clearing vegetation within a river floodplain can increase flow velocities,

erosion and sediment loads in the river itself. During staff field

reconnaissance, it was noted there is active harvesting of cypress and

hardwoods within the site, and in some cases there has been harvesting within

the flow conveyance system of the river and its tributaries. These activities

have been scattered and isolated in nature, so there has not been a

significant man-made change in the flow carrying properties of the river


Harvested areas are left to regenerate for a period of years (on the order of

decades) until a harvestable crop is again produced. Unless tree harvesting

in floodplain areas is intensified above present levels, or some more

intensive form of land development substantially alters floodplain vegetation,

it is not expected that the existing conveyance properties of the river will

be significantly changed in the study area.

-- 13

Natural Flood Control and Water Retention/Detention

The 10-year floodplain delineation included in this report (see Figure 3) is

derived from a step-backwater analysis of the Anclote River performed by ,

District staff. Discharges for the flood profiles were computed by using a

USGS regression technique described in their report (WRI 82-4012) entitled "

"Technique for Estimating Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in Natural Flow

Streams in Florida" (Bridges, 1982).

Topographic contour maps, such as District aerial maps and USGS quadrangle

maps, are by definition approximate in areas such as the study site due to -

flat topography and heavy vegetation. Cross sections used in the step-

backwater computer program were therefore derived from cross sectional

elevation surveys and from contour mapping in areas where elevations were of

sufficient accuracy. Delineation of the 10-year floodplain is also

approximate and is based on cross section surveys, vegetation features, -

contour mapping and professional judgment.

Due to the aforementioned reasons, the 10-year flood delineation presented in

this report is intended only to provide an indication of areas that would be

inundated during major flood events. Although the acreage flooded would be -,

greater or lesser, depending on the frequency of flooding, the 10-year

floodplain delineation generally illustrates storage areas that function -"

during major flood events, along with the conveyance systems that connect

them. No attempt is made herein to delineate other flood frequency events

because mapping and flood information is not refined enough to allow accurate

differentiation between the various flood frequency events.

14 "

1 I I 11 I ]I II ;I 1 ) II I I I I 1 1
R 17 E R 18 E Anclote River
R 17 E

Cross Cypress Branch

3 W320 s


Sandy Branch

.I *,

**it C

\ **....***L 0 0a4 a
scal fee

It should be noted that a large effort and many hours of survey crew time

would be required to substantially improve the accuracy of the floodplain

delineation. It is thought the delineation included herein is of sufficient

accuracy for the purposes of this report. Further, if a decision is made to -

acquire lands based on certain floodplain criteria, it is suggested a more

detailed survey of the area be undertaken with the objective of more

accurately defining the boundaries of the floodplain.

According to the delineation, the 10-year floodplain follows the swamp and is

slightly outside the swamp tree line, except in areas where flow is conveyed

between the swamps, where the ground is covered with shallow, slowly moving

water (i.e., sheet flow). Some portions of the swamps, mostly in hardwood

areas, function as storage areas only during major flood events because they

contain hammocks which are slightly elevated above the surrounding area. ,

The 10-year floodplain encompasses about 2,700 acres (54%) within the study -

site, and is larger in size than the extent of soils classified by the Soil

Conservation Service (SCS) as being within the area's floodplains and

depressions. The 10-year floodplain is indicative of lands that would serve

as runoff storage areas during large flood events, whereas the SCS floodplain

and depressional soils are more indicative of lands that would serve as runoff -

storage areas during normal wet seasons.

The Soil Survey of Pasco County, published by the SCS (U.S. Dept of

Agriculture, 1982), indicates that soils located in the headwaters are

predominantly types which have a high water table during the wet season.

Major upland soils are of the Pomona-EauGallie-Sellers association and the

Smyrna-Sellers-Myakka association. Typically these soils have a water table "

that is within a few inches of the land surface during the wet season.


P Figure 4, derived from the SCS soil survey maps, illustrates floodplain and

depressional soils associated with low-lying areas of the headwaters. Chobee

soils are poorly drained soils that exist in swamps along the floodplains of

most of the major rivers and streams in Pasco County. Some Chobee soils lie

slightly removed from the streams, but they are connected to the streams by

narrow flood channels. Flooding in these areas normally lasts from 1 to 4

months. In their natural condition, the remaining low-lying soils are poorly

drained soils located in isolated depressions that, in cases where they exist,

can be connected through small natural or man-made drainage swales which

function only during wet periods. The Basinger Fine Sand-Depressional and

Zephyr Muck soils are normally ponded for at least 6 months in most years, and

the Sellers Mucky Loamy Fine Sand areas are ponded for about 3 to 6 months.

Chobee, Basinger, Zephyr and Sellers soils total 1,793 acres (36%) within the

study site, and they represent a major portion of the surface water storage

areas contained within the site boundaries.

The site exhibits ill-defined drainage, flat topography and abundant natural
storage areas. As a result of these conditions runoff stored on-site for long

periods adds to base flow in the river and functions to maintain the wet

season high water table. When heavy rainfall events are combined with high

water table conditions, runoff volumes can be high, but because of the flat

topography and ill-defined drainage, peak runoff rates are low except during

infrequent occurrences where runoff volume greatly exceeds storage capacity.

As can be seen from Figures 3 and 4, proceeding upstream through the

tributaries, the storage areas become more isolated and drainage becomes less

defined. This is particularly evident north of the south line of Section 32,

Township 25 South, Range 18 East, where the Chobee soils terminate.


R-17E. N-IS|. -


&. -



Figure 4.



,Study Site ..

18 .. BasBinger, Sellers and Zephyr Soils
a~ ...m

1000 3000 5000 Feet -
0 2000 4000

Figures 5 thru 7 illustrate drainage basin boundaries pertinent to the study

area from the Range 17-18 line (the site's western boundary) to the upstream

extent of the Anclote River drainage basin. Approximately 24 mi2 (22% of the

total 110 mi2 watershed) contributes flow to the Anclote River at the western
boundary of the site (Figure 5). About one-half mile upstream, south of the

north line of Section 7, Township 26 South, Range 18 East (Figure 6), the

drainage area has been reduced to 9.5 mi2 (9% of the total watershed). About

2 miles farther upstream the river forks into two runs (Figure 7), the west

fork having a 2.2 mi2 drainage area (2% of the total watershed) and the east

fork having a 5 mi2 drainage area (5% of the total watershed).

From the above discussion, it is apparent that drainage area is dramatically
reduced proceeding upstream along the river through the site area. As can be

seen by the above percentages, drainage basin reduction within the site is

most significant in the area of the north line of Section 7, Township 26

South, Range 18 East (Figure 6), where drainage basin contributing flow to the

river is reduced from about 22% to about 9% of the entire Anclote River

drainage basin.

The study site has enough upland and tributary areas to help moderate

increases in peak flow which would result from activities such as clearing of

ground cover, creation of impervious areas and improvement of drainage in the

watershed up-gradient of the site. Most land within the study site which is

not swamp or hammock is pine plantations with palmetto ground cover. Heavy

palmetto ground cover causes high resistance to sheet flow and a sufficient

flow length over palmetto or other heavy ground cover will have a moderating

effect on runoff rates. Similarly, sufficient flow length through the river,

- tributary swamps and hammocks can also help to moderate flow velocity and peak



Figure 5.






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: ...... .... .0. .. ... ..

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0 ... . .


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f rEv
c :::..........

S38L-U 3LL-U

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I I I I I I I i i I I I I I 4i 1i 1

Figure 7.



T-25S. X
:....;. '..:.':: ::::::::::::::::::::: ::::
.,... .....
":'.'-" ".''-' .' .. .. "...- -. I .

iii .. ....... .......... .................. iiiiii~ !!ii~ ii
,,,........ ............

. . .-. ... .


21 2223 24 122 23 2
''' .............. .................. .... ....

......... R-1 E.VER"
.. .... 14 3


coast s

31 321
R-7E R-18E .7

discharge. As is described in the following paragraph, the study site can

only afford a disjointed preservation of the above-listed characteristics,

because the site delineation includes isolated pieces of drainage basins.

According to the drainage basin boundary delineation in Figure 5, an area in

the northwest part of the study site drains into the Cross Cypress Branch, and

another area in the southwest part of the site drains into the Sandy Branch

(those areas within the site west of the drainage basin boundary). In both

cases, large areas of these drainage basins downstream from the study site

would not be acquired. The Cross Cypress Branch flows through the Starkey
SWellfield before reaching its confluence with the Anclote River, and upstream

of the wellfield only the eastern and northeastern edge of this drainage basin

is included within the site. The Sandy Branch meets the Anclote River within

the Anclote Water Storage Lands boundary. There is an area of drainage basin

between this juncture and the site boundary which, in a manner similar to the

Cross Cypress Branch, would remain unacquired. Additionally, small areas in

the northeastern part of the site drain into the Pithlachascotee River. The

above areas constitute about 1536 acres (31%) of the total 5,000 acre study

site, and inclusion of these disjointed pieces of drainage basin restricts the

sites contribution to natural flood control and water retention/detention.



Natural/Ecological Conditions of the Area

The most prominent wetland features within the study site are the several

miles of the Anclote River's headwaters. As it courses through the site, the "

Anclote River begins as a series of forested swamplands that coalesce to form

the narrow and shallow channels of several tributaries which in turn join to

form the main stem of the river.

Surface water within the headwaters and tributaries of the Anclote River is -

sporadic and directly responsive to seasonal rain. Water at the surface is

present in abundance generally only during the wet season. The habitats

provided by the Anclote River include areas of low to moderate flows. Where
water is available for some extended periods of time, these areas support a

diverse fishery and a host of aquatic and semi-aquatic vertebrates. -

Additionally, the tributaries convey local drainage to the downstream portions

of the river.

The land included in the study site supports several distinct plant

communities as well as other areas of varied land uses. For purposes of this

evaluation, analysis of vegetation and computation of acreages were performed

by District staff using available aerial photographs. Black and white aerial ""

imagery (DOT PD 2820-10-4 through 11; scale 1"=2,000') taken in March, 1982
were used for stereoscopic analyses. Acreages were calculated using the

dot/grid system. Figure 8 shows the location and areal extent of each land

cover type within the site. Table 3 summarizes the classifications determined

from the imagery and provides acreages for each classification. ""


/ -- neral ion


Anclote River
Figure 8. Vegetation and Land Cover Types
I at the Anclote River Floodway Site
Pine Flatwoods (pine/palmetto)
A nclote Cypress
RivI OCPine Plantations
SHardwoods Forests
ANCLOTE Herbaceous

WATER O J Unimproved Pasture
STOAG B { t! ^ Improved Pasture
SLANDS Temperate Hammock

? i

Table 3. Acreage of Plant Communities and Land Cover
Types within the Anclote River Floodway Site

Classification Total Acres of Total

Pine Flatwoods
(pine/palmetto) 144.8 2.9

Cypress 1,359.5 27.1 e

Pine Plantations 1,900.0 37.8

Hardwoods forest 484.7 9.7

Temperate hammock 37.3 0.7

Herbaceous 76.0 1.5

Scrub/Brush 675.2 13.4 -

Unimproved Pasture 11.5 .3

Improved Pasture 332.7 6.6

Grand Total 5,021.7 100.0 "



In the study site, two land cover types--pine plantations and cypress comprise

65% or over 3,260 acres of the site's total acreage. The site's extensive

pine plantations occupy the largest area (1,900 acres) and generally have been

established on most of the available upland surrounding the river and

tributary swamps. The pine plantations are of variable age with the oldest

stands approaching 25-30 years of age. Younger stands are used primarily for

pulp production while the older areas provide the more marketable cut

timber. On-going clear-cutting and replanting are common activities

throughout the site.

The second most abundant land cover/forest type within the site is cypress

(1359 acres). Unlike the man-made pine plantations, cypress forests or swamps

are naturally occurring communities which occupy isolated depressions or are

found along the river's tributrary swamps. As forest wetland areas, cypress

swamps (e.g., domes) are important wildlife areas-providing food and shelter

- to many of the site's wildlife species. Within the study site, cypress trees

are selectively harvested for their commerical value. In some areas visited

during a recent field trip, cypress tree cover was notably reduced. The

decrease in canopy cover and site disturbance has promoted the invasion and

proliferation of weedy underbrush plant species. Regeneration is likely;

however, it will take many years for new recruits to establish the previous

canopy cover.

Next in order of area extent are the scrub/brush lands and the hardwoods

forests (675 acres and 485 acres, respectively). The scrub/brush areas are

primarily restricted to the northeastern sector of the study site. The
hardwoods forests are associated with the river portions located in the

central and southeast sectors of the site. Of the two forest types, the


hardwoods forests represent the more diverse plant communities and are more

valuable in terms of wildlife values. These forests are closed-canopy,

structurally complex communities, which provide cover and food for many of

Florida's most characteristic wildlife. Interspersed within the hardwoods

forest in the southeast sector of the site are an estimated 37 acres of

temperate hammock. These areas, which topographically are slightly elevated

above the surrounding hardwoods forest, similarly provide valuable wildlife


The remaining acreage on the site exists as various man-influenced vegetation

types. Native range (palmetto prairies), improved and unimproved pastures and

herbaceous (old field) types represent areas evidencing past and present

agricultural practices.

Overall, the site is a composite of natural and man-influenced vegetation

communities. Agricultural and silvicultural activities have transformed large

tracts of native habitats into monocultures of planted pines and improved

pastures. These monocultures are considerably less diverse than native plant

communities and therefore represent areas of reduced wildlife resources. The

remaining natural communities, the river hardwoods, temperate hammock and

isolated swamps, represent the most biologically diverse areas in terms of -

vegetation, microclimate and wildlife species. Additionally, as wetlands and

forests, they play a key role in the area's drainage and conveyance of

seasonal rains, as well as assimilation of nutrients.

The most common threat to the natural communities remaining on the site is an

expansion of development activities that will reduce and remove natural

vegetative cover. Clearing and filling for construction and other development -i

28 -

on the site or in the watershed will reduce forest cover, alter evapotran-

spiration rates, reduce productivity and the overall diversity of the area.

Intensification of timber harvesting throughout the forested wetlands will

also reduce and degrade the natural values of these areas. Species with

strict habitat requirements, and those unable to adapt to the new

environmental conditions will experience reductions in their numbers and

finally become extirpated. Conversion of native habitats to agricultural land

uses (e.g., improved pastures) similarly would decrease the site's wildlife

values. Other land uses that change existing drainage patterns and encroach

on the floodplain of the Anclote River and its headwater tributaries would

adversely affect the water resources and water management in the area.

_" 29

Water Quality Preservation/Enhancement

The Anclote River is classified as Class III waters (Recreation-Propagation &

Management of Fish and Wildlife) according to the Rules of the DER. This

classification reflects usage of the river within the study site primarily for

habitat and wildlife maintenance. Recreational use of the river and lands

within the site is restricted chiefly as a result of a lack of public access

and the intermittent flow of the river.

Water quality data are not available for the reach of the river within the

study site. However, there are data for a station (site A-4, Figure 1) at

Seven Springs, downstream of the site (Table 4). Examination of this

information and a comparison of it with DER Class III water quality standards

reveals that, at that station, the river meets applicable standards for most

parameters reported with the exception of ammonia (standard of 0.02 mg/l).

Also, some of the dissolved oxygen concentrations reported are quite low, -

sometimes falling well below the desirable concentration of 5.0 mg/l. The

problems relating to dissolved oxygen and ammonia are very likely caused by

two primary factors operating at the sampling station and upstream: (1) low

flows, and (2) runoff from land used for residential and agricultural

purposes. Streamflow in the Anclote River at this station can decline below -

25 cfs for several consecutive weeks, producing virtually stagnant conditions

leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in stream waters. Runoff from

agricultural lands and direct use of the river by cattle can contribute to

high nitrogen, particularly ammonia, concentrations in stream waters. Land

upstream of the Anclote River water quality sampling station (and within the *

study site) is used for agriculture, chiefly cattle and timber production,

while land immediately adjacent to the station has been developed for




Specific Conductance 78-408 not greater than 500
pH (units) 6.2-7.3 6.0-8.5
Color (Pt-Co units) 160
Dissolved Oxygen 2.6-8.7 5.0
Calcium 17.0
Magnesium 2.2
Sodium 4.6
Potassium 1.7
Sulfate 5.2
Chloride 11.0
Fluoride 0.3 5.0
Nitrate 0.02-0.12 so as not to cause imbalance
Nitrite 0.01-0.02 so as not to cause imbalance
Ammonia 0.01-0.28 0.02
Organic 0.17-1.0
Phosphorus so as not to cause imbalance
Total 0.04-0.1
Ortho 0.03-0.1
Arsenic 0.0001 0.05
SIron 0.5 1.0
Lead 0.0005 0.03
Manganese 0.02
Mercury 0.0001
Zinc 0.03
Organic 25.0

Note: Data obtained from U.S. Geological Survey. 1985. Water Resources
Data Florida, Water Year 1983. USGS, Tallahassee, FL.

Data are listed in mg/L unless otherwise noted.


residential purposes. At low flows, runoff from this land conveys materials

whose oxygen demand induces low oxygen conditions and raises nutrient

concentrations in the river. A similar situation with respect to low flows

and agricultural runoff exists in the proposed acquisition. Therefore, the

data reported here can be expected to represent the quality of river water

within the site.

Purchase of the study site will aid in preserving the existing water quality

of the river. The forested swamps along the river provide natural water -

treatment and assimilation of nutrients. In fact, the reversal of certain

silvicultural and agricultural management practices now being conducted could

result in a net improvement of the quality of water on the site. Further

improvement in water quality could be realized if drainage ditches constructed

for timber and pasture improvement were filled and former, natural drainage

patterns were allowed to become re-established.




Throughout the study site two aquifer systems exist, the surficial and

Floridan aquifers, separated by a clay confining layer. The surficial aquifer

is comprised of unconsolidated sands and clayey sands ranging from 10-30 feet

thick. Underlying the surficial aquifer is the confining layer which

generally is comprised of beds of clay, silt and sandy clay approximately 25

feet thick. The Floridan aquifer, which lies below the confining beds, is the
primary artesian aquifer and principal source of drinking water in the region.

It is comprised of limestone and dolomites and is approximately 1000 feet


Recharge to the Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of the site usually occurs

Svia downward leakage from the overlying surficial aquifer and directly where

sinkholes exist and are hydraulically connected to the aquifer. Leakage

between adjacent aquifers results from differences in water levels between the

two aquifers. The direction of leakage is from the aquifer with the higher

water level to the aquifer with the lower water level.

Data collected from the immediate area shows the water table to generally

- range from about 0.15 to 5 feet above the potentiometric surface (USGS, Water

Resources Data Florida, Water years 1977-83). At some locations the water

table has been observed to fall below the potentiometric surface. In the

southern half of the site downward leakage appears to normally occur. As you

go north in the site the potential for upward leakage is exhibited.

- Generalized areas of upward leakage potential are depicted in Figure 9 (Yobbi


Anclote River Floodway
Figure 9. Generalized Areas of Upward Leakage in the Immediate Vicinity of the SOR Site.

/ \

To Ilrooksville
To Bayonet Point
/ \/ \ \To Dade City

Coastal Rivers Basin

/, //

SMay, 1941

A clote Water SStt Lands


Pinellas-Anclote Basin
To Elfers 54

PAS_:O CO). "o Tanmpa

A proximate Study Area f!

---- May, I 98 2

and Woodham, 1981; Barr, 1982) and are observed to change in response to

climatic stress.

Leakage isalso a function of the leakance coefficient of the confining layer,

defined as the ratio of hydraulic conductivity to thickness of the confining
layer. In the study site the leakance coefficient was determined to be 2.7 x

10-4 (DAY)"1 (Seaburn and Robertson, 1984). Values of leakance coefficient in

nearby wellfields were found to range from 1.3-2.1 x 10-4 (DAY)-1 (Jones,


The study site is situated approximately 15 miles down-gradient from the Pasco

potentiometric high, which is located west of Dade City and is considered to

be a high recharge area (Hutchinson, 1984). Recharge in the vicinity of the

site was described by Hutchinson as moderate. Based on the hydraulics of the

confining layer the site appears to exhibit good potential for recharge.

However, in response to increased potentiometric levels within the Floridan

aquifer, upward leakage is often found to occur on site. Based on results of

a computer model, Hutchinson derived recharge rates on the site ranging from

2-10 inches per year. Seaburn and Robertson (1984) used a simple water

balance to estimate recharge to be about 2 inches per year. Near the Pasco

high recharge rates were upwards of 25 inches per year.

From the information presented here, naturally occurring recharge within the

study site appears to be low to moderate. This is primarily due to the fact

that the hydraulic gradient causing downward leakage appears generally to be

small and is sometimes such that upward leakage can occur.


Preservation of Existing Supplies

The Starkey Wellfield is located adjacent to the western boundary of and

down-gradient from the study site. In 1984, the wellfield supplied an average -

of approximately 8.4 million gallons per day (MGD) to the cities of New Port

Richey, Port Richey and to the Pasco County Utilities service area. From

analysis of withdrawals from ten municipal wellfields located north of Tampa,

simulated drawdowns of the potentiometric surface within the site were found

to range from two to five feet (Hutchinson, 1984). Since the site is up- -

gradient from the Starkey Wellfield, its hydrologic importance to the

wellfield area is that groundwater inflow to the wellfield passes through the

site, as well as additional groundwater recharge is provided. By virtue of

the fact that drawdowns extend into the site, induced recharge from the water

table is provided on-site. Land use changes which increase drainage from the "

water table can reduce the amount of water available for induced recharge.

Water quality data from a well situated within the site is presented and
compared to potable water standards in Table 5. The water quality analysis

showed that primary and secondary drinking water standards were met (Seaburn ,

and Robertson, 1984).


Table 5: Water quality in a well on the Study site
compared to potable water standards.

Parameter: Study Site Well Maximum Limit

Total Dissolved Solids (mg/1) 250 500
Phenolphthlein Alkalinity (mg/l) 0
Total Alkalinity (mg/1) 208
Carbon Dioxide (mg/1) 2.69
Chloride (mg/1) 7.75 250
Sulfate (mg/1) 3.56 250
Fluoride (mg/1) 0.1 1.8
pH 8.2 6.0-8.5
pHs 7.2
Hydrogen Sulfide (mg/1) 0.01
Stability Index 6.2
Saturation Index 1.0
Total Hardness (mg/1) 212
Calcium Harndess (mg/1) 195
Magnesium Hardness (mg/1) 16.7
Calcium (mg/1) 78 200
Magnesium (mg/l) 4.03 125
Iron (mg/1) 0.1 0.3
Color (Cobalt-Platinum Scale) 5 15
Turbidity (Jackson Turbidity Units) 0.9 1
Specific Conductance
(Micromhos per cm. at 250C) 470

Total Coliform (colonies/lOOml) 1 4


Potential Water Supply

Within the study site, the duration of streamflow is such that the Anclote

River could not be depended upon as a full time surface water source (Coble,

1973). Generally the river channel is not well-defined on site but rather is

a series of interspersed cypress domes and interconnected hardwood swamps. As

suggested by Coble (as pertains to a surface water supply) at best the river

could serve as a supplemental source.

Within the study site it would be possible to develop a groundwater supply.

Preliminary observation by Seaburn and Robertson (1984) indicated a potential

for developing a wellfield in the area on land that included the study site.
Drawdown in the potentiometric surface would ultimately depend on the quantity

of water pumped from the aquifer. Induced recharge resulting from the

decreased potentiometric levels would be water derived by storage in the

surfical aquifer that would normally runoff into the lakes and rivers and be

available for evapotranspiration.





Wildlife Resources/Values of the Area

The characteristically narrow and shallow tributaries of the study site

provide forested wetlands of cypress and mixed hardwoods. The majority of

lands adjoining the river and its narrow floodplain are managed and maintained

as extensive pine plantations or pasturelands. In addition to the riverine

areas, other native habitats within the site include some areas of native pine

flatwoods, xeric oak and sandhills, as well as isolated cypress swamps.

Hammocks occur along the higher elevations near the river.

The wetlands and the remaining native (upland) areas within the site provide

the best habitats for the greatest diversity of wildlife. Forestry practices

in areas of the floodplain (cypress harvest) have also contributed to the loss

Sand degradation of important wildlife habitat.

Based on the quality and quantity of suitable habitat, the regional literature

(Gilbert, 1977; Conant, 1975; Stevenson, 1976; Carr, 1940; Carr and Goin,
S1955; Sprunt, 1954; Layne, 1977) suggests the possibility that nearly 220

vertebrate species may inhabit the site area. District Staff time constraints

and restricted access to the site did not allow for on-site faunal

inventories. Instead for purposes of this evaluation, because of the site's

proximity to the J.B. Starkey Wilderness Park and the similarity of habitats,

information gathered by past SWFWMD studies (Rochow, Bartos, and Schupp, 1976;

Rochow, Lopez, Dooris, Hull and Courser, 1979) in the Starkey area was used as

the basis for determining the probable wildlife resources of the Anclote River

Floodway site.


Table 6 lists the wildlife species expected to occur on the site (based on

studies from the Starkey area). The 175 species include: 13 fishes, 12 ,

amphibians, 25 reptiles, 109 birds, and 16 mammals. Among these, several are

considered game species (wild turkey, deer, quail, gray squirrels, etc.). "

Fifteen species are listed as species with special status by federal and state

agencies. Table 7 lists the species and their designated status.

Generally, although the Anclote River Floodway site includes several habitats

characteristic of west-central Florida, past and present land uses have -

reduced and limited the wildlife and natural values throughout large portions

of the site. Agricultural and silvicultural activities have transformed large

tracts of native flatwoods into monocultures of planted pines and improved

pastures. These land cover types are not floristically diverse and

correspondingly offer limited wildlife usage toall but a few ubiquitous and -

hardy wildlife species. Additionally, agricultural and forest practices have

isolated and fragmented native habitats into small "islands" with limited

potential to support stable wildlife populations. Moreover, the relatively

small size of these "islands" makes them more vulnerable to adverse impacts

and limits their ability to regenerate, thus creating limiting conditions for ,


In contrast to the Anclote River Floodway site, the relatively undisturbed,

large expanses of natural pinelands and swamps throughout the Starkey

Wilderness Part located due west of the site, offer a wide variety of optimum ,,

habitat conditions which support a diverse fauna. Unlike the fragmented

portions of natural areas within the Anclote Floodway site, the continuous "

areas of habitat within the Starkey Park are more resilient to natural and
artificial perturbations and have a greater capacity for regeneration and

self-perpetuation. ,,



Scientific Name Common Name

FISHES (13 species)

Fundulus chrysotus Golden Topminnow
Ictalurus nebulosus Southern Brown Bullhead
Jordanella floridae Flagfish
Gcabusia affinis Mosquitofish
Heterandria fonmosa Least Killifish
Poecilia la ipinna Sailfin Molly
Micropterus salmoides Largemouth Bass
' Lepamis gulosus Warmouth
Lepamis rrcrochirus Bluegill
Lepanis rnrginatus Dollar Sunfish
Enneacanthus glorious Bluespotted Sunfish
Elassonr evergladei Everglades Pygmy Sunfish
Etheostanr fusiforme Swamp Darter

AMPHIBIANS (12 species)
Acris gryllus Southern Cricket Frog
Bufo quercicus Oak Toad
Bufo terrestris Southern Toad
SGastrophryne carolinensis Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad
Hyla cinerea Green Treefrog
Hyla fenoralis Pinewoods Treefrog
Hyla squirellal Squirrel Treefrog
Rana areolata Gopher Frog
Rana grylio Pig Frog
Rana utricularia Southern Leopard Frog
Scaphiopus holbrooki Eastern Spadefoot Toad
Siren intermedia Eastern Lesser Siren

REPTILES (25 species)

Alligator mississippiensis American Alligator
Chelydra serpentina Florida Snapping Turtle
Chrysemys floridana Peninsular Cooter
Chryseays nelsoni Florida Red-billed Turtle
Deirochelys reticularia Chicken Turtle
Gopherus polypherus Gopher Tortoise
Kinosternon bauri Striped Mud Turtle
Sternotherus odoratus Stinkpot
Terrapene carolina Florida Box Turtle
Trionyx ferox Florida Softshell
Anolis carolinensis Green Anole
Chemidophorus sexlineatus Six-lined Racerunner


TABLE 6. (continued)

Scientific Name Common Name

REPTILES (continued)

Euneces inexpectatus Southern Five-linked Skink
Sceloporus undulatus Southern Fence Lizard
Scincella lateral Ground Skink
Agkistrodon piscivorus Eastern Cottonmouth
Coluber constrictor Southern Black Racer -
Crotalus adarmnteus Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake
Diadophis punctatus Southern Ringneck Snake
Elaphe guttata Corn Snake -
Heterodon simus Southern Hognose
Micrurus fulvius Eastern Coral Snake
Sistrurus mil iarus Dusky Pigmy Rattlesnake
Tharmophis sauritus Eastern Ribbon Snake
Thannophis sirtalis Eastern Garter Snake

BIRDS (109 Species)

Podilynbus podiceps Pied-billed Grebe
Phalacrocorax auritus Double-crested Cormorant
Anhinga anhinga Anhinga
Ardea herodias Great Blue Heron
Casmerodius albus Great Egret
Egretta thula Snowy Egret
Egretta caerula Little Blue Heron
Bulbucus ibis Cattle Egret
Butorides striatus Green-backed Heron
Eudocinus albus White Ibis
Mycteria americana Wood Stork -
Aix sponsa Wood Duck
Anas discors Blue-winged Teal
Aythya collaris Ring-necked Duck -
Lophodytes cucullatus Hooded Merganser
Coragyps atratus Black Vulture
Cathartes aura Turkey Vulture
pandion haliaetus Osprey B
Circus cyaneus Northern Harrier
Accipiter striatus Sharp-shinned Hawk
Buteo lineatus Red-shouldered Hawk -
Buteo jomaicensis Red-tailed Hawk
Falco sparverius American Kestrel
Falco coluLbarius Merlin ,
Meleagris gallopavo Wild Turkey
Colinus virginianus Northern Bobwhite
Gallinula choropus Common Moorhen'
Fulica americana American Coot "
Grus canadensis Sandhill Crane


TABLE 6. (continued)

Scientific Name Common Name

BIRDS (continued)

Zenaida rmcroura Mourning Dove
Colunbina passerina Common Ground-Dove
Coccyzus americanus Yellow-billed Cuckoo
Otus asio Eastern Screeh-Owl
Strix varia Barred Owl
Chordeiles minor Common Nighthawk
Caprimulgus carolinensis Chuck-wills-widow
Chaetura pelagica Chimney Swift
Archilochus colubris Ruby-throated Hummingbird
Ceryle alcyon Belted Kingfisher
Melanerpes carolinus Red-bellied Woodpecker
Sphyrapicus various Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
Picoides pubescens Downy Woodpecker
Picoides villosus Hairy Woodpecker
Colaptus aruatus Northern Flicker
Dryocopus pileatus Pileated Woodpecker
Contopus virens Eastern Wood-Pewee
Sayornis phoebe Eastern Phoebe
Myiarchus crinitus Great Crested Flycatcher
Tyrannus tyrannus Eastern Kingbird
Progne subis Purple Martin
" Tachycineta bicolor Tree Swallow
Hirundo rustica Barn Swallow
Cyanocitta cristata Blue Jay
N Corvus brachyrhynchos American Crow
Corvus ossifragus Fish Crow
parus carolinensis Carolina Chickadee
. parus bicolor Tufted Titmouse
Sitta pusilla Brown-headed Nuthatch
Thryothorus ludovicianus Carolina Wren
Troglodytes aedon House Wren
Regulus calendula Ruby-crowned Kinglet
Polioptila caerulea Blue-gray Gnatcatcher
Sialia sialis Eastern Bluebird
Catharus guttatus Hermit Thrush
Hylocichla rrustelina Wood Thrush
Turdus migratorius American Robin
SDuietella corolinensis Gray Catbird
Minus polyglottos Northern Mockingbird
Toxostomrr rufun Brown Thrasher
Anthus spinoletta Water Pipit
Borbycilla cedrorum Cedar Waxwing
Lanius ludovicianus Loggerhead Shrike


TABLE 6. (continued)

Scientific Name Common Name

BIRDS (continued) -

Sturnus vulgaris Starling
Vireo griseus White-eyed Vireo -
Vireo olivaceus Red-eyed Vireo
Parula americana Northern Parula
Dendroica Petechia Yellow Warbler
Dendroica rmgnolia Magnolia Warbler
Dendroica trigrinace Cape May Warbler
Dendroica caerulesns Black-throated Blue Warbler
Dendroica coronata Yellow-rumped Warbler
Dendroica fusca Blackburnian Warbler
Dendroica dominica Yellow-throated Warbler
Dendroica pinus Pine Warbler
Dendroica palmarun Palm Warbler
Dendroica striata Blackpoll Warbler
Mniotilta varia Black-and-White Warbler
Setophaga ruticilla American Redstart
Protonotaria citrea Prothonotary Warbler
Seiurus aurocapillus Ovenbird
Seiurus motacilla Louisiana Waterthrush
Geothlypis trichas Common Yellowthroat
Piranga rubra Summer Tanager
Cardinalis cardinalis Northern Cardinal -
Pipilo erythrophthalmus Rufous-sided Towhee
Aimophila aestivalis Bachman's Sparrow
Spizella passerina Chipping Sparrow
Pooecetes granineus Vesper Sparrow
Passerculus sandwichensis Savannah Sparrow
Amnodranus savannarun Grasshopper Sparrow
Melospiza georgina Swamp Sparrow
Melospiza melodia Song Sparrow
Agelaius phoeniceus Red-winged Blackbird
Sturnella rmgna Eastern Meadowlark -
Quiscalus major Boat-tailed Grackle
Quiscalus quiscula Common Grackle
Carduelis tristis American Goldfinch -,

MAMMALS (16 species)

Didelphis marsupialis Opossum
Scalopus aquaticus Eastern Mole
Dasypus novemcinctus Nine-banded Armadillo -
Sylvilagus palustris Marsh Rabbit

44 ""

TABLE 6. (continued)

Scientific Name Common Name

SMAMNALS (continued)

Sylvilagus floridanus Eastern Cottontail
Sciurus carolinensis Gray Squirrel
Sciurus niger Eastern Fox Squirrel
Glauconys volans Southern Flying Squirrel
Geonys pinetis Southeastern Pocket Gopher
Percrnyscus gossypinus Cotton Mouse
Signodon hispidus Hispid Cotton Rat
Procyon lotor Raccoon
Lynx rufus Bobcat
Sus scrofa Wild Pig
Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed Deer
Ursus arericanus Florida Black Bear



TABLE 7. Endangered, Threatened, and Species with Special Status in the Anclote River Floodway Project Area

Designated Status1

Amphibians and Reptiles

Gopher Frog (Rana areolata) UR SSC T
American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) T SSC SSC
Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphernus) UR SSC T


Wood Stork (Mycteria americana) E E E
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) T
American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) UR T T
Florida Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) T T
Great Egret (Casmeroidus albus) SSC
Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) SSC SSC
Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerula) SSC SSC
White Ibis (Eudocimus albus) SSC
Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus) SSC
Bachman's Sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis) UR

Mammal s

Sherman's Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger shernnni) UR SSC T
Florida Black Bear (Ursus mnericanus floridanus) UR T T

1 E = Endangered; T = Threatened; SSC Species of Special Concern; UR = Under Review (for possible listing).
2 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (50 CRF 17.11).
4 Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission (Section 39-27 .03-05, F.A.C.).
Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals.

Species are expected to occur within the area based on range distribution and availability of suitable habitat.

Maintenance and Self-Perpetuation of the Site

Within the study site, the preponderance of pine plantations currently

requires an extensive land maintenance program to protect and maintain the

vigor of the stands. Planted for their commerical value, these plantations

need periodic burning, selective cutting, and replanting, as well as a host of

other silvicultural activities.

In order to return the site to its natural condition, a major maintenance

consideration would be the reversal of past drainage alterations. For both

agricultural and silvicultural uses, areas throughout the site have been

ditched and drained. In order to restore local drainage patterns and to re-

establish on-site retention, some remedial steps would be necessary.

The site's floodplain forests of cypress and mixed hardwoods require little if

any maintenance activities (particularly those areas which have not been

timbered recently). These climax communities are quite stable, and should

remain self-perpetuating, provided their primary requirement of normal hydro-

periods and regular inundation is maintained. Also, if these areas are to

remain viable habitats for wildlife, they should be protected against

clearing, excavations, clear cut timbering, and other activities that can

impair their natural functions. Within the study site, there is on-going

selective harvesting of cypress both within portions of the river floodplain

as well as within the isolated cypress swamps. To function efficiently within

the roles of water management, wildlife presentation, and habitat

preservation, these areas should be allowed to regenerate in order to restore

their full potential contribution.


For the long-term management of the site, a land use plan and inventory would

be necessary in order to identify problem areas as well as to assess the -,

status of resources within the site. Land Management practices for protection

and restoration would also need to be implemented in keeping with the goals

and objectives outlined by the SOR program.





Regulation and Zoning

The Anclote River is afforded varying degrees of protective management through

regulatory agencies. The agencies which would have a major impact on the site

are the District, DER, Corps of Engineers and Pasco County.

Both the District and DER, in regard to dredge and fill activities, have

jurisdiction over non-agricultural lands, while agricultural lands are solely

under the District's jurisdiction. Any development (whether agricultural,

residential, commercial, or industrial) must comply with the District's MSSW

and Stormwater Management Rules, Chapters 40D-4 and 17-25 F.A.C.

Under Rule 40D-4.301, F.A.C., the District regulates encroachments into the

100-year floodplain and governs the release of discharges:

Rule 40D-4.301 Conditions for Issuance of Permits

(2)(a) Off-site discharge is limited to amounts which will not cause
adverse off-site impacts. These amounts are: 1. historic
discharge, which is the peak rate at which runoff leaves a
parcel of land by gravity under existing site conditions, or
the legally allowable discharge at the time of permit
application; or 2. amounts determined in previous District
permit actions.

(2)(b) Unless otherwise specified by previous District permits, off-
site discharge shall be computed using a storm event of 24
hours duration (S.C.S. Type II Florida Modified Distribution)
and 25 year frequency, with S.C.S. antecedant mositure
condition II (AMC II) for the existing site condition and for
the developed site condition.


(2)(d) No net encroachment into the floodplain, up to that encompassed
by the 100-year event, which will adversely affect conveyance,
storage, water quality, or adjacent lands will be allowed.

(2)(e) Systems shall be designed to provide minimum necessary internal
flood protection without exceeding allowable discharge.

(2)(f) Where practicable systems shall be designed to:
1. maintain water tables at the highest practicable level; *
2. preserve site environmental values; and
3. not waste freshwater through overdrainage; and
4. not lower water tables which would adversely affect
existing legal uses; and
5. preserve site groundwater recharge characteristics; and
6. retain water on-site for use and re-use for irrigation
and other reasonable beneficial uses.

(2)(g) Provision must be made to replace or otherwise mitigate the
loss of historic basin storage provided by the project site, -
where reasonably achievable.

(2)(h) Adequate provisions shall be made to allow the passage of
drainage from off-site upgradient areas to downgradient areas,
without adversely altering the time, stage, volume and point or
manner of discharge or dispersion.

The foregoing rule relating to the release of discharges and to encroachments w"

into the 100-year floodplain can provide a degree of protection to the Anclote

River. The rule is meant to minimize adverse impacts due to drainage

modifications and at the same time allow reasonable use of the land. us


To a large extent, characteristics within the study site will influence the

Degree of protection this rule can provide to the river because development in

an area which requires extensive site modification will necessarily have a

greater potential to impact the Anclote River than similar development in an

area which requires little site modification. The upland portion of the study

area, where development most likely would occur, has a wet season high water

table and sluggish drainage, and such characteristics are opposed to those

desirable for most development purposes; i.e., well-drained soils, water table

a few feet or more below the ground surface and efficient drainage. There-

fore, some lowering of the water table and drainage modifications could be

expected if further development occurs on-site.

Stormwater discharge (for water quality purposes) is regulated by the District

through Rule 17-25.04 F.A.C., Regulation of Stormwater Discharge. The

following excerpt from the rule is the primary principle used for design of

stormwater management systems:

Rule 17-25.04 Construction Requirements for New Stormwater Discharge

(5) A showing by the applicant that the facility design will
provide treatment equivalent to either retention, or detention
with filtration, as described in this Chapter, of the runoff
from the first one inch of rainfall; or, as an option for
projects or project subunits with drainage areas less than 100
- acres, the first one half inch of runoff, shall be presumed to
provide reasonable assurance pursuant to subsection (4) above,
provided that the provisions have been made for operation and
maintenance of the proposed facility.


Pollutant removal efficiency through retention by diversion of the first one-

half inch of runoff has been shown to be in the 80%-90% range of removal

(University of Central Florida, 1981).

The DER has jurisdiction over wetlands and surface waters through Chapter 403,

F.S. The DER establishes a jurisdiction line by first determining if a water

body qualifies as waters of the state and then, through an examination of

dominant plant species, establishes a jurisdictional boundary line landward of

the waters of the state. Note that under the definition of waters of the *

state, the DER does not have jurisdiction over many isolated water bodies and

wetlands. The DER has authority to prevent, abate and control pollution

within waters of the state. Water quality standards are specified within

Chapter 17-3, F.A.C., for Class I, II, and III waters, based on the quality of

water believed necessary to support the usage of the water. As was mentioned

previously, the Anclote River is classified as Class III (Recreation-

Propagation & Management of Fish and Wildlife).

The DER, through Chapter 17-12, F.A.C., requires dredge and fill permits for

activities conducted within or connected directly or via an excavated water

body or series of excavated water bodies to waters of the state. To receive a

permit the applicant must provide reasonable assurance that the dredging and <

filling will not cause a violation of Chapter 17-3 water quality standards,

and the project is not contrary to the public interest. If the project causes

significant degradation or is within an Outstanding Florida Water, the -

applicant must provide reasonable assurance that it will be clearly in the

public interest.


In weighing whether a project is not contrary to or is clearly in the public

interest, the DER considers whether the project will:

W 1. adversely affect public health, safety, welfare, or property of

2. adversely affect conservation of fish and wildlife, or their

3. adversely affect navigation or flow of water or cause harmful
erosion or shoaling;

4. adversely affect fishing and recreational values or marine
productivity of an area;

5. be of a temporary or permanent nature;

6. adversely affect historical or archeological resources.

The District, in its MSSW program regulates all wetlands, which includes those

under Chapter 403 waters of the state and isolated wetlands. The degree of

protection provided to wetlands is dependent on a consideration and balance of

the following factors:

Rule 40D-4.301 Conditions of Issuance of Permits

(2)(k)(1) Wetlands and other environmentally sensitive areas shall be
protected by considering and balancing the following

a. The project's impact on environmental features;


b. The current condition and relative value of
functions being performed by areas affected by the
proposed activity;

c. The extent to which particular disturbances of
wetlands are related to uses or projects which must
be located within or in close proximity to the
wetland and aquatic environment in order to perform ,
their basic functions; and

d. The extent to which particular disturbances of
wetlands benefit essential economic development.

2. The extent of preservation or disturbance of wetlands
will be determined on a case-by-case basis. ,

3. In those cases where disturbance in wetlands and -
environmentally sensitive areas are allowed, the
following will be considered: ,

a. Mitigation in the form of specific habitat

b. Preservation of other significant environmental
features in lieu of mitigation; or

c. Other measures proposed by or acceptable to the
applicant to mitigate adverse effects which may be 1
caused by the project.

Because much of the site is wetlands, within these areas the DER and District

rules stipulate additional regulatory constraints beyond those relating to "

stormwater abatement and treatment systems (Stormwater treatment systems

permitted through Chapter 17-25 are assumed to meet Chapter 17-3 water quality


standards). Dredge and fill activities in areas connected to or within

landward extent of waters of the state should not cause a violation of water

quality criteria designated for the Class III classification or be contrary to

the public interest. Beyond the jurisdictional limits of waters of the state,

additional wetland preservation can be achieved through the District MSSW

program. Figure 10 is an approximate delineation of the DER and District

juristictional wetlands. About 1500 acres or 30% of the site is within the

DER's and the District's jurisdiction, and about an additional 300 acres or 6%
of the site is solely within the District's jurisdiction (isolated wetlands).

Agriculture is exempt from the DER dredge and fill regulatory process, but

agricultural surface water management systems are regulated by the District.

Within the District's Chapter 40D-4 jurisdiction, some agricultural activities

are exempt from the permitting process unless there is a creation of a new
stormwater management system. The following rules specify activities which

are exempt from Chapter 40D-4 surface water permitting requirements.

Rule 40D-4.051-Exemptions

(8)(a) All normal and necessary farming and forestry operations as
are customary for the area, which can be conducted without
the construction of a new surface water management
system. Site preparation, clearing, fencing, contouring to
prevent soil erosion, soil preparation, plowing, planting,
harvesting; and the construction of access roads, and the
placement of bridges and culverts to facilitate these
operations do not constitute construction of a new surface
water management system, provided such operations and
facilities do not impede or divert the flow of surface
waters entering or leaving the operation or intrude into or



Figure 10. Approximate Delineation of DER and

District Jurisdictional Wetlands within the Site


R Wetlands ( Waters of the State )

Wetlands ( isolated )


otherwise substantially and adversely impact significant

(b) The construction, operation and maintenance of a farming or
forestry irrigation system, including headers, ditches,
furrows and tailwater recovery ponds, which contain water
only following a rainfall event or resulting from
withdrawals or diversions from ground water or surface
water by wells or pumps. Nevertheless, a Consumptive Use
Permit may be required for such withdrawals or diversions.

(c) The maintenance of existing irrigation and drainage
ditches, dikes and insect control structures, provided that
no more dredging is to be performed than is necessary to
restore the dike or irrigation or drainage ditch to its
original design specifications.

Agricultural exemptions listed in Chapter 17-25 permitting requirements are as


Rule 17-25.03 Exemptions

(1)(d) facilities for agricultural lands, provided those
facilities are part of an approved Conservation Plan;
however, if the Conservation Plan is not implemented
according to its terms, this exemption shall be void; and

(1)(e) facilities for silvicultural lands, provided that the
facilities are constructed and operated in accordance with
the Silviculture Best Management Practices Manual (1979),
published by the State of Florida, Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Forestry,
which is adopted and made a part of this rule by
reference. A copy of this manual may be obtained by
writing the Department of Agriculture, Division of


Forestry, 3125 Conner Boulevard, The Collins Building,
Tallahassee, Florida, and may be inspected at all
Department of Environmental Regulation offices.

In addition, District rules do not restrict timber harvesting as long as the

tree is cut above the mean high water line.

Up to the present time, there has been some drainage works excavation within

the study site boundaries. The drainage improvement that has been undertaken

is characteristic of practices normally employed in silviculture and cattle

production. Future creation of agricultural surface water management systems

would, through the District permitting process, have to comply with Chapters

17-25 and 40D-4. -

Some of the agricultural processes which are exempt from the DER's and the -

District's regulations (such as clearing of upland vegetation, minor internal

drainage ditching and timber harvesting) have the potential to impact

retention, detention, infiltration and filtration of runoff. Acquisition of

the study site would preclude such changes in the immediate vicinity of the

Anclote River, and would provide (throughout most of the study site) a *

substantial conservation zone between the river and adjacent lands. In

reference to agricultural operations, perpetuation of a conservation zone

through acquisition of the site can provide a greater degree of preservation

to the Anclote River than would be possible through the regulatory process as

it currently exists. However, as mentioned previously, this preservation -"

would be restricted by the inclusion of disjointed drainage basin pieces

within the site boundaries.


The study site is wholly included within a privately held land tract (Figure

11) and as was mentioned previously, land use within this tract is a mixture

of agriculture and.silviculture. In consideration of the owners' management

of their land, a factor which could produce land use change within the parent

tract is the proposed wellfield referred to in the Potential Water Supply

section of this report. Before any wellfield development could be initiated,

a need for the supply would need to be established and the proposed wellfield

development would have to conform with the District's Consumptive Use
A Permitting program, pursuant to Chapter 40D-2, F.A.C.

The District's Anclote Water Storage Lands site and other privately-held large

land tracts abut or are near the study site to the west. The factor which has

the most potential to produce land use changes within all of these tracts

results from a combination of Pasco County's population growth and the

proposed north-south limited access highway, envisioned to connect Pinellas,

Hillsborough, Pasco, Hernando and Citrus Counties. The preferred corridor

alignment, as proposed by Pasco County, would position the road somewhere

within the District's property and privately-held tracts north and south of

there. Development on a DRI scale has been approved in part of the northern

tract (discussed in the following paragraph), and there also has been some

preliminary assessment of development potential within both the northern and

southern tracts.

Current zoning within and surrounding the site (obtained from the Pasco County

Planning and Zoning Department) is presented in Figure 12 and Table 8. Zoning

within the immediate vicinity of the site is A-C (agricultural), which has a

density rating of 1 unit/10 acres. West of the study site (north of Anclote

Water Storage Lands), some re-zoning has occurred to apportion higher


I I I I I I I I I I I I i I I I I I I

Figure I1. Land adjoining the
S.R. 2 R. 52 Anclote River Floodway Site



Study Site \ O'

S. R. 54

S. R. 4 S.R. 54

0 .5 I 2 3 4 Miles


pow A=C AmC / 1

pw Figure 12. ANCLOTE RIVER


13 18 17 11\ C

S19 21


302o 7 2- 2 i2

-1 m Aom

S\ R-1MH C-n

m1 !& '

-.-- 3 2 1/ I MI

12 7 11M

I 1/2 O 1/2 I MILE


'"" ~ R-C17. R-18E.

I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I

Zoning District Minimum Requirements
For Pasco County

Zoning Typical Minimum Lot Maximum Gross Minimum Lot Minimum Minimum Living Area
Districts Permitted Use Area Density Dimensions (ft) Setbacks (ft) Square Feet Per Unit
Width Depth Front Side Rear

A-C Single Family &
Agricultural Mobile Homes 10 Acres .10 per Acre 250 50 25 50 440

Agricultural- Single Family &
Residential Mobile Homes 1 Acre 1 per Acre 150 50 25 50 440

Estate- Single Family
Residential Homes 1 Acre 1 per Acre 150 50 25 50 1000

Estate- Single Family 1 per
Residential Homes 2.5 Acres 2.5 Acres 200 50 25 50 1000

R-MH Mobile Home, Park Site: 10 Acres
Mobile Home or Subdivision Lot: 4000 sq.ft. 6.8 per Acre 15 15 15 440

R-1 Single Family
Rural Density Homes 20,000 sq.ft. 2 per Acre 100 150 30 15 40 1200

R-2 Single Family
Low Density Homes 9,500 sq.ft. 4.6 per Acre 80 100 25 10 25 100

Multi-Family Duplex Thru
Medium Townhouses 15,000 sq.ft. 12 per Acre 80 100 25 10 20 650

Planned Unit
Development Variety 15 Acres 650

densities within River Ridge, an approved DRI scale development (Figure 11).

The developer has proposed expanding the project boundaries further east to

include an additional 900 acres (Figure 11). The DCA is currently reviewing

- this proposal to determine whether the expansion can be addressed locally

through County amendment of the Development Order, or if regional review

through another Application for Development Approval is required.

Pasco County has not implemented an official land use plan to this date.

Consultants have been hired to institute this land use plan but completion is

not expected for at least 1 1 years. The County does not have an ordinance

which regulates environmentally-sensitive areas other than Agricultural and

Planned Unit Development zonings. These restrictions rely on the DER's and

the District's regulations as well as Pasco County's flood ordinance, estab-

lished through the National Flood Insurance program, which requires first

floor elevations to be at or above the 100-year flood frequency level for all




This report was reviewed by the District Land Use Task Force Committee, which

is comprised of Senior Management Staff representing a wide range of expertise ,

and disciplines within the District.

Based upon their review of this report, a consensus of the Land Use Task Force

Committee reached the following conclusions regarding the Anclote River Flood-

way proposed acquisition:


1. The surface water system within the proposed acquisition site exhibits
primarily seasonally intermittent flows.

2. The river system within the proposed acquisition site consists of a
gradually sloping, ill-defined channel resulting in low velocity flows.

3. Due to on-site agricultural/silvicultural activities, the fact that only
approximately six percent of the proposed acquisition site is isolated
wetlands, and the high relative proportion of wetlands contiguous to the -
main channel, the natural stormwater retention of the proposed
acquisition site is limited and its natural stormwater detention -,
capability moderate.

4. While the proposed acquisition site exhibits the potential for water
quality enhancement, on-site agricultural and silvicultural uses have
limited this contribution.


5. The proposed acquisition site exhibits alternating discharge and
recharge of the Floridan Aquifer.

6. The proposed acquisition site exhibits the potential to provide a
potable groundwater supply.

7. Past and present land uses have reduced and limit the wildlife habitat
and natural character throughout large portions of the proposed
acquisition site.

8. Within those significant portions of the proposed acquisition site which
have been altered, remedial steps would be necessary to restore local
drainage patterns and retention/detention relationships.

9. District Management and Storage of Surface Waters (MSSW) and Stormwater
permitting programs regulate the impacts of development within the
proposed acquisition site. Due to the wet season high water table and
the sluggish drainage within the upland portions, it could be expected
that in order to develop within the proposed acquisition site, lowering
of the water table would be necessary. The degree of drainage allowed
would be reviewed under District permitting.

10. Significant water quality protection is afforded through the DER dredge
and fill and District-implemented stormwater permitting programs for
non-agricultural activities within the approximately thirty percent of
the proposed acquisition site within the landward extent of waters of
the state.

11. Acquisition of the proposed acquisition site would preclude further
impacts in the immediate vicinity of the Anclote River from activities
such as clearing of upland vegetation, minor internal drainage ditching,
and timber harvesting which are exempt from DER and SWFWMD regulatory



In full consideration of the conclusions reached from the Land Acquisition

Evaluation of the Anclote River Floodway, it is the opinion of the Land Use

Task Force that the proposed land acquisition in its present configuration

would not substantially meet the benefits set forth in the Save Our Rivers

Program. Therefore, the recommendation of the Land Use Task Force is that the

District should not enter into proceedings to acquire the properties as -

delineated in the Resource Evaluation of the Proposed Anclote River Floodway.

Further, it is the opinion of the Land Use Task Force that a detailed

consideration of expanding or contracting the delineation of the proposed

acquisition site is not warranted.





Barr, G. L. 1982. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-
central Florida. May, 1982. Open File Report 82-867 USGS.

Bridges, W. C. 1982. Technique for Estimating Magnitude and Frequency of
Floods on Natural-Flow streams in Florida. Water-Resource Investigations
82-4012. U.S. Geological Survey. Tallahassee, FL.

Carr, Jr., A. F. 1940. A Contribution to the herpetology of Florida. Univ.
Florida Publ., Biol. Sci. Ser., Vol. 3, No. 1, pp 1-118.

Carr, Jr., A. F. and C. J. Goin. 1955.. Guide to the Reptiles, Amphibians,
and Freshwater Fishes of Florida. Univ. Florida Press, Gainesville. 341

Coble, R. W., The Anclote and Pithlachascotee Rivers As Water Supply
Sources. 1973. U.S. Geological Survey. Tallahassee, FL.

Conant, R. 1975. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and
1 Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 429 pp.

Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals. 1978. in Rare
and Endangered Biota of Florida. (Series) C. H. Pritchard, editor.
University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

Florida Game and Fresh Water Commission. 1983. Endangered and Potentially
Endangered Fauna and Flora in Florida. D. A. Wood (compiler).
Tallahassee, FL. 11 pp.

Gilbert, C. R. 1977. Freshwater Fishes of Southwestern Peninsular Florida.
Appendix E in Layne et al. Fish and Wildlife Inventory of the Seven-
County Region included in the Central Florida Phosphate Industry Areawide
Environmental Impact Study. Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid,
FL. Volume 3.

Hutchinson, C. B. 1984. Hydrogeology of well-field areas near Tampa,
Florida, Phase 2. Water Resource Investigations Report 84-4002. USGS.

Jones, K. C. 1985. Aquifer characteristics within the Southwest Florida
Water Management District, SWFWMD, Brooksville, FL. Draft Report.

Kaufman, M. I. 1972. The Chemical Type of Water in Florida Streams -- Map
Series No. 51. USGS. Tallahassee, FL.

Layne, J. N., J. A. Stallcup, G. E. Woolfenden, M. N. McCauley, and D. J.
Worley. 1977. Fish and Wildlife Inventory of the Seven-County Region
included in the Central Florida Phosphate Industry Areawide Environmental
Impact Study. Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, FL. Volume 2,
635 pp.


Rochow, T. F., L. Bartos, and E. W. Schupp. 1976. Biological Assessment of
the J. B. Starkey Wilderness Park. Environmental Section Technical Report
1976-4. Southwest Florida Water Management District. Brooksville, FL.

Rochow, T. F., M. Lopez, P. M. Dooris, C. H. Hull, and W. D. Courser. 1979.
Biological Assessment of the J. B. Starkey Wilderness Park 1979
Update. Environmental Section Technical Report 1979-7. Southwest Florida -
Water Management District. Brooksville, FL. 115p.

Seaburn and Robertson, Inc., Tampa, FL. 1984. Hydrogeologic Evaluation of -
the Proposed Central Pasco Wellfield for Mr. S. C. Bexley, Jr.

Sprunt, A., Jr. 1954. Florida Bird Life. Coward-McCann, Inc., New York, and
the National Audubon Society. 536 pp. "

Stevenson, H. M. 1976. Vertebrates of Florida: Identification and
Distribution. University Presses of Florida. Gainesville, FL. 605 pp. -

U. S. Department of Agriculture. Soil Conservation Service. 1982. Soil
Survey of Pasco County, Florida. -

U.S. Department of the Interior. 1984. List of Endangered and Threatened
Wildlife and Plants. Federal Register. 49 40 73327335.

U.S. Geological Survey. 1985. Water Resources Data Florida, Water Year
1983. USGS. Tallahassee, FL.

U.S. Geological Survey. 1977-83. Water Resources Data Florida, Southwest
Florida Groundwater. Water years 1977-83. USGS. Tallahassee, FL.

University of Central Florida. Department of Civil Engineering and
Environmental Sciences. 1981. Stormwater Management Manual for
Department of Environmental Regulation. Tallahassee, FL.

Yobbi, D. K. and W M. Woodham. 1981. Ground-water levels in selected well
fields and in west-central Florida. May, 1981. Open File Report 81-
1106. USGS. ,*


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