Title: Four River Basins, Florida. Letter from The Secretary of the Army transmitting a letter from the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army, Dated Jul
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00052454/00001
 Material Information
Title: Four River Basins, Florida. Letter from The Secretary of the Army transmitting a letter from the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army, Dated Jul
Physical Description: Book
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00052454
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text
















(2) Peace Creek Canal.--A geologic section along the
proposed canal is shown on figure B-17. Excavation would be in loose tt
sand and silty sand. All spillway structures would be founded on ti
timber friction piles driven into the sand. cE

"(3) Saddle Creek Spillway.--Core boring FRB-81 (see
fig. B-17) is at the site of the proposed spillway on Saddle Creek.
The structure would be founded on fairly hard limestone. s:

t]
f. Coastal watersheds.--(l) Lake Tarpon area.--In the
area south of Lake Tarpon, about 17 feet of sand and stiff clay s
overlies an indurated clay bed about 15 feet thick. The indurated o
clay is underlain by hard calcareous sandstone. The outlet channel
would be cut through the softer materials into the indurated clay.
The control structure would be founded on the latter material.
No difficulty should be experienced in the construction of the pro-
posed facilities in that area. The foundation material has ample
bearing capacity for the structure loads and dewatering would not be a
problem. It is possible that some blasting of the indurated clay
would be required during excavation.

(2) Anclote River.=-Along Anclote River upstream from
Tarpon Springs, sand extends from the surface to a depth of about 20
feet. Below the sand is a layer of fat clay 8 to 12 feet thick.
Underlying the clay is fairly soft, porous limestone containing some
hard, dense beds. The channel excavation would be entirely in sand
and clay. At the control structure location, the top of the rock lies
a few feet below the highest possible foundation grade. The foundation
grade would be lowered to provide bearing on rock for the structure.
Dewatering would be difficult and expensive.

(3) Pithlachascotee River.--Channel excavation proposed
for that river would be entirely in sand.

g. Sites investigated but not recommended.--Several geologic
sections have been included in the figures which do not pertain to the
recommended plan of improvement. Sections through Lake Tsala Apopka,
along Pemberton Creek east of Tampa, and along the axes of proposed
dams on Charlie Creek and Horse Creek fall in that category. They
have been included in the interest of preserving all the geologic
information collected for the report in a single volume.

8. Sources of construction materials.--a. Concrete aggregate.--
There are numerous concrete sand producers in the Four River Basins. i
Some of the largest pits are in Lake Wales, Davenport, and Tavares--
all along the eastern margin of the area. Crushed rock for coarse
aggregate is produced in the Brooksville area, about 60 miles north of 1
Tampa. j

b. Cement.-PPortland r^pmpnfh icl ^^..-^ <-m^--






















16. Improvements desired by local interests.--a. General.--
.or The rapid rate of development in this portion of Florida has required
additional lands suitable for agricultural and urban use. It has also
1ted brought about an ever-increasing demand for flood relief and water-control
;ate measures. The desires of local interests with respect to flood control,
)rt. drainage, and water conservation were developed in public hearings.
There were also numerous consultations with the State Division of Water
nto Resources, with the consulting engineers hired by that agency, with
r I organized water conservation and water control districts, and with
county engineers and other interested local officials. In addition,
improvements desired were reflected in resolutions adopted by local
organizations.

gs. b. Southwest Florida Water Management District.--In 1961,
ke the Florida State Legislature created the Southwest Florida Water
n Management District and authorized it to act for local interests in
complying with the requirements on the subject investigation. The
Governor appointed members of the governing board in August 1961 and
organization has been underway for some time. Planning for the various
s | areas within the district was closely coordinated with the Governor's
a special administrative assistant and representatives of the district
s even before it was officially activated.
Ly
I c. Consultants' reports.--In order to advance the planning
for the area under consideration, the State engaged consultants to in-
vestigate and report on several of the more important water- and flood-
control problems. The Director of the Florida Department of Water Re-
I sources was coordinator of this program, administering the consultants'
S contracts and obtaining the completed reports. Material from several
/rol of the consultants' reports was presented at the public hearings in
November 1960. The reports which were available at that time, as well
as all other consultants' reports completed subsequently, have been
0 made a part of the transcripts and exhibits of the four public hear-
ars Ings. Table 6 lists all of the pertinent reports, together with a
key to location of each report in the public hearing records. Those
reports have been used to considerable advantage in studies for the
subject areas.



L
aent
a-


















Icipal and (c) maintain and operate all the works after completion in accord-
S-ance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army. For
areas major drainage projects, which provide, in addition to the flood-prevon-
"nefits tion benefits, benefits from increased use of lands otherwise naturally
from } subject to inundation for long periods because of poor drainage, policy
ystem has required that local interests should not only meet the usual local
ly, cooperation requirements for local flood control projects but should
Sit bear at least one-half of the construction cost of the portion of the
oughh cost of the project attributed to increased-land-use benefits. Where
the lands, easements, rights-of-way, and relocations provided by local
tage, interests do not equal at least one-half of the cost attributed to the
on increased-land-use benefit, a cash contribution has been required to
ntion make up the difference.
c diaf
bhat 38. In the Four River Basins the main problem is oor natur dain
i, age resulting in slow accumulation o floodwaters during long rainy peri-
os The reservoirs included in the plan of improvement act as substi-
e to tutes for or as a means of reducing the costs of channel enlargements
corn- designed primarily to produce drainage benefits. The dams would be low
dikes or levees with control structures for the slow release of flood-
waters. Releases would be made as water levels in downstream channels
to permit. The reservoirs, or conservation areas, would be permanent, shal-
j low swamps with water depths not greatly in excess of those occurring
under natural flood conditions. Because of the extensive area covered
by the Green Swamp Reservoir, and despite its shallow depth, stored water
would be available to afford significant relief during dry seasons. The
plan of improvement includes features providing for optional discharge of
floodwaters or dry-season flows down any of the four rivers. Under the
rt plan, operation and maintenance of all works has appropriately been
nd assigned to local interests as represented by the State cooperating
agency. Acquisition of necessary lands, land rights, and relocations
(except railroad bridges and approaches) has also been assigned to local
interests. Because ct- the major-drainage aspects of the plan and the large
increased-land-use benefits, a cash contribution should be required and is
computed by the formula in use for major drainage projects. The part of
the first cost of the Four River Basins plan attributable to increased-
land-use benefits is shared equally between the Federal Government and
local interests. Credit towards its share of the cost is allowed to
local interests for the value of lands and relocations attributable to
increased-land-use benefits.

39. In addition to land enhancement through major drainage, the
plan of improvement would provide large flood-damage-reduction benefits.
Under existing laws and policy, these benefits are classified as general
benefits. The construction cost of the project proportionate to these
benefits is borne by the Federal Government0















.





9. Conclusions.--Geologic conditions are generally favorable for
the construction of the proposed improvements. Dewatering of excava-
tions in the porous limestone areas would be expensive but not impracti-
cal. Foundation bearing capacities are satisfactory for all proposed
structures. Stable embankments could be constructed from available
materials. The effect of the project on the artesian water supply would
be minor and probably beneficial since no drainage of the existing arte-
sian high is proposed. Further investigation is required to determine
the need for and extent of measures necessary for long-term storage in
Green Swamp Reservoir. To the extent that water can be successfully
i stored in that reservoir, the losses of water from the system which now
S occur by surface flow from that area can be prevented.







.4
























THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY
TRANSMITTING
A LETTER FROM THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, DEPART-
MENT OF THE ARMY, DATED JULY 23, 1962, SUBMITTING
A REPORT, TOGETHER WITH ACCOMPANYING PAPERS
AND ILLUSTRATIONS, ON A COMPREHENSIVE REPORT
|ON THE FOUR RIVER BASINS, FLORIDA REQUESTED BY
RESOLUTION OF THE COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC WORKS,
UNITED STATES SENATE, ADOPTED MAY 12, 1950, AND
OTHER RESOLUTIONS OF THAT COMMITTEE AND OF
STHE COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC WORKS, HOUSE OF REPRE-
SENTATIVES, AND OF THE RIVER AND HARBOR AND
FLOOD CONTROL ACTS LISTED IN THE REPORT













SEPTEMBER 26, 1962.-Referred to the Committee on Public Works

and ordered to be printed with illustrations
OU.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

WASHINGTONRKS, 1962


S 335
i 35











II






COMMENTS OF THE GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA


STATE OF FLORIDA
OFFICE Or THE OOVCRNOR
TALLAHASiSEE




Lt. General W. K. Wilson, Jr. I
Chief of Engineers
Department of the Army
Washington 25, D. C.

Dear General Wilson:
I wish to acknowledge receipt of your letter of March 15th
accompanying your report. and those of the Board of Engineers
for Rivers and Harbors, and the comprehensive report of the
District and Division Engineers on the Four River-Basins,
Florida.
I have reviewed your comments and those of the previous reports
noted above which are in general agreement with your findings.

I wish to call to your attention, and through you to the atten-
tion of'the Congress of the United States, that prior to the'
completion of your report the Legislature of the State of Florida
Water Management District. This agency has been authorized and
empowered to provide the necessary local cooperation and to
contribute the required funds as set forth in"the report of the
Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors and concurred in by
your proposed report. The Board of Governors of the Southwest
Florida Water Management District has adopted a tentative budget
fQr the coming fiscal year which will enable it to carry out its
share of this cooperative undertaking whenever it shall be
authorized and the federal share funded by the Congress of the
United States.
The floods of 1960, the results of which are described in the
District Engineer's report, and the subsequent severe drought
of 1961-62, have given emphasis to the urgency of this proposed
undertaking. Not only are existing properties subject to damage
by floods, and by the shortage of water during droughts, but also
the economic growth of under-developed areas is being retarded,

I wish to urge you to expedite your report to the Congress in
order that this worthy arnid t mac he rvt 1epor of ?rhe


















The local cash contribution of $8,934,600 shown in-the above table is
equal to 1 percent (to the nearest whole number) of the sum of the con-
tract price and supervision and administration cost thereof ($6h,560,100)
The procedure of extracting a percentage of the above sum is convenient in
cost assessment on individual contracts and is the procedure now in use on
the adjacent Central and Southern Florida Project.

41. Proposed local cooperation.--In summary of the preceding discus-
sion, the proposed requirements of local cooperation are stated as follows:
Local interests would:
a. Furnish all lands, easements, and rights-of-way required for
Project construction and its future maintenance, without cost to the
4,United States. The degree of land control furnished shall be related to
the project works or functions thereof and shall be in accordance with
requirements prescribed by the Secretary of the Army. In the case of all
canals, reservoir outlets, floodways, and natural streams on which up-
stream project works are provided, the necessary floodway should be pre-
served or the rights thereon secured to permit discharges which would not
cause significant damages under present conditions of development.

b. Provide without cost to the United States all necessary
alterations or replacements to both public and private utilities, facil-
ities, appurtenances, roads, bridges, and other such works, excepting
railroad bridges and approaches, as may be required incident to project
construction.
c. Hold and save the United States free from damages that may
result from construction or future operation of project works.
d. Maintain and operate all project works after their comple-
tion at no cost to the Federal Government and in a manner satisfactory
to the Secretary of the Army.

e. With appropriate jurisdiction, construct and thereafter
maintain such associated works as are necessary to realize the bene-
fits made available by the project works described in this report,
such associated works being now estimated to cost $2,919,000.

f. Contribute in cash 14 percent of the sum of the contract
price of construction of project works (including railroad reloca-
tions) and supervision and administration costs for each contract
(a total amount now estimated at $8,934,600 for the recommended proj-
ect) prior to initiation of construction of the works included in each
contract.*















o ,' t
iJ


U. S. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, JACKSONVILLE
OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT ENGINEER
CORPS OF ENGINEERS
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA
SAKWM 14 August 1961


Regional Engineer
U. S. Bureau of Public Roads
50 Seventh Street NE
Atlanta, Georgia


Dear Sir:

Tentative multiple purpose reservoir sites being considered under
the Four-River Basins survey report were discussed in the coordination
conference held in our office on 6 June 1961 at which your agency was
represented by Mr. Schneible. Eleven potential sites have now been
selected for further study.

These reservoirs are designated under river basins as follows:

Hillsborough River Withlacoochee River

Upper Hillsborough Reservoir Green Swamp Reservoir
Blackwater Creek Reservoir Withlacoochee Reservoir
Big Cypress Reservoir Little Withlacoochee Reservoir
Lower Hillsborough Reservoir Jumper Creek Reservoir

Pithlachascotee River Peace River

Squirrel Prairie Reservoir Horse Creek Reservoir
Charlie Creek Reservoir
Levees and structures which will create and control the reservoirs
are shown in red on the inclosed maps. Reservoir areas, as defined by
[maximum flood$control pool elevations currently being considered, are
shown in blue.

In order to expedite completion and review of the report on the
Four River Basins, it would be appreciated if you could furnish us any
available information on the effect those reservoirs may have on















o ,' t
iJ


U. S. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, JACKSONVILLE
OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT ENGINEER
CORPS OF ENGINEERS
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA
SAKWM 14 August 1961


Regional Engineer
U. S. Bureau of Public Roads
50 Seventh Street NE
Atlanta, Georgia


Dear Sir:

Tentative multiple purpose reservoir sites being considered under
the Four-River Basins survey report were discussed in the coordination
conference held in our office on 6 June 1961 at which your agency was
represented by Mr. Schneible. Eleven potential sites have now been
selected for further study.

These reservoirs are designated under river basins as follows:

Hillsborough River Withlacoochee River

Upper Hillsborough Reservoir Green Swamp Reservoir
Blackwater Creek Reservoir Withlacoochee Reservoir
Big Cypress Reservoir Little Withlacoochee Reservoir
Lower Hillsborough Reservoir Jumper Creek Reservoir

Pithlachascotee River Peace River

Squirrel Prairie Reservoir Horse Creek Reservoir
Charlie Creek Reservoir
Levees and structures which will create and control the reservoirs
are shown in red on the inclosed maps. Reservoir areas, as defined by
[maximum flood$control pool elevations currently being considered, are
shown in blue.

In order to expedite completion and review of the report on the
Four River Basins, it would be appreciated if you could furnish us any
available information on the effect those reservoirs may have on



















Therefore, the Bureau considers that action should be taken now to
insure the incorporation of all feasible fish and wildlife features
into project planning to help preserve a portion of the remaining
natural areas and their wildlife resources for enjoyment of future
generations.


RESERVOIR SITES

The twelve proposed reservoir sites vary considerably in size and
basin configuration but are noticeably similar in existing native
habitat and game populations. Several criteria used by the Corps
dictatedplacement of these sites in comparatively remote, unpopu-
lated areas. These, in general, are wooded swamps, with scattered
tracts of marsh, prairie, and pine flatwoods. Timber resources have
been extensively cut and only second growth trees remain. Owing to
their relative remoteness, these sites are havens for wildlife from
the ever compressing surge of land development. Under present Corps
planning, the Little Withlacoochee, Withlacoochee River, Upper Hills-
borough River, Lower Hillsborough River, Blackwater Creek, and Squirrel
Prairie Reservoirs would be regulated on a detention principle, whereby
flood waters would be temporarily impounded for short periods of up
to three weeks and gradually released to limit downstream flooding.
IUder this principle of regulation, timber resources would not be
appreciably damaged, thus preserving these valuable wildlife areas.
An-exception to this principle is that some water would be stored in
the Withlacoochee River and Upper Hillsborough River Reservoirs during
dry periods for purposes of interbasin diversion.

Regulation schedules for Green Swamp, Southeast Green Swamp, Jumper
Creek, Big Cypress, Horse Creek, and Charlie Creek Reservoirs include
permanent storage for municipal water supply and water conservation.
This storage will effect loss of large areas of wooded wildlife habitat.
Timber above the permanent pool should be preserved by releasing flood
storage as soon as possible.

A tailwater fishery would be created at most reservoir outlets. Major
factors governing fisherman usage of these tailwaters are size of
associated channel, quality of stream and reservoir aquatic habitat,
volume of downstream water releases, and public access. In case of
the detention type reservoir, the tailwater will be often the most
utilized fishing area. Therefore, it is important -that due considera-
tion be given to development and management of and access to these
valuable areas.

An estimate of annual project effects for reservoirs is shown in Table 1.




















XI. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

S6. Discussion.--Problems of flood control, drainage, and the uses
and conservation of water are varied and complex in the Four River Basins
area. They range from urban flood protection for several populous sec-
tions, including metropolitan Tampa, to protection of farmlands, increased
production for poorly drained areas, and storage of conservation water for
recreational and wildlife purposes. The active area of influence of the
plan of improvement here presented covers about 6,000 square miles--the
area having specific problems of an acute nature requiring early correc-
tion. If that area is to progress so as to meet the expanding population
requirements, the works of a coordinated flood control and water-use plan
are essential both to prevent flood damages and to make lands avail-
able to support the increasing uses without undue peril to safety and
property. The plan here presented is an interrelated one giving atten-
tion to all problems of water control and use. It is capable of accommo-
dating the runoff tobe reasonably expected from the area up to the eco-
nomic optimum degree, either by conservation storage in the area or by
improved channels for the removal of excess amounts. The plan includes
multiple features to permit flexibility of operation to best advantage;
it is also sufficiently adjustable to permit incorporation of changes
made desirable by varying future needs. It is considered to be a practi-
cable plan capable of providing for present and foreseeable needs over
the life of the project.

Not all problems of the entire Four River Basins area would
Sbe solved by the proposed plan of improvement, but all that are now
apparent and susceptible to alleviation by means having economic justifi-
cation have been included. In the field of water supply, the possibility
of future needs for that purpose has been carefully reviewed. While no
benefits are claimed for public water supply, the future requirements
have not been overlooked. Extensive investigations show tha- the
affected local interests in regions of possible future shortages--such
as the Tampa area, lower Peace River Basin and environs, and the Tarpon
Springs area--all feel that present supplies are adequate. They express
little interest in making further investments for increasing their known
sources now or in the foreseeable future. While the plan makes no such
provisions, there is the potential for increasing public water supplies
by reallocation of storage, increased storage volumes, and development
of remaining reservoir sites (particularly in the lower Peace River
Basin). The flexibility of the present plan would accommodate future
water-supply needs if and when they should arise. It might also be
necessary to augment the plan in the future to respond to other chang-
ing needs that cannot now be foreseen. If that should be the case,
additional works could be investigated by the survey-report procedure
to see if compatible extensions should be added to the project.

The plan of improvement here presented is predicated on the
authorized Cross-Florida Barge Canal's being constructed at an early



















Therefore, the Bureau considers that action should be taken now to
insure the incorporation of all feasible fish and wildlife features
into project planning to help preserve a portion of the remaining
natural areas and their wildlife resources for enjoyment of future
generations.


RESERVOIR SITES

The twelve proposed reservoir sites vary considerably in size and
basin configuration but are noticeably similar in existing native
habitat and game populations. Several criteria used by the Corps
dictatedplacement of these sites in comparatively remote, unpopu-
lated areas. These, in general, are wooded swamps, with scattered
tracts of marsh, prairie, and pine flatwoods. Timber resources have
been extensively cut and only second growth trees remain. Owing to
their relative remoteness, these sites are havens for wildlife from
the ever compressing surge of land development. Under present Corps
planning, the Little Withlacoochee, Withlacoochee River, Upper Hills-
borough River, Lower Hillsborough River, Blackwater Creek, and Squirrel
Prairie Reservoirs would be regulated on a detention principle, whereby
flood waters would be temporarily impounded for short periods of up
to three weeks and gradually released to limit downstream flooding.
IUder this principle of regulation, timber resources would not be
appreciably damaged, thus preserving these valuable wildlife areas.
An-exception to this principle is that some water would be stored in
the Withlacoochee River and Upper Hillsborough River Reservoirs during
dry periods for purposes of interbasin diversion.

Regulation schedules for Green Swamp, Southeast Green Swamp, Jumper
Creek, Big Cypress, Horse Creek, and Charlie Creek Reservoirs include
permanent storage for municipal water supply and water conservation.
This storage will effect loss of large areas of wooded wildlife habitat.
Timber above the permanent pool should be preserved by releasing flood
storage as soon as possible.

A tailwater fishery would be created at most reservoir outlets. Major
factors governing fisherman usage of these tailwaters are size of
associated channel, quality of stream and reservoir aquatic habitat,
volume of downstream water releases, and public access. In case of
the detention type reservoir, the tailwater will be often the most
utilized fishing area. Therefore, it is important -that due considera-
tion be given to development and management of and access to these
valuable areas.

An estimate of annual project effects for reservoirs is shown in Table 1.





o '1 **; '. *





J LETTER T TTHE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE

HEADQUARTERS
Si i I DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

1 'OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS
:X WASHINGTON 25, D.C.
SIN RIPLY REFERl TO

SENGCW-PD 11 July 1962




Mr. Gordon E. McCallum
Chief, Division of Water Supply
and Pollution Control
Public Health Service
Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare



Dear Mr. YcCallum:

Reference is made to the recent letter from Mr. Keith S. Krause,
Chief, Technical Services Branch, commenting on the reports of the
Chief of Engineers on Four River Basins, Florida.

We appreciate and share your concern for conditions which con-
tribute to pollution in Peace River Basin, and we agree that further
study and continuing surveillance of industrial effluents and control
of contaminants is warranted. Early recognition of the need for con-
trol of pollution and augmentation of water supplies is necessary to
meet the effects of population growth and development in the entire
area.

The proposed facilities recommended in the report of the Chief of
Engineers on Four River Basins are intended to serve multiple purpose
, functions to the optimum degree. Reservoir storage capacity will be
Y developed sufficiently to permit flexible operation of interrelated
systems. This flexibility and changing future needs or 1e area pre-
clude specific allocation at this time of storage capacities to serve
the purposes of flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife conserva-
-tion and water supply augmentation. However, the proposed storage in
the plan and storage at additional potential reservoir sites would be
S adapted to meet the needs. The present report is not intended to be
SIfully inclusive of all matters, but rather form a basic broad framework
S. on which to plan for the future. Consideration of water storage alloca-
Stion and other pertinent matters will be coordinated with the Public
Health Service and other interested State and Federal agencies after the
i project is authorized and more detailed studies are undertaken.

X II










"L^ep /^OCALA ^




: ^1^^ )^ '


SUT LAE. MOSS -: s _
::.^ BR O SI LBL ,FF



Vlook"Ift C- % rs I<
SARYKTOSA A
'N ",lHxC \ LLK
~p "" CA NA E I









"/P; NA SLFFEEA
19 HARRY<

ST PETERSURG PE























SM. CCREEKEEK
AAKE
BROOKSVILLE



MASARYKTOWN
SA R YK ro WNL TTL I
ANAL PEL A C Eo
CREWS R R /G C












































1. A ,+, .- ^.
4LRKE APR/
-d tj Z-SER7 b CA NvA
P/rH.ACHASC:T- I R C NAILE

C ERELt CARN.CN
ESS UP UPPER
H IL SBOROI 0/VERSCION
L.-rE CA NA L



















: -rVR
~"~::.i;. ~i-~-"~Sc- ~j~"CrHr~oOS ~ SS '









i .








FOUR RIVER BASINS, FLORIDA


REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

HEADQUARTERS
S^ I DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
sI I OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS
i WASHINGTON 25, D.C.
IN REPLY REFER TO :
| ENGCW-PD 23 July 1962

SUBJECT: Four River Basins, Florida



TO: THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY


1. I submit for transmission to Congress the report of
the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors on Four River
{ Basins, Florida, accompanied by the reports of the District
and Division Engineers in response to nine resolutions of the
Committees on Public Works of the United States Senate and
House of Representatives requesting reviews of prior reports,
and in response to two items in Acts of Congress requesting
surveys. The authorizations are quoted in Appendix E to the
I jp^ report of the District Engineer. The authorities cover all or
I part of four main stream basins--the Hillsborough, Oklawaha,
Withlacoochee, and Peace Rivers--and all of three smaller
SI coastal basins north of Tampa drained by the Pithlachascotee and
SAnclote Rivers, and Lake Tarpon. The authorizations request a _
determination of the advisability of improvements as follows:
Hillsborough River basin for flood control and other purposes,
l ^ particularly at and in the vicinity of Tampa; Oklawaha River
basin for flood control, navigation, and related purposes, par-
ticularly facilities for recreational boating; Withlacoochee
River basin for navigation in the lower reach of the stream, and
Siaimprovements to Little Withlacoochee River in Sumter County;
J Peace River basin for navigation, flood control, land reclamation,
water conservation, pollution abatement and allied purposes;
j Pithlachascotee and Anclote River basins for flood control and
? allied purposes; and Lake Tarpon basin for flood control and pre-
vention of salt water intrusion into the lake. The report presents
an integrated-plan of improvement which is now economically feasi-
ble and practicable of accomplishment.

2. The District and Division Engineers recommend works for
flood control and drainage, and for water conservation, consisting
of reservoirs, channels, levees, and water-control structures for
lakes and channels. The total first cost of the work is estimated
at $99,780,000. The total cost of construction work to be under-

















ral 6. Investigations performed.--All available publications on
S- the geology of the area covered by the project were studied.
Geologic reconnaissance was made of all proposed reservoir sites
and channel alinements. About 160 re borings were made to investi-

horn soft rock were sampled wi'h a 2-inchinside-diameter drive sampler.
Oes Rock which was too hard to drive was cored with NX diamond bits.
StResults of brings made by the State Road Department were also
Obtained and studied.

St 7. Geology of individual rite es.--a. Hillsborough River watershnd.--
P (1) Genroeral.--The major items of the plan of improvement for the Hills-
ered borough River Basin include five reservoirs, enlargement of lower Hills-
"" borough River, a main bypass channel around Tampa, and a supplementary
eP d bypass via Flint Creek and Lake Thonotosassa. Core borings were made
red at all bridge crossings on Hillsborough River and along the bypass
channel alinements. Other borings were made along the alinements of
the proposed dams.
out
5r s (2) Lower Hillsborough River.--The channel of Hillsborough
River would be enlarged in the reach downstream from the existing City
Water Works Dam. A geologic section which includes that reach is shownm
he on figure B-3. All the channel, enlargement would be excavated in hard
limestone containing lenses of calcareous silt and clay.

(3) Tampa Bypass.--The Tampa Bypass Channel would connect
the Lower Hillsborough Reservoir with McKay Bay by the route now followed
by Cow-House Canal, Six Mile Creek, and Palm River. A geologic section
along the proposed alinement is shown on figures B-l and B-2. Channel
excavation would be through sand and soft clay except between stations
175+00 and 275400 as stations 510+00 and 570+00 where large quantities
of hard limestone would be encountered. Both control structures would
be founded on limestone. Because of the porous nature of the rock,
dewatering of the structure excavations would be difficult. Sheet-
pile cofferdams and tremie concrete seals would probably be required
for successful dewatering. a

(4) Lake Thonotosassa Diversion.--A geologic section
along the proposed La.ke Thcnotosassa Diversion Canal is shown on figure
B-6. No rock excavation would be necessary along the canal. Materials
to be excavated would be sand, clayey sand, and clay. At the two struc-
ture sites, the foundation elevation is in clayey sand. Both structures
would be founded on end-bearing piles driven into the soft limestone
which lies about 20 feet below foundation grade.

(5) Upper Hillsborough Basin.--The dam across upper
Hillsborough River would be an earth fill about 3 miles long and generally
less than 10 feet high. Its foundation would be composed of a layer of
sand 3 to 5 feet thick overlying fairly stiff lean clay. The clay bed
is 10 to 25 feet thick and is underlain by soft, porous Ocala limestone.

















REPORT OF THE DISTRICT ENGINEER


SYLLABUS


The Four River Easins area which is affected by this
report covers s 6e 0 6,000 sq.irt miles within 15 countie_ in
central and southwest, peninsular Florida. It includes the
drainage basins cr portions thereof cf four major streams--
Hillsborough, Oklawaha, Withiaccochee, and Peace Rivers, and
three minor west coast watersheds--Pithlachascotee River,
Anclote River, and Lake Tarpon. Local interests have re-
quested that the United States provide flood- and water-
control works throughout the area to provide an interrelated
and comprehensive system sufficient to prevent recurrence of
disastrous flooding such as occurred in 1960.

The proposed plan--which consists primarily of stream
improvements and a system of canals reservoirs, and auxil-
i ar water-control structures -s desi ed to royv -
i ec ion to aric tur areas rm a fcod having anaYverasp.
frequency of occurrence Df once in years Larger floods
would also thereby be reduced in magnitude and duration.
S Works in the Hillsborough River Basin, including the Tampa
Bypass, would be designed to safely pass the standard project
flood (about 1 in 200=year frequency) to give adequate pro-
tection to the concentrated urban development at Tampa.

The District Engineer finds that large benefits would
accrue to such a plan in prevention of flood damages. and in
enabling higher and tcre extensive use of areas now subject
to flooding. He finds that all principal area divisions of
the proposed works of improvement, with the exception of the
lower Peace River, show economic justification. He finds
considerable benefits attributable to collateral uses such as
navigation and recreation; conservation of wildlife, water,
and soil resources; and improvement of ground-water levels.
The estimated benefit-cost ratio for the comprehensive plan
is 1.5.

Accordingly, the District Engineer recommends that the
plan for flood control and other purposes, as proposed in
this report, be adopted subject to the stated provisions of
local cooperation.


















The spillway would be located in the existing streambed and would be er
founded on the limestone. A geologic section along the dam aline- T-r
ment is shown on figure B-10. The reservoir would be connected to pc
SWithlacoochee River by a channel about 5 miles long which would be
< excavated in sand and soft clay. Geology along the channel aline-
ment is shown on the portion of figure B-5 between borings FRB-35B 2
and FRB-37. A spillway on Withlacoochee River would complete the fE
"- Upper Hillsborough Reservoir works. That spillway would be located 11
Near boring FRB-47 (fig. B-20). The foundation base would be in fc
loose sand and the structure would be founded on end-bearing piles ir
driven into soft limestone about 35 feet below foundation grade. ii

(6) Blackwater Creek Reservoir.--Blackwater Creek
dam would be an earth fill more than b miles long but less than 25 t:
feet high. A geologic section along the axis is shown on figure B-12. |
Sand extends from the surface to a depth of about 5 feet throughout r
the area. Underlying the sand is a stiff sandy clay varying in thick-
ness from 5 feet, south of the stream, to 20 feet at the north abut-
ment. Beneath the overburden is soft, porous limestone with a few
thin, hard beds. The spillway would be placed in the stream channel
and would be founded on the limestone. Dewatering for the structure
would be difficult and leakage along the spillway after construction oj
would be large. No special treatment to prevent or minimize the oj
seepage would be provided since it is not intended to hold a permanent
"pool in the reservoir, r.

(7) Lower Hillsborough Reservoir.--Lower Hillsborough o
dam would be an earth embankment about 5 miles long and generally about s
15 feet high. The concrete spillway structure would be located in
the stream channel. A geologic section along the axis of the dam is
shown on figure B-9. Depth of overburden varies from about 25 feet P
near the ends of the dam to about 35 feet under the spillway. North t
of the spillway the overburden is practically all sand. South of
the spillway the sand is much thinner and is underlain by lean clay c
from 5 to 15 feet thick. The rock at this site, in the area south C
of the river, is hard, cavernous limestone containing beds of dense,
glassy chert. North of the river, the rock is softer and only a few
feet thick. In that area, fat clay was encountered below the rock.
There are large, deep sinkholes both upstream and downstream from
the axis. Leakage under the dam would probably be large. Since i
there is to be no permanent impoundment of water, grouting or other
measures to prevent underseepage would not be provided unless further
study indicates the necessity for such measures to prevent possible
failure of the dam.

(8) Big Cypress Reservoir.--A geologic section along
t: he axis of the proposed Big Cypress dam is shown on figure B-11. The
main embankment would be about 5 miles long and 20 to 25 feet high.
The tieback section would be about 3 miles long and 5 to 10 feet high.
Along the central portion of the main embankment, sand, silty sand,
and clayey sand were found for the full depth of the boring. Near the
















i rock is typical Florida limestone varying in thickness and in degree
of porosity frcm very small openings to large solution channels
offering little resistance to flow. The major high of the piezometric
s surface practically coincides with the topographic high and is located
near Folk City in the Green Swamp area. Elevation of the piezometric
high ranges from 120 to 130 feet. Under existing conditions of develop-
ment and use, it appears that normal rainfall is adequate to provide
the recharge required for stable levels. There is substantial under-
ground movement of the water but flow patterns and quantities are in-
determinate. Ground-water and lake records which would permit analysis
are limited. The rise and prolongation of water levels in many areas
long after rainfall and direct storm runoff have ceased attest to the
movement of considerable underground flow. The existence of numerous
springs==varying in size from mammoth, first-magnitude springs like
Silver Springs to seeps which appear in stream banks during periods
of low flow--indicates that some of the ground water reaches the
surface to augment stream discharge. Other major springs in the four-
basin area are Rainbow Springs near Dunnellon and Crystal Springs near
Zephyrhills. It is probable that first-magnitude springs located in
contiguous areas, such as Silver Glen Springs and Homosassa Springs,
ultimately receive ground water originating in the four-basin area.
Based on analysis of the existing streamflow records, however, it
appears that ground water is not too great a factor during extreme
flood conditions. Additional discussion on ground-water hydrology is
contained in appendix A.

/ 8. Floods of record.--a. General.--The most severe floods in
the area are associated with storms, or sequences of storms, which
produce widespread distribution of rainfall for several days' duration.
Such rainfalls may occur at any time of the year but are most frequent
during the normal summer rainy season. The region is also subject to
occurrence of tropical hurricanes during the rainy season. Prolonged
rainfall combined with inadequate drainage and limited outlet capacities
results in flood damages from moderate or major floods almost yearly in
one or more of the basins. Until recently flood damages were primarily
agricultural, but with the rapid urban expansion of the last few years
damages to urban development have increased substantially. .There are
-_nostreamflow records available prior to 1930. Damaging floods have
been experienced in the area practically every year and about seven
Major floods have occurred since 1915. Discussion of several of the
severest floods which occurred since 1930 is presented in the following
paragraphs.

b. Flood of 1933 was caused by intense rainfall associated
with the tropical hurricane of September 4 which passed across central
Florida northwesterly from the Atlantic Ocean. The storm center passed
over headwater areas of the Four River Basins and caused heavy rains
over most of the area tributary to the Gulf of Mexico. Many stations
recorded 10 to 14 inches of rainfall in 36 hours. Extensive damage was
sustained, particularly to citrus and transportation facilities. Urban
damage was severe in the Tampa suburb of Sulphur Springs following


| 32




















ends of the fill the sand is interbedded and underlain with soft clay.
The spillway structure would.be founded on compact sand at the low
point in the valley.
i !










(9) Squirrel Prairie Reservoir.--Only one boring was
made ath the Squirrel Prairie site. That boring shows sand at the ur-l
face underlain by firm silt and stiff clay. Rock, a soft porous
limestone, was reached at 37 feet. The spillway structure would be
founded on the firm silt. The cost of piling to rock has been included
in the estimates but it is probable that the piling could be eliminated
if detailed explorations confirm the result of the first boring.

b. Green Swamp area.--(l) General.--Two reservoirs and
three diversion canals are proposed in the Green Swamp area. Borings
were made along the alinements of the proposed boundary levees for the
reservoirs and along the proposed canal alinements. Locations of the
borings along the levees are shown on figure B-13.

(2) Green Swamp Reservoir.--Figure B-14 is a geologic
section along the alinement of the levees which would bound the Green
Swamp Reservoir. Along the west boundary levee (L-l) a surface layer
of sand less than 5 feet thick was found, underlain by 10 to 15 feet
of soft clay. Below the clay is a soft, porous limestone containing
many cavities. Near the north end of the west levee the top of the
rock slopes abruptly to a depth more than 40 feet below the surface.
Along the north boundary levee the surface sand thickness increases to
over 15 feet. It is underlain by interbedded clayey sand and clean
sand to a depth of about 30 feet. From that level, very soft clay
and loose sand extend to the top of the rock about 45 to 55 feet below
the surface. The west spillway for the reservoir would be founded on
porous limestone. A tremie seal would probably be used in dewatering
the excavation. Leakage through the porous limestone would probably
be rather large and it is doubtful that much reduction in seepage
could be accomplished by grouting. The south spillway would be founded
on timber piles driven to the rock. The levee embankment would be
generally 15 to 20 feet high and over 20 miles long. The embankment
would be zoned, having an upstream impervious section and a downstream
pervious section.

(3) Little Withlacoochee Reservoir.--Figure B-15 is a
geologic section along the boundary levee of the proposed Little With-
lacoochee Reservoir. Rock lies within 10 feet of the surface along
the central portion of the alinement and slopes to a depth of 50 feet
below the surface at both ends of the levee. The overburden is loose
sand and clayey sand except at the north end of the alinement where
a layer of soft clay about 15 feet thick was found immediately above
| the rock. The rock is soft and porous and leakage from the reservoir
would probably be great. The embankment would be about 10 miles long
and generally about 10 feet high. The spillway would be founded on
the porous limestone. A tremie seal would be used to aid dewatering.





S.... '. -^', ~^"^ I-..^.,~,^,tfr'; ; -.. ..













failure of the Tampa Electric Company dam on Hillsborough River. Sudden
release of the stored waters washed out bridges and overflowed banks in
the lower river reaches and the river was out of its banks for about
5 weeks. Much of the overall area experienced maximum stages and dis-
charges of record, with estimated frequencies of occurrence greater
than once in 50 years. At 40th Street bridge in Tampa, a discharge
of 16,500 cubic feet a second was measured near the flood crest. A
peak stage of 25.9 feet was recorded at Arcadia on Peace River, with
a corresponding discharge of 36,200 cubic feet a second.

c. Floods of 1959 and 1960.--Three major area-wide floods
during 1959 and 960 caused unprecedented damage in the Four River
Basins. Additional damaging floods during the same period affected
individual elements of the study area. Maximum rainfalls of record
were observed at many stations during both years. As a result, ground-
vater levels, lakes, ponds, and streams in the problem areas were ab-
normally high prior to the most intense rainfall events. The major
floods are discussed chronologically below.

(1) March 1959 was the fourth successive month during
which rainfall was substantially above average over most of Florida.
During the third week of March a sequence of frontal-type storms
produced 6 to 8 inches of rainfall which caused almost all streams and
lakes in the study area to rise rapidly to or above flood levels. In-
adequate main-stem discharge capacities prevented tributary drainage
systems from functioning properly and the resultant flood inundated
over 600,000 acres--for 1 to 2 weeks over most of the area and for up
to 2 months in the Oklawaha River Basin. Estimated damages to agri-
cultural and urban lands were more than $4,000,000. Estimated fre-
quency of occurrence for the overall area is about once in 10 years.

(2) Flood of March 1960.--From March 15 to 18 a station-
ary front lay across north-central Florida. Overrunning warm moist
air coupled with eastward movement of low-pressure waves along the
front caused thunderstorms and heavy rainfall averaging more than
S10 inches over a 10,000-square-mile area in central Florida. Most
intense rains occurred in the area between Tampa and Brooksville
where unofficial reports indicate over 27 inches of rain fell during
the 4-day period. Although runoff was severe because of wet antecedent -
conditions, observed stages and discharges did not usually establish
new peaks at stations with long periods of record but the maximums
were approached in many instances. However, the resultant flooding
was widespread and damages were of record proportions. About 1 million
acres were inundated--almost 25 percent of the total watershed areas
under consideration. Flood durations ranged from 1 to 3 weeks in most
Areas to 2 months or more in the Oklawaha and Withlacoochee River Basins.
Fot the overall Four River Basins area, estimated physical damages to
residential and agricultural lands and to transportation facilities
were about $14 million. Estimated average frequency of occurrence of
this flood on the overall area is about once in 25 years.





















(4) Lowery Canal (C-l). -Lowery Canal would extend about
23 miles from Lake Henry north to Green Swamp Reservoir. Figure B-16
is a geologic section along the proposed alinement. Materials to be
excavated would be sand and silty sand, with some clay. No rock excava-
tion would be involved. Five control structures are proposed along
the canal and all would be founded on friction piles.

(5) Big Creek Upper Diversion Canal (C-3).--Big Creek
Upper Diversion Canal would be excavated through compact sand with
layers of stiff, sandy clay. The spillway structure would be founded
on compact sand. Although the cost estimate for the structure includes
the cost of piling, it is probable that the spillway could be placed
directly on the sand.

(6) Big Creek Lower Diversion Canal (C-2).--That canal
would be cut through sand containing varying amounts of silt and clay.
The spillway would be on loose silty sand. Timber friction piles
would be used under the structure.

c. Withlacoochee River Basin.-(l) General.--Proposed im-
provements on Withlacoochee River are limited to a reservoir in
Jumper Creek Swamp, a channel from Lake Panasoffkee to the river,
an inlet structure from the river to the south end of Lake Tsala
Apopka, and a channel and spillway at the north end of Lake Tsala Apopka.
At the time when subsurface explorations for this report were performed,
the possibility of more extensive improvement of Withlacoochee River
Basin 'existed. Borings were made at every road crossing on the river a
upstream of Dunnellon. Figure B.20 is a geologic section along Withla-
coochee River based on those borings. |

(2) Jumper Creek Reservoir.--The main dam at Jumper f
Creek would be an earth fill about 5 miles long and 15 to 20 feet high. f
Borings FRB-57 and FRB-71 (fig. B-20) are along the dam alinement. Rock
lies less than 10 feet below the surface. Overburden consists of 3 to
5 feet of sand underlain along part of the alinement by soft clay. The
rock is soft, porous limestone, probably Ocala. The spillway would be
placed in the river chani'el and would be founded on limestone. De-
watering for the structure would be difficult and leakage from the I
reservoir would be large. F

(3) Lake Tsala Apopka outlet.--The proposed outlet from L
Lake Tsala Apopka to Withlacoochee River would enter the river between r
borings FRB-59 and FRB-58A (fig. B-20). The spillway structure would a
be founded on rock and most of the channel excavation would be in sand.

(4) Lake Panasoffkee outlet.--Core boring FRB-57 (fig. B-20) p
is near the proposed Lake Panasoffkee outlet. That boring indicates e
that most of the excavation would be in sand but the bottom of the cut a
may be in fairly soft rock. The spillway structure would be founded on
Ocala limestone.


















(3) September 1960 flood.--The summer of 1960 was one
Sof the wettest of record in peninsular Florida. The 10-week (July 21 ar
to September 30) rainfall amounts for the study area varied from 25 La:
j1 to 45 inches. The most intense and widespread rainfall was associated al
with hurricane "Donna" which passed over central Florida on September 1,
10 and 11. Most of the major streams and tributaries in the Four River re:
Basins were again subjected to disastrous flooding--the third or fourth se
occurrence within 18 months. In Peace River Basin, peak stages and ri
discharges were higher than those from the March 1960 flood, and in as
many other areas stages and discharges approached or equaled those of
the March flood, particularly in the headwater areas of the major 2,
rivers. About 700,000 acres were inundated and estimated physical
Damages to urban and agricultural lands, transportation facilities, fa
and utilities amounted to over $11 million. Estimated overall frequency us
of occurrence is estimated to be about once in 15 years. th

9. Standard project flood for watershed areas was derived by co
application of the daily rainfall-excess values of the standard project to
storm to inflow unit hydrographs for the contributing area. Rainfall th
distribution was developed by adjusting observed rainfall during a de
year of exceptionally heavy rainfall so that the depth-duration curve th
approximated that of the theoretical standard project storm. Esti- st
mated base or ground-water flow was added to the direct runoff values ad
to produce the total hydrograph. Standard project storm rainfall depths st
were established at 125 percent of the 100-year-frequency rainfall na
values, in accordance with established criteria. The frequency of the fu
standard project storm and the standard project flood--considered to be di
the most severe flood reasonably likely to occur--is estimated to be in C
excess of 200 years. Standard project flood estimates are given in
appendix A.
*I on
10. Maximum probable flood was developed to test the safety rc
I of major reservoirs located near or protecting highly urbanized areas f
and to insure against their failure, because of the danger to human or
life. The maximum probable flood was considered to be double the mag- ^
nitude of the standard project flood. a:

11. Design flood is usually determined from consideration of' c
several alternative degrees of protection, with selection of the de- f-
sign which would provide the greatest excess of benefits over costs. ur
Using that procedure, design floods have been determined for use in
other survey reports and design memorandum studies for the Central and
Southern Florida Project. Those studies have shown that the maximum i!
excess of benefits over costs is obtained with improvements designed
to remove flooding expected once in about 10 years in agricultural
areas and up to standard project flood protection in wholly urban
areas. The plan of improvement provided herein for the four basins
is designed to protect agricultural areas against the 10-year flood
(about 35 percent of the standard project flood) and to protect
highly urbanized areas (as Tampa) against the standard project flood.



















12. Extent and character of flooded area,--A description of the
area is given in chapter II above. Thousands of acres of low and flat
lands are susceptible to flooding from moderate storms which occur
S almost yearly. During major floods such as that of March 1960, about
1,000,000 acres are inundated. Flooding throughout the problem areas
results primarily from inadequate discharge capacity in ditches,
secondary canals, and primary drainage outlets. In each of the
river basins involved, flooding is severe on many of the tributaries
Sas well as on main river channels. About 15 percent of the problem
area is now developed for urban or agricultural uses, including about
i 2,500 acres of residential development, 98,000 acres of improved
S pasture, 18,400-acres of citrus groves, and 26,500 acres of truck-
farming lands. In addition, over 400,000 acres of undeveloped lands
r used as native range are subject to flooding. Cattle that forage on
S those lands require supplemental feeding both during flooding and for
subsequent periods that are necessary for regrowth of adequate grass
cover. Large tracts of undeveloped lands are rapidly being converted
to more productive agricultural and urban uses. About 70 percent of
the urban development in the overall problem area is located in highly
developed areas in Tampa and its suburbs and in nearby communities on
the lower Hillsborough River and its tributaries. A number of other
S smaller cities and communities and less dense residential development
adjacent to streams, lakes, and ponds throughout the study area con-
stitute the remainder of urban development in hazardous areas. Elimi-
nation of flooding would permit maximum utilization of those lands for
future use. Existing development and future normal development are
discussed in detail in appendix C and are shown on figures C-1 and
C-3 respectively.

13. Flood damages.--a. General.--Estimates presented herein apply
only to the primary damage areas for which preliminary study showed that
remedial measures would have economic merit. Damage estimates were made
for the March 1960 flood, with an estimated frequency of occurrence of
once in about 25 years, and for the 1-in-10-year flood which is approxi-
I mately equal in magnitude to the 1959 flood occurrence. The estimates
are based on: Flooded-area maps which were constructed from gaging
data and other information collected in the field, damage data either
i collected in the field or furnished by local individuals or agencies,
flood duration indicated by gages, and derived unit-damage relations
used in combination with -he land-use data.

b. Damage estimates.--The flooded-area map for the 1960 flood
is shown on figure C-5 of appendix C. Existing and estimated future land
use without project incentive are shown on figures C-1 and C-3 of appen-
dix C. Flooded-area maps together with duration data were compared
J with the maps of existing and estimated future land use without project
i incentive to obtain the area, depth, duration of flooding on each type
i of land use. Total damages for the floods of 1960 and 10-year frequency
I were estimated from field data and by application of the appropriate
unit damages as obtained from the unit-damage relations. Estimated



















Sd. Oklawaha River Basin.--(l) General.--Proposed improve-
r ments in Oklawaha River Basin include a levee around the north side
S of Lake Apopka, improvement of the river channel from Lake Griffin to
S Moss Bluff, construction of a new lock and dam at Moss Bluff) and
ra' levee improvements downstream from that point. Borings were made
at intervals of about 2 miles from Sharpes Ferry to Lake Griffin.
Explorations for the Lake Apopka Levee were limited to probings made
to determine the thickness of the peat in the area.

(2) Lake Apopka Levee.--Probings were made along ranges
extending from about 1,000 feet landside of the northern margin of Lake
Apopka to 10,000 feet into the lake. Figure B-24 was prepared from
the results of those probing. Contours on that figure show the thick-
ness of the peat in the area explored. Because of the deep peat and
the fact that material below the peat is clay, most of the fill for
the levee embankment would be brought in from borrow pits in the sand
land north of the lake. In areas where the peat is thinnest the levee
may be cast in place from an adjacent borrow pit.

(3) Channel from Lake Griffin to Moss Bluff.--A geologic
section along the canalized Oklawaha River from Lake Griffin to Moss
Bluff is shown on figure B-22. Enlargement of the channel in that
reach would involve excavation of sand, clayey sand, clay, and peat.
a No rock would be encountered.
(4) Moss Bluff Lock and Dam.--The existing lock and dam
at Moss Bluff would be removed and a new structure provided. Boring
OKLR-7 (fig. B-22) is adjacent to the existing structure. The present
structure is founded on timber piles driven 20 feet below foundation
grade. A similar foundation would be provided for the proposed struc-
ture. The existing structure has no water stops in the joints and has
a completely unsatisfactory drainage system. Piping of sand from the
foundation and leakage through the joints has occurred to the point
where extensive remedial work has been required. Filter drains and
sheet-pile cutoffs would be provided in the proposed structure to
prevent movement of sand from the foundation.

(5) Levee improvement below Moss Bluff.--Figure B-23
is a geologic section along Oklawaha River from Moss Bluff to Sharpes
Ferry. The area bounded by Kyle-Young Canal on the east and Muclan
Farms Dike on the west (see fig. B-23) would be protected by new levees.
Levees would be cast in place using the materials adjacent to the aline-
ment. The embankments would consist of clayey sand and clay, with
some clean sand.

0) e. Peace River Basin.-=(l) General.--The only improvement
"proposed for the Peace River Basin is a canal, with control structures,
extending from above Lake Henry to Peace River just north of Bartow,
and a spillway in Saddle Creek, the outlet to Lake Hancock. Borings
were made at widely spaced intervals along the canal alinement and one
boring was put down at the site of the spillway in Saddle Creek.





University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs