Distr -iA- Launches Operation dWIP
THE DISTRICT HAS LAUNCHED
OPERATION QWIP, A LONG-TERM PRO-
-CT AIMED AT STOPPING AQUIFER uL L/
)NTAMINATION IN CHARLOTTE uppu puged
COUNTY. WALT WETTERHALL, DIS-
TRICT HYDROLOGIST IN CHARGE OF : ..
THE QUALITY WATER IMPROVEMENT .
PROGRAM, WILL PLUG THE FIRST
WELL UNDER THE PROGRAM THIS -
MONTH FOR THE CITY OF PUNTA J JJJ J p
GORDA. 'Jj 4JJ^ JJ J
Wetterhall explains how that well and _. .
more than 400 other wells are contami- "
nating the upper aquifers with chlorides J J 4, J- J j -)--J Jj
and sulfides in the area: J _J 4 j f jjjj jj J i
"In the northern part of the District, 7 1 J
there is generally a single-aquifer: one deep -
water-saturated layer of limestone under jJ J C N
layers of sand and clay. i -1j .J-.d.
"In the Peace River Basin, however, the -J J J J
geohydrology is more complex. Layers of J 'JJ J "
impermeable or semi-permeable materials l
intersect the limestone, dividing it into J-J J -- J-' -
different zones and creating a multi-aquifer -JI '-, J -4 :J.jj .
^ systemm -J"-J. cy Jj Kj .Jji +.4-A-- 49, J
"As a general rule, the deepest aquifer -I N
-- the fifth aquifer -- is heavily contaminated Ji J
with chlorides and sulfides. It is also under -J -- f J J J JJ
greater pressures than the aquifers above _-JJ J J j -JJ-
"Now what happens when someone
drills a well into that deep aquifer and HOW PLUGGING A WELL STOPS AQUIFER CONTAMINATION. In Well A [unplugged],
doesn't case it properly? Or what happens if water from the deepest and most contaminated aquifer gushes upward. Because it is under
hydrogen sulfide in the water corrodes greater pressure than the waters in the higher aquifers, it flows into them, polluting them
casing away? with chlorides and sulfides. In Well B [plugged below the second aquifer], flow from the
"The polluted water spurts upward third, fourth, and fifth aquifers is stopped. Better-quality water from the first and second
under artesian pressure and pours into the aquifers is allowed to flow into the well shaft and to the surface.
upper aquifers, contaminating them with
salts. The water that reaches the surface Lakeland.
either flows into lakes and streams, turning Wetterhall emphasized that QWIP is a
them brackish, or evaporates, leaving the long-term project. FEASTER SPEAKS TO ASCE
chlorides on the soil in a concentrated "It will be 5-10 years before we can talk
form." about a substantial improvement in water
The District has now inventoried more quality throughout Charlotte County. We Donald Feaster, Executive Director
than 400 wells -- most of them large can't expect miracles overnight, of the Water Management District,
irrigation wells drilled many years ago -- in "First, it's going to take lots of time to addressed the American Society of
Charlotte County that are continually get to each of those well sites, talk to the Civil Engineers in Tampa September
contaminating the upper aquifers. Some of property owners, get their permission to 21. The topic of his speech was "Water
them flow at rates in excess of a million proceed, run the necessary pre-p!ugging Management in Florida."
gallons per day. tests, and get the well properly plugged. Feaster stated that four primary
"If this constant pollution isn't stop- "Second, Nature works at her own pace: functions of water management per-
ped," Wetterhall emphasizes, "it is just a We can eliminate the sources of pollution, formed by the District are  flood
matter of time before Charlotte County but we have to wait for natural recharge to control,  mapping and delineation of
loses its potable water supply." dilute the pollutants already there." flood prone areas,  regulation of
The only way to stop the contamination withdrawals from the Floridan Aquifer,
is to plug -- not cap -- each of these wells and  water use planning.
between the deeper aquifers, Wetterhall Copies of the accompanying paper
explains. Plugging will enable better are available upon request from the
quality water from the upper aquifers to MANY LAKES AND RIVERS within the District.
enter the well and flow to the surface. District have place names of Indian origin
Capping, on the other hand, would force that provide an insight into what they were
more of the contaminated water into the like before the White Man came to Florida.
upper aquifers. For instance,
"Plugging those wells represents a real .... Homosassa, freely translated from translate as "place for eating bass or
Ilenge. Not only must cement be poured Seminole-Creek, means "pepper place", trout."
a the shaft to harden only at a specific .... .Chassahowitzka translates roughly .....Oklawaha is the Creek work for
point, but this must be done against a as 'pumpkin opening place." "Muddy."
gushing flow of water under great .... Thonotossassa means ''flint is there" .... The H-illsborough River was known to
pressure." .....Wacassa translates as "cow range." the Indians as "Locksta Apopka" or "place
The pilot project is authorized and .....Apopka means "place for eating." for eating acorns."
funded by the Peace River Basin Board, Tsala Apopka and Charlie [believed to
chaired by Mr. N. Brooks Johns of be a corruption of Chalo or Tsala] Apopka