Title: Parker, Gerald G. "How Much Water - How Many People - How Much Time,"
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00051597/00001
 Material Information
Title: Parker, Gerald G. "How Much Water - How Many People - How Much Time,"
Alternate Title: Parker, Gerald G. "How Much Water - How Many People - How Much Time," Summary of author's article published in Water Resources Bulletin entitled "Water and Water Related Problems in SWFWMD and Some Possible Solutions."
Physical Description: 2p.
Language: English
Publication Date: May 1975
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
General Note: Box 3, Folder 5A ( WATER SHORTAGE, VOL. I. B3F5 ), Item 6
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00051597
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text


(Editor's Note: Garald G. Parker, senior scientist and chief hydrologist
for the District, recently authored an article in the Water Resources Bulletin
on "Water and Water-Related Problems in SWFW-MD and some Possible 7/c /l2o em ia d e unbr/i /
Solutions." .
We thought Mr. Parker's article was so informative--in terms of explaining
some hydrologic concepts, in terms of describing some fundamental long-term d/
problems and in terms of explaining some of the District's goals and functions-- <:: n tL 2 C't n dInand
that we should pass a summary of the article along to our readers. t a P
For those of you interested in exploring the subject in greater detail, we have an L CLaQUc u
obtained reprints of the article and will be glad to mail one to you, free of
charge, if you write us at P.O. Box 457, Brooksville, 33512. We should
mention, however, that the proposals contained in the article reflect the
opinions of a concerned, well-informed individual scientist and not necessarily
the official position of the District.)
Right now, approximately 1,930,000 per- 3 3.70
sons live in west central Florida. We use z
about 2 billion gallons of water every day. z
That's not necessarily excessive, at least, 20o -
:not on a District-wide basis. Nature supplies W 6 o
us with about 2.38 billion gallons of water z .
zer day in an average year. z a
But, if present population trends con- 270 ~ 2
rinue, our population in the year 2000 -R CP I3
will be 3,500,000, and then we'll need AILAL
about 3.5 billion gallons per day. The 2 2
available water corp will still be 2.38 billion. 29 22
Where will the additional water come
irom? a o
Unless we find ways to augment our 70 .7
resources, water mining on a grand scale 19 0o 19 8o ____ o 12_?000
and its catastrophic consequences will be YEAR
oIe inevitable result. Creek Basin were notably lowered; lake of them or possibly only one, would
If the year 2000 seems like the far- levels dropped even more than in other been located where they are now; .
distant future, consider this: Parker es- areas; and falling water levels have affected would the District ever have permitted the
inmatess that at present growth rates, our many species of water-loving plants such as fields to be pumped at the high rates
demand for water will equal our available cypress, willows, cat-tails, and wax myrtle. they have been pumped in recent years.
water crop in about 1984, that is, before 'If these examples present a gloomy pic- The problems associated with these wAll-
today's first-graders get our of high school. ture, particularly if they typify what could fields are problems the District has in-
.-t that time we will be forced to begin happen on a District-wide basis in the fut- herited."says Parker.
mining the aquifer" (taking out more ure, the postscript perhaps provides a clue To counter the drawdown in this area,
water from the aquifer than Nature puts to possible solutions, the District has imposed regulations upon
there annually to meet our needs for water. Largely because of encouragement from these wellfields that restrict the amount
In fact, in some specific locations with- the District, the phosphate industry reduced of water that can be pumped from them
in the District, mining of the aquifer is its pumpage from about 350 mgd in 1971 and has encouraged the wellfield owners
already a fact. to some 250 mgd in 1973. They accom- to seek additional sources of water else-
Because of overpumping by the phos- polished this, even while increasing produc- where. As a result, a regional wellfield is
hate industry (which uses about 250 mil-
onhate industry (which usesgd) and by citrus tion, through eliminating waste of water being developed at Cypress Creek that will
lion gallons (whailych usemgd) and by citrus and by recycling processes. Aquifer levels reduce the demand for water from North-
rocessors (which use abouticiency of rain- responded quickly to these conservation west Hillsborough.
.cause of a long-term deficiency of rain- measures; in 1972 and 1973 water levels The concept behind these moves is not
all, water levelsin the Upper Peace and in the phoshate region's cone-f-dc si to deprive anyone of water but rather
reduction. Oavei a 20 year period, the po- rose for the first time in 25 years. Ih to disperse the well ficids so that no si,.le
reduction.meri surface (the point above me some places, the rise was as much as 18 feet. area is adversely affected. That is one of
entiometric surface (th ill rise point above mean (Editor's Note: Since 1973, however, aq- the solutions that Parker proposes for re-
sunder its own artesian pressure) in a w3- uifer levels there have again declined), solving or at least anmelimoraig our regional
under its own artesian pressure) in a 350- 1wirr <;mnlv nrhblcpm<
square-mile area was lowered 40-6(0 feet In Northwest llillshorough, Nnhcast, atr spply problems. of is-
Over a much larger area (1,300 square mi Pncllas and Southern Pasco Counties, the He suggests \cl the of a dis-tal
Over a mInuci larger area (1,300 square miles' problem was caused by a similar but dif- persed system of wellfields in the coastline
rte potentiometric surface dropped 20-40 ferent problem; the unnecessary conccn- of Salt-Water Encroachment and upgradient
reet. traction of wcllfields in one area. Four from the "Big Springs" like \ ekiwachee
A similar but less drastic effect has major well fields were clustered in this fromosassa, CrystalRiver, and Chassahow;--.
been noted in Northwest llil!shorougtth and area, located so close to each other that lie estimates that about 250 mgd < )
Nortlccl;st Pinellas Counties. After ten years they have overlapping cones of depression be developed by this system to supply
of heavy ground-water pumping, compound- (areas in which water levels are drawn down a new population of about 1,250,000 pcr-
ed by the effects of drought, the average by suction of the wcllfield pumps). sons in the coastal zones of Citrus, Ier-
flow of Brookcr Creek (which drains the "HIad the SWFWMD been existence in nando, Pasco and northern Pinellas Counties.
area) was reduced by 50%; ground-water the 1950's prior to the development of Such a development could not be under-
levels ower the entire upper half of lrooker the existing operational wcllfields, none

taken haphazardly or by local governments "r
operating independently of each other. A _____ ___ I *V 1 9,-a69y
planned regional, cooperative effort is re- fo so a ----i CYPRESS
quired. // / AT M!a CREEK R
als th ^ AA H > WELLF"]LD
Parker also explores the possibility of = 3 LLA 4 RKY 1 49sq
trnping into the Big Springs directly for 0 DE 0wArRDo /.--1 6 WtrY
OF A( (LY" 400 Sq.6MI. ISsi
lic water supply. Total flow of the RCHARGE / 020 M M5I
..'r big coastal springs averages 970 mgd, ME A TES D ao 7 30 M
enough water to meet the domestic needs WATEk OFAY AVCG ,
of nearly 5 million persons. uW17H PLA NED S-1 PAsco co
However, all four of these springs are // c/1// (. O SqqM
affected by tides, all are contaminated to a / SMi 3
to some extent by salt water, and all our "--,-o-
but Weekiwachee are already within the \Ds\
Zone of Salt Water Encroachment. (The l or /F J- o'- s I
area in which salty groundwater has in- j/D W~ EL D
truded to an extent that wells 100 feet uMEXICo (t I V A 6.00 SqM.oo
deep produce water too salty to be potable.) 2 &0 Si / MMD
Taking significant quantities of water s 35 MOD 0sM ~ M'CTION
53.15 Sq M4. 02 M
directly from these springs would invite w((f I vM, \ wi. LVti 6 sq i.
further salt water contamination. With the ) PINELLAS O 1 Ilcos- s
-xception of Weekiwachee, the water in I U Sqr 0. M i.
mhese springs would have to undergo an s, A C./ LEM
expensive desalination process before it ay4
substantial legal problem to any effort to REGION.
rap these springs. So would the requirements
of state and federal agencies charged with 5A Ch6 prepared 2 ,
by ST flOl 25
Protecting the environment. -M iw R ,Iif : l M DEPARTURE
If the big springs don't offer a viable 20 86 : FROM NORMAL -20
source of water supply, a variety of other RAINFALL for T7MPA
courses of action are open to us for meeting .s p IN NCHES ABOVE OR BOW NO L 15
our future water needs. .
We might, for instance, reduce our total 1o NORMAL 51.57 In.
consumption of water by making better sE / BASD ON PEReo
of the water available. Unlike many r OF RECOD /93/960
...r natural resources, water can be used : : .26
and reused many times. We can reduce
waste of water; we can recycle our mu- 0 -:- :::: :. -
nicipal sewage effluent if it undergoes ad- :: :: : 5
equate purification treatment; we can re- 5 : : : :: : 5
cycle water previously used by industry. 7742
In particular, we can develop ways of 10- 37: -
outting to use clean but hot waters dis- : 1222
znarged by thermoelectric generating plants. IS3 -
We can increase our available supply ,e 53 552
of water by several methods: to : .CUMLATW /V UR M NMAL-
(1) Desalination of brackish water, al- FOeR PeAop 96/-73 O4.5 i. RO (MNORMAL
L(IOO* 1P6/ -V 731/04.15 in. (M14'US)
ready being done in a few communities, ?6s
may become an economically feasible al- 1t51 Wso5 %O 1A ro
rernative in the years ahead.
(2) Induced recharge to the aquifer 1,. Charts bcsed on data DEPARTURE FROM
c omp(led from NATIONAL
:rom all available high-quality sources, par- WEAT/HER SERVICE Pcords. NORMAL RAINFALL
ucularly flood waters, would put water 20 188720
into underground storage. l: for L A'EL4N/
(3) Importation of excess water from 15 145 IN/j CES ABOVE OR BELOW NORMAL 15
sources outside the District, such as the o4' 1 i :
fuwannee or Apalachicola Rivers, by means to0 MO NMAL 51.37 in. Io
of an aqueduct, may become a reality R -AED ON PeRIOD
S"J:.!F : o RECORD1,-/ /196O
:n the decades ahead. 5 : 4 5

0 63
-- i ii 1' : o

At the present time, the population : 9:. ; .:-i' 7
'he District is about 1,930,000. By 0o Io
j. it is expected to be 2,130,000; by
1985, 2,410,000; by 1990, 2,740,000; by is.- _
1995, 3,100,000; and by 2000, 3,500,000. Le0 1oS4
to -I ^ ctwworvs Art'fwrrouefe WOM OAIMAL 20
FOr P0 C n/K -, 1/973, a a.Ms. (AW/S)
1961 1993 190 1965 1910

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