Title: U. S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey
CITATION PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00051596/00001
 Material Information
Title: U. S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey
Alternate Title: U. S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. What Is Water? 1972. 7p. No. 2401-2193.
Physical Description: 7p.
Language: English
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
General Note: Box 3, Folder 5A ( WATER SHORTAGE, VOL. I. B3F5 ), Item 5
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00051596
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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HYDROGEN

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th
By this tina the \tllfg student iis realized that water, far 00.
from being simple, iS ly ju Uit complicated. For instance,



ing the freezing process. If frozen water bursts the radiators
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in the garage, the family of your inquiring young friend may not po
be very happy about this peculiar property of water! th











.aA aq uo puno ,, s,,
sposu! Jo ':.P..suJii o1 'alpaP u 1 -jja si, u,4 .j iAlR)q sj,.rqo ,aod Iou
-dns u1a .*.).'1jjn15. .aa: 1 'uoisual a)Ejjfns qJiq s15 jo asnleog siol
*~aqu 1u)loas q.u1-I e Ejede i1nd 0o paunbba si a.0oj jo -ani
spunod O00'OOI 4noq0 ziluoG '4sjuo. uj ('s!iq, aoAod o01 q Ljtl(lL. XI
wand ajui B a itu o I.anaiJJji p si I) aijnd -\ llin ,,s(;r si .i, :.\ 'aL
q44I)P p.1.\01id 'q1ui 41 .o 0).a1Uelp 1 LixiLHAVi .Baffl.. und jo .11iiinU.- JB4
u 4.t'!1( ind p.'-! a, q p ~ iu n.\ ao o j. o ;i.p tiod. .n T 11 il) i q,. 1.

.\\,U i II 1.\\! I 1 11 ,L 1 } 1 }.ll. .I-} .\. t01 ".j "*'j-. K% .iA1
-, .L iA Hl t1 : .I I(.I.I s 1. 1 'h 1; 1iN IW, 1i
I I t .\\ [ ll .ll jI. ,l rA l 1{. "it: I 0.' 1 ,-, 1 Yi.V .'j.'I
I i U 1 1 T 1: lU l. I [ i T ll.' IT \\ .}(I d! ip 1" l i I'., .i I .'-:rt t' '-,"i ts -





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I---_-"--.---.q }" 'i~ -. "~ i't '' .,.,' ,,l I;.,L i---'i:,















Water not .moi tick t':- is,,f, but also sticks t- other :,r-
v.. ery ; n a plant root or t,f "-.



: 'circuatiton water : the i







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Property is action









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P 1 to: rea -, ,. ,
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up-




Phto ura 'i I te











All these striking aspects of vwati:r depend on a process called
chemical ,,m/liin;i. All molecules have an electronic attraction for
each other, and in the case of water this force is relatively great
and makes for an extremely tight structure. This force results
from the fact that oxygen's atom has two unpaired electrons
while the two hydrogen atoms lack an electron each. The hy-
drogen atom with its single electron is eager to obtain another
one. The mutual need of the atoms f>,r paired e ectr ns draws
them irresistably together, and the bond thus formed is extra-
ordinarily strong. You can see from the diagram that the hy-
drogen and oxygen atoms share two in pai;et electron.,.







O O





O








Strong chemical bl.n.lin acc:.ei]:-. f, water's .en i'-,'.:il'
abiln ;. to adhere to substane's (,r 'v tI- as '. c' arii
say), and thus eventiialiy to isi x.. th :.. r.n i,. a'ff>ec s
the io/iling point of water and is :'.- ',: f i:.? its r'e,'z:il.
prices The important. i' f this ~,n .,: t. :' processes is very
great indicII, for without it t ,, ; i, i" have the ni'l.'

Now your vyoulng frii1 sas,. -es, I i-:.- how
ii. water get lier-" When!e did it.. f,l":
To a kns-r his question ; would 1-. ..
.Acio 1:c history. At one time the earth ';:': .I!i :: : \\ a i-!a ,i.-;
mass :radiaiip.' heat into .,spa It c-~..s-. ;'r an at--
,iis>'.rc of gases and vapors which ~. n::.i'.' t, essential
inir I limitss of water. A.- the earth .. l., and chemical ;I-han i .
r,,.F i<- .-' ( \- The early seas ,probably were frhl 'l. water than seas of
tliodit .liraust- water had scarcely !I'.n; 1 ~ th! u ii 1', n and dis-
solving action x\\ hiclh I-vI:nta;iy carries salts i, IXn to the sea.
Ever since the seas formed, water has ib,-;. w'rkini twua,. at
the earth, trying to mold it into a pI/.rfx.-tly smooth surface.
Other forces within the earth k.I;. raising.i up n-.\\ mountains
and hills; Itherwiise the earth ,I'(:!. liirti. \' >li.ild be ., i: f -r./ d by
one x ast, shall, ,\ ,.../:x.x







r -------












ilTere is (onsi deIrable evidence that the earliest forms of
it camet into icing in the primitive seas-and perhaps this is
ith Ti:ost interesting thing of all about water.
t'hiat makes us think it happened this way? For one thing.
h n,; Piasma is a salty solution very much like sea water. In
e't'f : andl animals carry the sea with them. inside their bodies.
i:. ,tN i e\int. life could not ihae emerged from the sea without
v and without water life cannot exist upon the earth



M' a ,
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As :ic atio n's principal conservation agency,
the Department of the Interior has basic respon-
sibilities for iater, fish, wildlife, mineral, land,
nark, and recreational resources. Indian and
Territorial affairs are other major concerns of
America's "Department of Natural Resources."

The Department works to assure the wisest
choice e in managing all our resources so each
will make its full contribution to a better United
States-now and in the future.



















t U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1972 0-472-524
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
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