• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Map of Egypt from the Mediterranean...
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Chapter I: From Bombay to Suez...
 Chapter II: Suez -- Where the Israelites...
 Chapter III: From Suez to Cairo...
 Chapter IV: Street scenes...
 Chapter V: A ramble through the...
 Chapter VI: Mosques, dervishes,...
 Chapter VII: The citadel -- The...
 Chapter VIII: Wonders of the Egyptian...
 Chapter IX: The pyramids of Gizeh...
 Chapter X: An Oriental bath --...
 Chapter XI: Ascending the Nile...
 Chapter XII: Sugar plantations...
 Chapter XIII: Sioot, the ancient...
 Chapter XIV: Girgeh and Keneh --...
 Chapter XV: Arrival at Luxor --...
 Chapter XVI: The Rameseum, Medinet...
 Chapter XVII: The tombs of the...
 Chapter XVIII: Harem life in the...
 Chapter XIX: A camel journey --...
 Chapter XX: From Assouan to Alexandria...
 Chapter XXI: Voyage from Egypt...
 Chapter XXII: From Ramleh to Jerusalem...
 Chapter XXIII: In and around...
 Chapter XXIV: From Jerusalem to...
 Chapter XXV: From Bethlehem to...
 Chapter XXVI: From the Dead Sea...
 Chapter XXVII: From Jerusalem to...
 Chapter XXVIII: From Nabulus to...
 Chapter XXIX: Ascent of Mount Tabor...
 Chapter XXX: From Galilee to Damascus...
 Chapter XXXI: Sights and scenes...
 Chapter XXXII: Damascus to Beyroot...
 Advertising
 Map of Palestine and part...
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Boy travellers in the Far East ;, pt. 4
Title: Adve ntures of two youths in a journey to Egypt and the Holy Land
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00050409/00001
 Material Information
Title: Adve ntures of two youths in a journey to Egypt and the Holy Land
Series Title: Boy travellers in the Far East
Physical Description: 438, 4 p. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Knox, Thomas Wallace, 1835-1896
Whymper, Josiah Wood, 1813-1903 ( Engraver )
Harper & Brothers ( Publisher )
Bobbett & Edmonds ( Engraver )
Publisher: Harper & Brothers
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1883, c1882
Copyright Date: 1882
 Subjects
Subject: Sailors -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Physicians -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Steamboats -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Palestine   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Egypt   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Syria   ( lcsh )
Travelogue storybooks -- 1883   ( local )
Genre: Travelogue storybooks   ( local )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Thomas W. Knox ; illustrated.
General Note: Frontispiece printed in colors; maps on end papers; illustrations engraved by J. P. Whimper and Bobbett & Edmonds.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00050409
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002469899
notis - AMH5410
oclc - 02548307
lccn - 04017319

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Map of Egypt from the Mediterranean to Khartoom
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Preface
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
    List of Illustrations
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Chapter I: From Bombay to Suez -- The Red Sea, Mecca, and Mount Sinai
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Chapter II: Suez -- Where the Israelites crossed the Red Sea -- The Suez Canal
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Chapter III: From Suez to Cairo -- Through the land of Goshen
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Chapter IV: Street scenes in Cairo
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Chapter V: A ramble through the bazaars of Cairo
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Chapter VI: Mosques, dervishes, and schools -- Education in Egypt
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Chapter VII: The citadel -- The tombs of the Caliphs -- The Nilometer -- The Rosetta Stone
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Chapter VIII: Wonders of the Egyptian museum of antiquities
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Chapter IX: The pyramids of Gizeh and Sakkara -- Memphis and the Apis Mausoleum
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Chapter X: An Oriental bath -- Egyptian weddings and funerals
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Chapter XI: Ascending the Nile -- Sights and scenes on the river
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Chapter XII: Sugar plantations and mills -- Snake-charmers -- Sights at Beni-Hassan
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Chapter XIII: Sioot, the ancient Lycopolis -- Scenes on the river
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Chapter XIV: Girgeh and Keneh -- The temples of Abydus and Denderah -- An Egyptian dance
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    Chapter XV: Arrival at Luxor -- The great temple of Karnak
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
    Chapter XVI: The Rameseum, Medinet Aboo, and the vocal Memnon
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
    Chapter XVII: The tombs of the kings -- Recent discoveries of royal mummies
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
    Chapter XVIII: Harem life in the east -- From Luxor to Assouan
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
    Chapter XIX: A camel journey -- The Island of Philie, and the first cataract of the Nile
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
    Chapter XX: From Assouan to Alexandria -- Farewell to Egypt
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
    Chapter XXI: Voyage from Egypt to Palestine -- Journey from Jaffa to Ramleh
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
    Chapter XXII: From Ramleh to Jerusalem -- The church of the holy sepulchre
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
    Chapter XXIII: In and around Jerusalem
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
    Chapter XXIV: From Jerusalem to Bethlehem -- Church and Grotto of the nativity
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
    Chapter XXV: From Bethlehem to Mar Saba and the Dead Sea
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
    Chapter XXVI: From the Dead Sea to the Jordan, Jericho, and Jerusalem -- The valley of the Jordan
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
    Chapter XXVII: From Jerusalem to Nabulus -- Historic places on the route
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
    Chapter XXVIII: From Nabulus to Nazareth, Samaria, Jenin, and the Plain of Esdraelon
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
    Chapter XXIX: Ascent of Mount Tabor -- Around and on the Sea of Galilee
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
    Chapter XXX: From Galilee to Damascus -- A ride through Dan and Banias
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
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        Page 409
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    Chapter XXXI: Sights and scenes in Damascus
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
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    Chapter XXXII: Damascus to Beyroot -- The ruins of Baalbec -- Farewell
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
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    Advertising
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Map of Palestine and part of Syria
        Page 5
    Back Cover
        Cover
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text





















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II.






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, ..i ,









THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST

PART FOURTH




ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY

TO


EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND





BY
THEOMAS W. IKNOX
AUTHOR OF
THE YOUNG NIMRODS" "CAMP-FIRE AND COTTON-FIELD" "OVERLAND THROUGH ASIA"
"UNDERGROUND" "JOHN" "HOW TO TRAVEL" ETC.





3iwlustratcb








NEW YORK
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE
1883




































Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1882, by

HARPER & BROTHERS,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.


All rights reserved.

















PREFACE.


T HE favorable reception, by press and public, accorded to "The Boy
Travellers in the Far East" is the author's excuse for venturing to
prepare a volume upon Egypt and the Holy Land. He is well aware that
those countries have been the favorite theme of authors since the days of
Herodotus and Strabo, and many books have been written concerning
them. While he could not expect to say much that is new, he hopes the
form in which his work is presented will not be found altogether ancient.
The author has twice visited Egypt, and has made the tour of Pales-
tine and Syria. The experiences of Frank and Fred in their journeyings
were mainly those of the writer of this book in the winter of 1873-'74,
and in the spring of 1878. He has endeavored to give a faithful descrip-
tion of Egypt and the Holy Land as they appear to-day, and during the
preparation of this volume he has sent to those countries to obtain the
latest information concerning the roads, modes of travel, and other things
that may have undergone changes since his last journey in the Levant.
In addition to using his own notes and observations, made on the spot,
he has consulted many previous and some subsequent travellers, and has
examined numerous books relating to the subjects on which he has writ-
ten. It has been his effort to embody a description of the Egypt of old
with that of the present, and to picture the lands of the Bible as they
have appeared through many centuries down to our own time. If it shall
be found that he has made a book which combines amusement and
instruction for the youth of our land, he will feel that his labor has not
been in vain.
Many of the works consulted in the preparation of this book are men-
tioned in its pages. To some authors he is indebted for illustrations as
well as for descriptive or historical matter, the publishers having kindly
allowed the use of engravings from their previous publications. Among
the works which deserve acknowledgment are "'The Ancient Egyp-
tians," by Sir Gardner Wilkinson ; The Modern Egyptians," by Edward








6 PREFACE.

William Lane; the translation of The Arabian Nights' Entertainments,"
by the same author; From Egypt to Palestine," by Dr. S. C. Bartlett;
" The Land and the Book," by Dr. W. M. Thomson; Boat Life in
Egypt," and Tent Life in Syria," by William C. Prime, LL.D.; The
Khedive's Egypt," by Edwin De Leon; The Desert of the Exodus," by
Professor E. H. Palmer; "Dr. Olin's Travels in the East ;" Our Inheri-
tance in the Great Pyramid," by Piazzi Smith; and The Land of Moab,"
by Dr. H. B. Tristram. The author is indebted to Lieutenant-commander
Gorringe for information concerning Egyptian obelisks, and regrets that
want of space prevented the use of the full account of the removal of
"Cleopatra's Needle" from Alexandria to New York.
With this explanation of his reasons for writing The Boy Travellers
in Egypt and the Holy Land," the author submits the result of his labors
to those who have already accompanied Frank and Fred in their wander-
ings in Asia, and to such new readers as may desire to peruse it. He
trusts the former will continue, and the latter make, an acquaintance that
will prove neither unpleasant nor without instruction.

P.S.-This volume was written and in type previous to July, 1882.
Consequently the revolt of Arabi Pasha and the important events that
followed could not be included in the narrative of the "Boy Travellers."
T. W. K.




















CONTENTS.




CHAPTER I. PAGE
FROM BOMBAY TO SUEZ.-THE RED SEA, MECCA, AND MOUNT SINAI ......................... 13

CHAPTER II.
SUEZ.--WHERE THE ISRAELITES CROSSED THE RED SEA.-THE SUEZ CANAL..................... 24

CHAPTER III.
FROM SUEZ TO CAIRO.-THROUGH THE LAND OF GOSHEN. ................................. 38

CHAPTER IV.
STREET SCENES IN CAIRO ........................................................... 52

CHAPTER V.
A RAMBLE THROUGH THE BAZAARS OF CAIRO .................................... .... .. 65

CHAPTER VI.
MOSQUES, DERVISHES, AND SCHOOLS.--EDUCATION IN EGYPT ............................. 78

CHAPTER VII.
THE CITADEL.-THE TOMBS OF THE CALIPHS.-THE NILOMETER.-THE ROSETTA STONE ........... 90

CHAPTER VIII.
WONDERS OF THE EGYPTIAN MUSEUM OF ANTIQUITIES ................................... 101

CHAPTER IX.
THE PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH AND SAKKARA.--MEMPHIS AND THE APIS MAUSOLEUM ............... 117

CHAPTER X.
AN ORIENTAL BATH.-EGYPTIAN WEDDINGS AND FUNERALS .............................. 133

CHAPTER XI.
ASCENDING THE NILE.-SIGHTS AND SCENES ON THE RIVER ................... ........... 145

CHAPTER XII.
SUGAR PLANTATIONS AND MILLS. -SNAKE-CHARMERS.- SIGHTS AT BENI-HASSAN .............. 155

CHAPTER XIII.
SIOOT, THE ANCIENT LYCOPOLIS.-SCENES ON THE RIVER. .................................. 167

CHAPTER XIV.
GrIRGEH AND KENEH.-THEI TEMPLES OF ABYDUS AND DENDERAH.-AN EGYPTIAN DANCE ...... 177








8 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XV. 'AGE
ARRIVAL AT LUXOR.-THE GRPEAT TEMPLE OF KARNAK................. .................. 19

CHAPTER XVI.
THE RAMESEUM, MEDINET ABOO, AND THE VOCAL MEMNON ............................... 204

CHAPTER XVII.
THE TOMBS OF THE KINGS.-RECENT DISCOVERIES OF ROYAL MUMMIES. ....................... 214

CHAPTER XVIII.
HAREM LIFE IN THE EAST.-FROM LUXOR TO ASSOUAN .................................... 226

CHAPTER X1X.
A CAMEL JOURNEY.-THE ISLAND OF PHILAE, AND THE FIRST CATARACT OF THE NILE ......... 240

CHAPTER XX.
FROM ASSOUAN TO ALEXANDRIA.-FAREWELL TO EGYPT .................................. 253

CHAPTER XXI.
VOYAGE FROM EGYPT TO PALESTINE.-JOURNEY FROM JAFFA TO RAMLEH .................... 267

CHAPTER XXII.
FROM RAMLEII TO JERUSALEM.-THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE ........................ 280

CHAPTER XXIII.
IN AND AROUND JERUSALEM ............. ..................... .... ........ .. ... 295

CHAPTER XXIV.
FROM JERUSALEM TO BETHLEHEM.-CHURCH AND GROTTO OF THE NATIVITY ................. 310

CHAPTER XXV.
FROM BETHLEHEM TO MAR SABA AND THE DEAD SEA............... .................. 326

CHAPTER XXVI.
FROM THE DEAD SEA TO THE JORDAN, JERICHO, AND JERUSALEM.--THE VALLEY OF THE JORDAN 342

CHAPTER XXVII.
FROM JERUSALEM TO NABULUS.-HISTORIC PLACES ON THE ROUTE .................... 355

CHAPTER XXVIII.
FROM NABULUS TO NAZARETH, SAMARIA, JENIN, AND THE PLAIN OF ESDRAELON............... 68

CHAPTER XXIX.
ASCENT OF MOUNT TABOR.-AROUND AND ON THE SEA OF GALILEE385
S....... ........ ... .... .. 385

CHAPTER XXX.
FROM GALILEE TO DAMASCUS.-A RIDE THROUGH DAN AND BANIAS............
... ..... .. .. .. .. ... .. 3 99

CHAPTER XXXI.
SIGHTS AND SCENES IN DAMASCUS ...
..*... .*.* -.. ... .... ** **** *. ... .. 4 11

CHAPTER XXXII.
DAMASCUS TO BEYROOT.-THE RUINS OF BAALBEC.-FAREWELL .................
*. ** *. .. ..... .... ... ... 4 25





















ILLUSTRATIONS.


A Scene in Egypt ............................. ........................... Frontispiece.
PAGE PAGE
Coast of the Red Sea.. .. .......... ... 13. The Nay (Flute) and Case ............... 62
View in Jeddah, on the Red Sea.......... 17 Ancient Egyptian Playing the Nay........ 62
Captain Burton in Native Dress .......... 19 The Tamboora............................ 63
Encampment of Pilgrims at Mount Arafat, A Darabookah ......................... 63
near Mecca ......................... 20 Coffee-pot and Cups .................... 64
View of Medina (from a Drawing by a Na- Oriental Shopkeeper Examining his Books.. 65
tive Artist).......................... 21 Interior of a Caravansary ............... 66
Scene near Suez ..................... 22 Gate-way of a Caravansary .............. 67
Travelling in the Sinai Desert ...... ... .23 A Street in a Bazaar at Cairo............. 68
A Shop in Suez ........................ 25 Shopping Scene in the Hamzowee ........ 70
The Northern End of the Gulf of Suez. ... 26 Eastern Necklaces ..................... 71
"Ayoon Moosa "-the Wells of Moses .... 28 Weighing Gold in the Jewellers' Bazaar... 71
Preaching in a Mosque ................ 29 Kitchen Utensils ....................... 73
A Landing-place on the Fresh-water Canal. 31 Basin and Ewer ....................... 74
Oriental Ships of Ancient Times ......... .32 Bottle for Rose-water ..................... 75
Ferdinand De Lesseps .................. 34 Oriental Guns ......................... 75
Suez Canal and Eastern Egypt ........... 35 Bab-el-Nasr ......................... .76
Night Scene on Lake Menzaleh.. ........ 37 Street Scene near the Bab-el-Nasr ............ 77
Camel and Young...................... 38 The Mosque of Tooloon................. 78
Desert Scene in Eastern Egypt........... 40 Mihrab, Pulpit, and Candlestick in a Mosque 79
The Modern Shadoof.................. 41 A Begging Dervish..................... 81
An Ancient Shadoof ................... 42 A Whirling Dervish .................... 82
A Sakkieh, or Water-wheel.............. 42 Performance of the Whirling Dervishes .... 83
A Ploughman at Work ................. 43 A Whirler in full Action................. 84
An Ancient Plough .................... 44 Arabic Writing, with Impression of a Seal.. 85
An Egyptian Thrashing-machine ........ 45 Scene in a Primary School .............. 86
Ancient Process of Treading out the Corn.. 45 Instruction at Home. .................. ... 87
Egyptian Lentils....................... 46 Entrance to the El-Azhar................ 88
The Pyramids ......................... 47 Professors of the El-Azhar .............. 89
"A Question of Backsheesh............... 48 The Citadel, Cairo, with Mosque of Moham-
"A Street in Cairo....................... 50 med Ali ............................ 90
"A Projecting Window .................. 51 View from the Citadel, Cairo............. 92
A Caliph of Egypt on his Throne......... 53 The Tombs of the Caliphs. .............. 94
Part of Old Cairo ...................... 54 The Tomb of Keit Bey.................. 95
"A Peddler of Jewellery ................. 56 The Ferry at Old Cairo ................. 96
"A Lady in Street Dress ................... 57 The Dress of an Egyptian King. Form of
"A Woman Carrying Water .............. 57 Crown and Aprons ................... 98
The Fountain of a Mosque.............. 58 Menes .............................. 99
A Beggar at the Way-side ................. 59 Rameses II., from an Inscription........... 99
A Man Carrying his Keys ............... 60 Meneptah, the supposed Pharaoh of the Ex-
An Oriental Band of Music.............. 61 odus ............................... 100








10 ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE PAGE
The Name of Egypt in Hieroglyphics. ..... 101 The Bath among the Ancient Egyptians... 138
Ptolemy in Hieroglyphics ............... 101 A Khatibeh, or Marriage-broker .......... 140
The Rosetta Stone, with Specimen Lines Preparing for the Wedding ................. 141
from the Inscription ................. 102 A Marriage Procession at Night ......... 142
Specimens of the Three Forms of Writing Unveiling the Bride .................... 143
Used by the Egyptians...... ......... 102 Blind Musicians among the Ancient Egyp-
Dedication of the Pylon of a Temple...... 103 tians ............................... 144
Egyptian Sculptors at Work ............. 104 View on the Nile near Cairo ............. 145
Wooden Statue Found at Sakkara ........... 105 Ancient Boat on the Nile................ 146
Wooden Dolls ......................... 106 A Village on the Bank of the River....... 148
Children's Toys........................ 107 General View of an Eastern City .......... 149
Positions in Playing Ball................ 107 A Plague of Flies ...................... 151
Balls of Leather and Porcelain ........... 108 A Kangia............................. 151
Playing Ball Mounted. .................. 108 The Captain .......................... 152
Playing Checkers ...................... 109 A Gourd Raft ......................... 154
Sand-bag Exercise...................... 109 The Raft seen from Below.............. 154
A Bull-fight. ........................ 110 View on a Sugar Plantation ............. 156
Goddesses of Truth and Justice.......... 110 Interior of a Sugar-mill ........... ..... 158
The Name of Apis, an Egyptian God, in A Secure Point of View................. 159
Hieroglyphics ...................... .111 Interior of a Tomb at Beni-Hassan ....... 161
King and Queen Offering to the Gods..... 111 Section of a Tomb .... ................ 162
Different Forms of Mummy Cases ....... 112 Spinning and Weaving ................. 163
Transporting a Mummy on a Sledge....... 112 Artists at Work ........................ 164
Goddess of Truth, with her Eyes Closed .... 113 Fishing Scene at Beni-Hassan. ........... 164
Lady's Head-dress on a Mummy Case ..... 113 An Ancient Donkey. ................... 165
Rings, Bracelets, and Scarab .ei ........... 114 A Respectable Citizen .................. 165
Stone Scarabaeus with Wings. ............. 114 An Old Inhabitant ................... 166
Jeweller with Blow-pipe................. 115 A Scene near Sioot..................... 167
Egyptian Goldsmiths (from a Painting at A Scene in the Bazaars ................. 168
Thebes) ... .... ............... 115 Room in an Oriental House.............. 170
Golden Baskets (from the Tomb of Rame- An Oriental Gentleman ................. 170
ses III.) ............................ 116 An Egyptian Lamp..................... 171
Dresses of Women of Ancient Egypt...... 116 Pigeon-houses ......................... 173
Camels and their Burdens............... 117 The Oriental Pigeon .................... 173
Old Mode of Transport on the Nile ....... 118 A Watchman's Booth ................... 174
Near View of the Pyramids................ 119 Inflated Skin Raft (from Assyrian Sculpture) 174
The Battle of the Pyramids.-"Forty centu- An Ancient Life-preserver.................. 175
ries look down on you "............... 121 Modern Keleks," or Skin Rafts ......... 176
Egyptian Captives Employed at Hard Labor 122 Girgeh ............................... 177
Removing Stone from the Quarries ....... 123 Scene during the Inundation............. 178
Cutting and Squaring Blocks of Stone..... 124 A Camel on his way to Pasture........... 179
Section of the Great Pyramid ............ 125 Heads of Captives of Rameses II.. ...... 180
The Sphinx .......................... 126 A Lunch-party of Other Days............. 181
The Sphinx by Moonlight ................ 127 Ancient Potters at Work .............. 183
Egyptian Captives Making Bricks ........ 128 Ancient Vases, Cups, and Water-jars...... 184
Ploughing and Sowing.................. 129 Date-palms, near Keneh................. 185
Taking it Easy ........................ 129 Ancient Dancers and Musicians .......... 186
A Hunting Scene.... .............. 130 A Modern Musician .................... 186
Bronze Figure of Apis ... .............. 131 An Egyptian King on his Throne......... 187
Huntsman with Dogs and Game.......... 131 Front of the Temple at Denderah ......... 188
An Arched Tomb at Sakkara ............ 132 Egyptian Prince Carried in a Palanquin .. 189
Central Room of the Bath............... 134 A Complete Egyptian Temple. ......... 191
The Man who didn't Like it ... ......... .135 A "Baris," or Funeral-boat....... .. 192
The Barber ........................... 137 An Egyptian War-chariot of Ancient Times. 194









ILLUSTRATIONS. 11

PAGE PAGE
Luxor from the Water.................. 195 An Arab and his Camel................. 255
Entrance to the Temple of Luxor ........ 197 Colossal Heads in Front of the Temple of
Approach to Karnak from Luxor......... 198 Abou Simbel....................... 256
The Great Hall of Karnak............... 199 Public Square at Khartoom ............. 258
Grand Court-yard of the Temple.......... 200 Egyptian Soldiers on Camels............. 259
A Body of Archers..................... 201 The Barrage of the Nile................. 262
Making a List of Captives ............... 201 General View of Alexandria ............. 262
Obelisk and part of Grand Hall at Karnak. 202 Cleopatra's Needle at Alexandria......... 264
Egyptian Soldiers ...................... 203 Pompey's Pillar ....................... 265
Dry Footing .......................... 204 View of Alexandria from the Sea......... 266
Ruins in Old Thebes..................... 205 Front of an Eastern Summer-house. ...... 268
Grand Hall of the Memnonium........... 206 One of the Dragomen.................... 269
View in the Memnonium, with Ruined Statue Joppa ............................... 271
of Rameses the Great ............... 207 A Second-class Horse ................... 272
The Phalanx of the Sheta ............... 208 The City Gate of Jaffa ..................... 273
Medinet Aboo ........................ 209 W omen at a W ell...................... 275
An Egyptian War-boat .................. 210 Public Fountain at Jerusalem ............ 276
The Colossi during an Inundation......... 211 One of the Wells of Beersheba, with its
Egyptian Priests clad in Leopard-skins. ... 212 Watering-troughs .................... 277
Rear View of the Colossi, with Luxor in the Interior of a Cistern..................... 278
Distance........................... 213 Cistern Under the Temple of Jerusalem 278
Sacred Musicians, and a Priest Offering In- A Syrian Horseman .................... 280
cense ........... ..... .............. 214 The Tower of Ramleh (from Thomson's
Valley of the Tombs of the Kings........ 215 "The Land and the Book ")............ 282
View in Belzoni's Tomb................. 216 Road in the Foot-hills ....... ......... .. 284
An Egyptian Harper ................... 219 View of Jerusalem from the East........ 285
A Chair from Bruce's Tomb ............. 220 Plan of Jerusalem...................... 287
Section of Papyrus .................... 222 The Church of the Holy Sepulchre. ....... 290
Coffin and Mummy of a Royal Princess .... 223 Ground-plan of the Church of the Holy Sep-
Coffin of Queen Nofretari. ............... 224 ulchre..................... ....... 291
Coffin of Rameses II................... 225 The Holy Sepulchre ................... 292
An Oriental Lady at Home.............. 226 Ancient Arch in Jerusalem ............. 295
Eastern Ladies Listening to Music........ 228 Arms of Jerusalem........................ 297
An Oriental Dancing Girl ................ 230 Knights of St. Catherine ................ .. 297
An Eastern Story-teller ................. 231 The Via Dolorosa ... ............... 298
A Reception in a Harem ............. 233 The Damascus Gate .................... 299
Sculptures Mutilated by the Persians. ..... 234 View of the Mosque of Omar and the Mount
A Thing of Beauty..................... 235 of Olives .................. ... .. 301
View in the Temple of Edfoo ............ 236 Wall at South-east Corner of the Temple
Hagar Silsilis......................... 237 Area............................... 303
The Foot of the First Cataract............ 238 Wailing-place of the Jews............... 304
The Ship of the Desert.. .................. 241 The Pool of Bethesda................ .. 306
Bedouin Arabs with their Camel Herds.... 242 The Pool of Siloam..................... 307
Camels (from an Assyrian Sculpture). ..... 243 Quarries Under Jerusalem. ............... 308
A Bactrian Camel in Good Condition...... 243 View on the Mount of Olives............. 311
Foot and Stomach of the Camel .......... 244 Gethsemane............................ 312
Head of a Camel....................... 244 A Sycamore-tree ....................... 313
The Dromedary Regiment of Napoleon I... 245 The Road from Jerusalem to Bethlehem. .. 315
View of Phile from the Head of the Cataract 247 The Tomb of Rachel. ....................... 316
The Bank of the River below Philme....... 248 Entrance to Bethlehem .................. 317
Pharaoh's Bed and the Ruins of the Temple 249 View in Bethlehem........................ 319
View from Philse, looking Up the River ... 250 Interior of the Church of the Nativity. .... 321
The Papyrus Jungles of the Nile. ........ 251 The Place of the Nativity .................. 322
An Ancient Poultry-shop ............... 253 The Manger ........................ 323








12 ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE PAGE
Adoration of the Wise Men............... 323 The Plan of Nazareth....... ........... 378
The Flight into Egypt................... 324 View of Nazareth ..................... 380
An Arab Encampment. ................ .327 The Annunciation. ..................... 382
A Bedouin Sheik....................... 328 The Country near Nazareth, with the Town
Modern Bedouins of Mount Sinai......... 329 in the Distance ...................... 383
Scene in the Wilderness ................ 330 Home of a Cave-hermit in Palestine. ...... 386
An Arab Guard in Palestine ............ 331 Mount Tabor ......................... 387
Mar Saba (from Thomson's The Land and Distant View of Kefr Kenna ............ 388
the Book ") ................... ..... .332 The City and Lake of Tiberias .... ..... 390
Russian Pilgrims in the Holy Land ....... 334 Map of the Sea of Galilee ............. 392
Road to the Dead Sea ................... 334 Magdala and Plain of Gennesaret.......... 393
The Dead Sea from the North............ 335 Herod's Plan of Attack................. 394
Map of the Dead Sea .................. 337 Battle with the Robbers................. 395
Lynch's Expedition to the Dead Sea...... 338 A Galilee Fishing-boat.................. 396
Lynch's Levelling Party .............. 339 Ruins at Tell Hum ..................... 397
The Cavern of Usdum .................. 340 View of the Lake from the Western Shore. 398
Reeds and Rushes on the Jordan ......... 342 The Rock Partridge ................... 399
An Arab Skirmish in the Land of Moab ... 343 The Plain of Huleh .................... 400
Bathing-place of the Pilgrims (from Thor- Huts near Lake Huleh. ................ 401
son's "The Land and the Book").......... 345 An Army of Kedesh. ................... 402
Source of the Jordan ................... 347 Head-spring of the Jordan near Hasbeivah. 405
Passage of the Israelites. ................ 347 Map of the Sources of the Jordan ........ 406
Map of the Jordan ............... ..... 348 Terebinth-tree at Banias ............. 406
Recent Aspect of the Plain of Jericho. .... 350 Substructions of the Castle of Banias. ..... 407
Ain-es-Sultan, or Fountain of Elisha (from View from the Castle of Banias .......... 409
Thomson's "The Land and the Book").. 351 A Street in Damascus ................... 410
The Village of Bethany .................. 353 General View of Damascus. .............. 411
The Hotel-keeper ................... .... 355 Interior of a House in Damascus ......... 413
Scene on the Overland Route from Jerusalem 357 Bedouin Camp near Damascus ........... 416
By Babel's Stream ..................... 358 A Scene in Damascus ........... ...... 419
The Grapes of Eshcol ............... 359 Portrait of Abd-el-Kader. ............... 420
Hebron ............................. 360 Sword-blades of Damascus .............. 421
Street Scene in Bireh ........... ....... 362 Damask Goods ....................... 422
A Native Group at a Fountain. ............. 363 Attack on the Citadel of Damascus before
Beasts of Burden ................... .. 365 the Invention of Gunpowder. .. ....... .423
Roof of a House in Nabulus ............. 366 Paul Led into Damascus ............... 424
The Woman of Samaria ..................... 367 A Caravan near Damascus .............. 425
View of Nabulus........................ 369 The River among the Rocks ............. 426
An Ancient Olive-press ........ ..... 370' The Fijeh Source of the Abana. .......... 427
Women Working an Olive-press. ........ 370 The Ruins of Baalbec ................... 429
Ancient Lamps (Matt. xxv. 1)............ 371 Modern Wine-press ................... 431
Modern Lamps .. ....................... 371 Bridge Over the Litany ................. 432
Samaritans Bearing Tribute-an Assyrian The Cedars of Lebanon. ................ 433
Sculpture (2 Kings xvii. 3)............. 372 View of Beyroot, looking toward the Harbor 435
Sebustieh, the Ancient Samaria........... 374 Mission School in Syria ................. 436
View of Jenin, the Ancient Engainim..... 376 Fountain at Beyroot. ................... 437
Map of the Valley of Esdraelon ......... 377 Lebanon......................... 438

MAP OF EGYPT ............. ........ .. .. ................................. F ont Cover.
MAP OF THE HOLY LAND.................................................. Back Cover.

















THE BOY TRAVELLERS

IN

EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.



CHAPTER I.
FROM BOMBAY TO SUEZ.-THE RED SEA, MECCA, AND MOUNT SINAI.

ERE we are in port again !" said Fred Bronson, as the anchor fell
I1 from the bow of the steamer and the chain rattled through the
hawse-hole.
"Three cheers for ourselves!" said Frank Bassett in reply. "We
have had a splendid voyage, and here is a new country for us to visit."
"And one of tile most interesting in the world," remarked the Doc-
tor, who came on deck just in time to catch the words of the youth.

--__ --- =-





____ ____



COAST OF THE RED SEA.

"Egypt is the oldest country of which we have a definite history, and
there is no other land that contains so many monuments of its former
greatness."
Their conversation was cut short by the captain, who came to tell
them that they would soon be able to go on shore, as the Quarantine








14 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

boat was approaching, and they could leave immediately after the for-
malities were over.
When we last heard from our friends they were about leaving Bom-
bay under "sealed orders." When the steamer was fairly outside of
the beautiful harbor of that city, and the passengers were bidding fare-
well to Colaba Light-house, Dr. Bronson called the youths to his side
and told them their destination.
We are going," said he, "to Egypt, and thence to the Holy Land.
The steamer will carry us across the Indian Ocean to the Straits of Bab-
el-mandeb, and then through these straits into the Red Sea; then we
continue our voyage to Suez, where we land and travel by rail to Cairo."
One of the bcys asked how long it would take them to go from Bom-
bay to Suez.
"About ten days," was the reply. The distance is three thousand
miles, in round numbers, and I believe we are not to stop anywhere on
the way."
The time was passed pleasantly enough on the steamer. The weather
was so warm that the passengers preferred the deck to the stifling cabins,
and the majority of them slept there every night, and lounged there
during the day. The boys passed their time in reading about the coun-
tries they were to visit, writing letters to friends at home, and complet-
ing the journal of their travels. In the evenings they talked about what
they had seen, and hoped that the story of their wanderings would prove
interesting to their school-mates in America, and to other youths of their
age.*
Soon after entering the Red Sea they passed the island of Perim,
a barren stretch of rock and sand, crowned with a signal station, from
which the English flag was flying.. As they were looking at the island,
and thinking what a dreary place it must be to live in, one of the pas-
sengers told the boys an amusing story of how the English obtained
possession of it.
Of course you are aware," said he, that the English have a mili-
tary post at Aden, a rocky peninsula on the shore of Arabia, about a
hundred and twenty miles from the entrance of. the Red Sea. They
bought it from the Sultan of that part of Arabia in 1839 by first taking
possession, and then telling him he could name his price, and they would

"* "The Boy Travellers in the Far East." Parts I., II., and III. Adventures of Two Youths
in a Journey to Japan, China, Siam, Java, Cambodia, Sumatra, the Malay Archipelago, Ceylon,
Burmah, Borneo, the Philippine Islands, and India. By Thomas W. Knox. Published by
Harper & Brothers, New York.








HOW THE ENGLISH TOOK PERIM. 15

give him what they thought best, as they were determined to stay. Aden
is a very important station for England, as it lies conveniently between
Europe and Asia, and has a fine harbor. The mail steamers stop there
for coal, and the government always keeps a garrison in the fort. It is
one of the hottest and most unhealthy places in the world, and there is
a saying among the British officers that an order to go to Aden is very
much like being condemned to be shot.
Soon after the Suez Canal was begun the French thought they
needed a port somewhere near Aden, and in 1857 they sent a ship-of-
war to obtain one. The ship touched at Aden for provisions, and the cap-
tain was invited to dine with the general who commanded at the fort.
During dinner he became very talkative, and finally told the general that
his government had sent him to take possession of Perim, at the en-
trance of the Red Sea.
"Perim was a barren island, as you see, and belonged to nobody;
and the English. had never thought it was worth holding, though they
occupied it from 1799 to 1801. As soon as the French captain had
stated his business in that locality the general wrote a few words on
a slip of paper, which he handed to a servant to carry to the chief of
staff. Then he kept his visitor at table till a late hour, prevailed on him
to sleep on shore that night, and not be in a hurry to get away the next
morning.
The French ship left during the forenoon and steamed for Perim.
And you may imagine that captain's astonishment when he saw a dozen
men on the summit of the island fixing a pole in the ground. As soon
as it was in place they flung out the English flag from its top, and
greeted it with three cheers. In the little note he wrote at the dinner-
table the general had ordered a small steamer to start immediately for
Perim and take possession in the name of the Queen, and his orders
were obeyed. The French captain was dismissed from the navy for
being too free with his tongue, and the English have 'hung on' to Perim
ever since.'
The Doctor joined them as the story of the occupation of Perim
was concluded. There was a laugh over the shrewdness of the English
officer and the discomfiture of the French one, and then the conversa-
tion turned to the Red Sea.
"It may properly be called an inlet of the Indian Ocean," said the
Doctor, "as it is long and narrow, and has more the characteristics of an
inlet than of a sea. It is about fourteen hundred miles long, and varies
from twenty to two hundred miles in width; it contains many shoals







16 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

and quicksands, so that its navigation is dangerous, and requires careful
pilotage. At the upper or northern extremity it is divided into two
branches by the peninsula of Mount Sinai; the western branch is called
the Gulf of Suez, and is about one hundred and eighty miles long, by
twenty broad. This gulf was formerly more difficult of navigation than
the Red Sea proper, but recently the Egyptian government has estab-
lished a line of beacons and light-houses along its whole length, so that
the pilots can easily find their way by day or at night."
One of the boys asked why the body of water in question was called
the Red Sea.
The Doctor explained that the origin of the name was unknown,
as it had been called the Red Sea since the time of Herodotus and other
early writers. It is referred to in the Hebrew Scriptures as Yam Suph,
the Sea of Weeds, in consequence of the profusion of weeds in its wa-
ters. These weeds have a reddish color; the barren hills that enclose
the sea have a strong tinge of red, especially at the hours of sunset and
sunrise, and the coral reefs that stretch in every direction and make
navigation dangerous are often of a vermilion tint. "You will see
all these things as you proceed," he continued, "and by the time you
are at Suez you will have no difficulty in understanding why this body
of water is called the Red Sea."
The boys found it as he had predicted, and the temperature for
the first two days after passing Perim led Frank to suggest that the
name might be made more descriptive of its character if it were called
the Red-hot Sea. The thermometer stood at 1010 in the cabin, and
was only a little lower on deck; the heat was enervating in the ex-
treme, and there was no way of escaping it; but on the third day the
wind began to blow from the north, and there was a change in the
situation. Thin garments were exchanged for thick ones, and the pas-
sengers, who had been almost faint with the heat, were beginning to
shiver in their overcoats.
"A change of this sort is unusual," said the gentleman who had told
them of the seizure of Perim, "but when it does come it is very grate-
ful. Only in January or February is the Red Sea anything but hot;
the winds blow from the sandy desert, or from the region of the equa-
tor, and sometimes it seems as though you were in a furnace. From
December to March the thermometer averages 760, from thence to May
it is 87, and through the four or five months that follow it is often 1000.
I have frequently seen it 1100 in the cabin of a steamer, and on one
occasion, when the simoom was blowing from the desert, it was 1320.








TEMPERATURE OF THE RED SEA. 17

Steamers going north when the south wind is blowing find themselves
running just with the wind, so that they seem to be in a dead calm;
in such cases they sometimes turn around every ten or twelve hours
and run a few miles in the other direction, so as to let the wind blow
through tlhe ship and ventilate it as much as possible. The firemen are
Arabs and negroes, accustomed all tleir lives to great heat, but on al-
most every voyage some of them find the temperature of the engine-
room too severe, and die of suffocation."
Our friends passed by Jeddah, the port of Mecca, and from the deck
of the steamer the white walls and towers of the town were distinctly



I _' ..... --- -- ___ lll_____ l,










_. ___ __ .___ --IK e








VIEW IN JEDDAH, ON THE RED SEA.

visible. Frank and Fred would have been delighted to land at Jeddah
and make a pilgrimage to Mecca, but the Doctor told them the jour-
ney was out of the question, as no Christian is allowed to enter the
sacred city of the Moslems, and the few who had ever accomplished the
feat had done so at great personal risk.
"The first European who ever went there was Blnrckhardt, in 1814,"
said Dr. Bronson. "IIe prepared himself for his travels by studying
tle Arabic language, and went in the disguise of an Arab merchant,
under the name of Sheikh Ibrahim ibn Abdallah. Then he travelled
2







18 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAN).

through Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt for several years, and became
thoroughly familiar with the customs of the people, so that he was able
to pass himself successfully as a learned Moslem. Captain Burton went
to Mecca in 1852, and since his time the city has been visited by Malt-
zan, Palgrave, and two or three others. Captain Burton followed the
example of Burckhardt and wore the Arab dress; he spoke the language
fluently, but in spite of this his disguise was penetrated while he was
returning to Jeddah, and he was obliged to flee from his companions
and travel all night away from the road till he reached the protection
of the seaport."
"What would have happened if he had been found out?" Frank
inquired.
"Tlhe mob of fanatical Moslems would have killed him," was the
reply. "They would have considered it an insult to their religion for
him to enter their sacred city-the birthplace of the founder of their
religion-and he would have been stoned or otherwise put to death.
Some Europeans who have gone to Mecca have never returned, and
nothing was ever heard of them. It is supposed they were discovered
and murdered."
What barbarians !" exclaimed Fred.
"Yes," replied the Doctor; "but if you speak to any of them about
it, they will possibly reply that Christian people have put to death those
who did not believe in their religion. They might quote a good many
occurrences in various parts of Europe in the past five hundred years,
and could even remind us that the Puritans, in New England, hanged
three men and one woman, and put many others in prison, for the of-
fence of being Quakers. Religious intolerance, even at this day, is not
entirely confined to the Moslems."
Frank asked what could be seen at Mecca, and whether the place
was really worth visiting.
"As to that," the Doctor answered, "tastes might differ. Mecca is
said to be a well-built city, seventy miles from Jeddah, with a population
of about fifty thousand. The most interesting edifice in the place is
the Caaba,' or Shrine, which stands in the centre of a large square,
and has at one corner the famous Black Stone,' which the Moslems
believe was brought from heaven by the angels. Burckhardt thought it
was only a piece of lava; but Captain Burton believes it is an aerolite,
of an oval shape, and about seven feet long. The pilgrims walk seven
times around the Caaba, repeating their prayers at every step, and they
begin their walk by prostrating themselves in front of the Black Stone







A PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA. 10
and kissing it. The consequence is that it is worn smooth, as the num-
ber of pilgrims going annually to Mecca is not less than two hundred
thousand. The pilgrimage is completed with the ascent of Mount Ara-
fat, twelve miles east of Mecca; and when a Moslem returns from his
journey he is permitted to wear a green turban for the rest of his
life. The pilgrimage is an easier matter than it used to be, as there
are steamers running from Suez and other points to carry the pilgrims


/



















---- .





CAPTAIN BURTON IN NATIVE DRESS.

to Jeddah, and from there they can easily accomplish their journey to
Mecca and return in a couple of weeks."
Frank asked how far it was from Mecca to Medina, the place where
Mohammed died and was buried.
"Medina is about two hundred and fifty miles north of Mecca," said







20 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

the Doctor, "and is only a third the size of the latter city. It is next
to Mecca in sanctity, and a great many pilgrims go there every year.
The tomb of the Prophet is in a large mosque, in the centre of the city,
and there is an old story that the coffin of Mohammed is suspended in





-=-=~, -- ._ -__-


















ENCAMPMENT OF PILGRIMS AT MOUNT ARAFAT, NEAR MECCA.

the air by invisible threads hanging from heaven. Captain Burton
visited Medina, and reports that the Moslems have no knowledge of the
story, and say it must have been invented by a Christian. The tomb is
in one side of the building, but no one is allowed to look upon it, not
even a Moslem ; the most that can be seen is the curtain surrounding
it, and even that must be observed through an aperture in a wooden
screen. The custodians say that any person who looks on the tomb of
the Prophet would be instantly blinded by a flood of holy light."
So much for the two holiest places in the eyes of the Moslems.
Frank and Fred concluded that they did not care to go to Mecca and
Medina, and the former instanced the old fable of a fox who despised
the grapes which were inaccessible, and denounced them as too sour to
be eaten.
As they entered the Gulf of Suez the attention of the boys was
._J,.ll. -__. -
















tie ai' by invisible threa.ds -angi r--. ., fro heaven. Captain 1rton-






ARRIVAL AT SUEZ. 21

directed to Mount Sinai, and they readily understood, from the barren-
ness and desolation of the scene, why it was called "Mount Sinai in
the Wilderness." With a powerful telescope not a sign of vegetation
was anywhere visible.
It was late in the forenoon of a pleasant day when the ship came to
anchor, as we have described in our opening lines. The Quarantine
doctor came on board, and was soon convinced that no reason existed




__J-il K_ ___ __-... -_2 ___ ---




'I;~~-~-~-=-~~-~=- I_ ------- __





I- _
---:- _- ___--__ __ '-'aT-"-


"", F?- -N .. .--










VIEW OF MEDINA (FROM A DRAWING BY A NATIVE ARTIST).

why the passengers, who chose to do so, might not go on shore. Doctor
Bronson and his young friends bargained with a boatman to carry them
and their baggage to the steps of the Hotel de Suez for a rupee each.
The town, with the hotel, was about two miles from the anchorage, and
the breeze carried them swiftly over the intervening stretch of water.
Half a dozen steamers lay at the anchorage, waiting for their turn to
pass the Canal; and a dozen or more native craft, in addition to the
foreign ships, made the harbor of Suez appear quite picturesque. The
rocky hills behind the town, and the low slopes of the opposite shore,
glistened in the bright sunlight; but the almost total absence of verd-
ure in the landscape rendered the picture the reverse of beautiful. Not
a tree nor a blade of grass can be seen on the African side of the Gulf,







22 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

while on the opposite shore the verdure-seeking eye is only caught by
the oasis at the Wells of Moses, where a few palm-trees bid defiance to
the shifting sands of the desert.
Suez appeared to our friends a straggling collection of flat-roofed
houses and whitewashed walls, where the sea terminates and the desert
begins. Before the construction of the Canal it was little better than an











;. -'- "" " .


,, 11 1 N
-- --





















SCENE NEAR SUEZ.

Arab village, with less than two thousand inhabitants; at present it is a
town of ten or twelve thousand people, the majority of whom are sup-
ported, directly or indirectly, by the Canal or the railway. There has
been a town of some sort at this point for more than three thousand
years, but it hlias never been of much importance, commercially or other-
wise. The situation in the midst of desert hills, and more especially the
--=_._ -___ i -_.._ ,_...---2. ---' ' ----~ -~ --- :- J-- -' .. .. ---= -
--_ --. ..---_ _'-.: '-.".'- ,, -' ~-i ----d -'- -__- -L -- _-7 _-





I;-.---




SCEN NEA SUEZ.11 .'.: ~:-
Arab~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ vilae wihls hntothuadihbtns;a rsn ti
townof en o twlrethouandpeoLete aoito wo resp
portd, iretlyo1"indret.y, byt" Cnlorterila.Thr a
been~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ a tow of some sor at thispoint fr moetant;e tosn
year, bt ithasnevr ben o muh i~porane, C~~mecialy o ot~er
wie h iuto nte is fdsr ~ls admr seilyt-









SITUATION OF AN OLD CITY. 23

absence of fresh water, have been thie drawbacks to its prosperity. There
is little to be seen in its shops, and for that little the prices demanded
are exorbitant. Few travellers remain more than a day at Suez, and the
great majority are ready to leave an hour or two after their arrival.














T L IN ,,I ,,I
I





'l-i '"I P 1,Il, I




_-- -- -- __-- .------ ---





TRAVELLING IN THE SINAI DESERT.






2- THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.









CHAPTER II.
SUEZ.-WHERE THE ISRAELITES CROSSED THE RED SEA.-THE SUEZ CANAL.

F RANK and Fred were impatient to see the Suez Canal, which enables
ships to pass between the Red and Mediterranean Seas. In going
from the anchorage to the town they passed near the southern end of
the Canal, and from the veranda of the hotel they could see steamers
passing apparently through the sandy desert, as the position where they
stood concealed the water from sight. As soon as they had secured their
rooms at the hotel, they started out with the Doctor to make a practi-
cal acquaintance with the great channel from sea to sea.
There was a swarm of guides and donkey-drivers at the door of the
hotel, so that they had no difficulty in finding their way. At the sugges-
tion of the Doctor they followed the pier, nearly two miles in length,
which leads from the south part of the town to the harbor; the water is
very shallow near Suez, and this pier was built so that the railway trains
could be taken along-side the steamers, and thus facilitate the transfer of
passengers and freight. The pier is about fifty feet wide, and has a solid
foundation of artificial stone sunk deep into the sand. At the end of the
pier are several docks and quays belonging to the Canal and railway com-
panies, and there is a large basin, called Port Ibrahim, capable of con-
taining many ships at once. The Canal Company's repair-shops and ware-
houses stand on artificial ground, which was made by dredging the sand
and piling it into the space between the pier and the land, and Frank
thought that not less than fifty acres had thus been enclosed.
A line of stakes and buoys extended a considerable distance out into
the head of the Gulf, and the Doctor explained that, in consequence of
the shallowness near the land, the Suez Canal began more than a mile
from the shore. The sand-bar is visible at low tide, and when the wind
blows from the north a large area is quite uncovered. A channel was
dredged for the passage of ships, and the dredging-machines are fre-
quently in use to remove the sand which blows from the desert or is
swept into the channel by the currents.








PASSAGE OF THE RED SEA BY THE ISRAELITES. 25

At the end of the long pier is a light-house; and while our friends
stood there and contemplated the scene before them, the Doctor reminded
the boys that in all probability they were in sight of the spot where the
hosts of Pharaoh were drowned after the Israelites had crossed over in
safety.
That is very interesting," said Frank; but is this really the place ?"
We cannot be abso-
lutely certain of that," j" I I I II II II I Il'"
was the reply, "'as there IIJI
are different opinions onr i O
the subject. But it was
in this neighborhood cer- ll
tainly, and some of those
who have made a careful
study of the matter say
that the crossing was prob-
ably within a mile of this --I
very spot." .
The eyes of the boys tl 1
opened to their fullest u-
width at this announce- -118 M
ment, and they listened is ot
intently to the Doctor's
remarks on the passage of
the Israelites through the
Red Sea.
You will remember,"
said the Doctor, that the I
Bible account tells us how J ___ ______
the Lord caused a strongly I
wind to blow from the l__l,
north, which swept away li I.,
the waters and allowed the -_-_ __ -- :------_'
Israelites to pass over the A SHOP IN SUEZ.
bed of the sea. After they
had crossed, and the hosts of Pharaoh pursued them, the wind changed,
the waters returned, and the army of the Egyptian ruler was drowned in
the waves. The rise of the tide at this place is from three to six feet,
and the sand-bank is only slightly covered when the tide is out; now,
when the wind blows from the north with great force the water is







26 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

driven away, and parts of the sand-bank are exposed. On the other
hand, when a strong wind blows from the south, the water is forced upon
the sand-bank, and the tide, joined to this wind, will make a depth of six
or seven feet where a few hours before the ground was dry. This is the
testimony of many persons who have made careful observations of the
Gulf of Suez, and the miracle described in the Bible is in exact accord-
ance with the natural conditions that exist to-day.
"1One modern writer on this subject says he has known a strong
north-east wind to lay the ford dry, and be followed by a south-west wind
that rendered the passage impossible even for camels. M. De Lesseps,
the projector of the Suez Canal, says he has seen the northern etd of the
sea blown almost dry, while the next day the waters were driven far up
on the land. In 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte and his staff came near being
drowned here in a sudden change of
wind, and fatal accidents occur once
in a while from the same cause. On
lthe map prepared by the officers of
the maritime canal to show the dif-
SUEz ference between high and low water,
you will see that the conditions are
Zi just as I have stated them.
S-Low lVnate, Ie Some writers believe," the Doc-
tor continued, "that the sea was far-
ther inland three thousand years ago,
SF 0 F and that the crossing was made about
ten miles farther north than where
S 77 z 7 we now stand. There is some diffi-
/ culty in locating all the places named
1 in the biblical story of the exodus,
s and it would be too much to expect
all the critics to agree on the sub-
ject. The weight of opinion is in
favor of Suez as the crossing-place
THE NORTHERN END OF THE GULF OF SUEZ. Of tile Israelites, and so we will be-
lieve we are at the scene of the de-
liverance of the captives and the destruction of the hosts of Pharaoh. It
is a mistake to suppose tlat Pharaoh was himself drowned in the Red
Sea; it was only his army that suffered destruction."
From the point where this conversation took place they went to the
Waghorn Quay, just beyond. It was named in honor of Lieutenant Wag-








THE OVERLAND ROUTE TO INDIA. 27

horn, who devoted several years to the establishment of the so-called
"overland route" between England and India. Through his exertions
the line of the Peninsular and Oriental steamers was established, and the
mails between England and India were regularly carried through Egypt,
instead of taking the tedious voyage around the Cape of Good Hope.
IHe died in London in poverty in 1850; since his death the importance of
his services has been recognized, and a statue to his memory stands on
the quay which bears his name. At his suggestion the name of "over-
land route" was given to this line of travel between England and India,
though the land journey is only two hundred and fifty miles, to distin-
guish it from the "sea route" around the Cape of Good Hope.
From Waghorn Quay it was only a short distance to the Canal, and as
they reached its bank a large steamer was just.entering on its way to the
Mediterranean. Frank observed that she was moving very slowly, and
asked the Doctor why she did not put on full steam and go ahead.
That would be against the rules of the Canal Company," was the
reply. "If the steamers should go at full speed they would destroy the
Canal in a short time; the wash' or wake they would create would break
down the banks and bring the sand tumbling into the water. They must
not steam above four miles an hour, except in places where the Canal
widens into lakes, and even there they cannot go at full speed."
"Then there are lakes in the Canal, are there ?" Fred inquired.
"I'll explain tlat by-and by," the Doctor responded. "Meantime
look across the head of the Gulf and see that spot of green which stands
out so distinctly among the sands."
The boys looked in the direction indicated and saw an irregular patch
of verdure, on which the white walls of several houses made a sharp
contrast to the green of the grass and the palm-trees that waved above
them.
"That spot," said the Doctor, "is known as 'Ayoon Moosa,' or 'Tlie
Wells of Moses.' It is an oasis, where several wells or springs have ex-
isted for thousands of years, and it is supposed that the Israelites halted
there and made a camp after their deliverance from Egypt. As the pur-
suing army of Pharaoh had been destroyed before their eyes, they were
out of danger and in no hurry to move on. The place has borne the
name of 'The Wells of Moses' from time immemorial; there is a tradi-
tion that the largest of them was opened by the divining-rod of the great
leader of the Hebrews in their escape from captivity, and is identical with
Marah, described in Exodus, xv. 23. The wells are pools of water fed
by springs which bubble in their centre; the water in all of them is too







28 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.




I ____________ _____ E___ _

































water from these wells, which was brought in goat-skins and casks on the
backs of camels. The springs are seven or eight miles from Suez in a
direct line, and the easiest way of reaching them is by a sail or row boat
"AYOON MOOSA"--THE WX ELLS OF MOSES.






to th e l anding place, ableout two miles from the camels dince the odil, and




of the fresh-water canal in 1863 this business of supplying the city has
the spot is an ithe wportant is principally used for cirrigatns ing toe gardens in the
desert."
The Doctor farther explained that Suez was formerly supplied witlh




water from these ells, veethich was broaten in goat-skinuez are rown around the
backs of and there is a hotel there seen o, with a fairly good r milestaurant attacheduez in a
direct line, and the easiest way of reaching them is by a sail or row boat
to the landing place, about two miles from the oasis. Since the opening
of the fresh-water canal in 1863 this business of supplying the city has
ceased, and the water is principally used for irrigating thle gardens in the
oasis. Most of the fresh vegetables eaten in Suez are growing around the
springs, and there is a hotel there, with a fairly good restaurant attached







VISITING A MOSQUE. 29

to it. The residents of Suez make frequent excursions to the Wells of
Moses, and almost any day a group of camels may be seen kneeling
around the principal springs.
Our friends returned along the quay to Suez, and strolled through
some of the streets of the town. There was not much to be seen, as the
shops are neither numerous nor well stocked, and evidently are not
blessed with an enormous business. They visited a mosque, where they
were obliged to take off their shoes, according to the custom of the East,
before they could pass the door-way; the custodian supplied them with
slippers, so that they were not required to walk around in their stock-
inged feet. When you go on a sight-seeing tour in an Egyptian city, it
is well to carry your own slippers along, or intrust them to your guide,
as the Moslems are rigid enforcers of the rule prohibiting you to wear
your boots inside a mosque.











C-----"-" C~""'~'R WI~C r!



PREACHING IN A MOSQUE.

The principal attraction in the mosque was a group to whom a mollah,
or priest, was delivering a lecture. The speaker stood in a high pulpit
which was.reached by a small ladder, and his hearers stood below him or
squatted on the floor. What lie said was unintelligible to our friends, as
he was speaking in Arabic, which was to them an unknown tongue. The
audience was apparently interested in his remarks, and paid no attention
to the strangers except to scowl at them. In some of the mosques of the
East Christians are not admitted; this was the rule half a century ago,
but at present it is very generally broken down, and the hated infidel may
visit the mosques of the principal cities of Egypt and Turkey, provided
he pays for the privilege.







30 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

They returned to the hotel in season for dinner. The evening was
passed in the house, and the party went to bed in good season, as they
were to leave at, eight o'clock in the morning for Cairo. They were at
the station in due time for departure, and found the train was composed
of carriages after the English pattern, in charge of a native conductor
who spoke French. By judiciously presenting him with a rupee they
secured a compartment to themselves.
While they were waiting for the train to move on the Doctor told the
boys about the overland route" through Egypt.
"The route that was established by Lieutenant Waghorn was by
steamship from England to Alexandria, and thence by river steamboats
along the Nile to Cairo. From Cairo, ninety miles, to Suez the road was
directly through the desert, and passengers were carried in small omni-
buses, drawn by horses, which were changed at stations ten or fifteen
miles apart. Water for supplying these stations was carried from the
Nile and kept in tanks, and it was a matter of heavy expense to maintain
the stations. The omnibus road was succeeded by the railway, opened in
1857, and the water for the locomotives was carried by the trains, as there
was not a drop to be had along the route. This railway was abandoned
and the track torn up after the construction of the Canal, as the expense
of maintaining it was very great. In addition to the cost of carrying
water was that of keeping the track clear of sand, which was drifted by
the wind exactly as snow is drifted in the Northern States of America,
and sometimes the working of the road was suspended for several days
by the sand-drifts. The present railway follows the banks of the Mari-
time Canal as far as Ismailia, and thence it goes along the Fresh-Water
Canal, of which I will tell you.
The idea of a canal to connect the Mediterranean and Red Seas is
by no means a modern one."
Yes," said Frank, I have read somewhere that the first Napoleon
in 1799 thought of making a canal between the two seas, and his engi-
neers surveyed the route for it."
"You are quite right," responded the Doctor, "but there was a canal
long before the time of Napoleon, or rather there have been several
canals."
"Several canals!" exclaimed Frank. "Not several canals at once ?"
"Hardly that," said the Doctor, with a smile; but at different times
there have been canals between the two seas. They differ from the pres-
ent one in one respect: the maritime Canal of to-day runs from one sea
to the other, and is filled with salt-water, while the old canals connected








CANALS THROUGH EGYPT. 31

the Nile with the Red Sea, and were constantly filled with fresh-water.
The Fresh-Water Canal of to-day follows the line of one of the old
canals, and in several places the ancient bed was excavated and the an-
cient walls were made useful, though they were sadly out of repair."
One of the boys asked how old these walls were, to be in such a bad
condition.




-- ,--







A LANDING-PLACE ON THE FRESH-WATER CANAL.

We cannot say exactly how old they are," was the reply, and a
hundred years or so in our guessing will make no difference. Accord-
ing to some authorities, one of the rulers of ancient Egypt, Rameses II.,
conceived and carried out the idea of joining the two seas by means of
the Nile and a canal, but there is no evidence that the work was accom-
plished in his time. The first canal of which we have any positive his-
tory was made by Pharaoh Necho I. about 600 B.c., or nearly twenty-five
hundred years ago. It tapped the Nile at Bubastis, near Zagazig, and
followed the line of the present Fresh-Water Canal to the head of the
Bitter Lake. The Red Sea then extended to the Bitter Lake, and the
shallow places were dredged out sufficient to allow the passage of the
small craft that were in use in those days. The canal is said to have
been sixty two Roman miles long, or fifty- seven English ones, which
agrees with- the surveys of the modern engineers.
"This canal does not seem to have been used sufficiently to keep it
from being filled by the drifting sand, as it was altogether closed a hun-
dred years later, when it was re-opened by Darius; the latter made a salt-
water canal about ten miles long near the south end of the Bitter Lake, to
connect it with the Red Sea. Traces of this work were found when the
Fresh-Water Canal was made, and for some distance the old track was
followed. Under the arrangement of the canals of Necho and Darius,
ships sailed up the Nile to Bubastis, and passed along the canal to the







32 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

Bitter Lake, where their cargoes were transferred to Red Sea vessels.
About 300 B.c. Ptolemy Philadelphus caused the two canals to be cleared
out, and connected them by a lock, so that ships could pass from the
fresh to the salt water, or vice versa.
"Four hundred years later (about 200 A.D.), according to some writers,
a new canal was made, tapping the Nile near Cairo, and connecting witl
the old one, which was again cleared out and made navigable. Another
canal, partly new and partly old, is attributed to the seventh century,
and still another to the eleventh century; since that time there has been
nothing of the sort till the Maritime Canal Company found it necessary,
in 1861, to supply the laborers on their great work with fresh water.





















ORIENTAL SHIPS OF ANCIENT TIMES.

They cleared out the old canal in some places, and dug a new one in
others as far as the Bitter Lake; afterward they prolonged it to Suez,
which it reached in 1863, and at the same time they laid a line of iron
pipes from Ismailia to Port Said, on the Mediterranean. It would have
been impossible to make and maintain the Maritime Canal without a
supply of fresh-water, and thus the work of the Egyptians of twenty-
five hundred years ago became of practical use in our day.
"Look on this map," said thie Doctor, as he drew one from his pocket
and handed it to the youths, "and you will see the various points I have







STATISTICS OF THE SUEZ CANAL. 33

indicated, together with the line of the Maritime Canal, and of the Fresh-
Water Canal which supplies this part of Egypt with water."
Several minutes were passed in the study of the map. Before it was
finished the train started, and in a short time our friends were busily
contemplating the strange scene presented from the windows of their
carriage.
The railway followed very nearly the bank of the Fresh-Water Canal,
which varied from twenty to fifty feet in width, and appeared to be five
or six feet deep. Beyond it was the Maritime Canal, a narrow channel,
where steamers were slowly making their way, the distances between
them being regulated by the pilots, so as to give the least possible chance
of collision. Considering the number of steamers passing through the
Canal, the number of accidents is very small. Frank could not under-
stand how steamers could meet and pass each otler, till the Doctor ex-
plained that there were "turnouts every few miles, where a steamer
proceeding in one direction could wait till another had gone by, in
the same way that railway-trains pass each other by means of sidings."
Then there was plenty of space in Lake Timsah and the Bitter Lake,
not only for ships to move, but to anchor in case of any derangement
of their machinery.
From the information derived from the Doctor, and from the books
and papers wlicih he supplied, Frank and Fred made up the following
account of the Suez Canal for the benefit of their friends at home:
The Canal is one hundred miles long, from Suez, on the Red Sea, to
Port Said, on the Mediterranean. Advantage was taken of depressions in
the desert below tle level of the sea, and when the water was let in, these
depressions were filled up and became lakes (Timsah and Bitter Lakes), as
you see on the map. There were thirty miles of these depressions; and
then there was a marsh or swamp (thirty miles across), called Lake Men-
zaleh, which was covered during the flood of the Nile, and only needed
a channel to be dug or dredged sufficiently deep for the passage of ships.
The first spadeful of earth was dug by Ferdinand de Lesseps at Port Said
on the 25th of April, 1868, and the completed Canal was opened for the
passage of ships on the 16th of November, 1869. About forty steamers
entered it at Port Said on that day, anchored in Lake Timsah for the
night, and passed to the Red Sea on the 17th. M. de Lesseps projected
the Canal while lie was serving in Egypt as French Consul, and it was
through his great energy and perseverance that the plan was finally car-
ried out. The Canal was distinctively a French enterprise, and was op-
posed by England, but as soon as it was completed the English Govern-
3








34 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

ment saw its great importance, and bought a large amount of stock that
had hitherto been held by the Egyptian Government.
"The line of the Canal where digging was necessary was through
sand, but in many places it was packed very hard, so that pickaxes were


























IERDINA D DE LESSEPS.

needed to break it up. Much of the sand was removed by native labor-
ers with shovels and baskets; but after the first two years it was neces-
sary to substitute machinery for hand labor. Excavatiing and dredging
machines driven by steam were -put in operation, and the work was
pushed along very rapidly; the channel through Lake Menzaleh was
made by floating dredges equipped with long spouts that deposited the
sand two or three hundred feet from where they were at work, and the
dry cuttings at higher points were made by similar excavators mounted
on wheels. At oniie place, just south of Lake Tiinsah, there was a bed of
solid rock, where it was necessary to do a great deal of blastiiing, and the
last blast in this rock was made only a few IhoLurs before the openingii of
the Canal.
The cost of the work was nearly $100,000,000, of which about one-
sa" t substittmaierfohadlo.Exaaigadddgg






solid -ock ....... it wa-eesr od ra d a fbatn ,a d t
latbls n -s-owa ae nya eo.sbeoeth p-igo































-LL-





P- 0 _.R- A AID MEDITERRAN AN SEA






HE LK-WiEz A E

RESH ~ ~~~ 3u A EM ES
________ Pt, ___- -





















13ITT r R LAKE
________----=~I-~_- _L;-___-___''___ -7- t---7MA~OL

























GENEFE i4
SUEZ__ CANAL AD U
___ ______________ _________ _____ ____ __IN __ __ ______ ~____________


z __________________-__-'"____ _~~_.- ~_--










































SLIiZ CANAL 4N1 V TFRN FCTYP'








36 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

third was paid by Egypt, under the mistaken impression that the Canal
would be beneficial to the country. The Khedive, or Viceroy of Egypt,
spent nearly $10,000,000 on the festivities at the opening of the Canal,
and this foolish outlay is one of the causes of the present bankruptcy of
the country. Palaces and theatres were built for this occasion, roads were
opened that were of no use afterward, and an enormous'amount of money
was spent for fireworks, music, banquets, and presents of various kinds to
all the guests. The Empress of France was present at the opening of the
Canal, and distinguished persons from all parts of the world were invited
and entertained in princely style.
"1In 1870, the first year the Canal was in operation, 486 vessels passed
through it; in the next year the number was 765, and it steadily in-
creased till it became 1264 vessels in 1874, 1457 in 1876, and 2026 in
1880. More than two-thirds of the entire number of ships passing the
Canal are English, and in some years they have been fully three-fourths,
while the French are less than one -thirteenth of the total number.
France, which expected much from the Canal, has realized very little;
while England, which opposed its construction, has reaped nearly all the
benefit therefrom."
"By the original charter the company was allowed to charge ten
francs (two dollars) a ton on the measurement of each ship going
through the Canal, and ten francs for each passenger. The revenue,
after deducting tlie expenses of operating, amounts to about five per
cent. on the capital of the company, and the officers think it will be
seven or eight per cent. before many years.

In 1881 the receipts were 51,080,355 fr., which is 11,239,866 fr. in excess of the receipts for
1880. The number of English vessels that passed through the Canal was not only larger than the
total for all other nations, it was nearly four times as large as that total, and the English per-
centage also showed an increase over the former year. The number of English ships was 2256.
France ranked next, but she had only 109 ships-about one-twentieth what England had. Then
came Holland, with 70 ships; Austria, with 65; Italy, with 51; Spain, with 46; and Germany, with
40. Egypt had only 11--the same number that Turkey had; Norway had 10 and China 4. Ten
years ago the amount of coal supplied at Port Said was 126,000 tons; in 1881 it was 506,000 tons,
or four times as much; and while the British proportion of the tonnage in 1871 was 64 per cent.
of the total, it was 82 in 1881. Of share prices some equally interesting figures may be given.
With a nominal value of 500 fr., they had fallen in 1863 to 220 fr. In 1869, the year the Canal
was opened, they rose to 663 fr.; in 1880 they had reached 715 fr., and before the year closed
had touched 1327 fr. They advanced to 1700 fr. in June of the following year, and between that
month and January, 1882, went rapidly on to 3500 fr., but fell ere the middle of the month to
2100 fr. In 1881 the dividend on the shares was 9 per cent.; for 1882 it will probably be 12, so
that 2100 fr., a point to which the shares were forced in a time of panic, even with dividends of
12 per cent., would still be far higher than the actual value of the shares.








DISTANCES SAVED BY THE CANAL. 37

The following figures show the dimensions of the Canal:
Feet.
Width at water-line, where the banks are low. ........................ 328
Width at water-line in deep cuttings, where the banks are high........... 190
Width at bottom of the Canal....................................... 72
Depth of water in the Canal................... .. ........ ......... 26

The scenery on the Canal is not particularly interesting, as one soon
gets tired of looking at the desert, with its apparently endless stretch of
sand. At Ismailia and Kantara there has been an attempt at cultivation,
and there are some pretty gardens which have been created since the
opening of the Fresh-Water Canal, and are kept up by irrigation. But
nearly all the rest is a waste, especially on the last twenty-seven miles,
through Lake Menzaleh to Port Said. If you make this ride on one of























NIGHT SCENE ON LAKE MENZALEH.

the small steamers maintained by the Canal Company you find that one
mile is exactly like any other, and you are soon glad enough to seek the
cabin and go to sleep.
"Here are some figures showing the saving in distances (in nautical
miles) by tlhe Canal:
Via Cape of Good Hope. Via Canal. Saving.
England to Bombay ................. 10,860 6020 4840
New York to Bombay ............... 11,520 7920 3600
St. Petersburg to Bombay ................ 11,610 6770 4840
Marseilles to Bombay ............. ... 10,560 4620 5940







3S THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.









CHAPTER III.

FROM SUEZ TO CAIRO.-THROUGH THE LAND OF GOSHEN.

THERE is little to relieve the monotony of the desert between Suez
and Ismailia beyond the view of the two canals, and the ships and
boats moving on their waters. Occasionally a line of camels may be seen
walking with a dignified pace, or halted for the adjustment of their loads,
or for some other purpose. In every direction there is nothing but the







Ai i i '









CAMEL AND YOUNG.

desert either stretching out into a plain or rising in mountains, on which

not a particle of verdure is visible. Under the bright sun of the Egyp-
tian sky the sands glittered and sparkled till the light they reflected
became painful to the eyes of the observers. The prudent Doctor had
bought some veils in the bazaar of Suez, and now brought them from
the recesses of his satchel for the use of the delighted boys as well as for
his own.
The color of the desert mountains on the southern horizon varied







TO CAIRO BY THE RAILWAY. 39

from white to yellow and purple, and from yellow and purple back again
to white. Frank said that some of them seemed to be composed of ame-
thysts and garnets, mixed and melted together in a gigantic crucible.
The Doctor told him he was not the first to make such a description, as
the idea had occurred to previous travellers, some of whom thought
the mountains were composed of all kinds of precious stones mingled
with glass. The dazzling appearance of these elevations had led many
persons to explore them in search of gems; but of all these explorers
none had ever found the fortune he sought.
As they approached Ismailia there were signs of vegetation on the
banks of the Fresh-Water Canal, and near the town they came to some
pretty gardens which have been created since the opening of the Canal.
While the works of the Canal were in progress Ismailia was an active
town, with a considerable population, but at present many of its buildings
are unoccupied, and there is a general appearance of desolation. There
are a few cottages near the banks of Lake Timsah, and of late years the
town has obtained popularity with some of the European residents of
Cairo, wio go there for the sake of the salt-water bathing. The air is
clear and dry, the water is of the deep blue of the united seas, and is gen-
erally of an agreeable temperature, while it has the smoothness of an in-
land lake, and is not popular with sharks or any other disagreeable in-
habitants of tropical waters. The current created by the changes of the
tide between the two seas is sufficient to keep the water from becoming
stagnant, but is not strong enough to interfere with navigation or disturb
the bather.
After a brief halt at the station the train moved off in the direction of
Cairo, and for an hour or more the views from the windows of the rail-
way-carriage were remarkable in their character. On one side of the train
the naked desert filled the picture, with its endless stretch of sand; on
the other the gardens on the banks of the Fresh-Water Canal were mar-
vels of luxuriance. The richest soil in the world lay side by side witl
the most desolate, and our friends agreed that they had never seen so
marked a contrast during a ride on a railway train. The Doctor explained
that the abundant vegetation was due to the wonderful fertilizing power
of the Nile water, and said it was no wonder that the ancient Egyptians
worshipped the river, and attributed all their wealth and prosperity to its
influence.
At Zagazig the train stopped an hour or more for dinner, and there
was a change of carriages for the passengers destined for Cairo. Zagazig
is the junction of the lines for Cairo and Alexandria, and since the open-








40 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.








/:: .... -- _,
.- ..... ,--





... ..... .. .
.. ". ...
















which more than half a million pilgrims went every year.




Forf the remaining fifty-two miles fo. Zagazig to Cairo the ro.te lay











through a fertile country, and only occasional glimpses were afforded of
the desert. Boats and barges were moving on the Canal, some of them
arryine t he ri..n---s of the ce country to Cairo or Isma.ilia w ile.
'1 -

















ing of t tae railway olte town has become of considerable importance. a
great deal of cotton is raised inl the vicisit w nt evr yea
than fifty thmsain toins of that article afre seom t fZr the stCotion. Tela
control around fer e is very feaotile, cd iasialid to g e tme woshere of tr e








the desert. Boats and barges were moving oil the Canal, some of them
carrying the local products of the country to Cairo or Ismailia, while








THE USE OF THE SHADOOF. 41

others were laden with coal and other foreign importations which find a
market among the Egyptians. The boys were interested in the processes
of irrigating the lands, and eagerly listened to the Doctor's explanation
of the matter. Before reaching Zagazig they had seen some men at work
dipping water by means of buckets suspended from poles, and emptying
it into basins formed by excavations on the banks; they were told that
this apparatus for hoisting water was called a shadoof," and had been in
use from the most ancient days of Egypt.






.I -









TilE MODERN 811ADOOF.

The simplest form of shadoof," said the Doctor, "is the one you are
looking at. It consists of two posts of wood or sun-dried mud, support-
ing a horizontal bar, on which the pole suspending the bucket is balanced
in the centre. A lump of mud on one end of the pole balances the
weight of the bucket on the other, and enables the main who operates it
to lift his burden with ease. The bucket is made of rushes woven so
tightly as to hold water, and at the same time be as light as possible, and
it is dipped and raised with great rapidity. Water is lifted from six to
eight feet by tlhe shadoof. If a higher elevation is needed, a second and
even a third or a fourth may be used; on the upper part of the Nile I
have seen half a dozen of them in operation on a series of steps, one
above the other.
You will see representations of the shadoof on the walls of the tem-
ples and tombs of Egypt, and the conclusion is certain that the form has
not changed in the least in three thousand years. When the Nile is at
its height there is no need of anything of the sort, as the water flows all







42 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

over the land, and the entire country is inundated. As soon as the river
falls it is necessary to raise water by artificial means, as the growing
plants in the fields would soon
"perish under the hot sun of
Egypt without a supply of
"^' moisture. Then the shadoof
comes in play, and the more
_7 ithe river descends the greater
is the number demanded. In
Some parts of the country the
Ssakkieh is used in place of the
shadoof, and the result is the
S \same."
Fred wished to know the
S__difference between the sha-
AN ANCIENT SHADOOF. doof and the sakkieh.
"The sakkieh," said the
Doctor, "is a wheel operated by a beast of burden-a horse, camel, mule,
donkey, or ox. The animal walks in a circle, and turns a horizontal
wheel which has cogs connected with an upright wheel, bearing a circle
of earthen buckets on its rim. These buckets dip in water as the wheel









_. ...i







A SAKKIEH, OR WATER-WHEEL.

turns; their mouths are then brought uppermost, and they raise the water
and pour it into a trough. Where the water must be raised to a great
height from a well, or from the side of a perpendicular bank, two wheels







A ONE-HANDLED PLOUGH. 43

are used, one at the spot where the animal walks, and the other at the
surface of the water. A stout band or rope passes over the wheels, and
to this band buckets are attached to lift the water. I have seen water
raised fifty or sixty feet by this process, the ox or mule walking patiently
for hours, until it was his turn to be relieved."
While the Doctor was talking the train passed a sakkieh, which was
being turned by a pair of oxen driven by a small boy. The boys observed
that the eyes of the animals were blindfolded by means of a piece of
cloth drawn over their heads, and they naturally wished to know the
reason of it.
"It is the custom of the country," was the reply. "The animals are
believed to work better when their attention is not draw to things
around them, and they are less likely to be frightened if anything un-
usual happens in their neighborhood. This is particularly the case with
the native buffalo and with the mule, and the practice of blindfolding
the latter animal is not unknown in our own country. On the Western
plains and among the Rocky Mountains it is the custom to throw a
blanket over the head of a pack-mule when he is being saddled and is
about to receive his burden. He stands perfectly quiet during the whole
operation; while, if he were not temporarily deprived of sight, he would
be very restive, and perhaps would break away from his driver, and scat-
ter things around him very
m iscellaneously.")
Just beyond the sakkiehl
they saw a man driving a
pair of bullocks in front of a
plough, and as the implement
was lifted from the ground
in turning they had an op-
portunity of seeing how it
was made. A PLOUGHMAN AT WORK.
"It is nothing but a
wooden point," said Frank, like the end of a small log' or stake."
"Yes," echoed Fred, "and there is only one handle for the man to
grasp. Wonder what he would think of our two-handled ploughs of iron
in America !"
"He would probably decline to use it," the Doctor responded, "as
he needs one hand for managing his goad, and could not understand how
he could control a goad and an American plough unless nature had
equipped him with three hands."







44 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

That the plough is the same here to-day that it was three thousand
years ago, we have proof in the pictures of agriculture on the walls of
the tombs at Thebes. The ancient
"implement is identical with the mod-
S- .e rn o n e, th e p ro p e llin g fo rce is th e
/ same, and the principal difference
7 // .1/ we can see is in the costume of the
._ (( W ploughman."
N ANCIENT PLOUG" The plough only scratches the
AN ANCIENT PLOUGH. I
earth," said Fred; and if the soil
was not very rich they would soon find out they needed something that
would stir 'up the ground a little deeper."
"Sometimes," said the Doctor, you will see several ploughs follow-
ing each other in the same furrow. The object is to accomplish by this
repeated ploughing what we do by a single operation."
Close by the field where the man was ploughing another was planting
grain or something of the sort, and another a little farther on was cutting
some green stalks that looked like our Indian-corn. The Doctor ex-
plained that the stalks were probably intended for feed for cattle, and
that the article in question was known as doora" among the natives,
and was a close relative of the corn grown in America.
But how funny," said Frank, that they should be ploughing, plant-
ing, and reaping, all in sight of each other !"
"That is one of the peculiarities of the country," said the Doctor,
with a smile. "You must remember tlat they do not have cold -and
frost, as we do, and the operations of agriculture go on through the
whole year."
"All the year, from January to January again ?" said Fred.
"Yes," was the reply, "though some attention must be paid to the
change of seasons in order to get the best crops. From two to five crops,
according to the article planted, can be raised in the course of the year,
provided always that there is a constant supply of water for irrigating
the fields. When a crop is ready for gathering it is harvested, and the
ground is immediately ploughed and planted again."
As if to emphasize what the Doctor was saying, the train carried them
past a thrashing-floor where the scriptural process of "treading out the
corn" was going on. There was a floor of earth, which had been packed
very hard and made smooth as possible, and on this floor the pair of oxen
were walking in a circle and dragging a sort of sled, with rollers between
the runners, on which a man was perched in a high chair. The straw








OPPOSITION TO MODERN FARMING IMPLEMENTS. 45

which had been deprived of its grain was heaped in the centre of the cir-
cle, ready for removal; the Doctor explained that the grain was separated
from the chaff by throwing it in the air when the wind was blowing, and
such a thing as a winnowing-machine was practically unknown in Egypt.





_- --_- -- ----= -- -- : T '-










AN EGYPTIAN THRASHING-MACHINE.

Attempts have been made to introduce modern implements and
machinery for agricultural purposes, but they have generally failed.













ANCIENT PROCESS OF TREADING OUT THE CORN.

The Khedive expended a large amount of money for the latest improve-
ments in farming; he had a largee farm near Cairo, on which the pur-
chases were placed, but it was soon found that the implements were un-
popular with the natives, and they were abandoned. They lay for some
years in one of the sheds of the establishment, and were finally sold as
old iron.







46 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

The sight of the ploughs, shadoofs, thrashing-machines, and other aids
of agriculture naturally led to a conversation on the products of Egypt.
The boys learned that two kinds of corn were grown there--doora, which
they had seen, and millet, which has a single ear on the top of a stalk.
Egyptian wheat has been famous
for many centuries, and is still cul-
tivated, though to a less extent
than formerly, as much of the
ground once devoted to wheat is
"" now given up to cotton. Coffee
is grown in some localities, and
N so are indigo and sugar; there is
a goodly variety of beans, peas,
S '^ ii lentils, and the like, and water-
"melons, onions, and cucumbers are
easily raised. The tobacco crop is
S of considerable value; grapes are
abundant, and there are many
fruits, including dates, figs, apri-
cots, oranges, peaches, lemons, ba-
nanas, and olives. The methods
1..of agriculture are very primitive,
Sand in many instances slovenly;
EGYPTIAN LENTILS. and if a thousand English or
American farmers could be sent
to Egypt to instruct the natives in the use of foreign implements, and
teach them to till their farms on the Western plan, the value of Egyptian
products would be doubled. But,-to make the plan successful, it would
be necessary to devise some means of compelling the natives to use the
methods and machines that the strangers would bring among them, and
this would be a difficult task.
The train halted several times, and finally came to Kallioob station,
where it united with the direct line from Cairo to Alexandria. "Now,"
said the Doctor, "keep a sharp lookout on the right-hand side of the
carriage and tell me what you see."
In a few minutes Frank gave a shout of delight, and called out,
"There they are-the Pyramids! the Pyramids "
Fred saw them almost at the same moment, and joined his cousin in
a cheer for the Pyramids, of which he had read and heard so much.
There they were, pushing their sharp summits into the western skv








SIGHTS BY THE WAY. 47
to which the sun was declining, for it was now late in the afternoon.
Clearly defined, they rose above the horizon like a cluster of hills from
the edge of a plain; and as our friends came nearer and nearer the Pyra-
mids seemed to rise higher and higher, till it was difficult to believe that






". ,- _'" '_ __- '_-,.___ -___ _---=z
I(D












THE PYRAMIDS.
they were the work of human hands, and were only a few hundred feet
in height. In a little while the attention of the youths was drawn to the
minarets of the Mosque of Mohammed Ali and the high walls of the Cita-
del, on the summit of the hill that overlooks and commands the city of
Cairo. Their glances turned from pyramids to mosque, and from mosque
back again to pyramids, and from the sharp outline of the Mokattam
Hills to the glistening sands of the Western Desert. Near by were the
rich fields of the Valley of the Nile, and now and then the shining water
of the old river was revealed through openings among the fringe of palm.s;
the mud- built villages of the Egyptians passed as in a panorama., the
white walls of the houses of Cairo took the place of the more primitive
;i ._ _-_ y -_:-;




















structures, groups of muenand camels, and other beasts of burden, were
seen wending their way to the great city or returning from it. The
population grew more dense, the houses and gardens assumed a more
substantial appearance, roads gave way to streets, and gardens to blocks of
houses, and all too soon for our excited travellers the train rolled into the
station at Cairo, and the journey too he wonderful City of the Caliphs
had been accomplished.
had been accoiiplislied.







48 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

From the sentimental to the practical the transition was instantaneous.
Hardly had the train halted before the carriages were surrounded by a
crowd of hotel runners, dragomen, guides, and other of the numerous
horde that live upon the stranger within the gates. Doctor Bronson had
telegraphed to the Hotel du Nil to send a carriage and a guide to meet
his party at the station; the guide was there with a card from the mana-
ger of the hotel, and at once took charge of the strangers and their bag-
gage, and showed the way to the waiting carriage. Frank said he should
advise all his friends on their first visit to Cairo to follow the Doctor's
example, and thus save themselves a struggle with the unruly crowd and
a vast amount of annoyance. The worst feature of a journey in Egypt
is the necessity of a constant fight with the great swarm of cormorants
that infest all public places where travellers are likely to go; many a
journey that would have been enjoyable with this evil removed has been
completely spoiled by its presence.
From the moment when you touch Egyptian soil till the moment
when you leave it there is little rest from the appeals of the beggar,
and the demands, often insolent, of those who force themselves and their
services upon you. The word "backsheesh" (a present) is dinned into
your ears from morning till night ; it is with you in your dreams, and if



-- -- :-- ---= ..


TM










A QUESTION OF BACKSHEESH.

your digestion is bad you will have visions of howling Arabs who beset
you for money, and will not be satisfied. Giving does no good; in fact
it is worse than not giving at all, as the suppliant generally appeals for
more; and if he does not do so he is sure to give the hint to others who







THE NEW PART OF CAIRO. 49

swarm about you, and refuse to go away. If you hire a donkey or a car-
riage, and give the driver double his fare, in order to satisfy him, you
find you have done a very unwise thing. His demand increases, a crowd
of his fellows gather around, all talking at once, and there is an effort to
convince you that you have not given half enough. Not infrequently
your clothes are torn in the struggle, and if you escape without loss of
money or temper you are very fortunate.
The railway-station at Cairo is an excellent place to study the charac-
ter of the natives, and to learn their views regarding the money of others,
and the best modes of transferring it to their own pockets.
From the station our friends drove through the new part of Cairo,
where the broad streets and rows of fine buildings were a disappointment
to the youths, who had expected to see quite the reverse.
"Don't be impatient," said the Doctor, we shall come to the narrow
streets by-and-by. This part of Cairo is quite modern, and was con-
structed principally under Ismail Pacha a few years ago. He had a fancy
for making a city on the plan of Paris or Vienna, and giving it the
appearance of the Occident instead of the Orient. In place of the nar-
row and sometimes crooked streets of the East he caused broad avenues
to be laid out and tall buildings to be erected. The new city was to
stand side by side with the old one, and for a time it seemed as though
the Eastern characteristics of Cairo would be blotted out. But the money
to carry on the improvements could not be had, and the new part of
Cairo has an unhappy and half desolate appearance. The natives prefer-
red the old ways, and there was not a sufficient influx of foreigners to
populate the new city. It had grown rapidly for a few years, but sud-
denly its growth was suspended, and here it has been ever since."
They passed several public and private buildings tlat would have
done honor to any European city, and if it had not been for the natives
walking in the streets, riding on donkeys, or now and tlen conducting a
stately camel, they might easily have believed themselves far away from
Egypt. Suddenly the scene changed; they passed the new theatre, where
Ismail Pacha delighted to listen to European operas performed by Euro-
pean companies; they crossed the triangle known as the Square of Ibra-
him Pacha, and containing a bronze statue of that fiery ruler; and by a
transition like that of the change in a fairy spectacle, they were in one
of the crowded and shaded streets of the City of the Caliphs. They had
entered the "Mooskee," one of the widest and most frequented streets of
the part of Cairo that has not succumbed to Western innovations, and
retains enough of its Eastern character to remain unpaved.
4








50 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

The speed of their carriage was reduced, and a boy who had been rid-
ing at the side of the driver jumped down, and ran ahead shouting to
clear the way. The boys thought they were travelling in fine style to
have a footman to precede them, but the Doctor told then it was the




A ;1 -, .f .













































every carriage, and clear the way for it. The syce carried a sick as the
badge of his office, and when e was in te employ of an official he had
...*.. : -.. I A,

', 1 '" '
Sl-I

i, I fi" 'j" I
If

L, I '
iI 95 r1 ;I I
.IIr\~;1 F I I ,,

/1 -1'. 1i7l-., I

If


11 IM

l I l

I II i. 111 If1
SI "" I" ,I c I 11111

." I i ,, 'I, I','' *
,1 I ,,III








A STREET IN CAIRO



""badge of his office, and when e was in the employ of an offlial e had










nlo hesitation in str~iking right and left among those w~ho were in tile way.,








A FIRST RIDE IN CAIRO. 51

High officials and other dignitaries employed two of these runners, who
kept step side by side, and were generally noticeable by the neatness of
their dress. No matter how fast the
horses go the syce will keep ahead of
them, and he does not seem at all fa-
tigued after a run that would take the
breath out of an American.
They mnet other carriages; they met
camels and donkeys with riders on their
backs, or bearing burdens of merchan-
dise, and they passed through crowds a
of people, in which there were many
natives and some Europeans. The bal- '
conies of the houses projected over the
street, and in some places almost ex-
cluded the sunlight, while their win-
dows were so arranged that a person
within was entirely concealed from the
view of those without. The boys ob-
served that the carving on the windows
revealed a vast amount of patience on
the part of the workmen that executed
it, and they wondered if all the win-
dows of Cairo were like those they
were passing. Some of the walls were cracked and broken, as though
threatening to fall; but the windows appeared so firmly fixed in their
places that they would stay where they were when the rest of the build-
ing had tumbled.
While they were engrossed with the strange sights and sounds around
them, the carriage halted at the head of a narrow lane, and our three
friends descended to walk to the hotel.







52 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.









CHAPTER IV.
STREET SCENES IN CAIRO.

F RANK and Fred were up in good season on the morning after their
arrival in Cairo. While waiting for breakfast they read the descrip-
tion of the city, and familiarized themselves with some of the most im-
portant points of its history, which they afterward wrote down to make
sure of remembering them. Here is what they found :
"The city known as 'Cairo' (Ky-ro) to Europeans is called Masr-el-
Kaherah by the Arabs, the word Kaherah meaning victorious.' It was
founded about the end of the tenth century by a Moslem general who
had been sent from Tunis to invade Egypt; lie signalled his victory by
building a city not far from Fostat; the latter is called Masr-el-Ateekah,
or Old Cairo, and was formerly the capital; but the new city grew so fast
that it became the capital very soon after it was founded. It has gone
through a good many sieges, and had a prominent place in the history of
the Crusades; the great Moslem conqueror, Yoosef Salah-ed-Deen (known
to us as Saladin), built strong walls around Cairo, and founded the cita-
del on the hill at the southern end. The city is about two miles broad
by three in length, and stands on a plain overlooked by the range of the
Mokattam Hills; the new quarter of Ismaileeyah was recently added, and
when that is included, the Cairo of to-day will be nearly twice the extent
of the city of fifty years ago. Cairo was the city of the Caliphs, or Mos-
lem rulers, down to 1517; from that time till it was captured by the
French, in 1798, it was the chief city of the Turkish province of Egypt.
The French held it three years, when it was captured by the Turks and
English; ten years later Mohammed Ali became an almost independent
ruler of the country, and from his time to the present Egypt has been
ruled by his family, who pay an annual tribute to Turkey, and are re-
quired to do in certain things as they are ordered by the Sultan. Cairo
is still the capital of Egypt; the Viceroy or Khedive lives there except
during the hottest part of summer, when he goes to Alexandria, where
lie has a palace.








THE ARABIAN NIGHTS. 53

The word Khedive' comes from the Persian language, and means
'ruler' or 'prince.' It was adopted by Ismail Pacla, and continued by
his successor; the English word which is nearest in meaning to Khedive
is 'Viceroy,' and the head of the Egyptian government is generally called
the Viceroy by Europeans. He should be addressed as Your Highness.'































A CALIPH OF EGYPT ON HIS THRONE.

"Some of the most interesting stories of the 'Arabian Nights' Enter-
tainments' are laid in Cairo, and the reader of those anecdotes will learn
from them a great deal of the manners of the times when they were
written. We are told that the translation by Edward William Lane is
the best. Lane was an Englishman, who was a long time in Cairo. He
learned the language of the people, wore their dress, and lived among
them, and he wrote a book called The Modern Egyptians,' which de-







54 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

scribes the manners and customs of the inhabitants of Cairo better than
any other work. When we are in doubt concerning anything, we shall
consult The Modern Egyptians' for what we want. Lane's translation of
the 'Arabian Nights' occupied several years of his time, and was mostly
made while he lived in Cairo. We have read some of these stories, and
find them very interesting, and often envy Aladdin, with his wonderful
lamp and his magic couch, and would very much like to sit down with
Sinbad the Sailor and listen to the account of his adventures.



-- - -.. .- -
2.--- -- --: -- ---------- -- -- _--

------ ---- -










PART OF OLD CAIRO.

"There are so many things in Cairo which we want to see that we will
not try to make out a list in advance. We have engaged a guide to show
us around, and shall trust to him for a day or two. At the end of that
time we hope to know something about the city, and be able to go around
alone."
Every evening, while the boys were in Cairo, was devoted to the
journal of their experiences during the day. They have allowed us to
copy from it, and we can thus find out where they went and what they
did. As there were so many things to describe the labor was divided,
and while Frank was busy over one thing, Fred occupied himself with
another. Let us see what they did:
"It is the custom to ride on donkeys when going about Cairo, as many
of the streets are so narrow that you cannot pass through them with car-
riages. We had the best we could secure, and very nice they were under
the saddle, but we soon learned that it required some skill to ride them.
The guide rode ahead, and we noticed that lie did not put his feet in the








DONKEYS IN THE EGYPTIAN CAPITAL. 55

stirrups as we did; while we were wondering the meaning of it, Frank's
donkey stumbled and fell forward, and Frank went sprawling in the dust
over the animal's head.
"We all laughed (Frank did not laugh quite as loud as the rest, but
lie did the best he could), and so did the people in the street where
the accident happened. Frank was up in an instant, and so was the
donkey; and when we were off again the guide said that the donkey
had a habit of stumbling and going down in a heap. If you have
your feet in the stirrups when he goes down, you can't help being
thrown over the animal's head; but if you ride as the guide does, your
feet come on the ground when the donkey falls, and you walk grace-
fully forward a few steps till the boy brings your animal up for you to
mount again.
"We immediately began learning to ride with our feet free, and an
hour's practice made us all right.
"The donkeys all have names, generally those that have been given
to them by travellers. We have had 'Dan Tucker,' 'Prince of Wales,'
'Chicken Hash,' and 'Pinafore,' and in the lot that stands in front of the
hotel there are General Grant,' Stanley,' 'New York,' and Mince Pie.'
They are black, white, gray, and a few other colors, and sometimes the
boys decorate them with hair-dye and paint so that they look very funny.
The donkey-boys are sharp little fellows, though sometimes they keep at
the business after they have become men. They generally speak a little
English; there are two at our hotel that speak it very well, and know the
city perfectly, so that when we take them along we have very little need
of a guide. They will run all day as fast as the donkey can, sometimes
holding him by the bridle, but generally close behind, ready to prod or
strike him if he does not go fast enough.
The saddle is a curious sort of thing, as it has a great hump in front
instead of a pommel, and there is not the least support to the back any
more than in an English riding-pad. They explain the peculiarity of the
saddle by saying that the donkey's shoulders are lower than his back, and
the hump keeps you from sliding forward.
"About the best thing we have yet seen in Cairo is the people in the
streets. They are so odd in their dress, and they have so many curious
customs, that our attention is drawn to them all the time. We can't say
how many varieties of peddlers there are, but certainly more than we ever
saw in any other place, not excepting Tokio or Canton, or any of the
cities of India. We will try to describe some of them.
"Here is an old woman with a crate like a flat basket, which she







56 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

carries on her head. It is filled with little articles of jewellery, and she
goes around in the harems and in the baths frequented by women, as
they are her best customers. The guide says her whole stock is not
worth a hundred francs, and if she
makes a franc a day at her business
she thinks she is doing well.
"' There are women who sell vege-
tables, fruits, and sweetmeats, which
they carry in the same way as the
one we have just described. They
"are wrapped from head to foot in
M- long cloaks or outer dresses, and they
generally follow the custom of the
country and keep their faces cov-
Sered. The oldest of them are not so
particular as the others, and we are
told that the custom of wearing the
Sveil is not so universal as it was
twenty or thirty years ago.
There is no change of fashion
amtrong the women of Egypt. They
wear the same kind of garments from
one year to another, and as all are
veiled, except among the very poor-
est classes, they all look alike. Every
a PEDDLER OF JEWELLERY. lady when she goes out, covers her
face with the yashmakl.or veil, so that
only her eyes are visible; her body is wrapped in a black mantle which
reaches the ground, and, though she looks at you as if she knew you, it
is impossible to penetrate her disguise. We are told that when the Euro-
pean ladies residing here wish to call on each other, and have nobody to
escort them, they put on the native dress, and go along the streets without
the least fear that anybody will know them.
"The wives of the high officials have adopted some of the fashions
of Europe in the way of dress; they wear boots instead of slippers, and
have their dresses cut in the Paris style, and they wear a great deal of
jewellery mounted by Parisian jewellers. Their hats or bonnets are of
European form; but they cling to the veil, and never go out-of-doors
without it, though they often have it so thin that their features can be
seen quite distinctly. We have seen some of them riding in their car-







EGYPTIAN PEDDLERS AND THEIR CRIES. 57

riages, and if they had been friends of ours
r we think we should have recognized them
"through their thin veils.
2- "How much we wish we could under-
:stand the language of the country! Doctor
.A Bronson says the peddlers on the streets have
a curious way of calling out their wares,
q> quite unlike that of the same class in other
countries. For instance, the water-carrier has
a goat-skin on his back filled with water, and
as le goes along he rattles a couple of brass
cups together, and cries out, 'Oh ye thirsty!
"oh ye thirsty !' A moment after he repeats
the call, and says, 'God will reward me!'
And sometimes he says, 'Blessed is the wa-
ter of the Nile!' Those who drink the water
he offers usually give him a small piece of
A LADY IN STREET DRESS. money, but if they give nothing he makes no
demand, and moves on repeating his cry.
"The seller of lemons shouts, 'God will make them light, oh lemons!'
meaning that God will lighten the baskets
containing the lemons. The orange peddler
says, Sweet as honey, oh oranges!' And
the seller of roasted melon-seeds says, 'Comrn-
forter of those in distress, oh melon-seeds!'
Behind him comes a man selling flowers of
the henna-plant, and his cry is, 'Odors of
Paradise, oh flowers of henna!' The rose-
merchant says, The rose is a thorn -it
bloomed from the sweat of the Prophet!'
We could make a long list of these street
cries, but have given you enough to show
what they are.
"Every few steps we meet women carrying '
jars of water on their heads. Many of the
houses are supplied in this primitive way, and
the employment of carrying water supports _
a great many people in this strange city of
the East. Of late years pipes have been in-
trodnced, and an aqueduct brings water from A WOMAN CARRYING WATER.










C-j





H
CO
Am0











HHH












C)

















THE FOUNTAIN OF A MOSQUE.
____ _____


H

z


H2


~-ii~-t~i ""~a~ilgig~it~"~0


x t~z
T~lE FOUTAIN OF MOSQUE








SIGHTS AND SCENES ON THE STREETS. 59

the Nile, so that the occupation of the bearer has been somewhat dimin-
ished. But the public fountain still exists, and the people gather there
as they did in the days of the Bible. Every mosque has a fountain in
the centre of its court-yard, not so much for supplying water for those
who wish to carry it away as to furnish an opportunity for the faithful
to wash their hands before saying their prayers. Some of these foun-
tains are large, and protected from the sun by a marble canopy. But the
public fountains at the street corners are generally quite exposed to the
weather, and many of them are quite small.
We walked slowly along the street during our first excursion, as
there were many sights to attract our attention, and we did not wish to
miss anything. Two or three times we narrowly escaped being run over
by camels or donkeys. The camels move along in a very stately way,
and do not turn out unless ordered to do so by their drivers. They have




rr








R(1/











A BEGGAR AT THE WAY-SIDE.

a wicked expression in their eyes, and seem quite willing to knock over
a stranger who gets in their way. Sometimes the crowd of people was
so dense that it was not easy to move among them; but everybody was
good-natured, and there was no jostling or rudeness of any kind. There







60 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

were a good many beggars sitting in little nooks where they were not in
danger of being run over, and quite often we met blind men who were
feeling their way along by means of long sticks. They called out some-
thing in Arabic, and the people made way for them, so that none of them
were hurt.
"The portion of the Mooskee where you enter it from the new part
of Cairo contains a good many European shops, so that you do not come
at once into the old-fashioned Orient. But as you go along the scene
changes; the shops of the merchants are open to the streets, and the
shopmen sit there cross-legged, in full view of everybody, so that you do
not have to turn out of the way to see what there is to buy.
"When you think of an Oriental shop you must not picture to your-
self an establishment like those on Broadway or other great streets in
New York, where dozens or hundreds of clerks are employed to wait on
customers, and where the population of a small town might all be
attended to at once. A shop in Cairo or any other city of the East is
generally about six feet square, and often not so large, and it requires
only one man to tend it, for the simple reason that he can reach every-
thing without moving from his place, and there would be no room for
any one else. Sometimes he has an assistant, but if so, he does nothing
himself except sit still and talk to the customers, while the assistant does
all the work of showing the goods. The front of the shop is open to the
street, and the floor is about as high as an ordi-
nary table, so that when the goods are spread on
the floor the customer can examine them as he
stands outside. We shall see more of these shops
When we get to the bazaars.
"While we were standing near a shop we saw
the owner shutting it up, which he did by folding
some wooden doors, very much like the wooden
window-shutters we have at home; then he fast-
ened them with a great padlock, and started off
with the key, which must have weighed a pound
at least. While we wondered at the size of the
lock and key, the Doctor called our attention to a
A MAN CARRYING HIS KEYS. Ilan with a cluster of wooden sticks over his shoul-
der, and told us that the sticks were the keys of a
house. What funny things they were! Each of them was nearly if
not quite a foot long, and had a lot of wooden pegs near the end; the
pegs fit into corresponding holes in a wooden bolt, in the same way that



















-I-



^0

1( 1 I
/I I' I I ^>\ ,^-\- ~ \ ~~^-^' > ^,'^^--^ 1 l^>\ '






A O BD OF MJSIC.






H



H










N OIA BAND O SI
WT



ANOINr[ BkDO ISC







62 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND,

the different wards of a key fit into a lock, but the whole thing is so
simple that it does not require much skill for a burglar to get into a
house. The keys are so large that they must be slung over the shoulder
or fastened to the belt, since they cannot go into an ordinary pocket.
"The Doctor proposed that we should sit down in front of a cafe and
drink some of the famous coffee of the East. Of course we were glad to
do so, and our guide took us to a place in a side street where he said they
made excellent coffee, and we could have some music along with it.
"We were quite as interested in the music as in the coffee, and
thought of the old adage about killing two birds with one stone. We
heard the music before we reached the place, and what odd music it was!
"' That is a regular band of music,' said the guide, such as the coffee-
houses keep to attract customers, and the rich people hire to play for
them when they give an entertainment. You see there are four pieces,
and I'll explain what they are, beginning from the left.
The man on the left is playing on a nay, or flute, which is a reed
about eighteen inches long, with a mouthpiece at one end. It has six





THE NAY (FLUTE) AND CASE.

holes for the fingers, and is blown in a peculiar way, so that a person not
accustomed to the nay would be unable to make any sound with it at
first.'
"Frank asked if there was any other kind of flute. The guide told
him there-were several, but this was the most
common. The Doctor added that this form of
instrument was very old, as it could be seen pict-
ured on some of the monuments of ancient
Egypt, and appeared to have been used exactly
as it is to-day. Some forms of it were blown
.* into sidewise, as with the European flute, while
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN PLAYING others were blown at the end.
THE NAY.
S"'The man next to the end is playing on a
kemenjah, or fiddle,' said the guide. 'The body of it is made of a cocoa-
nut-shell, with a piece of fish-skin or some other thin membrane stretched
over it, and the "bridge" rests on this thin covering. There are only
two strings, and they are vibrated by means of a bow, just like what you







EGYPTIAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 63
see at home, though the shape is a little different. The
long top-piece of the fiddle is of wood, while the lower
end is of iron, and rests on the floor or ground. The
performers are quite skilful, and it would surprise you
to know how much music they can get out of a fiddle
with only two strings.
"' The next man has a tamboora, or lute, which cor-
responds to the guitar, or banjo of Western countries.
There are many sizes and shapes of this instrument,
but the most common is the one you are looking at.
"'The most perfect tamboora is about four feet
long, and has ten strings and forty-seven stops. Some
of them cost a great deal of money, as they are made of
valuable woods, and inlaid with ivory and mother-of-
pearl. The form in use by the man in the band is
called the ood, to distinguish it from the other varie-
ties of the tamboora. It is about two feet long, and
you observe that the handle bends back very sharply
to accommodate the fingers of the player. A smaller
variety of this instrument is called the sadz, and very
often forms part of a soldier's equipment. As you
travel about Egypt you will often see a soldier playing \ ,
on the sadz, which he accompanies with his voice.
"'The next and last
man of the party has THE TAMBOORA.
"^^ ^ \a darabookah, a sort of drum, which he
holds under his left arm while he plays
on it with the fingers of his right hand.
S- The body of the instrument is of earth-
Sen-ware or of wood, and a skin or mem-
brane is stretched over the large end. It
... has changed its shape very little in three
thousand years. You see pictures of the
darabookah on the walls of the tombs,
_/ and on other ancient monuments of
Egypt, and the manner of playing it is
'- the same as of old.'
S~" So much for the band of music,
"-- _/_ _which I am sure will interest you. We
A DARABOOKAH. sat down on little chairs, so low that it







64 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

seemed like sitting on the floor, and then coffee was brought to us in little
brass cups about as large as an egg-shell, but a great deal thicker. Each
cup had a holder of brass filigree work, with a knob or handle at the
bottom, and we were expected to grasp the latter, and not to touch the
cup with our hands. The coffee was in a pot, also of brass, and the whole
service-pot, cups, and holders-was on a tray of the same material.
The trays, with the brightly-polished utensils upon them, looked very
pretty, and we resolved to buy some of these coffee services to send to
our friends at home.
We can't say much for the coffee, though possibly we may come to
like it in time. It is made much thicker than with us, and if you let it
stand for a minute before drinking, you will find a sediment at the bot-
tom like fine dust. The servants stand ready to take away the cups as
soon as you are done drinking, and they do it by holding out both hands,
bringing one beneath and the other on top of the cup and holder. We
watched them for some time, and did not once see them take hold of a
cup as one would do in America. While waiting they stood with their
hands crossed at the waist, and we were told that this is the proper atti-
tude for a servant in Egypt."












COFFEE-POT AND CUPS.








SHOPPING CUSTOMS IN THE EAST. 65









CHAPTER V.
A RAMBLE THROUGH THE BAZAARS OF CAIRO.

FROM the cafe Doctor Bronson and his young friends continued their
excursion in the direction of the bazaars, which both the boys were
impatient to visit. They had heard and read of the bazaars of Cairo, and
the strange things to be seen in them, and as they went along the Doctor
supplemented what they
already knew by an ex-
planation of the differ-
ences between Oriental
and Occidental shopping.
In our own land,
said Doctor Bronson, s
well as in most countries f an
of Europe, you find shops r a
and stores scattered aboutiii-
so as to catch as much
custom as possible. As 27
a general thing a trades- ,"'.ii l,
man endeavors to set up !
his business in a block or
street where there is no
one in the same line, and
it is only in rare instances
that you see two estab-
lishments of the same AN ORIENTAL SHOPKEEPER EXAMINING HIS BOOKS.
kind side by side. But
in the East all the men in a certain line of trade gather together, and out
of this tendency we have the bazaars of Cairo and Constantinople. Sup-
pose you go out in New York or Chicago in search of a book, a coat, a
pair of shoes, a piece of silk, some perfumes, and an article of jewellery.
You might find them all in a single walk of a few hundred yards, as it is
5p.







-63 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

quite possible that a book-store, a clothing-store, a shoemaker's shop, and
the other establishments might be found in a single block. But in Cairo
you would need to visit several bazaars or collections of shops; the book-
stores are all in one place, the clothing-stores in another, the shoemakers
in another, and so on through the list. It would take hours to accomn-
plish what you would do at home in a few minutes, and there is nothing


.-1

















INTERIOR OF A CARAVANSARY.

better than this system of shopping to illustrate the Oriental disregard of
time. The shops in any given bazaar are pretty much alike, and contain
almost identically the same articles; the customers wander from one shop
to another, and spend a great deal of time in bargaining and examining
the goods. Time is of no consequence either to them or to the dealers,
and you will often wonder how the latter can possibly make a living."
As the Doctor finished his remarks the guide called their attention
to a large gate-way, and at his suggestion they passed inside. They
found themselves in a broad court, which was formed by a series of
rooms running round a square, and opening toward the enclosed space.
Goods were piled in many of these rooms; in the court-yard there were
boxes and bales scattered about, and several camels with burdens on their
backs were standing quietly, or being led by their owners according to the
will of the latter. Near one side of the square there was a fountain like
a pile of whitewashed bricks, and a horse was drinking from a trough in
front of it.








AN ORIENTAL KHAN. 67

The guide explained that the place they had entered was a caravan-
sary or inn (usually called a khan), and that it might be taken as a fair
sample of the Oriental hotel. The rooms," said he, "are let out to
travellers or merchants for a small sum, and the keeper will provide food
for man and beast, just as a tavern-keeper would in America. The
rooms have no furniture, nothing but the bare walls and floors; the occu-
pant spreads his carpet and bedding on the floor, and if he has any mer-
chandise he piles it up, and can, if he chooses, convert the place into a
shop. There are stables for camels and other beasts of burden on the
side opposite the entrance; if you go into them you will find a small plat-
form over the farther end of each compartment, and the trough or man-


























GATE-WAY OF A CARAVANSARY.

ger is directly beneath it. The drivers sleep on these platforms, so as to
be near their animals, to prevent their being stolen, and to look after
them generally."
Frank asked if the Eastern caravansary of the present day was like the
same institution mentioned several times in the Bible.
There can be little doubt that it is," the Doctor answered "as the
r
'w, f














GATE-WrAY OF A CARAVANSARY.

ger is directly beneath it. The drivers sleep on these platforms, so as to
be near their anim-nals, to prevent their being stolen, and to look after
them generally."
Frank asked if the Eastern caravansary of the present day was like the
same institution mentioned several times in the Bible.
There can be little doubt that it is," the Doctor answered, 1 as the







68 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

customs of the country have changed very little from Bible times to our
own. It was just such a place as this where our Saviour was born, and
the trough or manger where he was cradled was like any one of the feed-
ing-troughs in this caravansary."




1 1 1 ,







i li t w i


















place, and he accompanied the explanation with a small backsheesh. The
Irill;'"

















khanjy said they might remain as long as they liked; but they had seen
all there was of interest about the place, and soon withdrew.
Soon after leaving the khan they entered the cloth bazaar, where the
shops were principally filled with cloths of different kinds. The mer-
chants endeavored to attract their attention, and the runners were at
times so troublesome that the Doctor instructed the guide to say that
they had not come there to buy, but simply to look around. He took
the opportunity to tell the boys that the word baar is Persian, and
-: ---:-I i-:






a while twoey were looking at the rooms and other p ewrts of tle caravan-
sary, t afe r}a/, or keeper, cante forward and asked wohat they ,nted.
The guide explained tohat they were strangers wa o wished to see the






times so troublesome that the Doctor instructed the guide to say that
they had not come there to buy, but simply to look around. Ile took
the opportunity to tell the boys thatt the word bazaar is Persian, and








A WALK THROUGH THE BAZAARS. 69

means "a collection of shops," while the Arabic word of the same mean-
ing is sook. "We thus have," said he, "the 'Sook el Hamzowee,' the
' Sook el Attarin (drug bazaar), the Sook-es-Soudan (bazaar for Soudan
products), and many others whose character we shall learn by-and-by."
We are now," said the guide, in the Sook el Hamzowee,' or cloth
market, though a more literal translation would make it 'the market of
the Christians.' The merchants here are all Christians, either Syrians or
Copts, and they close their places on Sunday. Many of the cloths here
are of European manufacture, and the merchants are just as keen as their
Moslem competitors in demanding exorbitant prices for their wares. The
man you see running up and down with -a roll of cloth on his head is a
dallal, or auctioneer; he is shouting out the last offer for the goods he is
carrying, and is asking if anybody will give more. If he receives a new
offer he instantly calls it out, and when nobody will give any more he
shouts for the owner of the goods to come and close the transaction."
Our friends encountered several of these auctioneers in the course of
their walk, and Frank remarked that there was a fine opportunity for
fraud if anybody chose to practise it. He thought that while out of
sight round a corner the piece of cloth might be exchanged for a cheaper
one of the same general appearance, and the purchaser would be de-
frauded.
"Not much chance of that," responded the Doctor; "these fellows are
altogether too sharp to be imposed on in that way; and if an auctioneer
should play that trick once, and be detected, he would be forbidden to
come into the bazaars to practise his profession."
The narrow street that formed the double row of shops in the bazaar
was covered with an arched roof containing openings for admitting the
light. The Doctor said that the dealers did not object to the sombre
aspect of the place, as it made their goods appear finer than when sub-
mitted to the full glare of day. "You may sometimes notice," said he,
"that the tailors of New York and other American cities take their cus-
tomers to the- rear of the shop when exhibiting materials, rather than to
the front where the light is strongest. The reason is the same there as
here; textile fabrics have a finer appearance under a subdued light than
under a powerful one."
From the Hamzowee the promenade was continued through other
bazaars, till the youths had seen a great deal more than they were likely
to remember. They went through the bazaar of the jewellers, which con-
sists of a series of narrow lanes, rather irregularly connected, and in many
places not more than a yard in width; Frank thought the place was origi-







70 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

nally intended for a labyrinth, and his opinion was confirmed when they
came around in their wanderings to the point whence they started.
Frank wanted to buy something for his sister and Miss Effie, but was
restrained by the Doctor, who advised him to postpone his purchases till
he was better acquainted with the ways of dealing with the jewellers.







II
J J
I, '



















"We may as well record at this point tat he returned another day,











and bought some necklaces which he thought would be prized at home,
and the result proved the correctness of his theory. For his sister he
chose a necklace consisting of a string of gold coins about as large as
"silver five-cent pieces, with one in the centre much larger than the rest.












For Miss Effie he selected one of curiously shaped links, with tiny globes
4. 1I, 1 .3'




I.: P'd i
JI



F s'a-" "ik, wiht
















For M~iss Ef-re he selected one of seriously sha~ped links, within tiny globes








BARGAINING FOR A NECKLACE. 71

between them, while from the lower point of each link there hung a
heart -shaped plate of gold that was intended to sparkle whenever the
wearer moved. There were many of these necklaces for sale in the
bazaar, and Frank had no difficulty in finding one that suited his taste.








EASTERN NECKLACES.

The boys found that they could not buy things in a hurry in the
bazaars of Cairo. As before stated, time is of no consequence to an Ori-
ental, and he expects to spend an hour at least over a bargain. Frank
had been properly instructed, and so when he set out to buy the necklace
for his sister he carelessly asked the price of one he was looking at.
The dealer named a figure, and Frank shook his head.
The dealer named another figure, five or ten per cent. lower. Frank
again shook his head, and then the dealer asked what he would give.
Frank offered about a third of the price that had been demanded
originally.
It was now the deal-
er's turn to refuse, and
he did so. He empha-
sized his refusal by put-
ting the necklace back
into the show-case, which
he carefully locked.
Frank offered a little
advance on his first pro-
posal, but the dealer
again declined it, and
our friends moved away.
Just as they did so the WEIGHING GOLD IN THE JEWELLERS' BAZAAR.
dealer named a lower
price than he had yet asked for the article, but to no purpose, however.
They went a few steps and stopped at another shop. While they
were looking at something it contained they were called back by the






'2 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

merchant with whom they originally talked, and the bargaining was
renewed.
The dealer slowly lowered his figures, and Frank as slowly advanced
his offer. In fifteen or twenty minutes they met, and Frank secured the
necklace at a little more than half what had been demanded originally.
The Doctor told him he had done very well, and could be trusted to deal
with the Orientals.
"Reemember," said the Doctor, "that these people are never in a hurry,
and consequently you must be like them if you are to deal with them.
They think it absolutely necessary to pass a certain time over a transac-
tion, and do not understand our Western habits of coming to terms at
once. You have bought that necklace for a certain price, and it is safe
to say that the merchant has made a good profit by the transaction. If
you had offered him that figure at first he would have refused it, and con-
tinued to refuse, as he would thereby have missed the necessary chaffering
and haggling.
"When I first visited Egypt I was sometimes impatient of delay, and
used to tell the dealers I had only one price to give, and would not bar-
gain with them. I thought I could bring them to terms, though my
friends told me I could not. One day I went to the Hamzowee, and
tried to buy a ccfieh, or silk handkerchief, in gaudy colors, and embroid-
ered with gold, which was worth about fifteen francs. The merchant
demanded thirty-five francs for it. I offered him sixteen, and he fell to
thirty at once.
"I did not raise my bid, but repeated my offer two or three times.
He fell to twenty-five francs, and would not go lower. I did not rise
above sixteen, and he allowed me to go away. A friend of mine stood
by, but pretended not to know me, and when I had finished my effort
and gone he began to bargain for the cafieh, just as you bargained for the
necklace. He offered five francs to begin with, and by spending half an
hour over the matter he bought the article for fifteen francs, or one less
than had been refused from me!
There was a shrewd old Syrian who used to come around the hotels
to peddle silk goods. Knowing the fondness of English and Americans
for the one-price system, he would say, when exhibiting an article worth
twenty francs,
"'If you want to bargain for it, it is fifty francs; but if you want the
last price, without bargaining, it is thirty-five francs.'
"Strangers were occasionally tricked in this way, and gave him his
price without question, if they wanted the article; but those who had








A SLOW NEGOTIATION. 73

been a week or two in the country knew better, and began to bargain
with thirty-five francs as the asking price. The result would be that they
would bring him down to twenty francs after the usual amount of hag-
gling. You must bargain for everything here when dealing with natives,
and they are not to be believed if they say they have only one price. I
have heard a man offer an article in about these words, after a bargain
had been progressing for some time:
"' The very lowest I can sell this for-I give you my word of honor
it cost me that-is fifty francs. I will take nothing less than fifty francs,
and you need not offer me anything under it.'
"You believe he is not speaking the truth, and offer him thirty. He
declares that the thing cost him fifty, but he will take forty-five, and
absolutely nothing less. You offer him thirty-five-he falls to forty, and
the bargain is concluded."
Frank profited by the advice, but carried the lesson too far. When he
went the next day to the post-office to send some letters to America, the
clerk weighed the letters, and told him the postage amounted to two
francs and a half. The youth offered one franc and a half, and on the
clerk refusing to accept it he turned to walk away. Suddenly realizing
the mistake he had made, he returned, bought the necessary stamps, af-
fixed them to the letters, and dropped them in the letter-box.













KITCHEN UTENSILS.

The journal kept by the youths contained the following record of
their adventures in the bazaars:
"In the bazaar of the jewellers, or rather of the gold and silver
smiths, we saw the men at work with implements as primitive as those
of the jewellers of India. The bellows of the silversmith was nothing
more than a conical bag of goat-skin open at one end, where the air was







74 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

pumped in by a skilful manipulation of a pair of handles. At the other
end was an iron tube, which carried the air to a lump of clay supporting
a charcoal fire. A. few hammers and pincers constituted the entire 'kit'
of the workman, but with them he managed to turn out articles of many
different shapes. We were told that strangers are liable to be swindled,
as the dealers often sell plated-ware and declare it is solid, and the gov-
ernment stamp to indicate its genuineness cannot be relied on. When a
wealthy native desires an article of fine gold or silver he buys the metal,
and then has th.e jeweller go to his house and work directly under his
eye, so that there can be no cheating.
"From the jewellers' bazaar we went to the 'Sook-en-Nahhasin,' or
bazaar of the coppersmiths, where we saw some trays of copper and
brass, and a great many pots and utensils for the kitchen and domestic
use generally. We bought a couple of ink-and-pen holders, such as the
Arabs write with: there is a long handle for containing the little reeds
which they use as pens, and a bottle at the end for holding ink. The
apparatus is stuck into the waist-belt, and you see it worn by a great
many people.
There were many shapes and sizes of the kitchen utensils, and all
were made of brass or copper. There were tongs and shovels very much
like our own, stewpans, with and without handles, and a little pot with a















BASIN AND EWEiH.

long handle, in which they make coffee. One of the prettiest things we
saw for household use was a basin and ewer, or pitcher, for washing the
hands after dinner. The Doctor explained the manner of using it, and
said it was carried round the table by a servant, who poured water on








OTTAR OF ROSES. 75

the hands of each guest, and allowed it to run into the
basin after the ablution was performed. There is a per-
forated cover in the centre of the basin, and it has a cup
in the top for holding a ball of scented soap. The ewer
has a long slender spout opposite the handle, and there
is a perforated cover to
keep out the flies and
other undesirable things.
"In the perfume ba-
zaar we were welcomed
by a variety of agreeable
odors, and by the shop-
keepers and their run-
ners, who tried to sell us
ottar of rose and oil of
sandal-wood, which are
the perfumes most sought
by strangers. Every shop
MI promised to give us the
genuine article, and said
BOTTLE FOR ROSE- there was no other place
where it could be bought.
The Doctor says it is simply impossible
to get the real ottar of rose anywhere in
the bazaar, no matter what price you pay,
and consequently it is best to be moderate
in your figures. The veritable perfume
is worth, at the place of manufacture,
about fifty dollars an ounce, and there-
fore,.when you buy it for two or three or
five dollars an ounce, you can hardly ex-
pect to get the best. It is very funny to
hear the strangers at the hotel talk about
their purchases of ottar of rose. Each
one knows a place, which has been shown
him in strict confidence, where the gen-
uine perfume can be bought; but it can
only be obtained on a promise not to re-
veal the locality, or some similar nonsense.
If you ever come to Egypt this ottar of ORIENTAL GUNS.







76 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

rose business will afford you much amusement if you are careful to man-
age it properly.
"The shoe bazaar and the arms bazaar were not particularly interest-
ing, as the former contained little else than a great lot of shoes, and the



__ -- -== == = -_"











"- M-- )










BAB-EL-NASR.

latter had a miserable collection of weapons that were hardly worth car-
rying away. Formerly the arms bazaar was a favorite spot for visitors,
as there were many old and curious things to be found there, but nearly
everything worth buying up was secured long ago. We saw some Oriental
guns with funny shaped stocks. The Doctor says the barrels of these
weapons are nearly all from Europe, while the stocks are of Egyptian or
other Oriental manufacture. There is a strong prejudice against explosive
caps, and if you give a gun with a percussion-lock to a native, he will have
it changed as soon as possible to a flint-lock. They rarely use shot, and
the best of the native sportsmen would hardly think of shooting a bird on
the wing.
From the bazaars we continued our walk to the Bab-el-Nasr, or Gate
"L'From~ thle bazaars we continued our walk to the tlab-el-Nasr, or' GaOte








THE "GATE OF VICTORY." 77

of Victory,' one of the most important gates of Cairo. It was built in the
eleventh century, and is mostly of hewn stone, with winding stairways
leading to the top, holes for cannon and small arms, and is so large and
strong that it was selected by Napoleon as the central point of defence
while he held the city. It is a little fort in itself, and we were very glad
to have the opportunity of examining it.
"We gave a little backsheesh to the gate-keeper, and he allowed us to
go to the top, where we had a view of the nearest part of the city, and
of the heaps of rubbish lying outside the gates. There were several
wolfish-looking dogs prowling among the dust-heaps, and they growled
as they caught sight of us, and saw that we were not natives. The dogs
of Cairo have a great hatred of foreigners, as we shall have occasion to
say by-and-by."









4.S S







STREET SCENE NEAR THE BAB-EL-NASR
__-l I- -







78 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.










CHAPTER VI.

MOSQUES, DERVISHES, AND SCHOOLS.-EDUCATION IN EGYPT.

FROM the Bab-el-Nasr our friends returned, by the direction of the
guide, through a street that led them past several of the famous
mosques of Cairo. They entered the Mosque of Tooloon, which is the
oldest in the city, and said to be modelled after the Kaaba at Mecca; ac-

'\ \ /












_-EJ
<-'"* -*'"'" _---~ ~--v r^- "' ~^ ~a ^ .p --^ -
THE MOSQUE OF TOOLOON.

cording to the historians it was built about A.D. 879, and there are several
legends concerning it. One is that it stands on the spot where Abraham
sacrificed a goat in place of his son, and another puts it on the site where
Noah's ark ran aground, though the general belief of the Moslems locates
the latter event near Moosool, in Syria.
The mosque has been neglected in the latter centuries of its existence,
and at present is not specially inviting. It covers a very large area (about
six hundred square feet), and consists of a series of arcades running around
a court-yard, which has a fountain in the centre. On the east side there
are five rows of these arcades, but on the other three sides there are only








MOSQUES AND THE MOSLEM FORM OF WORSHIP. 79

two rows. The west, north, and south sides are used as lodgings for poor
people, and their continual begging renders a visit the reverse of agreea-
ble. The east side is the holiest part of the edifice, but at the time our
friends went there it was not easy to discover that it was any more
respected than the other sections.
The guide said there were not far from four hundred mosques in
Cairo, and that a good many of them were in ruins, and not likely to be
repaired. The government does not build any new ones, as it has more
practical uses for its money, and the followers of Mohammed seem to be
growing more and more indifferent to religious observances every year.
The Moslem Sabbath is on Friday; the mosques are tolerably filled on
that day, but during the rest
of the week the attendance is
very light. Formerly it was
difficult or even dangerous to
enter some of the mosques,
but at present the whole mat-
ter can be arranged on pay-
ment of a backsheesh. Once
in a while a fanatic insults a
stranger but lie is general-
ly suppressed immediately by
his friends.
Frank and Fred found
that the general plan of the
mosques was the same, and
the difference was mainly in
the outer walls and the style
of architecture. In every
mosque there is a miaihrcab, or
alcove, usually opposite the
entrance, and this mihrab
points toward Mecca, so that
the faithful may know how 1
to direct their faces when say- MII-IRAB, PULPIT, AND CANDLESTICK IN A MOSQUE.
ing their prayers. Near the
alcove is a pulpit with a steep flight of steps ascending to it, and over the
pulpit there is generally a column, like the spire of a church in miniature.
On each side of the alcove is an enormous candlestick, and there is gen-
erally a frame with swinging lamps, not more than eight or ten feet from







80 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

the floor. There are many of these lamps, and also a great many ostrich
eggs, and altogether they present a curious effect.
There is very little interior decoration in the mosque, as the religion
of Mohammed forbids its believers to make a representation of anything
that has life. It was formerly very difficult to induce a Moslem to allow
his portrait to be made. The writer of this book once sought in vain to
induce a wild native of Central Asia to sit for his photograph, the reason
being that the man feared the portrait might get to Paradise ahead of him,
and prevent his own admission within the gates. The more intelligent
of the Moslems pay no heed to this superstition, but the decorators of the
mosques adhere to it most carefully, consequently all the ornamentation
of the walls consists of scroll-work or of sentences from the Koran.*
From the Mosque of Tooloon our friends went to the Mosque of
Sultan Hassan, which is considered the finest in the city. It was built
of stone taken from the pyramids of Gizeh, and was begun in the year
1356. According to the traditions it occupied three years in building,
and was considered so fine that the Sultan ordered the hands of the archi-
tect to be cut off, in order that he should not be able to construct another
equal to it. The story is of doubtful authenticity, and has been told in
various ways, and concerning other buildings in many parts of the world.
Whether it be true or not, the building is certainly a fine one, and has
been greatly admired during all the centuries that it has been in exist-
ence. One of its minarets is the tallest in Cairo, and probably in all the
lands where the Moslem religion prevails. It is two hundred and eighty
feet high, and from its top there is a fine view of Cairo, but, unfortu-
nately, it is considered unsafe, and no one is allowed to ascend it.
By the time they had finished with the Mosque of Sultan Hassan our
friends were weary, and glad to return to the hotel. The next day was
Friday, the Moslem Sunday, and at the suggestion of the Doctor they
went to see the whirling dervishes, who perform only on that day. We
will let the boys tell the story of their visit to these singular people.
The dervishes are religious devotees corresponding to the monks
of the Catholic Church, whom they resemble in some of their prac-
tices. They are supposed to be wholly occupied with religious mat-
ters, and there are several branches or orders of them, who are distin-

It is said that this injunction was made by Mohammed in order to prevent his converts
lapsing again into the idolatry from which he had converted them. He enjoined them against
making a representation of any living thing, as they might be confronted with it at the Day of
Judgment, and required, under penalty of perpetual banishment from Paradise, to endow it with
life.








DERVISHES AND THEIR CUSTOMS. 81

guished by their dress. They have property set apart for their use, and
some of the societies are very wealthy; the most numerous, and at the
same time the richest, are the Mevlevies, who can be recognized by their
tall caps of gray felt, with jackets and robes of the same color. The lower
part of the robe is like a lady's skirt, as it is made in folds, and will
spread out into a large circle when the wearer whirls rapidly. They are
the most respectable of all the orders of dervishes, and some of them are
men of education and former high position.
".There are many independent dervishes who are simply religious
beggars, belonging to no sect or order: they go around soliciting charity,
or sit at the street corners or in
public places, dressed in a way
to attract attention. We passed
one yesterday who had the saw -
of a saw-fish in one hand and an
instrument resembling a child's
rattle in the other; a cocoa-nut
shell hung on his breast, to hold '
the donations of the charitable, I
and he sat on a box that resem-
bled a rude bird-cage. Ile was Ti
extremely dirty in appearance,
his legs were bare, and his hair
was long and uncombed; he
"stared at us, and shouted some-
thing we did not understand, and
when we passed by without giv-
ing him anything, he shook his
rattle in an angry way. The A BEGGING DERVISH.
guide says these men often go
into the houses of rich people, and the latter are afraid to turn them out
because of.their so-called holy character. They are the most impudent
beggars you can find anywhere, and many of them are said to be thieves
and murderers, who disguise their true character under the cloak of
religion.
"(We went to see the Mevlevies, and on the way to their temple the
Doctor told us that the whirling was a part of their religious observance,
like the dancing of the Shakers in America, and the practices of other
sects, whose fervor is often followed by insensibility. The dizziness that
results from whirling is considered a state of religious devotion, and the
6







82 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

most suited to the contemplation of heavenly things, and hence their ef-
forts to throw themselves into this ecstatic condition.
"When we entered their mosque
we removed our shoes, or rather ex-
changed them for the slippers we
had brought along, as we knew be-
forehand that we would need them.
The building was circular, with a
railed space in the centre; outside
of the rail the floor was covered with
matting, but inside it was polished
like the floor of a dancing-hall.
"Some of the dervishes were al-
ready seated in the ring when we
: , entered, and others came in soon af-
ter. When all was ready the sheik
-- or chief of the party rose and stood
., in the centre of the floor; the oth-
ers bowed to him one after another,
A WHIRLING DERVISH.
and then stood near the railing, with
their arms folded and their heads bent slightly forward. All were bare-
foot, having left their shoes at the door.
Half a dozen dervishes were in a little balcony overlooking the floor,
and when the chief gave the signal that all was ready three of them
began to play upon flutes, such as we have already described, and three
upon tambourines. Then the dervishes on the floor began to whirl; the
music, at first slow, soon quickened, and the dancers or whirlers quickened
their movements with it.
"Before getting into motion each man extended his arms, holding
the palm of the right hand upward while he turned down that of the
left. We asked the reason of this peculiar position of the hands, but the
guide could not tell us. He simply said tlat they always did so, and he
did not know why.
"As they whirled, their skirts spread out so that they resembled
wheels, or rather cones four or five feet in diameter. They kept their
hands always in the same position, and as they whirled they moved
slowly around the floor; it was a wonder that they didn't run against
each other, but they didn't. The music went on, and so did the dancers,
and they kept up their whirl for half an hour or more. We looked for
some of them to fall down; but they were accustomed to this kind of











cez









P . ......
I ~l~1'~11~"'--RI'







o



___ MW










CI)___ ___ _____'












PERFORMANCE OF THE WHIRLING DERVISHES.







84 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

work, and wouldn't oblige us. Nobody fell; and finally, at a signal from
their sheik, one after another stopped, made a low bow to him, and retired
to the edge of the circle. We had seen
Sen o u g h a n d so c a m e a w ay .
S"A n o th er d ay w e w e n t to se e a se c t
called the howling dervishes; they are
much like the Mevlevies, except that
they howl instead of whirl; They sat
on the floor in a circle, and began to
pronounce the names of Deity ninety
times each, and as there are ninety-nine
different names for God in the Arabic
_d language, you can readily see that there
were a great many words altogether.
"They bow each time they pronounce a
word, and very soon after commencing
A WHIRLER IN FULL ACTION. I
they rose to their feet, joined hands to-
gether, and became greatly excited. They bent their bodies nearly double
at every utterance, their turbans fell off, their hair flew wildly about,
they stripped off their upper garments, perspired freely, and some of
them, after a time, actually frothed at the mouth like mad dogs. We
did not stay to see the end of the performance, but were told that it
continued till the fanatics were exhausted, and one after another fell
insensible to the floor.
"Let us turn to something more agreeable.
"Frequently while going around the city we have passed near school-
rooms, where boys were studying their lessons under direction of their
teachers, and once we went inside and saw a school in operation. It
reminded us of the one we saw at Allahabad, in India,* as the boys were
seated on the floor in front of their teacher, and were studying their les-
sons aloud. Each boy had a wooden tablet like a large slate, with some
sentences on it in Arabic, which he was to commit to memory. They
rock back and forward as they study, as the motion is thought to assist
the memory. When a dozen boys are repeating their lessons all at once
you can imagine what a din they keep up. The sentences they learn are
from the Koran, and as soon as they can repeat the first chapter of the
sacred book they learn the last but one, and then the one preceding; the
second chapter of the book is the one learned last of all, and when they

The Boy Travellers in Ceylon and India," pp. 447, 448.








SCHOOLS IN CAIRO. 85
can repeat the whole of the Koran their education is considered complete,
unless they are intended for occupations where they must know how to
write. For instruction in writing they go to another school, or have spe-
cial teachers at home. The teacher receives a small sum of money from
the parents of each boy at the end of every week, and the room where
lie keeps his school is generally the property of a mosque, and costs
nothing for rent.
"Mr. Lane tells of a teacher who could not read or write, but man-
aged to keep a school for some years without being found out. IHe could
repeat the Koran from memory, and under pretence that his eyes were
weak he used to have the lessons written by the head boy or monitor.
When people brought letters for him to read he made the same excuse,
or gave some other reason for avoiding an exposure of his ignorance.




Jc-i'u AjLkilut- eI^,r e -p ^c /





-AA


ARABIC WRITING, WITH IMPRESSION OF A SEAL.

"Doctor Bronson says girls are rarely taught to read, except among
the wealthy inhabitants, and not always even them. One of us asked
him if there were no schools at all for girls.
'Yes,' he answered, but there are not many, and it is only within
a few years that they have been established. One of the wives of Ismail
Pacha took hold of the matter, and opened a school in an unoccupied
palace of the Khedive. Invitations were given for parents to send their
daughters to be educated, but for three weeks not a pupil came. Gradu-
ally the prejudice was overcome, and in a few months there were three
hundred pupils hard at work, while a great many who wished to come
were unable to obtain admission for want of room. There are now sev-
eral schools for girls in Cairo, and there is hardly a large town in Egypt
without one or more.'







86 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

We next asked what was taught in the schools for girls.
"'lMore than half the time,' said the Doctor, 'is devoted to instruc-
tion in household duties, embroidery, and plain sewing, so that the girls









--------- -








SCENE IN A PRIMARY SCHOOL.

can become intelligent servants or wives. Then they are taught to read
and sometimes to write, and if they show any marked aptitude for music,
there are music-teachers for their special benefit. It was the idea of Ismail
Pacha that the best way to improve the condition of his people was to
make them intelligent, and to begin the work with the girls who are
to be the mothers of the next generation of Egyptians.
"'It was also his idea that the abolition of slavery would be hastened
by training a class of household servants to take the places of the slaves.
The indications thus far are that his idea was an excellent one, and the
education of the girls of the working-classes of the people will go far in
the right direction.
"' The Khedive also did much toward giving Egypt a system of public
schools like those of Europe and America. He appointed two Europeans
to superintend the matter, and gave large sums of money for establish-
ing schools that could be free to all, in addition to the primary schools
already described. Foreign teachers were employed, together with the
most intelligent native ones that could be found, and the system has
already made great progress. The course in the lower schools covers four
years of study, and after that the pupils may enter one of the higher
schools and study medicine, engineering, surveying, law, mechanical con-








MISS WHATELY'S SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. 87

struction, and the like. Those who can pay for their instruction may do
so, but any pupil can enter whether he has money or not. Those who do
not pay are liable to be called into the government service, and many of
them are assigned to teach in the lower schools.
"'The American and English missionaries have schools in various parts
of Egypt, and have done a great deal toward the cause of education.
For a long time they labored under many disadvantages; but of late years
the government has recognized the importance of their services, and
made large donations in lands and money for their schools. Miss
Whately, the daughter of Archbishop Whately, has a school here in
Cairo, which she has established by her own exertions, for the purpose of
educating the girls of the lower classes; she devotes her entire time to
this work of charity, and I am happy to say that she is fully appreciated
by the native as well as the foreign population. It is quite possible that
the example of this self-sacrificing woman led the wife of the Khedive to
establish the schools already mentioned.
"'Probably the largest school in Egypt,' the Doctor continued, 'is
the religious one attached to the Mosque El-Azhar. The building is of














A ,
-c


INSTRUCTION AT HOME.

no great consequence as a work of architecture, as it consists of a series of
porticos of different periods of construction; but it has long been cele-
brated as a university for Moslem instruction, and has had an uninter-
rupted career of more than eight hundred years.
"'It is not only the largest school in Egypt, but probably the largest
in the world, as it has more than ten thousand students.'
i-







SS THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.








l- I.,


"'IYes, tn td s; te lat r fr w h I he sn































writing letters, and similar work. The poor pupils support themselves in
the same way. Many of them sleep in the mosque, and the building as





















away by Mohammed Al, and has never been restored.






















"'The instruction in the university is mostly religious. When his
religious course is ended the student is instructed in law which is always
,''." '.,...-.... I "




-17
'"'':'n t o s d s u e t i ,l s, ,r fi o'r w I h a e s n t e
figures t-ere wer ten thousand seven hne a c', 's









thegrat.majrity.fthem ae.fr m Egy t. T ey..._--o,.three:..





"oshTen thousand students in one scheoolp w
"ar es, ten thousand students; the last yeya for wich I ave seen tihe
figures there ere tey thousand seven thnded sd eighty stuildent, and
three hundred and twenty-ore professor. Tahe students are from all paets

the gyeat majority of thel arye frfom Egyptf Tdey remain froiii thesee to
six years at the university, and py no fees foia iastreuction. Tbe piiofess-
ors ave no salaies, but depend upon iesents fom the ppils ro can
afford to make them, and i pon what they can eamos by private teaching,









religious course is ended the student is instructed in law, which is always








INSTRUCTION IN A MOSLEM UNIVERSITY. 89

based on the Koran; after that he devotes some attention to poetry, and,
if any time remains, he may learn something of geometry, arithmetic, and
other miscellaneous knowledge. Many of the students stay in Cairo, to
become professors in the El-Azhar or other schools; but those from for-
eign lands generally return home when their course of study is over, in
order to give their own people the advantages of the superior wisdom
they have acquired.'"





















PROFEORS OF THE EL-AZHAR.
2 P-- lo






PROFESSORS OF THE EL-AZHARI.







"00 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.










CHAPTER VII.
THE CITADEL.-THE TOMBS OF THE CALIPHS.-THE NILOMETER.-THE ROSETTA
STONE.

JDOCTOR BRONSON told his young friends that the finest general
view of Cairo, and the surrounding region, was from the Citadel, at
the southern end of the city. They went there several times, generally
a little while before sunset, and the impression they received is well
described in the following letter from Frank to his mother:





g _- ---- __ W










THE CITADEL, CAIRO, WITH MOSQUE OF MOHAMMED ALI.

". The view from the hill where the Citadel stands has been called
the finest in the world, or certainly one of the finest, and in all our travels
we do not remember anything that can surpass it. We stood on the plat-
form of the, Mosque of Mohammed Ali, and had the great city of Cairo
spread at our feet. Immediately below us was an open square, with
groups of people and camels moving slowly about. Just beyond was the
beautiful Mosque of Sultan Hassan, and beyond the mosque was the plain
covered with cupolas and flat roofs, seamed with streets and avenues,
dotted with waving palm-trees, and revealing open spaces here and there,
~~- .. .f- _








VIEW FROM THE CITADEL OF CAIRO. 91

to give diversity to the picture. Beyond the city was the bright green of
the rich Valley of the Nile. In front of us was the famous old river of
Egypt, like a broad, irregular belt of silver, reflecting the light of the
setting sun, and forming a sharp contrast with the land through'which it
flows. Across the green fields, which were stippled with the white walls
of palaces or dotted with the brown villages of the peasants, our gaze
rested on the yellow desert, backed by the Libyan mountains which form
the western horizon. From the edge of the desert the great pyramids
rose in all their grandeur, and it was not difficult for us to realize their
enormous proportions. From other points the pyramids had appeared to
be almost on a level with the valley of the river, but as we viewed them
from the Citadel we could see that they stood on a rocky platform fully a
hundred feet in height.
"Doctor Bronson says every traveller should make his plans so as to
come often to the Citadel, and there can be no better time for the view
than at sunset. In the morning there is liable to be a haze on the land-
scape, and at noon there is too much glare of light, especially when the
eye is turned toward the desert. At sunset the colors of the Egyptian
sky are at their best. You may have wondered sometimes, when looking
at pictures of Egypt, whether there is really as much color as the artists
give us. We can assure you that no painting we have yet seen is at all
exaggerated, and if you could have a sunset view from the Citadel of
Cairo you would fully agree with us.
The Citadel was built by the great conqueror Saladin, and stone for
its construction was brought from the pyramids and from the ruins of
Memphis, a few miles farther up the river. The spot was not wisely
chosen, as the hill is commanded by a higher one just back of it. On
this latter hill Mohammed Ali placed his cannons, and compelled the
surrender of the Citadel, and consequently of Cairo. There are two
roads leading up to the Citadel, one a broad carriage-way, and the other
a narrow lane. We went by one and came by the other. In the latter
-the narrow lane-the guide showed us a spot which has an historic
interest, and perhaps you would like to hear about it:
"There was a body of soldiers in Egypt called the Mamelukes, and
they ruled the country for several centuries. They chose the governors
of the provinces, and could place one of their number on the throne at
any time they wished; in fact, they controlled the country, and the
nominal ruler was obliged to do as they wished. When Napoleon came
here in 1798 they fought him in the famous Battle of the Pyramids,
and were defeated; many of them were killed, and others fled to Upper























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MASSACRE OF THE MAMELUKES. 93

Egypt, but enough remained to give trouble. When Mohammed Ali
came to Egypt, after the French had been driven out by the English,
the Mamelukes made him understand that he could do nothing without
them. He soon determined to do something with them, and get rid of
their interference.
He sent invitations for the chiefs-four hundred and seventy in all
-to come to the Citadel on the first day of March, 1811, to a grand ban-
quet, where they would discuss the plans for a campaign into Nubia.
They came at the appointed hour, and assembled in the narrow lane I
told you of, waiting for the upper gate to open. When they were all in
the lane the lower gate was shut, and there they were in a trap! Then
the Albanian soldiers of Mohammed Ali began to fire on the Mamelukes
from the loop-holes and the top of the walls. All were killed except
one man, Enim Bey, who made his horse leap through a gap in the wall.
The horse was killed by the fall, but his rider's life was saved. This was
the end of the power of the Mamelukes in Egypt.
Fred says Mohammed Ali reminds him of the Spanish warrior who
said, on his death-bed,
"'I leave no enemies behind me; I've shot them all !'
"'The mosque, which was begun by Mohammed Ali and finished by
his successors, is on the site of the palace erected by Saladin. It is built
of alabaster, from the quarries up the Nile, and though faulty in many
points of its architecture, is an interesting structure. It is sometimes
called the Alabaster Mosque,' and as we went through it our admiration
was excited by the richness of the materials of which it is composed.
The tomb of Mohammed Ali is in one corner of the building, and is
surrounded with a handsome railing, but there is nothing remarkable
about the tomb itself. Close by the mosque is the palace; but it is in a
half-ruined condition, and contains only a few rooms worth visiting.
We went to Joseph's Well, which is a shaft nearly three hundred
feet deep in the limestone rock; the tradition is that it is the well into
which Joseph was cast by his brethren, but it probably gets its name
from 'Yoosef,' which was the other name of Saladin the Conqueror.
There was a well here when Saladin built the Citadel, but it was choked
with sand, and the great ruler ordered it to be cleared out and made
useful. It is probable that the well was originally made by the ancient
Egyptians, and, if so, it may be the one into which Joseph was cast by his
brethren. There is a sakkieh for raising water in this well, but it is of
little importance at present, as the Citadel is now supplied by means of a
steam-pu mp."






9-1 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

From the Citadel our friends went to "'the Tombs of the Caliphs,"
which extend along the east side of the city, and are conveniently reached
by the Bab-el-Nasr. They are supposed to be the burial-places of the
caliplis or sultans who ruled from the thirteenth to the sixteenth centu-
ry. Some of them are or were magnificent structures, while others are








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THE TOMBS OF THE CALIPHS.

comparatively plain in appearance. Down to the beginning of this
century they had large revenues for keeping them in repair, and were
guarded by the descendants of the sheiks and their followers, who had
charge of them during their days of glory. Their revenues were taken
away by Mohammed Ali, and since the time of that ruthless despot the
custodians of the tombs have lived by what they could beg from visitors.
Beyond the Citadel is a similar necropolis, called "the Tombs of the
Mamelukes."
Evidently the buildings were erected, in most instances, without regard
to cost, and before they began to decay they were to be ranked among
the triumphs of Moslem architecture. Some of the domes and minarets
are still magnificent, particularly those marking the resting-place of Sul-
tan Barkuk and Keit Bey. The latter is considered the finest of all, and
is the one most frequently drawn or painted by artists.
The boys paid a second visit to the tomb of Keit Bey, and carried
along their sketching materials. They found the architecture wore diffi-
cult to represent than they had supposed, and Frank made two or three
attempts at the graceful minaret before he succeeded in satisfying him-








A FAMOUS MAUSOLEUM. 95

self. The minaret is one of the finest in Cairo; it rises from a corner of
the building, and has three stages or balconies, which diminish as they
approach the top. The summit is shaped like a pear, and is usually dis-
figured with poles, from which flags are hung on days of festivals. The
dome bears a marked resemblance to that of the Taj Mahal at Agra, in
India, and terminates in a sharp spire instead of the conventional half-
moon that generally surmounts a Moslem edifice. While Frank was busy














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_ -- .










"THE TOMB OF KEIT BEY.

with the structure, Fred made a sketch of several camels that were halted
in front of the famous mausoleum, and the work of the two youths was
afterward united into a single picture.
An early day was devoted to the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities at
Boulak, a suburb of Cairo, and practically a part of the city. An excir-






96 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

sion was made to Old Cairo, and from there by ferry to the island of
Rhoda. On the latter is the famous Nilometer, or instrument for measur-
ing the depth of water in the Nile; it is a square well, connected with the
river, so that the water can freely rise and fall within it. In the centre
of the well is a stone column, marked like a scale, with the old Arabic
measures: the dra, or ell, was the unit of measurement, and was 21-
inches in length, divided into 24 kirat. The height of the column is
17 ells, or about 30 feet, and the Nile at its lowest point covers about
7 ells of this length. When the water mounts to 15- ells the river
is considered full, and the whole valley of the Lower Nile can be inun-


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-- _. -


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--- :,-- --L_'17-_-.- _I.- -:_ -Rf-_- .. -



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some of the monuments show that the ce-emonies of cutting the banks
_--=: c ~ _l llake t ----t :s~s i -h ae -1 -he .:t ... ...l ,
g+--=;-=- 5an 'e e o i s ,,i ,al -lo p c ... "n ......n --rv s ",: s
genei~a, ",74-":"g
Doctor~~~__:_-- _. ,.,:,o ....e otaeyuh lc~ letxtineciya
.:-. "--": ,-- th, Iiexl :-- ta- "e .. .. inicao, "n h ioe e
~~ h fiileiec : f :il cnio ii ftl le.~sitil
"som f -il .--.',,o:. sl'~ ',il-_ -:- ;- _- -li, c',,.ii "- -n n -:-e ----''."
Ti ,,,'7she -_ =a l as ti le/: fo7---n ....l"v.,,'-t; =2o~ :-e -"=----'"'








THE NILOMETER AND ITS USES. 97
era, and the taxation was based on the height of water in ancient times as
at present. The Nilometer was exclusively in charge of the priests, and
the people were not allowed to see it. It was the object of the authorities
to tax the people as heavily as possible, and there is good reason to be-
lieve that the priests made false statements concerning the height of the
water, and no one could contradict them. The Arab and Turkish rulers
did the same thing, and the practice is continued to the present time; at
the period of the inundation the Nilometer is closed to the public, and
every one must depend upon the figures of the officer in charge. As
he owes his position to the government, it is pretty certain that he does
what the government desires, and reports the river at the highest figure
whether it is so or not.
The guide pointed out the spot at the end of the island where the
infant Moses was found by the daughter of Pharaoh. The boys thought
the place was pretty enough for the historical event to have occurred there,
but were in some doubt as to the correctness of the guide's information.
Before the construction of the bridge over the Nile the principal
crossing of the river was by the ferry at Old Cairo. At present it is not
so much in use; but there is yet a considerable business transacted there,
and the stranger will generally find a crowd of men and camels waiting
to be taken to the other side.
The evening previous to the visit to the museum at Boulak was
devoted to a study of the history of ancient Egypt, so that the youths
would have an understanding of the interesting collection of antiquities
in that establishment. At the Doctor's suggestion Frank and Fred wrote
a brief account of what they had learned, and placed it on the pages of
their journal. Here is what they prepared:
"Tlie history of ancient Egypt is full of interest, and has been a sub-
ject of a great deal of study by many learned writers. Herodotus, who
has been called 'the father of history,' and flourished in the fifth century
before the Christian era, was the first of these writers, and some of the
discoveries of the present time have been based on his records. Another
Greek writer, Manetho, lived two centuries later than Herodotus, but,
unfortunately, the greater part of his works have not come down to us.
A large part of the history of ancient Egypt has been obtained from the
inscriptions on the walls of the temples and tombs, and from the writ-
ings upon papyrus scrolls, and the linen in which mummies were rolled.
In modern times there have been many explorers and writers who have
devoted years of study to the subject, and consequently we know more
of ancient Egypt than of any other country of antiquity. If you wish
7






98 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND.

to know more than we can tell you now about the people that lived here
four thousand years ago, we refer you to the works of Wilkinson, Poole,
Mariette, Lepsius, Belzoni, Bunsen, Brugsch, and many others. There are
books enough on Egypt to keep you busy a whole year, and perhaps two





















THIE DRESS OF AN EGYPTIAN KING. FORM OF CROWN AND APRONS.

years, just to read them through. We are reading The Ancient Egyp-
tians,' by Sir Gardner Wilkinson, and find it very interesting.
"The first King of Egypt that we know about was Menes, who
founded the City of Memphis. There is a difference of opinion among
the writers as to the date when he existed; Wilkinson, Poole, and others
say he lived about 2700 B.c., Bunsen says it was 3623 B.C., and Mariette
thinks it was 5004 B.c. The reason why they make this difference is
because some of them believe the dynasties, or families of kings, of
ancient Egypt succeeded one another, while others believe some of them
ruled at the same time in different parts of the country. The difference
between the 'successive' and the 'contemporaneous' theories, when you
add up the periods of all the dynasties, is more than two thousand years.
Down to the seventeenth dynasty the figures are uncertain ; from the sev-
enteenth to the twenty-first it is agreed that the dynasties were succes-
sive, but there is some difference about their dates; while from the twenty-
first dynasty to the Christian era there is no dispute.








THE DYNASTIES OF ANCIENT EGYPT. 99

"Perhaps this is dry reading; if so, you had better go over it care-
fully, and then skip.
Whether King Menes lived seven or five thousand years ago makes
very little difference to us, and probably to him, as he is dead now. To
avoid confusion we will take the theory of Wilkinson, and sup-
pose it was only five thousand years ago that the first dynasty
began. That will seem more neighborly, and bring us so near
to Menes that we can almost imagine we knew him personally.
Just think of it-only five thousand years ago!
"Some of the dynasties of ancient Egypt lasted two hun-
dred years and more, while others were much less, the short- MENES.
est dynasty being seventy days. During the fourth dynasty,
which lasted two hundred years, the Pyramids of Gizeh were built
(about 2400 B.C.). In the twelfth dynasty many monuments and tem-
ples were erected, and many of the famous tombs were made; Abra-
ham, and afterward Joseph, came to Egypt, and several important events
of Egyptian history belong to this dynasty. The eighteenth dynasty
lasted nearly two hundred and fif-
I ty years (in the sixteenth, fifteenth,
\ S S ?and fourteenth centuries B.c.), and
was the most brilliant of all the
S~ periods of ancient Egypt. Thebes
and other cities were in the height
of their glory, the armies made
S\great conquests, the temples at Kar-
I nak and Thebes were built, and the
-- obelisks that are to-day the won-
der of the world were brought
S // from Syene, and erected where
they could attest the power of the
Rulers of the land. The inscrip-
tions on the monuments say that
during the reign of Thothmes III.,
Sone of the kings of the eighteenth
I 3_. __ dynasty, 'Egypt placed her fron-
RAMESES II., FROM AN INSCRIPTION. tier where she pleased.'
"During the nineteenth dynas-
ty one king, Rameses II. (or The Great'), reigned sixty-seven years, and
left many monuments that remain to this day. One of his predecessors
in the same dynasty, Sethi I., built several magnificent temples, and made





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