Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Chapter I: The story of Romulus...
 Chapter II: The story of Alba
 Chapter III: The story of the elder...
 Chapter IV: The story of Servi...
 Chapter V: The story of Brutus
 Chapter VI: The story of Lars...
 Chapter VII: The story of...
 Chapter VIII: The story of the...
 Chapter IX: The story of Cinci...
 Chapter X: The story of the Decemvirs...
 Chapter XI: The story of Veil
 Chapter XII: The story of...
 Chapter XIII: The story of Rome...
 Chapter XIV: The story of Rome...
 Chapter XV: The story of Manlius...
 Chapter XVI: Stories of certain...
 Chapter XVII: Stories of the passes...
 Back Cover

Title: Stories from Livy
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00050402/00001
 Material Information
Title: Stories from Livy
Physical Description: vi, 277 p., 16 leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Church, Alfred John, 1829-1912
Pinelli, Bartolomeo, 1781-1835 ( Illustrator )
Scribner & Welford ( Publisher )
M.&N. Hanhart Chromo Lith ( Lithographer )
Publisher: Scribner and Welford
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1883
Subject: Children's stories   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Rome   ( lcsh )
Children's stories -- 1883   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1883
Genre: Children's stories   ( lcsh )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by Alfred J. Church with illustrations from designs by Pinelli.
General Note: Illustrations lithographed by Hanhart, Lith.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00050402
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002224209
notis - ALG4470
oclc - 14975505

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Illustrations
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Chapter I: The story of Romulus and of Numa
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Chapter II: The story of Alba
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Chapter III: The story of the elder Tarquin
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Chapter IV: The story of Servius
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Chapter V: The story of Brutus
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Chapter VI: The story of Lars Porsenna
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Chapter VII: The story of Coriolanus
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Chapter VIII: The story of the Fabii
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Chapter IX: The story of Cincinnatus
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
    Chapter X: The story of the Decemvirs and of Virginia
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Chapter XI: The story of Veil
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Chapter XII: The story of Camillus
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
    Chapter XIII: The story of Rome and the Gauls
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Chapter XIV: The story of Rome and the Gauls (continued)
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
    Chapter XV: The story of Manlius of the twisted chain
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
    Chapter XVI: Stories of certain great Romans
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
    Chapter XVII: Stories of the passes of Caudium
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
    Back Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
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The Baldwin Library





-- t, I

N -Al A IL T H F

: -- -- . .. i I i i-
,-\ C),IIL i > 8 Hf, IY P~--I _'/-ii



Professor of Latin in University Coll/ge, London



All Rights reserved



( :IAIh. .AGE


II. THE STORY OF ALBA ... ... ... 22



V. THE STORY OF BRUTUS ... ... ... 72






VIRGINIA ... ........ 46

XI. THE STORY OF VEII ...... ...... 62




""HA .


(continued) ...... 03

















THE DEATH OF VIRGINIA ............ 158








I HAD wished to say a few words as to the
great difficulty of transforming Livy's ornate
diction into the simple style I have hitherto
adopted ; but a stroke of illness has prevented
my being, able even to correct the proofs--a
work which has been carried out for me by
my kind friend, C. Simmons, Esq., of Balliol
College, Oxford.

Ocober 3, 1882.




ENxiAs of Troy, coming to the land of Italy,
took to wife Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus,
and built him a city, which he called Lavi-
nium, after the name of his wife. And, after
thirty years, his son Ascanius went forth from
Lavinium with much people, and built him a
new city, which he called Alba. In this city
reigned kings of the house and lineage of
.Eneas for twelve generations. Of these kings
the eleventh in descent was one Procas, who,
having two sons, Numitor and Amulius, left his.
kingdom, according to the custom, to Numitor,,
the elder. But Amulius drave out his brother,
and reigned in his stead. Nor was he content
with this wickedness, but slew all the male


children of his brother. And the daughter of
his brother, that was named Rhea Silvia, he
chose to be a priestess of Vesta, making as
though he would do the maiden honour ; but
his thought was that the name of his brother
should perish, for they that serve Vesta are
vowed to perpetual virginity.
But it came to pass that Rhea bare twin
sons, whose father, it was said, was the god
MIars. Very wroth was Amulius when he
heard this thing; Rhea he made fast in prison,
and the children he gave to certain of his
servants that they should cast them into the
river. Now it chanced that at this season
Tiber had overflowed his banks, neither could
the servants come near to the stream of the
river; nevertheless they did not doubt that the
children would perish, for all that the over-
flowing of the water was neither deep nor of a
swift current. Thinking then that thev had
duly performed the commandment of the King,
they set down the babes in the flood and de-
parted. But after a while the food abated,
and left the basket wherein the children had
been laid on dry ground. And a she wolf,

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coming down from the hill to drink at the river
(for the country in those days was desert and
abounding in wild beasts), heard the crying of
the children and ran to them. Nor did she
devour them, but gave them suck; nay, so
gentle was she that Faustulus, the King's shep-
herd, chancing to go by, saw that she licked
them with her tongue. This Faustulus took
the children and gave them to his wife to rear;
and these, when they were of age to go by
themselves, were not willing to abide with the
flocks and herds, but were hunters, wandering
through the forests that were in those parts.
And afterwards, being now come to full
strength, they were not content to slay wild
beasts only, but would assail troops of robbers,
as these were returning laden with their booty,
and would divide the spoils among the shep-
herds. Now there was held in those days, on
the hill that is now called the Palatine, a yearly
festival to the god Pan. This festival King
Evander first ordained, having come from Ar-
cadia, in which land, being a land of shepherds,
Pan that is the god of shepherds is greatly
honoured. And when the young men and

4 STORIES FRO-21 LI\1\'.

their company (for they had gathered a great
company of shepherds about them, and led
them in all matters both of business and of
sport) were busy with the festival, there came
upon them certain robbers that had made an
ambush in the place, being very wroth by
reason of the booty which they had lost.
These laid hands on Remus, but Romulus they
could not take, so fiercely did he fight against
them. Remus, therefore, they delivered up to
King Amulius, accusing him of many things,
and chiefly of this, that he and his companions
had invaded the land of Numitor, dealing with
them in the fashion of an enemy and carrvino
off much spoil. To Numitor, therefore, did
the King deliver Remus, that he might put
him to death. Now Faustulus had believed
from the beginning that the children were of
the royal house, for he knew that the babes
had been cast into the river by the Kine's
command, and the time also of his finding them
agreed thereto. Nevertheless he had not
judged it expedient to open the matter before
due time, but waited till occasion or necessity
should arise. But now, there being such ne-


cessity, he opened the matter to Romulus.
Numitor also, when he had the young man
Remus in his custody, knowing that he and his
brother were twins, and that the time agreed,
and seeing that they were of a high spirit, be-
thought him of his grandsons; and, indeed,
having asked many questions of Remus, was
come nigh to knowing of what race he was.
And now also Romulus was ready to help his
brother. To come openly with his whole com-
pany he dared not, for he was not a match for
the power of King Amulius; but he bade
sundry shepherds make their way to the palace,
each as best he could, appointing to them a
time at which they should meet. And now
came Remus also, with a troop of youths
gathered together from the household of Numi-
tor. Then did Romulus and Remus slay King
Amulius. In the meanwhile Numitor gathered
the youth of Alba to the citadel, crying out
that they must make the place safe, for that the
enemy was upon them; but when he perceived
that the young men had done the deed, forth-
with he called an assembly of the citizens, and
set forth to them the wickedness which his


brother had wrought against him, and how
his grandsons had been born and bred and
made known to him, and then, in order, how
the tyrant had been slain, himself having coun-
selled the deed. When he had so spoken the
young men came with their company into the
midst of the assembly, and saluted him as
King; to which thing the whole multitude
agreeing with one consent, Numitor was estab-
lished upon the throne.
After this Romulus and his brother con-
ceived this purpose, that, leaving their grand-
father to be king at Alba, they should build
for themselves a new city in the place where,
having been at the first left to die, they had
been brought up by Faustulus the shepherd.
And to this purpose many agreed both of
the men of Alba and of the Latins, and
also of the shepherds that had followed them
from the first, holding it for certain all of them
that Alba and Lavinium would be of small
account in comparison of this new city which
they should build together. But while the
brothers were busy with these things, there
sprang up afresh the same evil thing which had


before wrought such trouble in their house,
even the lust of power. For though the be-
ginnings of the strife between them were
peaceful, yet did it end in great wickedness.
The matter fell out in this wise. Seeing that
the brothers were twins, and that neither could
claim to have the preference to the other in
respect of his age, it was agreed between them
that the gods that were the guardians of that
country should make known by means of
augury which of the two they chose to give
his name to the new city. Then Romulus
stood on the Palatine hill, and when there had
been marked out for him a certain region of
the sky, watched therein for a sign; and
Remus watched in like manner, standing on
the Aventine. And to Remus first came a
sign, six vultures; but so soon as the sign
had been proclaimed there came another to
Romulus, even twelve vultures. Then they
that favoured Remus clamoured that the gods
had chosen him for King, because he had first
seen the birds; and they that favoured Romulus
answered that he was to be preferred because
he had seen more in number. This dispute


waxed so hot that they fell to fighting; and
in the fight it chanced that Remus was slain.
But some say that when Romulus had marked
out the borders of the town which he would
build, and had caused them to build a wall
round it, Remus leapt over the wall, scorning
it because it was mean and low; and that
Romulus slew him, crying out, "Thus shall
every man perish that shall dare to leap over
my walls." Only others will have it that though
he perished for this cause Romulus slew him
not, but a certain Celer. This much is certain,
that Romulus gained the whole kingdom for
himself and called the city after his own name.
And now, having first done sacrifice to the
gods, he called a general assembly of the
people, that he might give them laws, know-
ing that without laws no city can endure.
And judging that these would be the better
kept of his subjects if he should himself bear
something of the show of royal majesty, he
took certain signs of dignity, and especially
twelve men that should continually attend him,
bearing bundles of rods, and in the midst of
the rods an axe; these men they called victors.


Meanwhile the city increased, for the King and
his people enlarged their borders, looking rather
to the greatness for which they hoped than to
that which they had. And that this increase
might not be altogether empty walls without
men, Romulus set up a sanctuary, to which
were gathered a great multitude of men from
the nations round about. All that were dis-
contented and lovers of novelty came to him.
Nor did he take any account of their condition,
whether they were bond or free, but received
them all. Thus was there added to the city
great strength. And the King when he judged
that there was strength sufficient, was minded
to add to the strength counsel. Wherefore he
chose a hundred men for counsellors. A
hundred he chose, either because he held that
number to be sufficient, or because there were
no more that were fit to bear this dignity and
be called Fathers, for this was the name of these
After this the people bethought themselves
how they should get for themselves wives, for
there were no women in the place. Wherefore
Romulus sent ambassadors to the nations round


about, praying that they should give their
daughters to his people for wives. "Cities,"
he said, "have humble beginnings even as all
other things. Nevertheless they that have the
gods and their own valour to help become
great. Now that the gods are with us, as
ye know, be assured also that valour shall
not be wanting." But the nations round about
would not hearken to him, thinking scorn
of this gathering of robbers and slaves and
runaways, so that they said, "Why do ye not
open a sanctuary for women also that so ye
may find fit wives for your people ?" Also
they feared for themselves and their children
what this new city might grow to. Now when
the ambassadors brought back this answer the
Romans were greatly wroth, and would take by
force that which their neighbours would not
give of their free will. And to the end that
they might do this more easily, King Romulus
appointed certain days whereon he and his
people would hold a festival with games to
Neptune; and to this festival he called all them
that dwelt in the cities round about. But
when many were gathered together (for they


were fain to see what this new city might be),
and were now wholly bent on the spectacle of
the games, the young men of the Romans ran
in upon them, and carried off all such as were
unwedded among the women. To these King
Romulus spake kindly, saying, The fault is
not with us but with your fathers, who dealt
proudly with us, and would not give you to us
in marriage. But now ye shall be held in all
honour as our wives, and shall have your portion
of all that we possess. Put away therefore
your anger, for ye shall find us so much the
better husbands than other men, as we must
be to you not for husbands only but parents
also and native country."
In the meanwhile the parents of them that
had been carried off put on sackcloth, and
went about through the cities crying out for
vengeance upon the Romans. And chiefly
they sought for help from Titus Tatius, that
was king of the Sabines in those days, and of
great power and renown. But when the
Sabines seemed to be tardy in the matter, the
men of Care first gathered together their
army and marched into the country of the


Romans. Against these King Romulus led
forth his men and put them to flight without
much ado, having first slain their king with
his own hand. After then returning to Rome
he carried the arms which he had taken from
the body of the king to the hill of the Capitol,
and laid them down at the shepherds' oak that
stood thereon in those days. And when he
had measured out the length and breadth of a
temple that he would build to Jupiter upon
the hill, he said, "0 Jupiter, I, King Romulus,
offer to thee these arms of a King, and dedicate
therewith a temple in this place, in which
temple they that come after me shall offer to
thee like spoils in like manner, when it shall
chance that the leader of our host shall himself
slay with his own hands the leader of the host
of the enemy." And this was the first, temple
that was dedicated in Rome. And in all the
time to come two only offered in this manner,
to wit, Cornelius Cossus that slew Lars Tolum-
nius, king of Veil, and Claudius Marcellus
that slew Britomarus, king of the Gauls.
After this, King Tatius and the Sabines
came up against Rome with a great army. And


first of all they gained the citadel by treachery
in this manner. One Tarpeius was governor
of the citadel, whose daughter, Tarpeia by
name, going forth from the walls to fetch water
for a sacrifice, took money from the King that
she should receive certain of the soldiers within
the citadel; but when they had been so received,
the men cast their shields upon her, slaying her
with the weight of them. This they did either
that they might be thought to have taken the
place by force, or that they judged it to be
well that no faith should be kept with traitors.
Some also tell this tale, that the Sabines wore
great bracelets of gold on their left arms, and
on their left hands fair rings with precious
stones therein, and that when the maiden
covenanted with them that she should have
for a reward that which they carried in their
left hands, they cast their shields upon her.
And other say that she asked for their shields
having the purpose to betray them, and for this
cause was slain.
Thus the Sabines had possession of the
citadel; and the next day King Romulus set
the battle in array on the plain that lay between


the hill of the Capitol and the hill of the Pala-
tine. And first the Romans were very eager
to recover the citadel, a certain Hostilius being
their leader. But when this man, fighting in
the forefront of the battle, was slain, the Romans
turned their backs and fled before the Sabines,
even unto the gate of the Palatine. Then
King Romulus (for he himself had been carried
away by the crowd of them that fled) held up
his sword and his spear to the heavens, and
cried aloud, "0 Jupiter, here in the Palatine
didst thou first, by the tokens which thou sentest
me, lay the foundations of my city. And lo!
the Sabines have taken the citadel by wicked
craft, and have crossed the valley, and are come
up even hither. But if thou sufferest them so
far, do thou at the least defend this place against
them, and stay this shameful flight of my people.
So will I build a temple for thee in this place,
even a temple of Jupiter the Stayer, that may
be a memorial to after generations of how
thou didst this day save this city." And when
he had so spoken, even as though he knew
that the prayer had been heard, he cried, Ye
men of Rome, Jupiter bids you stand fast in this

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Il k

1w du

oANHAR?/ /"H,



place and renew the battle." And when the
men of Rome heard these words, it was as if a
voice from heaven had spoken to them, and
they stood fast, and the King himself went
forward and stood among the foremost. Now
the leader of the Sabines was one Curtius.
This man, as he drave the Romans before him,
cried out to his comrades, "See we have
conquered these men, false hosts and feeble
foes that they are! Surely now they know
that it is one thing to carry off maidens and
another to fight with men." But whilst he
boasted himself thus, King Romulus and a
company of the youth rushed upon him. Now
Curtius was fighting on horseback, and being
thus assailed he fled, plunging into a certain
pool which lay between the Palatine hill and
the Capitol. Thus did he barely escape with
his life, and the lake was called thereafter
Curtius' pool. And now the Sabines began to
give way to the Romans, when suddenly the
women for whose sake they fought, having
their hair loosened and their garments rent, ran
in between them that fought, crying out, Shed
ye not each other's blood ye that are fathers-in-


law and sons-in-law to each other. But if ye
break this bond that is between you, slay us
that are the cause of this trouble. And surely
it were better for us to die than to live if we be
bereaved of our fathers or of our husbands."
With these words they stirred the hearts both
of the chiefs and of the people, so that there
was suddenly made a great silence. And after-
wards the leaders came forth to make a cove-
nant; and these indeed so ordered matters that
there was not peace only, but one state where
there had been two. For the Sabines came to
Rome and dwelt there; and King Romulus and
King Tatius reigned together. Only, after a
while, certain men of Lanuvium slew King
Tatius as he was sacrificing to the gods at
Lavinium; and thereafter Romulus only was
king as before.
When he had reigned thirty and seven years
there befell the thing that shall now be told.
On a certain day he called the people together
on the Field of Mars, and held a review of his
army. But while he did this there arose suddenly
a great storm with loud thunderings and very
thick clouds, so that the king was hidden away


from the eyes of all the people. Nor indeed
was he ever again seen upon the earth. And
when men were recovered of their fear they
were in great trouble, because they had lost
their King, though indeed the Fathers would
have it that he had been carried by a whirl-
wind into heaven. Yet after awhile they began
to worship him as being now a god; and when
nevertheless some doubted, and would even
whisper among themselves that Romulus had
been torn in pieces by the Fathers, there came
forward a certain Proculus, who spake after this
manner: Ye men of Rome, this day, in the
early morning, I saw Romulus, the father of
this city, come down from heaven and stand
before me. And when great fear came upon
me, I prayed that it might be lawful for me to
look upon him face to face. Then said he to
me,' Go thy way, tell the men of Rome that it
is the will of them that dwell in heaven that
Rome should be the chiefest city in the world.
Bid them therefore be diligent in war; and let
them know for themselves and tell their children
after them that there is no power on earth so
great that it shall be able to stand against


them.' And when he had thus spoken, he
departed from me going up into heaven." All
men believed Proculus when he thus spake,
and the people ceased from their sorrow when
they knew that King Romulus had been taken
up into heaven.
And now it was needful that another king
should be chosen. No man in those days was
more renowned for his righteousness and piety
than a certain Numa Pompilius that dwelt at
Cures in the land of the Sabines. Now it
seemed at first to the Senate that the Sabines
would be too powerful in the state if a kino
should be chosen from amongst them, neverthe-
less because they could not agree upon any
other man, at last with one consent they
decreed that the kingdom should be offered
to him. And Numa was willing to receive it
if only the gods consented. And the consent
of the gods was asked in this fashion. Being
led by the augur into the citadel, he sat down
on a stone, with his face looking towards the
south, and on his left hand sat the augur, having
his head covered and in his hand an augur's
staff, which is a wand bent at the end and


having no knot. Then looking towards the
city and the country round about, he offered
prayers to the Gods and marked out the region
of the sky from the sunrising to the sunsetting ;
the parts towards the south he called the right,
and the parts towards the north he called the
left; and he set a boundary before as far as his
eye could reach. After this he took his staff in
his left hand and laid his right on the head of
Numa, praying in these words: "Father Jupiter,
if it be thy will that this Numa Pompilius,
whose head I hold, should be King of Rome,
show us, I pray thee, clear tokens of this thy
will within the space which I have marked out."
He then named the tokens which he desired,
and when they had been shown, Numa was
declared to be King.
King Numa, considering that the city was
but newly founded, and that by violence and
force, conceived that he ought to found it anew,
giving it justice and laws and religion; and
that he might soften the manners and tempers
of the people, he would have them cease awhile
from war. To this end he built a temple of
Janus, by which it might be signified whether


there was peace or war in the State; for, if it
were peace, the gates of the temple should be
shut, but if it were war, they should be open.
Twice only were the gates shut after the days
of Numa; for the first time when Titus Manlius
was Consul, after the ending of the first war
against Carthage, and for the second time
when the Emperor Augustus, after vanquishing
Antony at Actium, established universal peace
both by land and sea. This temple then King
Numa built, and shut the gates thereof, having
first made treaties of peace with the nations
round about.
Many other things did King Numa set in
order for his people. First he divided the year
into twelve months, each month being according
to the course of the moon, and in every twenty-
fourth year another month, that the year might
so agree with the course of the sun. Also he
appointed certain lawful days for business, and
pther days on which nothing might be done.
-l made priests also, of whom the chief was
the priest of Jupiter, to whom he gave splendid
apparel and a chair of ivory. Two other priests
he made, one of Mars, and the other of Quiri-


nus, that is to say, of Romulus the god. And
he chose virgins for the service of Vesta, who
should keep alive the sacred fire, and twelve
priests of Mars, whom he called the Salii, to be
keepers of the sacred shield. (This shield, men
said, fell down from heaven, and that it might
be kept the more safely, King Numa com-
manded that they should make eleven other
shields like unto it.) This shield and its fel-
lows the Salii were to carry through the city,
having on flowered tunics and breastplates of
brass, and dancing and singing hymns. And
many other things as to the worship of the
gods, and the interpreting of signs, and the
dealing with marvels and portents, King Numa
set in order. And that the people might re-
gard these laws and customs with the more
reverence, he gave out that he had not devised
them of his own wit, but that he had learnt
them from a certain goddess whose name was
Egeria, whom he was wont to meet in a grove
that was hard by the city.
King Numa died, having reigned forty and
three years; and the people chose in his room
one Tullus Hostilius.




KING TULLUS HOSTILIUS, being newly come
to the throne, looked about for an occasion of
war; for the Romans had now for a long time
been at peace. Now it chanced that in those
days the men of Rome and the men of Alba
had a quarrel, the one against the other, the
country folk being wont to cross the border
and to plunder their neighbours; and that
ambassadors were sent from either city to seek
restitution of such things as had been carried
off. King Tullus said to his ambassador,
"Delay not to do your business so soon as ye
shall be come to Alba ;" knowing that the men
of Alba would certainly refuse to deliver up the
things, and thinking that he could thus with a
good conscience proclaim war against them.
As for the ambassadors of Alba, when they


were come to Rome, they made no haste about
their business, but ate and drank, the King
entertaining them with much courtesy and
kindness. While therefore they feasted with
him, there came back the ambassadors of
Rome telling the King how they had made
demand for the things carried off, and when the
men of Alba had refused to deliver them, had
declared war within the space of thirty days.
Which when the King heard, he called to him
the ambassadors of Alba, and said to them,
Wherefore are ye come to Rome ? Set forth
now your mission." Then the men, not know-
ing what had befallen, began to make excuse,
saying, "We would not willingly say aught
that should displease the King, but we are
constrained by them that have sent us thither.
We are come to ask for the things that your
country folk have carried off. And, if ye will
not deliver them up, we are bidden to declare
war against you." To this Tullus made
answer, Now do I call the Gods to witness
that ye men of Alba first refused to repair the
thing that has been done amiss, and I pray
them that they will bring all the blood of this


war upon your heads." And with this message
the men of Alba went home.
After this the two cities made great prepara-
tions for war. And because the men of Troy
had built Lavinium, from which some going
forth had set up the city of Alba, and from the
royal house of Alba had come the founder of
Rome, it was as though the children would
fight against their fathers. Yet it came not to
this, the matter being finished without a battle.
The men of Alba first marched into the land of
the Romans, having with them a very great
army, and pitched their camp five miles from
the city, digging about it a deep ditch. But
while they lay in this camp their King Cluilius
died, and a certain Mettus was made dictator in
his room. Which when King Tullus heard,
he became very bold, saying that the gods had
smitten Cluilius for his wrong-doing, and would
smite also the whole people of Alba. Where-
upon he marched into the land of the Albans,
leaving the enemy's camp to one side. And
when these also had come forth against him,
and the two armies were now drawn up in
battle array, the one against the other, there


came a messenger to King Tullus, saying that
Mettus of Alba desired to have speech with
him, having that to say to him which con-
cerned the Romans not less than the men of
Alba. Nor did King Tullus refuse to hear
him, though indeed battle had pleased him
better than speech. So when the King and
certain nobles with him had gone forth into the
open space that was between the two armies,
and Mettus also with his companions had come
to the same place, this last spake, saying, I
have heard King Cluilius that is dead affirm
that your wrong-doing, ye men of Rome, in that
ye would not deliver up the things that had
been carried off, was the cause of this war; nor
do I doubt but that thou, King Tullus, hast
the same quarrel against us. Yet if we would
speak that which is true rather than that which
has a fair show, we should, I doubt not, confess
that we, though we be both kinsmen and
neighbours, are driven into this war by the lust
of power. Now I say not whether this be
just or no. Let others look to this; for I am
not King of Alba, but captain of the host only.
Yet there is a matter which I would fain call to


thy mind, King. Thou knowest the Etruscans,
how mighty they are both by land and sea;
for indeed they are nearer by far to thee at
Rome than to us at Alba. Bethink thee, there-
fore, how, when thou shalt give the signal of
battle between thy army and cur army, the
same Etruscans will look on, rejoicing to see us
fight together; and how, when the battle is
ended, they will fall upon us, having us at dis-
advantage; for of a truth, whether ye or we
prevail, we shall have but little strength re-
maining to us. If therefore we be not content
with the freedom that we have, but must needs
set on the chance of a die whether we shall be
masters or servants, let us devise some way by
which the one may win dominion over the other
without great loss and shedding of blood."
Now King Tullus was a great warrior, and
would willingly have fought, being confident
that he and his people would prevail; never-
theless the thing that Mettus of Alba had said
pleased him. And when they came to consider
the matter, there seemed by good fortune to be
a way ready to their hands. There were in
the army of Alba three brothers that had been


born at one birth, whose name was Curiatius.
And in the army of the Romans there were
other three, and these born likewise at one
birth, whose name was Horatius. Nor was
there much difference in respect either of age
or of strength between the brothers of Alba
and the brothers of Rome. Then King Tullus
and Mettus of Alba called for the brothers, and
enquired of them whether they were willing to
fight, each three for their own country, agree-
ment being first made that that people should
bear rule for ever whose champions should
prevail in the battle. And as the young men
were willing, a place was appointed for the
battle and a time also. But first there was
made a treaty in this fashion, for the fashion of
making treaties is the same always, though
their conditions be different. The herald said,
"Wilt thou, King Tullus, that I make a treaty
with the minister of the people of Alba ? And
when the King answered "Yea," the herald
said, I will that thou give me the sacred
herbs." Then the King made reply, Take
them, and see that they be clean." So the
herald took them clean from the hill of the


citadel. Having done this, he said to the
King, Dost thou appoint me to do the plea-
sure of the people of Rome, me and my im-
plements and my attendants with me ?" And
the King answered, "So that it be without
damage to the people of Rome." Then the
herald appointed one Spurius to be minister
that he should take the oath, and touched his
hair with the sacred herbs. And when Spurius
had taken the oath, and the conditions of the
treaty had been read aloud, he spake, saying,
" Hear thou, Jupiter, and thou also, minister of
the people of Alba, and ye men of Alba; as
these conditions have been duly read aloud this
day from the beginning even to the end from
these tables, and after the interpretation by
which they may be the most easily understood,
even so shall the Roman people abide by them.
And if this people, acting by common consent,
shall falsely depart from them, then do thou, 0
Jupiter, smite the Roman people, even as I
shall smite this swine to-day. And smite them
by so much the more strongly as thou art
stronger than I." And when he had said this
he smote the swine with a knife of stone. The


men of Alba also took the oath, and confirmed
it after their own fashion. These things having
been thus ordered, the champions made them
ready for battle. And first their fellows ex-
horted them severally in many words, saying
that the gods of their country, their country-
men also and kinsfolk, whether they tarried at
home or stood in the field, regarded their arms
that day; and afterwards they went forth into
the space that lay between the two armies. And
these sat and watched them before their camps,
being quit indeed of the peril of battle, but full
of care how the matter should end, seeing that
so great things, even sovereignty and freedom,
should be decided by the valour and good luck
of so few men. Then, the signal of battle
being given, the three met the three with
such courage and fierceness as though there
were a whole army on either side. And
as their swords rang against each other and
flashed, all men trembled to see, and could
scarcely speak or breathe for fear of what
should happen. And for a while, in so narrow
a space did the men fight, nought could be
seen but how they swayed to and fro, and how


the blood ran down upon the ground. But
afterwards it was plain to see that of the three
Romans two were fallen dead upon the ground,
and that of the three champions of Alba each
man was wounded. At this sight the Alban
host shouted for joy, but the men of Rome
had no more any hope but only fear, to think
what should befall their one champion that had
now three enemies against him. Now, by good
luck, it had so fallen out that this one had
received no wound, so that, though he was no
match for the three together, he did not doubt
but that he should prevail over them severally
one by one. Wherefore, that he might so
meet them, dividing them the one from the
other, he made a feint to fly, thinking that they
would follow him each as quickly as his wound
might suffer him. And so it fell out. For
when he had fled now no small space from the
ground where they had fought at the first, he
saw, looking behind him, that the.three were
following him at a great distance one from the
other, and that one was very near to himself.
Then he turned himself and ran fiercely upon
the man; and behold even while the men of





Alba cried aloud to the two that they should
help their brother, he had slain him, and was
now running towards the second. And when
the men of Rome saw what had befallen, they
set up a great shout, as men are wont when
they have good luck beyond their hopes;
and their champion made such haste to do his
part that or ever the third of the Alban three
could come up, though indeed he was close at
hand, he had slain the second also. And now,
seeing that there remained one only on either
side, there was in some sort an equality, yet
were the two not equal either in hope or in
strength. For the champion of Rome had
suffered no wound, and having overcome his
foes now once and again was full of courage;
but the champion of Alba being now spent with
his wound, and wearied also with running, was
as it were vanquished already. Nor indeed
was there a battle between the two; for the
Roman cried, "One and another of my foes
have I offered to the spirits of my brothers;
but this third will I offer to the cause for which
we have fought this day, even that Rome may
have the dominion over Alba." And when the


champion of Alba could now scarce bear up
his shield, he stood over and ran his sword
downwards into his throat. Afterwards, as
the man lay dead upon the ground, he spoiled
him of his arms. Then did the men of Rome
receive their champion with much rejoicing,
having all the more gladness because they had
been in so great fear. Afterwards each host
set themselves to bury their dead, whose tombs
remain to this day, each in the spot where
he fell, for the two Romans are buried in
one sepulchre nearer to Alba, and the three
champions of Alba as you go towards Rome,
but with somewhat of space between them,
even as they fought.
Before the armies departed to their homes,
Mettus of Alba inquired of Tullus what he
would have him to do according to treaty.
And the King answered, Keep the young
men under arms. I shall call for them if I
have war against the men of Veii."
And now the men of Rome went back to the
city, and Horatius went before them, carrying
the spoils of the three whom he had slain.
But at the Capene gate there met him his


sister, who was betrothed to one of the
champions of Alba; and when the maiden saw
upon his shoulders the cloak of her betrothed
(and indeed she had wrought it with her own
hands) she tore her hair and cried to the dead
man by name with a lamentable voice. But
Horatius was wroth to hear the words of
mourning on the day when he had won so
great a victory and the people rejoiced; and he
drew his sword and slew the maiden, crying,
" Depart hence to thy lover with the love that
thou cherishest out of season; thou that for-
gettest thy brethren that are dead, and thy
brother that is yet alive, and thine own people
also. So perish whosoever shall make lamen-
tations for an enemy of Rome." And when
the Fathers and the Commons saw what was
done, they thought it a wicked deed, but re-
membered what great service the man had
newly rendered to Rome. Nevertheless they
laid hands on him and took him to the King
that he should judge him. But the King being
loath to judge such a matter, or to give sen-
tence against the man, said, "I appoint two
men as the law commands, who shall judge:


Horatius for murder." Now the law was this :
" If a man do murder, two men shall judge
him; if he appeal against the two, let the
appeal be tried; if their sentence be confirmed,
ye shall cover his head and scourge him within
the walls or without the walls, and hang him
by a rope upon the gallows." Then there were
appointed two men according to the law, who
affirmed that they could not let the man go
free, whether his guilt was small or great,
seeing that he had manifestly done the deed.
Therefore said one of them, Publius Horatius,
we adjudge thee to be guilty of murder. Go,
lictor, bind his hands." But when the lictor
came and was now ready to cast the rope about
him, Horatius cried, I appeal to the people ;"
for the King himself, being mercifully disposed
to him, bade him do so. Then was there a
trial before the people, in which that which
most wrought upon the hearts of men was that
the father of Horatius constantly affirmed that
his daughter had been rightly slain. Nay,"
said he, "verily, if the young man had not
slain her, I had used against him my right as
a father, and had condemned him to die."


Then again he besought them that they should
not leave him desolate and bereaved of his
children, he who but the day before had had
so fair a stock. Afterwards, throwing his arms
about the young man, he stretched out his
hands to the spoils of the Curiatii, crying,
" Will ye endure, men of Rome, to see him
bound under the gallows and beaten with
stripes whom ye beheld but yesterday adorned
with these spoils and rejoicing in his victory ?
Not so. Surely the men of Alba themselves
had not borne to see such a sight. Go, lictor,
bind his hands, though but yesterday they won
so great a dominion for the people of Rome.
Go, cover the head of him that made this
people free; hang him upon the accursed tree;
scourge him, whether within the walls, so that
thou do it among the spoils of them that he
slew, or without the walls, so that it be near
to the sepulchres of the champions of Alba.
Whither can ye take this youth that the
memorials of his valour shall not save him
from so foul a punishment ?" And when the
people saw the tears of the old man, and be-
thought them also what great courage the


youth had shown in danger, they could not
endure to condemn him; but regarding his
valour rather than the goodness of his cause,
let him go free. Only, because the deed had
been so manifest, a command was laid upon the
father that he should make a trespass offering
for his son at the public charge. Then the
father, having made certain sacrifices of ex-
piation-which are performed to this day in the
house of Horatius-set up a beam across the
way and covered his son's head, and led him
beneath it. As for the maiden, they built her
tomb of hewn stone in the place where she
was slain.
Now the men of Alba were wroth to think
that the fortunes of the whole people had been
thus trusted to the hands of three soldiers; and
Mettus, being of an unstable mind, was led
away to evil in his desire to do them a plea-
sure. And as before he had sought for peace
when others were desirous of war, so now he
desired war when others were minded to be at
peace. But because he knew that the men of
Alba were not able of their own strength to do
that which they desired, he stirred up certain


others of the nations round about, that they
should make war openly against Rome. As
for himself and his people, he purposed that
they should seem indeed to be friends and
allies, but should be ready for treachery
when occasion served. Thereupon the men of
Fidenae, being colonists from Rome, and the
men of Veil promised that they would make
war, and Mettus on his part promised that he
would come over to them with his army in the
battle. First the men of Fidenae rebelled, and
King Tullus marched against them, bidding
Mettus come also with his army, and having
crossed the river Anio, pitched his camp where
Anio flows into Tiber. And by this time the
men of Veil also had come up with their army,
and these were on the right wing next to the
river, and the men of Fidena on the left, next to
the mountains. The ordering of King Tullus
was that he and his men should do battle with
the men of Veil, and Mettus and the Albans
with the men of Fidense. Now Mettus, as he
was not minded to do right, so had no courage
to do wrong boldly; and because he dared not
to go over to the enemy, led his men away


slowly towards the mountains. Being come
thither, he set out his men in battle array, being
minded to join them whom he should perceive
to prevail. At first the Romans marvelled that
Mettus and his men should so depart from
them ; and after a while they sent a messenger
to the King, saying, The men of Alba have
left us." Then the King knew in his heart
that there was treachery, and he vowed that he
would build temples to Paleness and Panic, if
he should win the victory that day. Neverthe-
less he showed no sign of fear, but cried to the
horsemen with a loud voice, that the enemy
might hear, saying, "Go thou back to the
battle, and bid thy comrades be of good cou-
rage. Mettus does my bidding that he may
take the men of Fidenam in the rear. Also he
bade the cavalry raise their spears in the air,
that so the Romans might, for the most part,
be hindered from seeing that the men of Alba
had deserted them; and they that saw, be-
lieving what the King had said, fought with the
more courage. Then there fell a great fear
upon the enemy, for these also had heard the
saying, which, being in the Latin tongue,


was understood of the men of Fidene. They,
therefore, fearing lest Mettus and the army of
Alba should come down from the mountains
and shut them off from their town, began to give
ground. And when the King had broken their
array, he turned the more fiercely on the men
of Veii. These also fled before him, but were
hindered from escape by the river. And some,
throwing away their arms, ran blindly into the
water, and some while they lingered on the
bank, and knew not whether they should fight
or fly, so perished. Never before had the
Romans so fierce a fight with their enemies.
After this the army of Alba came down from
the mountains, and Mettus said to the King
that he rejoiced that he had won so great a
victory, and the King on his part spake friendly
to him, and would have him join his camp with
the camp of the Romans. Also he appointed a
sacrifice of purification for the next day. And
when it was day, all things being now ready
after the custom of such sacrifices, the King
commanded that both armies should be called
to an assembly. And the heralds summoned
the men of Alba first, so that they might be in


the inner place; to which also they came of
their own accord, for they sought to be near
the King, greatly desiring to hear what he
should say. And the King so ordered it to
the end that the army of Rome might surround
them on all sides. Also he gave his commands
to certain captains of hundreds that they fulfil
without delay whatsoever commands he should
give them. After this the King spoke in this
fashion, Men of Rome, if ever before ye had
occasion to give thanks for victory won, first to
the immortal Gods, and secondly to your own
valour, such occasion ye found in the battle of
yesterday. For ye fought not only with the
enemy, but with that from which there is peril
greater by far, even treachery in allies. I
would not have you ignorant of the truth. It
was not by any ordering of mine that the men
of Alba went towards the mountains. I gave
no such command; yet did I feign that I had
given it to this end, that ye might not know
that ye were deserted, and so might fight with
the better courage, and that our enemies, think-
ing that they should be assailed from behind,
might be stricken with fear and so fly before


us. Yet I say not that all the men of Alba
are guilty of this matter. They followed their
captain, even as ye, men of Rome, would have
followed me whithersoever I might have led
you. Mettus only is guilty. He contrived
this departure, even as he brought about this
war, and brake the covenant that was between
Alba and Rome. And what he hath done
others may dare hereafter, if I do not so deal
with him that he shall be an ensample for all
that come after." Then the captains of hun-
dreds, having arms in their hands, laid hold
upon Mettus. After this the King spake
again:" May the Gods bless to the people of
Rome, and to me, and to you also, men of
Alba, that which I purpose to do. For my
purpose is to carry away. the people of Alba to
Rome; the commons of Alba will I make
citizens of Rome, and the nobles will I number
among our Senators. So shall there be one city
and one commonwealth." When the men of
Alba heard these words, all had not the same
mind about the matter, but all kept silence, fear-
ing to speak, because being without arms they
were compassed on every side with armed men.


Then said the King, Mettus, if indeed thou
couldst learn faith and the keeping of treaties,
I had suffered thee to live that thou mightest
have such teaching from me. But now, seeing
that thy disease is past healing, thou shalt
teach other men to hold in reverence the holy
things which thou hast despised. For even as
thou wast divided in heart between Rome and
Fidenae, so shall thy body be divided." Then
at the King's bidding, they brought two
chariots, with four horses harnessed to each of
them; and binding the body of Mettus to the
chariots, they drave the horses divers ways so
that the man was torn asunder.
In the meanwhile there had been sent
horsemen to Alba who should bring the people
to Rome ; and now the army also was led
thither that they might destroy the city
utterly. Great sorrow was there in Alba that
day, men knowing not for fear and grief what
they should carry with them or leave behind.
For a while, indeed, they wandered through
their houses, knowing that they should not see
them any more. But when the horsemen
shouted to them that they should depart, and


the crash of houses which men were now
destroying began to be heard, and the dust
rising up from the outskirts of the city covered
all things as with a cloud, then they snatched
up in haste each such things as they could, and
so departed the home in which they had been
born and bred. Very lamentable was their cry
as they went, more especially of the women,
when they saw armed men in the temples
wherein they had been wont to worship, the
very gods themselves being left, as it seemed,
in captivity. And when the people were now
gone forth from their city the Romans left not
one stone upon another of all that was in the
city; so that that which had been four hundred
years in building (for so long had Alba en-
dured) perished in one hour. Nevertheless
they harmed not the temples, for so the King
had commanded.
But because Alba was thus brought to
destruction, Rome increased greatly; for the
number of the citizens was increased twofold.
The Ccelian hill was added to the city,
in which hill, that others might the more
readily dwell there, the King himself com-


manded that they should build him a palace.
Also the chief houses of Alba, as the house
of Julius and of Servilius, were chosen into the
Senate; and that there might be a place of
meeting for the Senate being thus multiplied,
the King built a temple and called it Hostilia,
after his own name. Also ten squadrons of
horsemen were chosen out of the men of Alba.
But after certain days, when the Romans had
now conquered the Sabines, and had made
treaties of peace with the Etrurians, and were
in great peace and prosperity, they and their
King, there was brought tidings to Rome that
there had fallen a shower of stones on Mount
Alba. Which when men could scarce believe,
they sent messengers to learn if these things
were true, who having come to Alba, found the
stones lying on the ground, even as it had
been hail. Also there was heard a voice from
the grove that was on the top of the hill,
saying, Let the men of Alba do worship after
the manner of their fathers;" for they having
left their country, had left also their gods,
and did worship after the manner of the
Romans, or for wrath at that which had be-


fallen them, as is wont to be with men in such
case, had ceased from worship altogether. The
Romans also, by reason of this same voice that
was heard on Mount Alba, or by warning of
the soothsayers, kept a festival of nine days.
And this became a custom for the time to
come, that when there came tidings of such
marvels to Rome, there was kept a like festival.
Now the end of King Tullus was this.
There came a pestilence upon the land. And
when for this cause the people were wearied of
war, nevertheless the King, both because he
delighted in war, and because he believed that
the young men should have better health if
they went abroad than if they tarried at home,
gave them no rest. But after a while he also
fell into a tedious sickness, which so brake him
both in body and mind that, whereas in time
past he thought it unworthy of a King to busy
himself with matters of religion, now he gave
himself up wholly to superstition, and filled the
minds of his people also with the like thoughts,
so that they regarded nothing but this, how
they should make atonement to the Gods, and
so be rid of their present distress. As for the


King himself, men say that reading the sacred
book of King Numa he found therein certain
sacrifices, very secret and solemn, that should be
done to Jupiter by such as would bring him
down from heaven, and that he shut himself up
to do these sacrifices; but because he set not
about them rightly or did them not in due form,
there appeared to him no similitude of the im-
mortal gods (for such he had hoped to see);
but Jupiter, having great wrath at such unlawful
dealings, struck him with lightning, and con-
sumed both him and his house.



DEMARATUS was lord of Corinth in the land
of Greece. This Demaratus had a son who,
having been driven from Corinth by strife
among the citizens, came to Tarquinii that is
in the land of Etruria, and dwelt there. And
having married a wife, he had two sons born to
him, Lucumo and Aruns. (It was the custom
of the princes of the Etrurians to call the
eldest son Lucumo and the younger Aruns.)
This Lucumo, being very wealthy (for his
father had left to him all his riches, his brother
Aruns having died), took to wife a certain
Tanaquil that was a noble lady in those parts.
Now Tanaquil could not endure that any should
be preferred before him, wherefore when the
people of Tarquinii despised Lucumo, because
he was the son of a stranger, Tanaquil could
not endure it, and caring not for her country, if


only she could see her husband held in honour,
purposed to depart thence and dwell else-
where. And of all places Rome seemed to
her the best, being a new country wherein men
were honoured for their deservings rather than
for their birth, and he that should show himself
brave and diligent would find occasion to win
renown. So Numa, coming from Cures that is
in the land of the Sabines, had been called to
the kingdom. King Ancus also was born of a
mother that was a Sabine, nor was noble at all
save for his kinship to Numa. With these
words she easily persuaded her husband, so
that, gathering together all his possessions, he
departed from Tarquinii to Rome. And when
he came near to the city, at the hill that is
called Janiculum, there happened to him this
marvel. As he sat in the chariot with his wife,
an eagle, having its wings stretched out, de-
scended slowly upon him from the sky, and
carried off the hat that was upon his head.
Then for a while it flew over the chariot,
making a great crying, and afterwards, as it had
been inspired to do this office, set it back upon
his head, and so vanished into the air. Now all


the women of the Etrurians have great know-
ledge of augury (for so they call the signs and
tokens of birds), and Tanaquil was of good
courage when she saw what the eagle had
done, and she embraced her husband, and bade
him hope for great honours in Rome; for the
bird, she said, had come from the sky, and the
sign that it showed concerned the crown of a
man, for it had taken from his head the glory
that man's hand set upon it, that it might give
it back to him from the gods. So Lucumo
and Tanaquil his wife came to Rome, hoping
to do great things; and the man dwelt there,
giving out that his name was Tarquinius. And
because he was a new comer and wealthy, men
took the more note of him; also he would
speak courteously to all men, and use much
hospitality, and do such service as he could to
them that had need of it. And after a while
King Ancus heard of him, and made acquaint-
ance with him, which acquaintance grew into
friendship, till at the last, having found him
faithful and ready in all that was put into his
charge, whether at home or abroad, he ap-
pointed him to be guardian to his children.


After this King Ancus died, having reigned
twenty and four years, and left two sons, not
yet old enough to reign, yet nearly grown to
manhood. And some would have delayed the
choosing of a king till these should be come to
full age, but Tarquinius counselled that he
should be chosen forthwith. And when the
day for this choosing was appointed, having
sent out the lads to hunt, he spake to the
people after this manner. "This is no new
thing that I seek the kingdom at your hands;
for Tatius the Sabine became your king,
having been before not a stranger only but
also an enemy; and Numa also was called to
this dignity, though he sought not for it. As
for me, I came hither so soon as I was master
of myself; and of the years of my manhood, I
have lived in Rome more than in my own
country; nor have I been ill taught the ways
of a King, ministering to Ancus both at home
and abroad."
With these words he persuaded the people
that they chose him to be king. Being so
chosen he did many things that pleased the
people; for having waged war with the Latins,


and taken one of their cities and with it much
booty, he built the great circus, and fetched
horses and boxers from the land of Etruria to
make sport. This became a custom year by
year; and they called these games the Great
Games of Rome.
Afterwards he would have compassed the
city with a wall of stone; but while he was
busy with the building of it the Sabines came
upon him. And this they did with such speed
that they had crossed the Anio before ever the
Romans were ready to meet them; and when
they fought many were slain on both sides, but
neither had the victory. Now when the King,
the enemy having returned to their camp, had
space to consider how he might best make
his army the stronger, it seemed that it would
profit him most if he should increase the
number of his horsemen, of whom there were
three companies only. But when he was
minded to add others to them, and to call them
after his own name, one Attus Navius, that was
a famous soothsayer in those days, withstood
him. "For," said he, King Romulus made
these companies in due form, and thou mayest


not add to their number, unless the gods per-
mit, signifying their will by the voices of birds."
But the King was wroth to hear these words,
and mocked the soothsayer's art, saying, "Come
now, thou wise man, divine unto me, can that
which I think in my heart be done, or no ? "
Attus answered, having first made trial of his
art, Of a surety it can be done." Then said
the King, I thought this thing in my heart,
that thou shouldest cut asunder this whetstone
with a razor. Take it, therefore, and cut it
asunder; for thy birds will have it that thou
canst." And straightway Attus took the whet-
stone and cut it asunder. So they made a
statue of him, standing with his head covered,
in the place where the thing was done; even in
the place of assembly, on the right hand of the
steps by which a man goes up to the senate-
house. And by his side they laid the stone to
be a memorial of this miracle to them that should
come after. Certainly there came such honour
to the soothsayers that nothing thereafter was
.done at home or abroad except they first allowed
-it; and if an assembly of the people was called
,Dr the army gathered together, it must be dis-


persed again unless the birds should signify
that it was according to the pleasure of the
gods. King Tarquin, therefore, changed not
the number or the name of the companies.
Only he added to each as many more horsemen
as it had at the first.
After this there was yet another battle with
the Sabines; and these fled before the Romans,
the horsemen especially doing good service
against them. And the King sent them that
were taken captive and the booty to Rome; but
the arms of those that were slain he made into
a great heap, and burned them with fire, for he
had vowed thus to Vulcan, that is the god of
fire. And the King took Collatia, that is a
town of the Sabines, from them, and afterwards
he subdued the whole nation of the Latins that
it became obedient to Rome.
They tell this story also of King Tarquin.
There came to him one day a woman bearing
twelve books, which she said were books of
prophecies, wherein were written all things that
should come to pass thereafter concerning the
city of Rome. These books she would have
sold to him. But because he knew not who


she was, nor what she brought, and also be-
cause the price of the books seemed great out
of measure, he would have none of them. Then
the woman departed, and having burned three
of the books with fire, brought back the nine
that remained, and would sell them. And the
price that she had demanded for the twelve,
this she asked without abatement for the nine.
And when the King would not buy, she de-
parted and burned three more; and so return-
ing would sell the six; but the price was that
which she demanded for the twelve. Then the
King, being greatly astonished, asked counsel of
the priests and the soothsayers, and so bought
the books. These were kept with great care and
honour at Rome; and when in time to come
there arose great need or peril in the city, then
there were appointed men of repute who should
open the books and learn what had best be
In those days there happened, in the palace
of the King, a great marvel. There was a
certain slave boy whose name was Servius
Tullius. The head of this boy, as he slept,
was seen to burn with fire; and when the King


and the Queen had been called to see this
strange thing, and certain of the servants would
have fetched water wherewith to quench the
fire, Queen Tanaquil would not suffer them, but
commanded that they should leave the child as
he lay. And when he woke from his sleep, lo!
the flame departed. Then said Queen Tana-
quil to her husband, "Seest thou this boy whom
we rear in this humble fashion ? Know that he
will be in time to come a light in our darkness,
and a succour to our house in its great trouble.
Let us, therefore, use all favour and kindness
to him." Thereafter they dealt with the lad as
though he were free-born and not a slave, and
gave him such teaching as befits them that are
born to high place. The lad also, on his part,
showed such parts and temper as befitted the
house of a king; and when Tarquin would
choose a husband for his daughter there was
not found one fitter for such honour than
Servius. So the King betrothed to him his
daughter. Yet is it scarce to be believed that
he would have done this thing if Servius had
been indeed born of a bond-woman. Some
say, therefore, and the story seems worthy of


belief, that he was the son of a great lady of
Corniculum, which was a town of the Latins;
that this town being taken by King Tarquin,
Servius Tullius, that was its chief ruler, was
slain, whose wife, being with child, was carried
to Rome; and that because she was of noble
birth she was not sold into slavery with the
other women but taken into the King's palace,
and there bare this child, of whom, because
his mother had been taken captive in war,
men said that he was the son of a slave.
Now the sons of Ancus, since they had been
grown to manhood, had taken it ill that Tar-
quin had been preferred before them to the
throne of their father, and now they were the
more angry, seeing how he had chosen another
than them to be king after him. See, now,"
they said, "this fellow that is not a Roman,
nay, nor an Italian, but a stranger from Greece,
how being made tutor to us by the King
our father, he filched the throne from us by
craft, and now handeth it over to one that is
the son of a bond-woman. Surely this is a
shameful thing for this city and people. For
the kingdom of Romulus, that is now a god


in heaven, will pass within the space of a
hundred years to one that is a slave."
And first they would avenge themselves on
King Tarquin. This they did after this fashion.
They chose them two shepherds, the fiercest of
their company, and caused them to come, carry-
ing crooks of iron, after their custom, within
the King's palace; who, so soon as they were
come within the porch, made as if they had
a grievous quarrel the one against the other,
and cried out that the King should be the judge
between them; for in those days kings were
wont to perform the office of a judge. So they
that kept order in the palace brought them
before the King. At the first they made both
of them a great uproar, crying out against each
other; but afterwards, when the beadle bade
them be quiet if they would be heard of the
King, bare themselves in more orderly fashion.
Then the first began to tell his story; but when
the King turned to him, and was wholly given
up to hearing what the man might say, the
other dealt him a great blow upon the head with
the iron which he carried. And when he had
done this he left the iron where it was, and


hasted, he and his companion with him, to
escape by the door. Then some of the
ministers of the court caught the King as he
fell ready to die upon the ground, and others
laid hold on the murderers and hindered them
from escaping. At the same time much people
ran together to the place, wondering what new
thing had happened. But Queen Tanaquil
gave command that they should shut the doors
of the palace, and would have none remain
within but her own folk. And first she pre-
pared with all diligence such things as might
be serviceable in the dressing of the wound,
making as if there were some hope that the
King might yet live; and next she devised
how, this hope failing her, things might never-
theless be ordered according to her wish.
Sending, therefore, for Servius in all haste,
she pointed to the King, as he lay now ready
to die, and spake, saying, "Servius, my son,
this kingdom is thine if thou wilt only show
thyself a man. Neither shall it go to them
who have done this wicked deed, albeit not by
their own hands. Rouse thyself, therefore, and
follow the leading of the Gods, who, in days


past, showed that thy head should bear great
honour by the fire from heaven which they
caused to shine round about it. Let that fire
stir thee this day. Nor do thou take account
of thy birth. For we also were strangers to
this city and yet have borne rule therein. Be-
think thee, therefore, what manner of man thou
art, rather than of whom thou wast born. And
if perchance thine own counsels are troubled at
so grievous a chance, be thou obedient unto
After this, as the people without the palace
cried aloud and would have thrust in the doors,
the Queen went to an upper chamber and
spake to the multitude through a window that
looked upon the New Street (for the palace of
the King stood hard by the temple of Jupiter
the Stayer). Be of good courage and hope,"
she said; "the King was stunned by the sudden-
ness of the blow, but the iron entered not deep
into the flesh, and he came speedily to himself.
Now we have washed off the blood and looked
into the wound. All is well. Be of good cheer,
therefore, and believe that before many days be
past ye shall see the King. Meanwhile, render


due obedience to Servius, who will do justice
between man and man in the room of the King
and order all else that shall be needed." So
Servius came forth to the people, wearing the
royal robe, with the men that bare the axes
after him; and sitting down on the throne of
the King, heard the causes of them that sought
for justice, giving judgment in some things, and
in others making mention that he would consult
King Tarquin. This he did for many days,
none knowing that the King was dead, and
established himself in power, while he made as
if he were administering the power of another.
And when Queen Tanaquil thought that the
due time was come, she gave out that King
Tarquin was dead, and commanded that
mourning should be made for him according
to custom. And Servius, coming forth with
his guards about him, was proclaimed King;
only at the first the Senate alone, and not the
people, consented. As for the sons of Ancus,
when they heard that the murderers had been
taken, and that the King was yet alive, and that
Servius also was so well established in his
power, they fled to the town of Suessa Pometia.



AND now Servius thought to establish himself
in his kingdom. And first of all, lest the sons
of King Tarquin should so regard him as the
son of Ancus had regarded King Tarquin, he
gave his daughters in marriage to the two
young men (for King Tarquin had left two sons,
Lucius and Aruns by name). Nor yet did the
counsels of man avail to change the decree of
fate, that there should rise up against the King
foes from out of his own household, as, indeed,
will be shown hereafter. Yet for a while all
things went peaceably. First the King got
himself great renown in a war with the men of
Veii, with whom the truce had expired by lapse
of time. These he put to flight with great
slaughter, and so returning to Rome was
manifestly acknowledged not by the Senators
only, but was also by the people.


And now he set about the work of ordering
the state, dividing the citizens according to their
birth and to that which they possessed. First
of all he put the Senators, and after them such
as served in the wars on horseback, and these
he called knights. And the rest of the people
he divided into classes according to the armour
with which they were able to furnish themselves
for war. The first class were they that had one
hundred thousand pounds of brass or more;
and these had for armour a helmet, a long
shield, a cuirass, and greaves upon their legs,
of brass all of them, and for warfare a spear
and a sword. In this class there were eighty
companies of a hundred, forty of the elders
that should defend the city, and of the younger
that should go and fight abroad forty also.
The next class to these had a short shield for a
long, and lacked the cuirass; and after these
another that had the same arms, only wanting
the greaves. The fourth class had nothing of
armour, and for weapons a spear and a javelin;
and the fifth slings and stones. These last
were such as had eleven thousand pounds of
brass; as for such as had less they were


free from service in war. When this ordering
was finished, he commanded that the people
should assemble themselves on the field of
Mars; and when their number was counted, it
was found that they were eighty thousand in all.
King Servius also was minded to enlarge his
kingdom by including within it the nations
round about, seeking to do this not by arms so
much as by counsel. And first he joined the
Latins to the Romans, contriving the matter in
this fashion. There was in those days a famous
temple of Diana at Ephesus which the cities of
Asia had joined together in building. Now
King Servius would often speak of this thing
to the Princes of Latium, to whom, indeed, he
was careful to use much hospitality, declaring
how noble and excellent a thing it was that
they who dwelt in the same land should have
their gods also and worship in common. And
when he had ofttimes used much argument to
this purpose, at the last he persuaded them that
the cities of Latium should join together with
men of Rome and build a temple to Diana, and
that this temple should be at Rome, whereby
it was confessed that Rome was the chief city.


As for the Sabines this same end was brought
about in a different fashion. There was a cer-
tain householder of this nation that had born
upon his farm a heifer of marvellous greatness
and beauty. How great it was might be seen
from the horns of the beast which hung in the
front of Diana's temple for many generations.
Now the birth of this great creature was counted
for a portent; and the prophets prophesied that
the rule should belong to that nation whose
citizens should offer it in sacrifice to Diana; and
this prophecy came to the ears of Diana's priest.
The Sabine therefore, so soon as a fitting day
for sacrifice was come, brought the great heifer
to the temple at Rome and set it before the
altar. And when the priest saw it he perceived
from its greatness that it was the beast of which
the prophets had spoken. Therefore knowing
what they had said he spake to the man, saying,
" Friend, what is this that thou art minded to
do ? Wilt thou do sacrifice to Diana profanely,
not having first cleansed thyself? See now
where the Tiber flows in the valley beneath.
Do thou therefore bathe thyself therein and so
offer thy sacrifice." And when the man, being


very scrupulous to do all things in order that
the thing might have its due fulfilment, went
down to this river, the priest took the heifer
and offered it up to the goddess. This thing
was marvellously pleasing to King Servius and
to all the people.
The King, having now enlarged his borders,
divided the land which had been taken from
the enemy man by man among the people; and
feared not, having gained their hearts by this
bounty, to ask them, being gathered together in
assembly, Is it your pleasure that I should reign
over you?" To which question there was given
such assent as no king before him had received.
Nevertheless the son of King Tarquin ceased
not to cherish in his heart the hope of the
kingdom; to which hope, indeed, he was the
more stirred up by Tullia his wife. For now
there sprang up in the palace of the kings of
Rome a monstrous growth of wickedness, to the
end, it may well be believed, that the people
might, for hatred of kingship and its way, come
the earlier to love liberty.
Now King Tarquin had two sons, this Lucius,
of whom mention has been made, a haughty


and violent man, and another, Aruns by name,
that was of a quiet and gentle temper. And
as they differed the one from the other, so also
did their wives, the daughters of King Servius;
and it so fell out that she that had the fiercer
temper of the two, a certain Tullia, was married
to Aruns, and she that was gentle to Lucius.
Now it vexed Tullia to the heart that her
husband was of so peaceable a spirit, so that in
the end she despised him, and looked to his
brother as being the more worthy to be her
husband. And the end of the matter was this,
that Lucius and Tullia plotted together this
great wickedness, that he should rid himself of
his wife and she should rid herself of her
husband. And this they did; and then the
two being thus in evil fashion made one, Lucius
took Tullia to wife, the King not hindering the
thing, though indeed he approved it not. And
now did this wicked woman increase day by
day her rage and fury against the King her
father. For having done one evil deed she
began to compass others; nor would she suffer
her husband to rest, stirring him up to all
wickedness, and speaking to him in such fashion


as this: "Truly I had a husband that pleased
me well had I been content to serve together
with him. But the husband that I looked for
was one that should think himself worthy to be
a king, that should remember that he was a son
of King Tarquin, that should choose rather to
have the crown in possession than to hope for
it hereafter. Such an one I thought to find in
thee; and if I thought right, then truly I call
thee true husband and King, but if not, then I
count myself to have suffered loss, seeing that
thou art not a coward only, but also blood-
guilty. Be up and doing, therefore. Thou
hast not, as had thy father, to come from
Corinth, or even from Tarquinii, to win for him-
self a kingdom among strangers. All things
that are about thee mark thee out for kingship,
to which, if thou judge thyself unequal, then
depart from this place where thou seemest to
be that which thou art not."
With such words did Tullia daily stir up her
husband; thinking shame to herself, if so be
Tanaquil, who was a foreigner, had been able
to make two kings, first her husband and then
her son-in-law, she, being the daughter of a


king, could not accomplish as much. Then did
Lucius begin to seek favour among the nobles,
especially such as were of the lesser houses,
and so ambitious of higher place in the State.
Some he would remind of kindnesses that his
father had done them in past time, and would
ask for a like return ; and to some he would
promise gifts; and all he sought to turn against
the King. And at the last, when it now
seemed time to make his venture, he burst into
the market-place, having with him a company
of armed men; and all that stood near being
so stricken with dismay that they hindered him
not, commanded the herald that he should call
the Senators to meet King Tarquin. Nor did
the Senators, being thus summoned, refuse to
come, for some had been won over to the
young man beforehand, and others feared that
they should suffer harm if they came not, for
the matter was altogether beyond their expec-
tation; also they thought that King Servius
had already perished. And when they were
were assembled, Tarquin sat down upon the
throne and spake in some such fashion as this :
"The slave that was the son of a slave-woman


seized the kingdom when the King my father
had been shamefully slain. Neither was there
any assembly held for election; nor did the
people give their votes for him, nor did the
Senate confirm the matter. By none of these
things doth he possess this great dignity, but
by the bounty of a woman. And now he,
being such an one as he is, favours the lowest
of the people, to whom he divideth this land,
which is of right the possession of the nobles;
in like manner the burdens which at one time
were borne in common by all, he putteth upon
you; and this ordering of the citizens that he
hath lately established, for what purpose is it
but that he may know who hath aught, tlat he
may make distribution to the needy ?"
While he thus spake there came in King
Servius, having been fetched by a messenger in
hot haste, and cried with a loud voice from the
porch of the senate-house, "What doest thou
here, Tarquin ? How darest thou, while I am
yet alive, to call the Senators together and to
sit upon my throne ?"
To this Tarquin made answer, This throne
is the throne of the King my father, of which I,


being the son of a king, am worthier than thou
that art the son of a slave. Surely now thou
hast long enough triumphed over them that
are by right thy masters."
After this there was a great shouting and
tumult, some favouring Servius and some Tar-
quin; and the people ran together into the
senate-house; and it was manifest that he that
should prevail in that conflict would possess the
kingdom. Then Tarquin, thinking that having
ventured so much he must dare all things, laid
hands on King Servius and cast him down the
steps of the senate-house into the market-place.
Then they that accompanied the King, that is
to say his ministers and guards, were stricken
with fear and fled, and Servius himself, seeking
to return to the palace, and having now reached
the end of the street of Cyprus, was overtaken
by them that Tarquin had sent to pursue him,
and there slain. And men say that this was
done at the bidding of Tullia; and indeed it
agrees with the other wickedness of this
woman. That she rode in her carriage into the
market-place, and, fearing not to come into the
assembly of men, called forth her husband from

HANpft ;bITH.



the senate-house, and before all others saluted
him as King-all this is known for certain.
And when he bade her depart to her home, and
she had come to the top of the street of Cyprus,
and would turn aside to the Esquiline Hill, he
that drave the horses drew back the rein and
tarried, showing to his mistress the body of
Servius where it lay in the street. Then did
she a wicked deed, whereof there remains a
memorial to this day, in that men call the street
the Wicked Street, for she drave her carriage
over the body of her father, and so went on to
her house, having the blood of her father upon
her wheels, aye, and upon her own garments.
And as the reign of King Tarquin began with
blood, even so also did it end.




Lucius TARQUIN, having thus seized the king-
dom (for he had not the consent either of the
Senators or of the Commons to his deed), bare
himself very haughtily, so that men called him
Tarquin the Proud. First, lest some other,
taking example by him, should deal with him
as he had dealt with Tullius, he had about him
a company of armed men for guards. And
because he knew that none loved him, he would
have them fear him. To this end he caused
men to be accused before him. And when
they were so accused, he judged them by him-
self, none sitting with him to see that right was
done. Some he slew unjustly, and some he
banished, and some he spoiled of their goods.
And when the number of the Senators was
greatly diminished by these means (for he laid


his plots mostly against the Senators, as being
rich men and the chief of the State), he would
not choose any into their place, thinking that
the people would lightly esteem them if there
were but a few of them. Nor did he call them
together to ask their counsel, but ruled accord-
ing to his own pleasure, making peace and war,
and binding treaties or unbinding, with none to
gainsay him.
Nevertheless, for a while he increased greatly
in power and glory. He made alliance with
Octavius Mamilius, prince of Tusculum, giving
him his daughter in marriage; nor was there
any man greater than Mamilius in all the
cities of the Latins; and Suessa Pometia, that
was a city of the Volsci, he took by force, and
finding that the spoil was very rich (for there
were in it forty talents of gold and silver), he
built with the money a temple to Jupiter on
the Capitol, very great and splendid, and worthy
not only of his present kingdom but also of
that great Empire that should be thereafter.
Also he took the city of Gabii by fraud, as shall
now be told.
The manner of his fraud was this. He made


as if he had changed his purpose about the
city, leading away his army from before it, and
busying himself with laying the foundations of
the Temple of Jupiter and other like things.
But while he did this, Sextus, that was the
youngest of his three sons, fled to Gabii, as
if he were a deserter from the army of his
father, and complained grievously to the men
of the city of the cruelty which the King had
used towards him. "Surely now," he said,
"my father has turned away his fury from
others upon them that are of his own house-
hold; and that same solitude which he has
made in the Senate he would have also in his
own home, being so jealous of his kingdom
that he will not have any near him that shall
inherit it. As for myself I barely escaped with
my life from them that would have slain me
by his command; nor do I count myself safe
except among such as are enemies to the King.
As for you, think not that he has given up his
purpose concerning you. He only waits an
occasion when he may take you unawares."
The men of Gabii, when they heard these
words, received the young man kindly and


bade him be of good cheer, for that they would
defend him from his father. They said also
that they counted themselves fortunate to gain
such help, knowing him to be brave and skilful
in war, and that doubtless, with his aid, they
should soon carry the war from their own city
even to the walls of Rome. After this, when
the young man had gone, not once only but
many times, with the young men of Gabii,
making war against the Romans and plunder-
ing their country, and had always fared well,
putting the enemy to flight and bringing back
much spoil (and, indeed, things were so ordered
by the King that it should be so), the people of
Gabii were persuaded that he was dealing
honestly with them, and chose him to be the
captain of their host. After this, when he
found that he could now do all things at his
pleasure in Gabii, he sent a messenger to the
King his father, desiring to know what he
would have him do. To this messenger the
King, doubting whether the man was faithful,
gave no answer by word of mouth, but rose
up from his place and walked in the garden
that was by the palace, having the look of one


that took deep counsel with himself. And as
he walked he smote off the heads of the tallest
poppies that were in the garden with a staff
that he had in his hand, but spake never a
word. At the last, the messenger being
wearied out with the asking of a question to no
purpose, departed, thinking that he had now
fulfilled his errand. And when he came to
Gabii he told to Sextus what he had seen;
" only," he said, the King your father, whether
for anger or for haughtiness, spake not one
word." But Sextus knew right well what his
father would have him do. For he set himself
to overthrow the chief men of the city. Some
he accused to the people; and against some he
took occasion of offence given to the Commons.
Some were put to death publicly, and others,
to whose charge nothing could be laid, were
slain by secret violence. Others again were
suffered to go of their own accord into banish-
ment; and the goods of all, whether they were
slain or banished, were divided amongst the
Commons; nor did these, being blinded by the
desire of gain, perceive what damage the State
suffered, till Gabii, having lost all its rulers and


counsellors, fell into the hands of the Romans
without so much as a battle. By such means
did King Tarquin increase his power.
Now there was at Rome in the days of
Tarquin a noble youth, by name Lucius Junius,
who was akin to the house of Tarquin, seeing
that his mother was sister to the King. This
man, seeing how the King sought to destroy
all the chief men in the State (and, indeed, the
brother of Lucius had been so slain), judged
it well so to bear himself that there should be
nothing in him which the King should either
covet or desire. Wherefore he feigned foolish-
ness, suffering all that he had to be made
a prey; for which reason men gave him the
name of Brutus, or the Foolish. Then he
bided his time, waiting till the occasion should
come when he might win freedom for the
Now it chanced that King Tarquin, being
disturbed by the marvel of a great snake, which
had been seen of a sudden to glide from the
altar in his house, sent messengers to Delphi to
inquire of the god what this thing might mean.
And because he cared not that any strangers


should hear the answer of the oracle, he sent
his own sons, Titus and Aruns, and with them,
to bear them company, or rather as one of
whom they might make sport, this same Lucius
Brutus. And when the young men offered
gifts to the god, Brutus offered oold hidden
away in a stick that had been hollowed to re-
ceive it; meaning thereby a parable of himself,
as of a light hidden beneath that which seemed
dull and of little worth. Now when the sons
of the King had fulfilled the commands of their
father, there came upon them a desire to en-
quire of the god which of them should be king
in time to come. Whereupon there came forth
from the depths of the cave this voice: Know,
O young men, that he of you who shall
first give a kiss to his mother, shall bear the
chief rule hereafter at Rome." When the sons
of the King heard these words they would
have their brother Sextus, who had been left
behind at Rome, know nothing of the matter,
lest he also should have a hope of the kingdom.
Wherefore they agreed among themselves that
the matter should be kept secret, and that they
should leave to the casting of lots which of the


two should first give a kiss to his mother. But
Brutus judged that the answer of the god had
another signification than this. Therefore, so
soon as they were come out of the temple, he
made as if he stumbled, and falling on his face,
he kissed the earth, holding that the earth was
his mother, being indeed the common mother
of us all.
Not many days after these things there
came to Brutus an occasion of showing what
manner of man he was. Sextus, the King's son,
did so grievous a wrong to Lucretia, that was
the wife of Collatinus, that the woman could
not endure to live, but slew herself with her
own hand. But before she died she called to
her her husband and her father and Brutus, and
bade them avenge her upon the evil house
of Tarquin. And when her father and her
husband sat silent for grief and fear, Brutus
drew the knife wherewith she slew herself
from the wound, and held it before him drip-
ping with blood, and cried aloud, By this
blood I swear, calling the Gods to witness, that
I will pursue with fire and sword and with all
other means of destruction Tarquin the Proud,


with his accursed wife and all his race; and
that I will suffer no man hereafter to be king
in this city of Rome." And when he had
ended he bade the others swear after the same
form of words. This they did and, forgetting
their grief, thought only how they might best
avenge this great wrong that had been done.
First they carried the body of Lucretia, all
covered with blood, into the market-place of
Collatia (for these things happened at Collatia),
and roused all the people that saw a thing so
shameful and pitiful, till all that were of an
age for war assembled themselves carrying
arms. Some of them stayed behind to keep
the gates of Collatia, that no one should carry
tidings of the matter to the King, and the rest
Brutus took with him with all the speed that
he might to Rome. There also was stirred up
a like commotion, Brutus calling the people
together and telling them what a shameful
wrong the young Tarquin had done. Also he
spake to them of the labours with which the
King wore them out in the building of temples
and palaces and the like, so that they who had
been in time past the conquerors of all the


nations round about were now come to be but
as hewers of wood and drawers of water. Also
he set before them in what shameful sort King
Tullius had been slain, and how his daughter
had driven her chariot over the dead body of
her father. With suchlike words he stirred
up the people to great wrath, so that they
passed a decree that there should be no more
kings in Rome, and that Lucius Tarquin with
his wife and his children should be banished.
After this Brutus made haste to the camp and
stirred up the army against the King. And in
the meanwhile Oueen Tullia fled from her
palace, all that saw her cursing her as she went.
As for King Tarquin, when he came to the city
he found the gates shut against him; thereupon
he returned and dwelt at Caere that is in the
land of Etruria, and two of his sons with him;
but Sextus going to Gabii, as to a city which
he had made his own, was slain by the in-
The King and his house being thus driven
out, Brutus was made consul with one Collatinus
for his colleague. First he bound the people
by an oath that they would never thereafter


suffer any man to be king at Rome; and
afterwards, because Collatinus was of the name
and lineage of Tarquin, he wrought with them
that he also should be banished from the city.
"These Tarquins," he said, "are overmuch
accustomed to kingship. For Tarquin the
elder reigned in Rome, and though after him
another, even Servius, was king, yet did not
his son forget the kingdom of his father, but
took it for his own. And now this Collatinus
Tarquin bears rule in the city, whose very
name, seeing that they of his house know not
how to be subject unto others, has in it great
danger to liberty." When he had wrought on
the minds of the people with these words, he
called the people to an assembly, and spake to
them thus: "Ye have sworn that ye will suffer
no man to be king at Rome, nor endure aught
which may bring liberty into peril. Now this
that I am about to say, I say against my will,
speaking against a man that is dear to me, nor
indeed had I said it but that my love for my
country prevailed over all other things. The
Roman people are not assured in their heart
that they have won liberty in very deed and

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