The story of the last days of Jerusalem


Material Information

The story of the last days of Jerusalem from Josephus
Physical Description:
viii, 166, 6, 16 p., 8 leaves of plates : ill. ; 20 cm.
Church, Alfred John, 1829-1912
Josephus, Flavius
Seeley Jackson & Halliday ( Publisher )
William Rider and Son ( Printer )
M.&N. Hanhart Chromo Lith ( Lithographer )
Seeley, Jackson & Halliday
Place of Publication:
William Rider and Son
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Jews -- History -- Juvenile literature -- Rebellion, 66-73   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Jerusalem   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1883   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1883
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London


Statement of Responsibility:
by Alfred J. Church.
General Note:
Publisher's catalogue follows text.
General Note:
Illustrations lithographed by Hanhart, Lith.
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002224228
notis - ALG4489
oclc - 05713521
System ID:

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IN this story I have followed the narrative
of Josephus, making many omissions but no
other change of importance. It did not fall
within the scope of my work to estimate his
veracity and trustworthiness; but I may here
say that a close acquaintance with his history
will not incline the reader to put much con-
fidence in his narrative on any point where
interest or vanity may have tempted him to
depart from the truth. In one matter, which is
of such interest and importance that an account
of it may be given here, he seems to have
deliberately falsified history. The ingenuity of
a German critic, Jacob von Bernays, detected in'
the Chronicle of Sulpicius Severus (a Christian
writer, A.D. 350-420) a very slightly disguised
quotation from one of the lost books of the
History of Tacitus. The passage may be thus
"Titus is said to have called a council of war,
and then put to it the question whether he ought
to destroy so grand a structure as the Temple.


Some thought that a sacred building, more
famous than any that stood upon the earth,
ought not to be destroyed. If it were preserved,
it would be a proof of Roman moderation; if
destroyed, it would brand the empire for ever
With the stigma of cruelty. On the other hand
there were some, and among these Titus him-
self, who considered that the destruction of the
Temple was an absolute necessity, if there was
to be a complete eradication of the Jewish and
Christian religions. These superstitions, op-
posed as they were to each other, had sprung
from the same origin; the Christians had come
forth from among the Jews; remove the root
and the stem would speedily perish."
In the interest, doubtless, of his Imperial
patrons, the family ofVespasian," Josephus repre-
sents the destruction of the Temple as having
been accomplished against the will of Titus.
I have to express my obligations to Dean
Milman's History of the Jews, and to the
article, "Jerusalem," by Mr. Ferguson, in the
Dictionary of the Bible. A. J. C.
Hadley Green,
November 13th, 1880.
"* For a strange instance of his flattery of this family, see
p. 147.


OF THE WAR IN GALILEE ... ... ... 42
IX. THE SIEGE ... . ....... ... 98
X. THE SIEGE (continued) ... ... ... ... Io8
XI. THE SIEGE (continued) ... ... ... ... 116
XII. THE TAKING OF THE CITY ... ... ... 131
XIII. THE END... ... ... ... ... ... 148


ROMAN EAGLES ... ... ... ... ... Frontispiece

THE TESTUDO .. ... ... .. .. 14

THE BATTERING RAM ... ... ... ... ** 30


"A COUNCIL OF WAR ... ... ... .. .. 116

BESIEGERS FELLING TREES ... ... ... .. 122

THE TRIUMPH OF TITUS ... ... ... *** 162





IN the fourteenth year of Nero Casar, Gessius
Florus came down into the province of Judaea
to be Governor in the room of Albinus. This
Albinus had been evil spoken of for his greed
and wrongdoing, but Florus far surpassed him
in wickedness; for indeed he plundered whole
cities and regions, nor did he refuse any man
licence to rob his neighbours if only he might
obtain for himself a share of the spoil.
In the beginning of the second year of Florus,
Cestius Gallus, Proconsul of Syria, came to
Jerusalem at the Feast of the Passover. And
when the people thronged about him, making
loud outcry against Florus, and praying that he


would help them, Florus, who was standing at
his right hand, mocked them. Nevertheless
Cestius spake them fair, promising that he would
speak for them to Florus, that he might deal
more mercifully with them in time to come.
And indeed Florus, going with him as far as
Caesarea, made many promises that he would
behave himself more mercifully. Yet had he
resolved in his heart that he would multiply his
cruelties, that so he might drive the people
into war. For he knew that, if there should be
peace, the people would accuse him of his mis-
deeds to the Emperor, but that if there should
be war, there would be no thought or remem-
brance of such things. Having, therefore, this
purpose in his heart, he sent messengers to take
seventeen talents out of the treasury of the
Temple, pretending that the Emperor had need
of them. But when the messengers showed
their errand, immediately the whole City was in
an uproar, the multitude of the people rushing
to the Temple, and crying out against the
tyranny of Florus. Some also of the young men
went about with a basket, asking alms for the
Governor as though he were a beggar. Florus,


so soon as he heard these things, marched to
Jerusalem with an army of horse and foot. And
when the people came forth to meet him, for they
would fain have pacified him, he repulsed them
with violence, and commanded his soldiers to
disperse the crowd. And the next day, sitting
on the seat of judgment, he called before him the
chief men of the City and bade them deliver up
to him them that had been their leaders in the
tumult, and them that had insulted him. But
when he found that the guilty were not given up
to him, for indeed all were guilty, not heeding
the excuses and entreaties of the multitude, he
gave over to his soldiers the Upper City to
plunder, bidding them also slay whomsoeverthey
might meet; which thing they did so zealously
that all Jerusalem was filled with robbery and
murder. Also Florus seized men of renownin the
City, of whom some were Roman knights, and
commanded that they should be shamefully
beaten before his judgment seat, and afterwards
Now it chanced that in these days Berenice,
sister to King Agrippa, was in Jerusalem, who
being greatly troubled at the doings of the


soldiers, sent certain of her body-guard and cap-
tains many times to Florus, entreating him that
he would have mercy upon the people. But
Florus paid no heed to them; nay, when the
Queen went herself and stood barefooted before
his tribunal, neither he nor his soldiers regarded
her, but put the prisoners to the torture, and slew
them even before her eyes; and doubtless they
would have slain her also, but that she escaped
with her guard into the palace, and there abode
for that night in great fear of death.
The next day the multitude of the people
were gathered together in the market-place of
the Upper City, lamenting over them that had
been slain, and crying out against Florus.
Nevertheless when the princes and the priests
besought them that they would give no occa-
sion to the Governor, they went peacefully to
their homes. But he, desiring to stir up strife,
sent to the chief men of the City, and said to
them :-" If ye now be earnest for peace, go
forth, and meet the soldiers that are now
coming to the City, and salute them as friends."
But he sent privately to the centurions, com-
manding that the soldiers should not take any


heed of the salutations of the people. And
this they did; for when the people, coming
forth from the City with the priests and chief
men, greeted them with all friendship, they
answered nothing. This stirred up great wrath
in the multitude, so that they cried out against
Florus; whereupon the soldiers made at them
with their clubs, chasing them back to the City,
and many fell under the clubs, and yet more
were trampled by the crowd.
Nevertheless when Florus would have taken
possession of the Temple, the people cast stones
and javelins upon the soldiers from the roofs of
the houses, and beat them back; also they broke
down the cloisters that were between the
Tower of Antony and the Temple; which when
the Governor perceived, he ceased from his
purpose; and in a little space he departed to
Caesarea, leaving one cohort only for a guard
to the City. Afterwards he sent letters to
Cestius, accusing the Jews, and laying to their
charge the very things which he had himself
done against them; which letters when Cestius
had read, he sent one of his captains to Jeru-
salem to inquire into the truth of these matters.


And when this man was come he went through
the whole City, beginning at Siloam, taking
with him one attendant only-for the chief of
the people had persuaded him, through King
Agrippa, that he should do this. And when he
had seen that the people were peaceably dis-
posed, he went up to the Temple, in which
place many were assembled. And having
praised them and exhorted them to live quietly,
he returned to Cestius.
But the chief of the people took counsel with
King Agrippa, whether they should send orators
to accuse Florus before Caesar. This the King
liked not, but was minded rather to exhort the
people that they should submit themselves to
the Romans. The multitude, therefore, being
assembled on the terrace, Agrippa stood forth
and spake to them many words concerning the
power and greatness of the Romans, and how
that they were now masters of the whole world,
and persuaded them that they should submit
themselves quietly. And when he had made
an end of speaking, he lifted up his voice and
wept, as also did Queen Berenice his sister.
Thereat the people were much moved; and they


cried out, We war not against the Romans, but
against Florus, for the wrong that he hath done
to us." To this King Agrippa made answer,
" Not so, if one look to deeds rather than to
words. Your tribute ye have not paid, and
ye have broken down the cloisters between the
Tower of Antony and the Temple. These things
ye have done not against Florus, but against
Caesar. Do ye therefore pay the tribute and
build again the cloisters."
In these things the people hearkened unto
the King, for they began to build the cloisters,
and paid also to them that were appointed to
this office what was wanting of the tribute, even
forty talents. But when the King would have
them render obedience to Florus, till there
should come down another Governor in his
room, the people reviled him, and bade him
depart forthwith from the City, and some even
cast stones at him. So Agrippa departed to his
own kingdom.
After no long space the Jews openly re-
belled against the Romans. A certain Eleazar,
the son of Ananias, persuaded the people that
it should not thenceforth be lawful to receive


any offerings from strangers. And this was
indeed the beginning of war, for they rejected
the offerings of Caesar. Then the chief men,
when they had sought to turn the people from
their purpose but had prevailed nothing, sent
messengers to Florus and to Agrippa that they
should send soldiers to Jerusalem, for that now
there was a manifest rebellion. Florus, indeed,
was well pleased that it should be so, and
took no heed; but Agrippa sent three thousand
horsemen, by whose help the chief men took
possession of the Upper City. On the other
hand, i Eleazar and the rebels occupied the
Temple. For seven days these fought against
each other, and neither had the upper hand.
But on the eighth day, being the festival of
Wood-carrying (for on a certain day every man
of the Jews was wont to bring wood for the
fire upon the altar), certain of the people that
are called Zealots came into the Temple.
Then the rebels drove the soldiers of the King
out of the Upper City, and burnt the house of
Ananias, the high priest, and the palaces of
the King and of the Queen, and the books in
which were written the names of such as owed


aught to the money-lenders. The next day
they also took the Tower of Antony, and slew
them that kept it; and afterwards they laid
siege to the palace of Herod. And when they
had assailed this for certain days but could
not take it, they made a covenant with the
soldiers of the King that these should come
forth and suffer no injury; but with the
Romans that were in the palace they would
make no agreement. These, therefore, fled
into the towers, for Herod had built three, the
names whereof were Hippicos and Phasaelis
and Mariamne. But, after awhile, being re-
duced to great straits, they surrendered them-
selves, under promise from the rebels that no
man should be put to death. Nevertheless
so soon as they had come forth and had laid
down their arms, for this also had been agreed,
the rebels fell upon them and slew them all,
save Metilius, their captain, for him they
spared when he had promised that he would
receive circumcision. And this great wicked-
ness was wrought upon the Sabbath-day.



WHEN tidings of these things were brought to
Cestius it seemed good to him to march against
the rebels. Wherefore he gathered together an
army, taking the twelfth legion and auxiliaries,
both horse and foot, and twelve thousand
men from the three kings, to wit, Antiochus
and Agrippa and Sohemus, of which twelve
thousand the half were archers; and besides,
many came of their own accord from the cities
round about, who, though they knew but little
of war, were full of zeal and hatred against
the Jews; with Cestius was King Agrippa, who
was a guide to the army, and also furnished it
with food and with fodder for the horses.
Cestius, having burned certain cities on his
way, and put their inhabitants to the sword,
came near to Jerusalem, and began to pitch his
camp at Gabao, which is distant six miles or


thereabouts from the City. But when the Jews
heard that the enemy was now approaching,
they left keeping their feast and made haste to
meet them; nor did they make any count of the
Sabbath, though on this day they are wont to
do no manner of work. Being thus very bold, by
reason of their numbers, and full of courage and
zeal, they fell, without keeping any order, upon
the Romans; nay, so fierce were they that
they broke through the line, making a great
slaughter; and but that the horsemen came to
the help of such as stood firm, with such also of
the infantry as were not over-weary with their
march, it had gone hard that day with Cestius
and his whole army. Of the Romans there
fell five hundred and fifteen; but of the Jews
twenty-and-two only. After this the Jews went
back to the City, and Cestius remained in the
place for three days, the Jews watching him to
see what he would do.
Then King Agrippa, seeing that the Romans
were in no small danger from the multitude that
was gathered in the hill country round about,
judged it to be expedient to send yet again
ambassadors to the Jews, who should promise


to them in the name of Cestius pardon for that
which was past, and peace for the time to come.
For he hoped that some at the least would
hearken to these words, and that so there would
be made a division among them. And this,
indeed, the rebels feared, for they set on the
ambassadors or ever they had spoken a word,
and slew one and wounded the other; and
when some of the people showed indignation
at such doings they drove them back to the
City with clubs and stones.
When Cestius saw that they were thus divided
among themselves he fell upon them with his
whole army, and driving them before him, pur-
sued them to Jerusalem. And having pitched
his camp at Scopus, which is distant seven fur-
longs from the City, he remained quiet for three
days, for he hoped, it would seem, that the in-
habitants would surrender themselves to him;
only during these days he sent to gather pro-
visions from the villages that were round about.
On the fourth day he set his army in array and
marched into the City. Nor did the rebels seek
to hinder him; for being astonished at the
strength and good order of the Romans, they


fled from the outer parts of the City and betook
themselves to the Temple and fortified places.
Then Cestius, having burned certain parts of the
suburbs, came to the Upper City, and pitched
his camp over against Herod's palace; and
doubtless, if he had so willed, he might have con-
quered the rebels forthwith and so put an end
to the war; but one Priscus, that was second
to him in command, and certain of the captains
of the horsemen, having been bribed with money
by Florus, persuaded him that he should not
attack the rebels. And so the war was pro-
longed to the utter destruction of the City. Also
Ananias, the son of Jonathan, and other of the
chief men of the City, had conference with him,
promising that they would open the gates;
trusting to whom, he sat still and did nothing.
But the rebels getting a knowledge of this pur-
pose of Ananias and his companions, cast them
down from the walls, and dispersed all such as
favoured them.
Cestius seeing this, gave command to the
army that they should assail the Temple and
the Palace ; and this they did for five days, but
prevailed nothing. But on the sixth day Cestius,


taking with him certain picked men of the
legion, and archers, with them attacked the
Temple from the north. These also at the
first were driven back, but afterwards making a
tortoise of their shields, they came close to the
walls without suffering any damage and were
about to put fire to the gate of the Temple.
Now the manner of making a tortoise is this.
They that are in the front set their shields
stoutly against the walls, and to these others
coming close join their shields, and to these
again others. These shields being closely fitted
together are as the shell of a tortoise, neither
can any darts pierce through them. When the
rebels saw these things they were in great fear
and were about to fly, and the people were made
to open the gates, and to give up the whole City
to Cestius. And assuredly, if he had persevered
in his undertaking, all would have gone well.
But doubtless it was of God that this day
brought not an end to the war. For indeed
Cestius, as though he knew not the fear of
the rebels, nor the temper of the people, how
they would willingly receive him, suddenly
called back the soldiers, and though he had

; 7



suffered no great loss, contrary to the expecta-
tions of all men, departed from the City. And
the rebels, seeing him thus retreat, a thing
beyond all their hopes, took courage, and
fell upon the rear of his army, slaying many,
both horse and foot. That night Cestius abode
in his camp at Scopus, but the next day he
went yet further from the City, giving great
encouragement to the enemy, who followed
after his army and slew the hindmost, casting
also javelins from either side of the way. And
neither did they that were in the rear of the
army dare to turn against them that assailed
them, fearing the great numbers of the enemy ;
nor did the main body drive back them that set
upon them from either side of the way, for they
feared to break up their order. Also the
Romans were heavily armed, but the Jews
lightly equipped and ready for such kind of
fighting, whence it came to pass that they
suffered much loss but did no harm to the
This day there were slain with others, Priscus,
that commanded the sixth legion, and Longinus,
the tribune, and .Emilius Jucundus, captain of a


troop of horse. And so, after much toil and loss
of baggage, they came to their first camp, that
is to say, the camp of Gabao. There Cestius
abode two days, not knowing what he should
next do. But on the third day, seeing that the
number of the Jews grew greatercontinually, and
that the whole country round about was filled
with the enemy, he thought it best to depart.
And that his flight might be the easier, he gave
command that the soldiers should leave behind
them all such baggage as might hinder them in
their march; also that they should slay all the
mules and beasts of burden, save such as carried
the arrows of the artillery-for these things they
kept, not only for their own using, but also be- "
cause they feared that, falling into the hands
of the Jews, they should be turned against
themselves. So Cestius came to Bethhoron.
Now, while the Romans were in the open coun-
try, the Jews held back, but so soon as they were
come to the going down of Bethhoron, where the
way is narrow, they fell upon them. And some
hastening to the other end of the pass kept
them from going out, and others from behind
drove them down the road. Nor did the whole


multitude cease to shower darts upon them till
they seemed, as it were, to cover the army with
them. And while the foot-soldiers stood still, not
knowing how they should defend themselves, the
horsemen were in a worse strait. For they could
not keep their ranks and move forward by reason
of the javelins that were cast against them,
and the rocks on either side, being very steep
and such as no horses could mount, hindered
them from attacking the enemy. And on the
other hand were very steep places, over which
there was great peril of falling. Being there-
fore overwhelmed with these perils, they
thought no more of defending themselves, but
wept and cried aloud like men that are driven
to despair, while the Jews shouted aloud forjoy
and for fury against their adversaries. And,
indeed, they were within a little of destroying
both Cestius and his whole army, but that the
night coming on, the Romans made their way
back to Bethhoron, where the Jews, surrounding
them on all sides, watched for their coming forth.
But Cestius, seeing that he could not make
his way by force, devised means by which
he might fly. He chose four hundred of the


bravest of his soldiers, and set them on the
rampart of the camp, bidding them display
the standards, that so the Jews might believe
the whole army to be in the camp. And
when he had done this, he himself departed in
silence with the rest of his army. So soon as
it was morning the Jews fell upon the camp;
and when they had slain the four hundred,
they pursued after Cestius. But he had been
marching during no small part of the night,
and now that it was day made all the speed
that he could, insomuch that the soldiers cast
away the battering rams and the catapults,
and many other implements of war, all of
which things the Jews took and used after-
wards against them that had left them. And
when the Romans had reached Antipatris, the
Jews ceased from pursuing them, and returning
gathered together the implements of war, and
spoiled the bodies of the dead, and collected
great store of plunder, and so returned, with
shouts and songs, to the city. Many Romans
and auxiliaries fell in this flight, to wit of
infantry five thousand and three hundred, and
of horsemen three hundred and eighty.



THERE being now open war between the
Romans and the Jews, these last chose men to
be their leaders, both in the city and also in the
provinces; and among these was Josephus, the
son of Matthias, who was set over the province
of Galilee.
This Josephus was of the house and lineage
of Aaron. And having been carefully taught
in all things that a youth should know, he had
got for himself such reputation that when he
was fourteen years of age the priests and
doctors of the law would come to his father's
house, asking him questions concerning the
more difficult matters of the law. And when he
was now of about sixteen years, he purposed
within himself that he would make trial of all
the sects that are among the Jews; and of these
sects there are three, to wit, Pharisees, and


Sadducees, and Essenes. Of these he got, after
great labour and trouble, full knowledge; also
having heard that there was a certain Banus that
dwelt in the desert, who had made to himself
garments from the leaves of trees, and fed on
such things as grew of themselves, he joined
himself to this man, and spent three years in his
company. After this he came back to Jerusa-
lem, and being now nineteen years of age, re-
solved to live after the tenets of the Pharisees,
the which sect may be compared to the school
of the Stoics among the Greek philosophers.
When he was now twenty-and-five years of
age, Josephus went to Rome; and the cause of
his going was this. Felix, the Governor, had
sent certain priests that were friends to Josephus
to answer for themselves before Caesar, the
things whereof they were accused being but of
small account. And Josephus being desirous
to help them (which he was the more zealous to
do when he heard that they were not forgetful
of the law, but had for food figs and walnuts
only, lest they should be found eating things
unclean), he journeyed to Rome; in which
journey he was in great danger of his life: for


his ship having been broken by a storm in
Hadria, he and his fellows floated on pieces of
the wreck for the space of a whole night, and
were taken up at dawn by a ship off Cyrene,
eighty only being saved out of six hundred.
Being arrived in Italy, at the city of Puteoli
Josephus made acquaintance with one Aliturus,
who was an actor of plays in great favour with
Caesar, and was a Jew by birth. Thus he was
made known to Poppaea that was Caesar's
wife, and by her help procured that the priests
his friends should be released from their bonds.
Also Poppaea gave him many gifts, so that he
returned with great honour to his country.
This Josephus would fain have hindered his
countrymen from rebelling against the Romans ;
but when he could not prevail he purposed to
do them such service as he could, and was set,
as hath been said, over the province of Galilee,
in which government he behaved himself with
great wisdom and courage. But when Flavius
Vespasian came down by the command of
Nero into the province of Judaea and had
gathered together a great army at Antioch,
even sixty thousand men, Josephus judged


that he could not stand against the Romans
in battle. Wherefore he commanded that all
the people of Galilee should fly into the fenced
cities, and he himself, having with him the
bravest of his soldiers, took refuge in that
which was the strongest of these cities-to wit,
Jotapata. At the same time he sent letters
to the rulers at Jerusalem, setting forth the
whole truth; in which letters he said that
if they were minded to have peace with the
Romans they should make no more delay;
but that if they would have war, they would
do well to send to him an army, that he might
be able to join battle with the enemy.
This city of Jotapata is built upon a great
hill, having cliffs about it very steep and high
upon every side, save the north only; and on
this Josephus, when he fortified the place, had
built a great wall.
So soon as Vespasian knew that Josephus
was in Jotapata, he made haste to besiege it.
And first he sent soldiers, both horse and foot,
who should make a road for the army; for the
way was very rough, such as foot-soldiers
could scarcely pass over, and horsemen not


at all. This the men did in the space of four
days. Afterwards he sent on Placidus, one
of his lieutenants, with a thousand horsemen,
bidding him watch the city, lest by any means
Josephus should escape. And on the next
day he himself came with the rest of his
army, and pitched his camp on the north side
of the city, about seven furlongs from the
walls. And when the Jews saw the number
of his host they were not a little dismayed,
nor did they dare to come forth from the walls.
The Romans, being wearied from their march,
attacked not the city, but they made three
lines round about it, so that none might go
forth. But the Jews having now no hope of
safety, were minded to fight to the uttermost.
The next day Vespasian attacked the city
on the north side where the wall was easy
of approach; and Josephus seeing this, and
fearing lest the place should be taken, rushed
out against the Romans with the whole multi-
tude of the people and drave them back from
the walls. Many were slain on both sides,
for the Jews fought like men that had no hope,
and the Romans were ashamed to give place.


And they fought through the whole day, even
until nightfall. The next day also the Romans
came near to the walls, and the Jews ran out
against them, and the battle was yet fiercer
than before; and this was done for five days
without ceasing.
After this it seemed good to Vespasian and
his captains to raise a bank against the city,
where the wall could be approached. For this
end, therefore, he caused his whole army to
fetch timber for the work, and to cut stone from
the hills that were hard by. Also he caused to be
set up mantlets, under cover of which the bank
was made, they that built it being in nowise
harmed by the stones and javelins and the
like, which the Jews cast upon them from the
wall. When the bank was finished Vespasian
set his machines of war and catapults upon it,
to the number of one hundred and sixty, which
threw javelins and lighted brands and stones of
a great weight, so that the Jews could not stand
upon the wall, nor come to any place whither the
engines could reach with their shooting. Also
there was a great company of archers of Arabia
and slingers that ceased not to attack the city.


Nevertheless, the Jews, though they were
hindered from going on to the walls, ceased not
to sally from the gate; and they would drag
away the shelter from them that worked, and
wound the men, and they would set fire to the
timber. But Vespasian, perceiving that they
were able to do this, and because spaces had
been left in the siege-works, commanded that
these should be filled in; and when this had
been done, the Jews ceased from attacking
them. But when the bank had been made of
equal height to the walls, Josephus, perceiving
that the city was now in great danger, com-
manded the workmen that they should build
the wall higher. And when they said that they
could not do this while there were cast upon
them so many javelins, he contrived this defence
for them. He caused raw hides of oxen to be
stretched upon stakes, and these could not
either be pierced through with iron nor burnt
by fire. And the men, working under cover of
these, both night and day, raised the wall by
twenty cubits, and built also towers upon it.
This the Romans were greatly troubled to
see. The Jews also, taking heart, made sallies


continually from the walls against them, and
did them all manner of damage. Wherefore
Vespasian was minded not to suffer his soldiers
to fight with them any more, but rather to
blockade their city, and so at last to take
them for lack of food. For he thought that
they must perish or yield themselves; and that
at the least, if they should be wasted with
hunger, they would be the less able to fight.
Therefore, sitting down before the city, he
waited for the end.
Now there was sufficient in Jotapata of corn
and of other things that are needful for food,
save salt only. But of water there was great lack,
for there is no spring in the city, and the people
are content to live on such rain as falleth,
taking it in cisterns. Now of rain there is
but little in the summer season, in the which
season it so chanced that the city was besieged.
And Josephus, seeing that they had plenty of
other things, and that his soldiers lacked neither
numbers nor courage, and desiring that the
siege should be prolonged, distributed the
water to the inhabitants of the city by measure.
And the Romans perceiving that this was done,


for they saw the multitude come together daily
for their measure of water, and indeed cast their
javelins and stones among them, slaying many,
were of good hope that the city must soon yield
itself. But Josephus, that he might deceive
them, and cast them down from this hope,
commanded that they should dip garments
in water and hang them over the walls, so
that the water should flow down from them
to the ground. And when the Romans saw
this, they were troubled, for they judged that
there could be no lack of that which they saw
so to be spent to no purpose. Then Vespasian,
thinking that the place would never yield itself
for lack of food and drink, was resolved that he
would set himself forthwith to take it by force of
arms. And this was the thing which the Jews
chiefly desired, for it seemed better to them to
perish by the sword than to die of hunger and
thirst. Also Josephus devised means by which
he might hold communication with his friends
that were in the cities round about. He sent
letters by a certain path that there was on the
western side of the valley, this path being very
steep, and much overgrown, so that it was the


less carefully watched ; and they that bare the
letters crept along the ground, being covered
with skins, so that any that spied them might
think they were dogs. And this was done many
times, till the thing was discovered by the guards.
And now, Josephus, seeing that there was no
hope of escape, took counsel with the chief men
of the city, concerning flight. Which when
the people had knowledge of, a vast multitude
came about him beseeching him that he would
not leave them. For thou," they said, art
the only hope of the place; and while thou art
with us all will fight bravely, but if thou depart,
no one will have the heart to stand up against
the Romans." Then Josephus, fearing lest he
should seem to have a thought for his own
safety only, spake to them saying, If I depart,
I depart for your good; for while I am here I
profit you little, so long as this city is not taken,
and if it be taken then we perish together. But
if I am gone from this place then could I profit
you much, stirring up war throughout the whole
region of Galilee, so that the Romans must per-
force give up besieging this place. But now,
knowing that I am here, and being very de-


sirous to lay hands upon me, they are all the
more urgent in their attack." Nevertheless, he
prevailed nothing by these words, for the old
men and women and children caught him by the
feet, and besought him, with many tears, that he
would not leave them. Then Josephus changed
his purpose, and thought no more of leaving the
city, but only how he might best make war
against the Romans, vexing them day and
night with all manner of attacks. And when
Vespasian saw that his men suffered much loss in
their encounters (for they were ashamed to give
way before the Jews, nor could they pursue them
on account of the weight of their armour; but the
Jews being lighter-armed and of much more
agility, suffered little loss), he commanded
that the soldiers of the legions, being heavy-
armed, should not fight any more with the
Jews; but that the Arabs and Syrians, being
archers and slingers, should drive them back.
As for the machines of war and the catapults,
they never were quiet. Yet the Jews ceased
not to give battle with the besiegers, sparing
neither limb nor life.
Vespasian, seeing that he was himself in a


manner besieged, for the Jews assailed him con-
tinually, judged it well to use the battering rams
against the walls of the city. Now a battering
ram is a great beam, like unto the mast of
a ship, whereof the end is shod with iron that is
of the shape of a ram's head, from which also it
hath its name. This beam is hung in the middle
from another beam by means of ropes, as it
might be in a balance; and at either end it is
rested on strong posts. This beam being first
swung back with the whole strength of a great
company of men, is after swung forward, and
driveth the end of iron against the wall; nor is
there any tower so strong, or wall of such thick-
ness that can stand against such blows, being
oftentimes repeated. Such, therefore, did Ves-
pasian cause to be brought near to the walls;
and that the working of them might not be
hindered, he brought nearer also the catapults
and the machines, with the slingers and archers.
And when all the Jews had been driven from
the walls, then they that had charge of the ram
brought it up to the wall, covering it with
hurdles and hides for a protection both to it and
to themselves. And so soon as they drave it




against the wall, the stones were shaken, and
there rose a great cry from the people within,
even as though the town were already taken.
But Josephus, seeing that the ram was driven
continually against the self-same place, and that
the wall was now about to be broken down,
devised means by which the violence of the
attack might be diminished. He commanded
that they should fill sacks with straw, and let
them down in the place where the ram was
about to be driven against the wall. And this
they did continually, and whenever the ram was
brought against the wall, then the Jews would
let down the sacks of straw; and this thing
made much delay and hindrance to the captains
of the Romans. Then these fixed blades of
iron to the end of poles and cut the ropes by
which the sacks were let down. But Josephus,
seeing that the ram began to work damage
again, and that the wall, being for the most part
newly built, was shaken by their blows, be-
thought him how he might help himself with fire.
So he caused to be gathered together all dry
wood that could be found, and making a sally
with his soldiers in three divisions, set fire to the


machines and siege-works of the enemy. Also
they heaped on them bitumen, and pitch, and
sulphur, and the fire spread itself with all the
speed that can be thought, till that which it
had cost the Romans the labour of many days
to accomplish was destroyed in the space of
one hour.
And now a certain Jew, Eleazar by name,
of Sahab, in Galilee, did a thing that is worthy
to be told; for, lifting up a great stone in his
hands he threw it down from the wall upon
the ram so mightily that he brake off the
head. And when he saw what he had done,
he leapt down from the wall, and caught up
the head in his hands and carried it to the
wall. And though all the archers shot at him,
so that their arrows stuck in his body, he
heeded them not at all, but climbed the wall,
and so at last, holding the ram's head in his
arms, fell down overcome with weakness.
After this, Josephus and they that were with
him set upon the machines and siege-works of
the fifth and tenth legions-for this last had
fled from its place-and burned them with fire.
Nevertheless, before nightfall, the Romans


brought another battering ram against that
part of the wall which had been shaken at
the first. Now it befell that one of them
that defended the wall cast his javelin at
Vespasian and smote him and wounded him;
and though the wound was a small thing (for
the javelin was cast from afar, and its force
was spent), yet were the Romans much troubled,
and especially Titus, his son. But Vespasian,
making light of the pain of his wound, showed
himself to the army that he was yet alive.
And all the soldiers were yet more eager than
before to quit themselves bravely, for they
thought it shame if they should not take
vengeance for the hurt which the Emperor
had suffered.
Nevertheless, for all the violence of their
enemies, Josephus and his soldiers stood yet
upon the wall, seeking to drive back, with lighted
torches and javelins and stones, them that used
the battering rams. But they prevailed little or
not at all; for they could not see them at whom
they cast their missiles, yet could themselves be
seen very plainly. For the night was as the day,
by reason of the many fires that were burning,


and they that stood upon the wall were manifest,
nor, seeing that the machines were a long way
off, could they avoid the bolts. Many indeed
were slain by the darts and arrows that were
cast by the artillery, and as for the stones from
the catapults they brake off the battlements of
the walls and the corners of the towers. And
the plying of the machines made a horrible loud
noise, as also did the hissing of the stones as
they flew by. These indeed were cast forth
with such strength as can scarcely be believed.
One that stood by Josephus on the wall was
smitten by a stone, so that his head was driven,
as it had been a bullet from a sling, to the length
of three furlongs. And all the while there rose
up from the city a great wailing of women,
and from the wall the groanings of them that
were wounded. Truly a man could not see or
hear anything more horrible than the things
which the people of Jotapata saw that night.
And in the morning the wall gave way. Never-
theless Josephus and his men made up the
breach as best they were able.
The next day, after that the army had rested
itself and taken some food, Vespasian com-


manded that they should attack the city. And
first he bade the bravest of his horsemen dis-
mount; these he set in three troops at the place
where the wall had been broken down. They
were altogether clad in armour, and had in their
hands long pikes, and it was commanded them
that they should mount the breach so soon as the
machine that was made for that end should be
fixed. Behind these he set the best of the foot
soldiers, and behind these again the archers and
slingers and them that had charge of the artillery.
And on the hills about the city he set the re-
mainder of his horsemen that none might escape
when it should be taken. Others also carried
scaling ladders, which they should put to the
wall where it was not broken, that so some of
the Jews might be called away from the defend-
ing of the breach. When Josephus perceived
this he set at these parts of the wall the old
men and them that were the weakest and the
most wearied of his soldiers; but at the breach he
set the bravest and strongest; and before all he
chose six men, of whom he himself was one.
To these he said, "Shut your ears against the
shouting of these men; and as for their mis-


siles, kneel upon your knees, and holding your
shields over your heads so hide yourselves till
the archers have spent their arrows. But when
those that ye see seek to mount the breach, then
quit yourselves like men, for ye have not so
much to fight for a country that yet liveth, but
to avenge one that is dead. Also think within
yourselves how they will slay them that are dear
to you, and satisfy your wrath against them."
As for the women, Josephus bade them shut
themselves up in their houses, lest their crying
and wailing should break the hearts of the men.
And now the trumpeters blew their trumpets,
and the army shouted; and the archers and
slingers sent forth a great shower of arrows and
bullets, so that the day was darkened. But
they that stood by Josephus, remembering the
words that he had spoken to them, shut their
ears against the shouting, and covered their
bodies with their shields; and when the horse-
men would have mounted the breach, they ran
upon them with great fury. Then were many
valiant deeds done on both sides; but at the
last the Romans (for there were always those that
came into the places of such as were wounded


or slain, but the Jews had not), joining them-
selves closely together, and holding their shields
over their heads, so advanced, and drave the
Jews back from the breach.
Then Josephus, being in a great strait (when
men are wont to be best at devising that which
is needful), commanded that they should pour
hot oil on the shields of the Romans. Of this
the Jews had a plentiful store, and when they
poured it down upon the Romans, these cried
aloud for the pain of the burning, and brake
their order, and fell back from the wall, for the
oil crept under the armour from their heads
even unto their feet, and consumed them even
like fire ; and the nature of oil is that it is easily
kindled but hardly quenched.
Also the Jews used another device against them
who would mount by the gangways on to the
breach of the wall. They boiled a certain herb,
and poured the water upon the planks of the
gangways, whereby these were made so slippery
that no man could stand firm upon them, but
all fell, whether they sought to ascend or
to descend. And when they fell the Jews cast
their javelins and wounded many; so that in the


end the Romans ceased from their undertaking,
having had not a few slain and many wounded.
Of the Jews there were slain six in all, but the
number of the wounded was 300.
For all this the Romans lost not heart, but
were rather kindled to greater wrath. ThenVes-
pasian commanded that the bank should be made
higher than before, and that there should be
built upon it three towers of fifty feet in height.
These towers were cased all about with iron; and
this was done both that it might be the more
difficult to overthrow them by reason of their
weight, and also that they might not be con-
sumed with fire. In these towers he set slingers
and archers, and artillery also of the lighter sort,
who themselves not being seen by reason of the
great height of the tower, could yet look down
upon them that defended the wall.
These then seeing that they could not escape
the things that were cast upon them, nor yet cast
back again others upon the enemy, and could not
do any hurt to the towers (for that they were cased
with iron), were driven to leave the walls; only
when any sought to get footing upon them they
would run out against them.


In these days, while the men of Jotapata were
much troubled about their own affairs, there
came tidings how that the Romans had taken
the city of Joppa, and had slain all the inhabit-
ants thereof with the sword. Also they heard
that a great multitude of the Samaritans had
been slain on Mount Gerizim, whither they had
gathered themselves together.
On the forty-and-seventh day from the begin-
ning of the siege there went a certain runaway
to the camp to Vespasian, and showed him the
whole truth, how it fared with them that were
in the city, how that they were worn out with
watching and fighting, and also how they
might easily be taken, if he would use craft
with them. For, he said, that at the last watch
of the night, having it seemed some respite from
their troubles, they were wont to take some
rest, and that if he would attack the wall at
that time, he would find the guards sleeping.
Vespasian, indeed, doubted whether the man
was speaking truth, for he knew that the Jews
were, for the most part, faithful to each other,
and that they could not be driven, even by the
greatest torments, to betray that which they


knew. Notwithstanding, thinking that even
if the man spake falsely he should not receive
damage, he commanded that the wall should
be assailed.
Therefore, at the last watch of the night
there went a company of men to the wall, who
climbed on to the top; and they that stood
first on the wall were Titus and another, a
centurion, Domitius Sabinus by name. They
found the watch sleeping, as had been told
them; and when they had slain the men they
went down without let into the city. After-
wards the gate being opened, the soldiers came
in. And first they took possession of the
citadel, and afterwards went to and fro through
the city. And though the day had now
dawned, yet did not the Jews know what had
befallen them, for they were very weary and
heavy with sleep; and also the sight of those
that were awake was hindered by a great mist
that chanced to prevail over the city. Nor
did they understand the matter till the whole
army of the Romans was in the city. These,
indeed, remembering what things they had
suffered in the siege for now nigh upon fifty


days, had no mercy upon any. Many also of
the bravest of the Jews, seeing that they could
not prevail even to the avenging of themselves
upon the enemy, slew themselves with their
own hands. And, indeed, the Romans had
that day taken the city, nor had had so much
as one man slain, but for this that shall now be
told. One of them that had fled into the caves
that were in the city (and many had so fled)
cried to a certain Antonius that he should
stretch out his right hand to him, helping
him to climb out of the cave. Which when
Antonious had done, the other smote him from
below with the spear in the groin and slew
All the men that were found in the city did
Vespasian and the Romans slay; and the
women and the children they sold into cap-
tivity. As for the city, Vespasian commanded
that it should be utterly destroyed.



So soon as the Romans had taken the city,
they began to search for Josephus, against
whom they had especial wrath ; also Vespasian
much desired that he should be taken. Now
Josephus, by the help of God, had passed
through the midst of the enemy, and had leapt
down into a certain deep well, out of the side
of which there was a great cavern. Here he
found forty of the chief men of the city that had
hidden themselves, having a store of provisions
such as would suffice for many days. That
day indeed he lay in this place, but at night he
went forth, seeking for some way of flight, if
such there might be. But seeing that all the
place was watched with exceeding care (which
indeed the Romans did on his account), he
descended again into the cave, and so lay hid


for two days. But on the third day, a certain
woman that had been in the place, going forth,
revealed the whole matter to Vespasian. And he
straightway sent two tribunes to Josephus, who
coming to the place, were earnest with him
that he should give himself up, promising that
his life should be granted to him. But they did
not persuade him, when he considered with
himself what grievous harm he had done
to them in the days of the siege. Then
Vespasian sent a third tribune also, one
Nicanor, that in former time had been a friend
to Josephus. This Nicanor, coming to him, set
forth how that the Romans were ever merciful
to them whom they had subdued, and how that
the generals had admiration rather than hatred
for him by reason of his valour, and that it was
the purpose of the Emperor not to slay him,
which indeed he could do without making con-
ditions, but to save him alive, being so brave a
man. But while Josephus doubted what he
should do, for the words of Nicanor were
weighty, the soldiers, growing impatient, would
have thrown fire into the cave; but their cap-
tain hindered them, desiring above all things


to take Josephus alive. Then as he con-
sidered the promises of the Emperor on the one
hand, and the threatening of the soldiers on
the other, there came into his mind the remem-
brance of certain dreams that he had dreamed,
wherein God had showed him beforehand what
great trouble would befall the nation of the Jews,
and also what should be the fortune of the
Emperor of Rome. Now Josephus was well
skilled in the interpretation of dreams; and also
he had good knowledge of the prophesies of
the holy books, seeing that he was a priest, and
that his forefathers had been priests before him.
Considering these things, therefore, he prayed
in secret to God, saying, Since it hath seemed
good to Thee to bring down the nation of the
Jews, and since Thou hast given power over
the earth to these Romans, and also hast chosen
me that I might prophesy things to come, I yield
myself to these my enemies, and refuse not to
live. But I call Thee to witness that I go not
as a traitor, but as Thy servant."
When he had thus prayed, he prepared to
come forth; but when the Jews that were in
the cave with him perceived what he was about


to do they came roundabout him, clamouring with
these words : "Canst thou endure, O Josephus,
for love of life to be a slave ? How quickly
hast thou forgotten thy own words and those
whom thou didst persuade to die for freedom's
sake! And thinkest thou that they will suffer
thee to live to whom thou hast done so much
hurt ? But, however this may be, though thou
be blinded with the glory of the Romans, yet
will we take care for the honour of our
country. Here then we offer thee a sword and
a hand that shall use it against thee. And if
thou diest willingly then thou art still our leader;
but if unwillingly then thou art a traitor." And
as they said these words, they pointed their
swords at him, affirming that they would
assuredly slay him if he should yield himself
to the Romans.
Then Josephus spake to them, seeking to
show them that he did well in yielding himself to
the Romans; for that though it .was an honour-
able thing for a man to die for his country, yet
he should die in battle, and not by his own hand.
" For will not God," he said, "be wroth, if a
man despise the gift which He has given him,


even the gift of life ? For whosoever squan-
dereth or loseth that which is put into his
charge, he is counted as wicked and traitorous.
How then shall God punish him who shall
wilfully destroy that thing which He hath com-
mitted unto him ?"
With these and many like words Josephus
would fain have persuaded them that they
should not slay one another. But they, as men
that had their ears deafened by very many
sounds, were greatly wroth with Josephus, and
ran upon him with their swords, reviling him for
his cowardice. Then Josephus called every one
by name; and at some he looked sternly as a
captain might do, and another he would take by
the hand, and another he would beseech with
many prayers, turning, as a wild beast when it
is surrounded by the pursuers, to each one as
he came near. So because they had not alto-
gether forgotten what reverence they had had
for him in former days, they let go their swords,
waiting for what he should say. Then when
he had committed himself to God, he said,
"Since ye are resolved to die, let us cast lots
how we shall slay one another, so that each


man may die, when he shall have drawn the lot,
by the hand of his companion. So shall we all
die, yet shall no man slay himself." To these
words they all consented, and the lots were
drawn. Then he to whom the lot first fell out
willingly offered his neck to him that was next
to him; for they were persuaded that their
captain also would die with them, and they
judged it better to die in company of Josephus
than to live without him. And in the end
-but whether this was of chance or of the
ordering of God, cannot be said-Josephus
was left alive with one other; and when these
two were about to draw the lot, Josephus per-
suaded him that he should live, wishing neither
himself to die nor to slay his companion.
Then did Nicanor lead Josephus to Vespasian;
and all the Romans were gathered together to see
him, so that there was a great commotion, some
shouting for joy that he was taken, and some
threatening him, and many pressing forward to
look upon him. Of them that were furthest
from him many cried out that he should be put
to death, but such as stood close to him remem-
bered the great deeds that he had done; and as


for the captains, even such as had before been
full of wrath against him when they looked
upon him had compassion on him. And chiefly
Titus, being of a generous temper, was well
inclined to him, remembering how bravely he
had borne himself in battle, and yet was now
a prisoner in the hands of his enemies, and
considering how great is the power of fortune,
and what changes befall men in war, and how
mutable are the affairs of men. Now Titus
had great power with his father, and was instant
with him that he would save Josephus alive.
Nevertheless, Vespasian commanded that he
should be kept with all care, being minded to
send him to Nero forthwith.
When Josephus knew that he had this pur-
pose in his heart, he said that he would gladly
speak a few words with him in private. There-
fore when all had departed from him, save
Titus and two of his friends only, Josephus
spake, saying :-" I have great things to tell
thee, O Vespasian. For indeed, have I not
been sent to thee of God ? Thou knowest the
custom of the Jews, and how it becometh the
captain of a host to die. Dost thou send me to


Nero ? Know that thou shalt be Emperor,
thou, and thy son after thee. Bind me there-
fore, and keep me, to see whether my words
be true or no." Now Vespasian did not
believe the words of Josephus, thinking that he
had feigned them for the saving of his own
life. But afterwards he changed his mind, for
indeed God had put the thought of this very
thing into his heart, and had also showed him
beforehand by many signs of the things that
were to come. And when one of the friends of
Vespasian said:-" I marvel much, Josephus,
why thou didst not prophesy to the men of
Jotapata, how their city should be taken, and
how thou shouldest thyself be led into captivity,"
Josephus answered him, saying:-" Nay, but I
did prophesy to the men of Jotapata that after
forty-and-seven days their city should be taken,
and also that I should myself be taken prisoner
by the Romans." When Vespasian made
inquiry of the captives he heard that this was
indeed the truth; and after this he believed the
words of Josephus. And though he set him not
free from his chains, yet did he give him change
of raiment and other gifts, and had him in


great honour; and in all these things Titus
was his friend.
After these things the other cities of Galilee
that yet remained to the Jews were taken, as
Joppa, and Tarichea, and Gamala. Tiberias,
indeed, that is by the Lake of Galilee, yielded
itself to the Romans; and Vespasian, though he
destroyed the other cities and put their inha-
bitants, for the most part, to the sword, had
mercy upon the inhabitants of Tiberias, for he
knew that this would be well pleasing to King
On this Lake Galilee there was fought a
great battle of ships, between the Romans and
certain of the inhabitants that had fled from
Tarichea when they saw that it was now about
to be taken. For Vespasian, when he had
taken the city, put into ships so many of his
soldiers as he thought sufficient for the purpose,
and sent them against the men of Tarichea.
These indeed were in a great strait, for they
could not disembark from their boats on to the
land, inasmuch as there was no place that was
not in the power of the enemy, nor could they
meet the Romans in battle, for their boats were
small and light, and such as could not contend



against ships of war. Nevertheless, rowing
round the ships, they cast stones and javelins at
them from afar ; and sometimes they would come
close and strike at them. But they did hurt
to themselves rather than to their enemies.
For the stones were of no avail, being cast
at men that were clothed in armour, but they
were themselves grievously wounded by the
javelins of the Romans; and such as dared to
come near were struck down before they could
do anything, and oftentimes were sunk, together
with their vessels. Many did the Romans slay
with their pikes, and many also they slew with
swords, and some they took alive in their boats.
And if one of them that was overthrown into the
water lifted up his head, an arrow would smite
him, or he would be taken by them that were
in the ships; and if, in their despair, the men
swam to the ships and laid hold on them, the
Romans would cut off their hands or their heads.
Many, therefore, were slain or taken in the
midst of the water, and those that sought to
escape to the land were slain by the Romans so
soon as they leapt out of their boats. And
the whole lake was filled with blood and with
dead bodies of men, for none escaped.



IN the meantime, while these things came to
pass in the land of Galilee, there were great
troubles in the City of Jerusalem. For whereas
the princes and the people had chosen Ananus,
the High Priest, to be their ruler, a certain
Eleazar, the son of Simon, prevailed against
him; and this he did by his subtlety and by
help of the abundance of the money which
he had-for he had laid hold of that which
Cestius the Roman was carrying with him for
the wages of his soldiers, and of that which
was in the public treasury. Now Ananus, and
they that were with him, made great prepara-
tion of arms and instruments of war, and
strengthened the walls, as though they would
defend the City against the Romans. This they
did to please the people, but their purpose was
to cease from these preparations after a while,


and to turn the hearts of the Zealots-for so
men called the rebels-to moderation and
prudence. But this they could not do.
After these things there came to Jerusalem
one John, the son of Levi, who was also called
John of Gischala. This man had fled by night
from Gischala, in which city he had fought
against the Romans, after that all the rest of
the land of Galilee had been subdued. And
when the people had gone forth to meet
him and his companions, inquiring how it
had fared with them, though it was manifest
that the men had fled with all the speed they
might, so quickly did they fetch their breath,
yet they talked bravely, affirming that they
had not fled from the Romans, but were rather
come to Jerusalem that they might fight with
the more advantage. For we would not
spend our lives for nought," they said, "at
Gischala and places of no account, but would
defend Jerusalem, being the chief city of our
nation." And when the people doubted what
they should do, John was very urgent with
them that they should be stubborn in re-
belling against the Romans, who, he said, were


now in evil case, and could not even if they
should get themselves wings, climb the walls
of Jerusalem; and besides had had great loss
in besieging the towns of Galilee, and suffered
great damage to their machines.
And now throughout all the land, and es-
pecially in Jerusalem, was there strife between
the lovers of peace and those that delighted in
war; of whom, in the end, the latter prevailed.
Besides this, the whole country was wasted by
robbers, so that it seemed to the inhabitants
a lighter thing to be led into captivity by the
Romans than to suffer such violence. And of
these robbers not a few crept secretly into
Jerusalem-for into the City all were admitted
without question-who afterwards had no small
share in bringing it to destruction, for they
caused tumult without end, and also consumed
the provisions which had sufficed for the men
of war. These men, taking for their leader
Eleazar the son of Simon, filled the whole
City with robbery and slaughter. And this they
did not secretly, but openly and in the day; nor
did they lay hands on common folk only, but
on the great men and princes, such as was


Antipas, the treasurer of the City, who was of
the lineage of Herod. Him, and others with
him, they at the first shut up in the prison, but
afterwards, fearing lest they should be delivered
by their kinsfolk, and that the people might make
insurrection, they sent a certain John, the son
of Dorcas, with ten swordsmen, and slew them
in the prison.
Also they set aside the law of inheritance,
according to which the chief priests were
wont to be appointed, and made chief priests
of whom they would-men altogether mean and
base. And for high priest they chose one
Phannias, the son of Samuel, a clownish fellow
and one who knew not at all what this
office of the priesthood might mean. Him
they took, against his will, from his farm, and
adorned with robes, as one who acts is adorned
upon the stage, and sought to teach him what he
should do. All this was an occasion of mirth
and laughter to them, but the priests, as they
stood afar off, wept to see the law despised
in this fashion.
Then the high priest, Ananus, a wise man,
who haply might have saved the City if the


wicked had suffered him to live, called the
people together to an assembly, and sought to
stir them up against Simon and the Zealots,
reproaching them that they suffered such
wickedness to be done, none raising a hand to
hinder it. Think," he said, how your fore-
fathers fought many and great battles that they
might be free. And ye also, why do ye now
wage war against the Romans but for this same
cause ? Yet ye suffer yourselves to be made
slaves by these robbers. And verily, if the
Romans should conquer you, what could ye
suffer worse or more grievous than what ye
now endure at the hands of these men ? For
these slay them whom the Romans harmed not;
and whereas the Romans went not into the
Holy Place, which it is not lawful but for the
priests to enter, these men, being, as they say,
Jews, profane it daily. Come therefore, and
give your lives, if need be, for the honour of
the Lord; and as for me, ye shall not see
me hold back from danger."
With these and many like words the high
priest Ananus exhorted the people. And after
this he held a levy, and armed such as gave


their names, and set them in order of battle.
Which when the Zealots perceived, they sallied
forth from the Temple in great wrath and fell
upon the people. And these on their side fought
against the Zealots. And of the two the people
were the more in number by far, but the Zealots
were the better armed. But both fought with all
their might, for the people judged that it were
better to die than to serve these robbers, and the
Zealots knew that if they were conquered they
must die, and at last, as the multitude of the peo-
ple increased continually, and those that were
behind suffered not such as were in front to give
way, the Zealots perforce gave way, and fled
into the Temple, Ananus and the people follow-
ing hard after them. And when, leaving the
Outer Court, which is also the Court of the Gen-
tiles, they entered into the Inner Court, and shut
to the gates, Ananus judged it not wise to force
the place ; for the Zealots were throwing javelins
and the like from above; and also he would not
bring the people into the Court, being not yet
purified from blood. Nevertheless, he set six
thousand men in the cloister of the Temple to
watch it; and other six thousand to come in


their place after, a time. And to this service all
the citizens were bound; only the wealthier sort
hired poor men to stand in their stead.
Now John of Gischala was of the number of
those with whom the high priest took counsel.
He was a subtle man, and one who sought
favour for himself; and though he seemed to
be zealous for the people, sitting in the council
by day and visiting the watchers by night, yet
did he betray everything to the Zealots. Which
when Ananus began to suspect, for it was mani-
fest that the plans were betrayed, and yet could
not rid himself of John, he would have him take
an oath. This the man did with all willing-
ness, swearing that he would be zealous for the
people, and would betray nothing to the enemy,
but would do all that he might for their over-
throw. And Ananus and they that were with
him believed the man, insomuch that they sent
him to treat with the Zealots for peace. But
John's words, when he was come into the Tem-
ple, were altogether contrary to the purpose of
them that sent him. For he said of Ananus,
that he had sent messengers to Vespasian, that
he should come without delay and take the City;


also that he would use the pretence of purifying
the Temple to assail them. "As for you," he said,
" I see not how ye can either endure a siege or
fight against this great multitude. Wherefore
ye must either submit yourselves to Ananus,
or seek help from without. And if you submit
yourselves, ye know well what mercy ye may
look for, remembering what things ye have done
in time past against the people."
Now of this help from without, John dared
not to speak openly; but his thought was of
the people of Idumea (Idumea is the land
of Edom); and Eleazar and his fellows doubted
for a while what they should do; but at last it
seemed good to them to call the Idumaeans.
Wherefore they wrote a letter, saying:-
"Ananus, the high priest, having deceived
the people, is ready to betray the City to the
Romans; and we, having rebelled against him
for freedom's sake, are besieged in the Temple,
and must perish speedily unless ye come to our
help and to the help of the City against the
Romans." This letter they sent by two fleet
runners; nor did they doubt but that the
Idumseans would hearken to their words, for


they are a turbulent folk, delighting in change,
and hastening to a battle with as good a will
as to a feast.
So soon as the chiefs of the Idumaeans had
read the letter and heard the words of the
messengers, they gathered together an army with
all speed, and sent it, even two thousand men, to
Jerusalem. Now,Ananus had not perceived the
going forth of the messengers; but of the coming
of the Idum2eans he knew beforehand. Where-
fore he shut the gates of the City and set guards
upon the walls. Nevertheless he purposed not to
fight against them, but rather to win them over
by words. For this cause he sent to them a
certain Joshua, who was next to himself among
the priests. This man stood upon a turret of
the wall over against them, and spake to them.
He reproached them that they were come to
help a company of robbers against their own
kinsfolk. "As to this accusation of treachery,"
he said, "that they bring against us, it is
altogether false. For what proof have they ?
Can they show any letter that we have sent to
the Romans ? Have they laid hands on any
messenger ? But as for the things which they


themselves have done, come into the City
(though ye come not in as conquerors), and see
them for yourselves. Ye will see houses desolate
and mourners everywhere; yea, and the
Holy Place, which the whole world wor-
shippeth, trampled under foot of these wild
To this Simon, son of Cathlas, who was
captain of the Idumreans, made reply, that he and
his fellows were come to defend the Holy City
against traitors and enemies, and that it was their
purpose not to depart till this had been accom-
plished. Nevertheless many doubted whether
they had done well in coming; yet being
ashamed to go back without doing aught, they
abode under the walls. Now, that night, there
was a very grievous storm of wind and rain,
with lightning and thundering. And the
Idumaeans gathered their whole company
together as close as might be, and joining their
shields over their heads, so kept off the rain,
nor did they take much harm from it. But
the Zealots were much concerned on their
behalf, and took counsel together how they
might help them. And some of the bolder sort


would have set upon the guards of the gates.
" For they are not men of war," they said,
"and will without doubt give way before us. Nor
will they easily gather the citizens together, by
reason of the rain and wind. And indeed, if there
be danger, yet must we endure it rather than
see our friends perish." But the more prudent
would have them gain their end by craft rather
than by force. For they saw that the guard
was larger than it was wont to be, and that the
walls of the City were kept with the more
diligence by reason of the Idumaeans. And
they thought that Ananus would himself see to
the ordering of all things. And indeed this
was his custom; but for that night he omitted
it, it being so decreed that he and his fellows
should perish. And so it fell out that at midnight
the guards were dispersed, lying down to sleep
in the porches. Then took the Zealots the
sacred saws out of the Temple, and cut
through the bolts of the gates; neither could
the noise of the sawing be heard for the
roaring of the wind and the pealing of the
So they opened the gate that was nearest to


the Idumaeans ; and these at first were slow to
enter, doubting whether this might not be
some stratagem of Ananus. But when they
knew who had done it, straightway they
entered. Now, if they had turned to the City to
attack it, doubtless they had destroyed it wholly,
so furious were they. But they that had
opened the gate were urgent with them that
they should first deliver such as were shut up
in the Temple. For if ye do this," they said,
" and scatter the guard, afterwards ye can do
what ye will to the City."
So the Idumaeans went up to the Temple;
and when the Zealots that were within saw
them come near, 'they sallied forth and set
upon the guard. Some they slew, being not
yet awaked out of sleep; but the rest caught
up their arms with all speed and defended
themselves. And this they did with sufficient
courage, so long as they thought that they had
the Zealots only to deal with; but when they
knew that the Idumzeans were come into the City,
many of them cast away their arms and began
to weep and to lament. Notwithstanding, a few
of the young men bare themselves bravely. And


though their fellows in the City knew in what
a strait they were, yet durst they not come to
their help for fear of the Idumaeans; but there
was made a great crying and wailing of women.
And the Idumseans and the Zealots shouted as
they fought; and the noise was the more terrible
by reason of the storm. The Idumeans had
mercy upon none, for they are a savage folk,
but slew all alike, whether they fought or
prayed for mercy. And because there was no
way of escape, many threw themselves down
into the City below, and so perished miserably.
And all the Temple was swimming with blood;
and when it was day, they counted the dead
bodies, and found that the number of them was
eight thousand and five hundred. After this,
the Idumaeans turned to the City, spoiling the
houses, and slaying all whom they met. And
especially were they furious against Ananus
the high priest, and against Joshua. These
they took and slew forthwith. Moreover, such
was their wickedness, they cast forth the dead
bodies of these holy men without burial; though
the Jews are commonly so careful in this matter
that they take down the dead bodies of them


that are crucified, that they may bury them
before the setting of the sun.
Now this slaying of Ananus may well be
counted as the beginning of the destruction of
the City. For he was a righteous man, and a
lover of liberty, and one who set the good of
the state before his own advantage. Also he
was very earnest for peace, knowing that it was
not possible to prevail over the Romans, and
that the nation must needs perish in the war,
unless they could come to some conditions of
peace. Which thing doubtless had been done,
if only he had lived, for he was a skilful orator
and one who could persuade the people. But
without doubt, because it was the pleasure of
God to destroy the City that had so defiled
itself, and to purge the Holy Place with fire,
therefore he cut off from the people such as
might have saved them.




AFTER this the Zealots and the Idummans
slew a great multitude of the people. But
many of the princes and of the better sort they
cast into prison, hoping that so they might win
them over to their own cause. Nevertheless of
these prisoners not one would hearken to their
persuasions; for they judged it better to die
than to be numbered with those wicked men
that were conspiring against their own country.
So great was the fear among the people that
none durst openly lament for his kinsfolk, or so
much as bury them; but they wept for the
dead in secret, and were careful that the enemy
should not hear their groans. And at night, or
even by day, if there was found a man a little
bolder than his fellows, they would throw earth
upon the dead bodies.
After a while they grew weary of slaughter-


-ing after this fashion, and would set up mockeries
of courts and judgment seats. There was a
certain Zacharias, the son of Baruch, a wealthy
man and a powerful, and a lover of liberty.
Him they took and brought before seventy
judges whom they had chosen from the people,
being men wholly without authority. And
when they accused him that he sought to
betray the country to the Romans and had sent
messengers to Vespasian for this end, but
could bring no proof or witness of what they
laid against him, Zacharias, knowing that his
case was desperate, spake out his mind with all
freedom. And first he showed the truth about
the things whereof he was accused, and proved
that the charge which they laid against him
was naught; and afterwards he turned against
his accusers, setting forth their misdeeds in
order and lamenting the ruin that they had
brought to pass. When the Zealots heard
these words, they cried out against him, and
could scarce refrain from drawing their swords
upon him, only they would fain have the trial
brought to an end, that they might know how
these judges would bear themselves. Never-


theless the seventy acquitted the man, choosing
rather to die themselves than to condemn him to
death. But when this judgment was declared all
the Zealots cried out. And two of the boldest
ran upon Zacharias and smote him with their
swords, crying, This is the vote we give thee;
of this acquittal there can be no question."
Then they threw down the dead body into the
valley below. As for the judges they smote
them with the flat of their swords, and drave
them out of the temples. But now the Idu-
mzeans began to repent them that they had
come, and to grow weary of these ill deeds.
And while they thus thought on these things,
there came one of the Zealots to them and
unfolded all the frauds and deceits of his fellows.
"As for the betraying of the City to the
Romans," he said, we have found no proof of
it, and now we had best have nothing more to
do with these men; else we shall surely be
counted guilty of all their misdeeds."
So the Idumseans departed; but first they set
free those that lay bound in the prisons, to
the number of two thousand. But when they
Were gone, the Zealots raged against their adver-


series more furiously than before; and especially
against all the better sort of the people, for
they judged that they should scarcely be safe, if
they left even one of them alive. The chief of
them that they slew were Gorion, a man well
born and of great honour, whom they hated for
his freedom of speech, and Niger of Peraea, who
had borne himself very bravely in battle against
the Romans. This Niger, they dragged through
the City while he cried out against their wrong-
doings and showed the scars of his wounds.
And when he found that they led him without
the gates, he asked of them that they would at
least give his body to his kinsfolk for burial.
But even this they denied to him. Then he
lifted up his voice, being at the point to die,
and cried that the Romans would avenge him,
and that they should suffer not war only, but
hunger also and pestilence, and that they should
be slain by each other's hands; all which things,
for the greater punishment of these wicked
men, God brought upon them.
When the Roman captains heard that there
was such strife in the City, they thought to
profit by it, and would have marched forthwith


to assail it, saying to Vespasian, who was over
the whole host, Surely now God is on our side,
seeing that our enemies have turned their hands
against each other. Let us, therefore, make haste
before they repent them of their folly and make
peace among themselves." But Vespasian made
answer, Ye perceive not what is best for us,
and are like not to true soldiers, but those who!
make display of their arms in the theatre; only
that your display is not without peril. For if
we march against their City forthwith then shall
we bring it to pass that they be reconciled to
each other, and will thus turn their strength
against us. But if we wait, then shall we have
the fewer to deal with. Nay, it is God who is
a better captain than I, for He giveth the Jews
into our hands without toil or peril. Wherefore
if we- look to our safety, it were best to leave
them to destroy themselves ; and if we look to
our honour, let us not suffer it to be said that we
have conquered by their strife rather than by
our valour."
To these words of Vespasian all the captains
gave assent. And indeed it was speedily mani-
fest that his counsel was wise ; for day by day


many deserted to the Romans, escaping from
the Zealots; though indeed it was not an easy
thing to escape, for the Zealots kept all the
ways; and if one was taken he was slain
forthwith as a deserter. Yet if a man had the
wherewithal to bribe the guards, he was loosed,
and they only were counted for traitors who had
nothing which they could give. And all the
streets were filled with dead bodies; nor was it
permitted for the kinsfolk of the slain to bury
them; but if anyone dared to do this he was
punished with death. And as for those that
languished in the prisons, so great was their
misery that they counted the dead to be happy
in comparison of themselves.
About this time there came news to Ves-
pasian of troubles in Gaul, where indeed Vindex
had revolted against Nero. And when he
heard these tidings he was the more desirous to
finish the war, judging that there would be
great confusion throughout the world, and peril
to the whole Empire ; and that if he could first
bring about peace in the East, there would
be the less fear for Italy. Wherefore during
the winter he set garrisons in such towns and


villages as he had subdued, building up again
much that had been destroyed. And when it
was spring he set out with the greater part
of his army; and so, having subdued other
regions, came to Jericho, which city he found
desolate, for the dwellers therein had fled to
the hill country of Judaea. Here he made a
camp, and others elsewhere, so that now it
was not possible for any that were in Jerusalem
to come out thence.
But when he was now preparing to assault
the City, there came news to him from the West,
which caused him to delay his purpose; for he
heard that Nero was dead (having reigned
thirteen years and eight days). And first he
waited till he should know who had been made
Emperor in Nero's stead. And when he
heard that Galba had been made, he would
take nothing in hand till he should have his com-
mands; but he sent Titus, his son, to salute
him, and hear from him what he should do.
With Titus went also King Agrippa. But
while they sailed by Cyprus they heard that
Galba was dead, and that Otho was now Em-
peror. Then indeed Agrippa went on to Rome,


but Titus sailed across to Caesarea to his father.
And Vespasian seeing that there was such
confusion in the Empire thought the time
unseasonable for making war, and so held his
But, meanwhile, there came to be great
troubles in Jerusalem, and these from a certain
Simon, the son of Gioras, who, when Ananus was
dead, conceived in his heart the hope of ruling
the City, and gathered together for this end an
army of wicked men. He built for himself a
fort at a certain village called Nain; and in
the valley of Pharos, where there are many
caves, he hid away the plunder which he had
After a while the Zealots, fearing the man and
his counsels, for they doubted not that he had
it in his mind to take the City, came out and
fought against him. But they fled before him,
and many were slain, and the others driven
back into the City. Yet he durst not as yet
attack the walls, but went back to his fort.
After this he made war on the Idumaeans, and
laid waste their country, and took many cities
therein; and afterwards, coming back, pitched


his camp without Jerusalem, surrounding it with
a wall; and coming out thence he slew such as
would have entered the City.
Meanwhile there arose great strife in the City
among those who followed John of Gischala.
For such of them as were Idumseans-and there
were yet many Idumseans in the City-conspired
against him, either being envious of his power,
or hating him for his cruelty. Then these men
and those who still clave to John fought to-
gether; but though they prevailed in the
battle, they doubted how this matter should
turn out, for .the followers of John were many
and desperate, and they feared lest they should
burn the City. Therefore that they might over-
throw John they purposed to bring Simon, the
son of Gioras, into the City. And this counsel
was performed, for they sent Matthias, the high
priest, and besought him, whom aforetimes they
had feared, to enter the City. And this he
did, making loud and boastful promises that he
would set the people free from their tyrants;
and the people answered with much shouting
and applause. Yet when he had taken it he
counted all alike for enemies, both them who


had sent for him, and them against whom
these would have had him fight.
This happened in the third year of the war.
And straightway Simon took possession of the
Upper City, and shut up John in the Temple,
which also he would fain have taken. But this:
he could not do, for John and his men had the
highest ground, and upon this they had built
four great towers, on which they set their en-
gines, with their bowmen and the slingers, so
that many of Simon's men were slain.
About this time there came tidings to Ves-
pasian that Vitellius was made emperor, for Otho
had been conquered by him. With this
Vespasian was very ill content; yet when he.
thought what changes and chances there are
in war, and how, fickle a thing is fortune, he
doubted what he should do. But the soldiers
were very urgent with him that he should con-
sent to be emperor, for they could not endure
that such an one as Vitellius should rule over
them. And to this after a while he con-
Then did he begin to consider with him-
self that he had been called to this dignity by'


the providence of God. Also he remembered
besides other signs, and indeed there had been
many, which had portended to him this sove-
reignty, and also the words which Josephus
had spoken to him; for while Nero was yet
alive he had dared to call him emperor. And
he was astonished that the man who had done
this should yet be held as a prisoner. Where-
fore, calling for Mucianus and his other cap-
tains and friends, he set forth to them what
great things Josephus had done, and how he
had hindered him when he was besieging
Jotapata, and after had prophesied to him,
and how having suspected before that these
prophecies were feigned, that the man might
save himself thereby, he now knew that they
were spoken by the inspiration of God.
" Surely," he said, it is a shameful thing
that he who prophesied to me my sovereignty,
and was the minister of the voice of God,
should yet be held in the estate of a captive
and a prisoner." Then he called for Josephus,
and commanded that he should be loosed
from his chains. But Titus, who stood by,
said, It is right, sire, that Josephus should be


set free, not from the chains only but from the
reproach also. And this shall be if the chains
be not loosed but cut asunder." For this is
the custom with such as have been wrong-
fully bound. To this Vespasian gave consent;
and one stepped forth and cut asunder his
chains with an axe. Thus did the words of his
prophecy bring him into good repute, and there-
after he was counted as one who might be
believed when he spake of things to.come.
After this Vespasian went to Antioch ; and
from Antioch, after a while, to Alexandria. And
being at Alexandria he heard good tidings from
Rome, how that Vitellius was dead, and that
all received him for emperor; and indeed
there came envoys from all parts of the world
to do him homage. Then he himself proposed
to go to Rome; but he sent Titus, his son, to take
the City of Jerusalem, and Titus, having sailed
down the Nile as far as Mende, led his army
thence to Caesarea, to which place he came
after a nine days' march; and there he pur-
posed to set his army in order for the siege.



MEANWHILE the strife in the City waxed yet
fiercer than before. For now Eleazar, the son
of Simon, who had at the first separated the
Zealots from the people, and taken possession
of the Temple, began to stir himself. He made
indeed as though he could not any longer en-
dure the doings of John of Gischala, for John
ceased not from shedding blood, but in sooth
he was not content to be under the rule of
another sect, but would have the dominion for
himself. Therefore he revolted from John, and
drew away not a few of the Zealots after him.
With these he seized the Inner Court of the Tem
pie. Of stores indeed they had sufficiency, for
the Temple was well furnished with them; nor
did they abstain from anything, as accounting it
sacred. But because they were few in number
they went not forth beyond the enclosure. As


for John of Gischala, he was superior to Ele-
azar in the number of his men, but inferior in
the advantage of his place; for he had the
enemy above, and so could not attack them
without peril, yet could not for wrath remain
quiet. Wherefore though he suffered more
damage than he caused to Eleazar and his
fellows, yet he slackened not at all, but assailed
them without ceasing; and the Temple was
defiled daily with bloodshed.
As for Simon, the son of Gioras, who pos-
sessed the whole of the Upper City, and a great
part of the Lower, he assailed John with the
more fury, as knowing that he was being
assailed by Eleazar also from above. But he
was lower than John, as John was lower than
Eleazar. As for John, he drove back them that
assailed him from below with no great trouble,
and them that were above he checked with his
engines of war and artillery, for he had these in
plenty, throwing stones and bullets and the like,
with which he slew not the enemy only, but
many also of them that came to do sacrifice in
the Temple. And indeed, for all their madness
and wickedness, the Zealots refused not entrance


to such as would offer sacrifice, admitting the
people of the land not without suspicion, but
strangers freely. These then would often be
slain in the midst of their sacrificing, for the
stones from the artillery reached to the altar
itself, so great was the force of them.
Now therefore there were three parties in the
City striving with each other. And in this
strife they destroyed, as though of set purpose,
all that had been stored in the City for the en-
during of a siege, and in other things also served
the cause of the enemy. For all the space that
was round about the Temple was wasted with
fire, being made ready, as it were, for the
ordering of an army therein; and all the wheat,
excepting a little only, which had otherwise
sufficed for many years, was destroyed.
And now began many, the old men especially
and the women, to pray for the coming of the
Romans, having indeed no other hope of de-
liverance. But as for escape, that was not
possible to any, for all the ways were diligently
guarded; and though the armed men strove
with each other, yet they agreed in this, that
they counted for enemies such as seemed to


them to desire peace with the Romans, and
slew them without mercy.
And now John of Gischala took of the con-
secrated timber that he might make thereof
engines of war. For before this the priests and
the people had thought to build the Temple
higher by twenty cubits; and for this end King
Agrippa had caused that there should be brought
down from Mount Lebanon great beams suitable
for the work, doing this with great cost of
money and with much labour. And these
beams were of marvellous size and beauty ; and
John, seeing that they were of suitable length
for his purpose, built of them towers on the west
side of the Temple, seeking thus to be on a
level with them that assailed him from above.
By the help of these towers he hoped that he
should prevail over his enemies; nor did he
heed at all that the timber was consecrated.
Yet did God show him that his labour was in
vain; for before that any man set foot in the
towers the Romans came upon the City. For by
this time Titus had set out from Caesarea; and
part of his army he had with him, and to
part he had given commandment that they


should meet him at Jerusalem. Three legions
he had under him with which his fatherVespasian
had laid waste the whole land of Judaea; he
had the twelfth also, which legion had suf-
fered defeat under Cestius, and having always
been renowned for courage, was now the
more eager to avenge itself upon the Jews.
The fifth legion also was coming to meet
him, marching by way of Emmaus, and the
tenth by way of Jericho. Over and above
these there were the auxiliaries of the kings, and
many others from the province of Syria. And
to fill the place of those whom Vespasian had
chosen from the legions and sent on to Rome,
there came two thousand men of the army of
Alexandria and three thousand of the garrison
that is on the river Euphrates. This was the
army of Titus, and he had for chief counsellor,
Tiberius Alexander, who aforetime had been
Governor of Egypt.
This was the order of march with the army
of Titus. First the auxiliaries from the kings;
after these the pioneers; then the baggage of
the captains with a guard; then Titus himself
with his spearmen. After these the artillery


and after them the legions, marching six men
abreast; then the slaves with the baggage; and
last of all the mercenaries. And Titus pitched
his camp in the valley of Thorns, which is
distant thirty furlongs from the City.
Then Titus took with him six hundred horse-
men, and went forth to spy out the strength
of the City. Also he had hopes that it might
submit itself to him without a siege. For he
had heard, as indeed was true, that the people
were ill-disposed to the rebels, and would fain
be at peace. And when he came near to the
City by the way that slopes down to the walls, he
saw no man, and the gates were shut. But
when he approached the tower that is called
Psephina, suddenly there burst forth from one
of the gates a great multitude of men, and brake
the array of the horsemen in twain, so that Titus
with a few others was cut off from the rest. And
indeed he could not go forward, for the ground
was broken with trenches, and divided with
hedges and such like even up to the wall; and to
go back was perilous, so great was the multitude
of the enemy. Nor did the horsemen know
how it was with him, but fled, thinking that he


was with them. But he cried out to his com-
panions that they should follow him, and drave
right at the enemy to break through them.
Then indeed might be seen the providence of
God; for though javelins without number were
cast at him, and he had neither helmet nor breast-
plate, for he had gone forth to spy and not to
fight, yet did none wound him; but he let drive
with his sword at them who stood near, and
overthrew others with his horse. Then the Jews
shouted aloud to see the courage of the man;
and though they ceased not to encourage each
other to assail him, yet for all that they gave
place when he came near. And the other
horsemen followed close behind him, seeing
that thus only could they be saved. And in
the end two only were taken and slain, but
Titus and the others came back safe to his.
company. Nevertheless, the Jews were much
lifted up in hope by this matter, and thought
that it was a fair beginningof great good fortune
to come.
That night came the fifth legion by way of
Emmaus. And the next day Titus went to a
certain place called Scopus (which is by interpre-


station the Outlook "), from which the City and
the Temple could easily be seen; and it lieth
on the north side of the City. Here he pitched
a camp for two legions at seven furlongs from
the City; and another for the fifth legion three
furlongs behind. After this came the tenth
legion by way of Jericho; to this it was com-
manded that it should pitch its camp on a hill
called the Mount of Olives. This is distant six
furlongs from the City, being divided from it
by a deep valley, which is called the Valley of
But when the three captains from within saw
what was done, that the Romans were preparing
to pitch three camps against the City, they began
to- take counsel among themselves. "Why,"
they said, "do we suffer the enemy to build
these great works and we sit still, and use not
our arms, as though these things concerned us
not ? We are bold enough against each other;
but from our strife the Romans will gain this
advantage, that they will take the City without
loss." Then joining their bands together, and
making a great shout, they rushed out upon the
tenth legion, the same that was making its


camp upon the Mount of Olives. Now the
soldiers were busy about the work of entrench-
ing, and had for the most part laid aside
their arms; for they thought not that the Jews
would dare to sally forth upon them, being also,
they supposed, too much at variance among
themselves for any such enterprise. Being
therefore surprised, some fled, and others seeking
to take up their arms were slain. And all the
while the number of the Jews waxed greater and
greater; and the Romans being used to fight
in set array, were much perplexed by the
suddenness and confusion of this onslaught.
Wherefore though they stood their ground for
a while, they were at the last driven out of the
camp; and they had been in great peril of perish-
ing altogether, but that Titus, seeing in what
strait they were, came with certain chosen men,
and fell upon the Jews, slaying many of them
and driving them back into the valley of Cedron.
And indeed as they were driven down the
further slope of the valley they suffered much
damage ; but being come to the nearer side they
gathered themselves together, and stood their
ground against the Romans, having the river-