• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Index
 Chapter I: Introduction
 Chapter II: The executive function...
 Chapter III: Recommended plan of...
 Chapter IV: Department of agriculture...
 Chapter V: Attorney general
 Chapter VI: Comptroller
 Chapter VII: Department of...
 Chapter VIII: Secretary of...
 Chapter IX: Treasurer
 Chapter X: Department of admin...
 Chapter XI: Department of planning...
 Chapter XII: Department of...
 Chapter XIII: Department of community...
 Chapter XIV: Department of health...
 Chapter XV: Department of...
 Chapter XVI: Department of natural...
 Chapter XVII: Department of regulation...
 Chapter XVIII: Department...
 Chapter XIX: Department of social...
 Chapter XX: Department of...
 Appendix






Group Title: Organization study of the Executive Branch of State government : (prepared for) Florida House of Representatives, Tallahassee, Florida.
Title: Organization study of the Executive branch of State Government
CITATION PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00050380/00001
 Material Information
Title: Organization study of the Executive branch of State Government
Physical Description: iii, 170 p. : illus. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Booz, Allen & Hamilton
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1969
 Subjects
Subject: Executive departments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Prepared for Florida House of Representatives, Tallahassee, Florida.
Funding: Digitized for the Florida House of Representatives, the Office of the Clerk.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00050380
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida House of Representatives. Office of the Clerk.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000835570
notis - AED1244
lccn - 72610735

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Title Page
        Title
    Letter of transmittal
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Index
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Chapter I: Introduction
        Page x
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 2a
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Chapter II: The executive function in the new state government
        Page 4a
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 8a
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 10a
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
    Chapter III: Recommended plan of organization for the executive branch of state government
        Page 12b
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 14a
        Page 14b
        Page 14c
        Page 14d
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Chapter IV: Department of agriculture and consumer affairs
        Page 36a
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 41a
    Chapter V: Attorney general
        Page 41b
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 43a
    Chapter VI: Comptroller
        Page 43b
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 46a
        Page 47
    Chapter VII: Department of education
        Page 47a
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 53a
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Chapter VIII: Secretary of state
        Page 59a
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 62a
    Chapter IX: Treasurer
        Page 62b
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 65
    Chapter X: Department of administration
        Page 65a
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 72a
    Chapter XI: Department of planning and budgeting
        Page 72b
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 77a
        Page 78
    Chapter XII: Department of commerce
        Page 78a
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 84a
    Chapter XIII: Department of community affairs
        Page 84b
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 94a
    Chapter XIV: Department of health and environmental control
        Page 94b
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 108a
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Chapter XV: Department of law enforcement
        Page 117a
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 125a
    Chapter XVI: Department of natural resources
        Page 125b
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 131a
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Chapter XVII: Department of regulation for banking, insurance, and utilities
        Page 133a
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 136a
        Page 137
    Chapter XVIII: Department of revenue
        Page 137a
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 141a
        Page 142
    Chapter XIX: Department of social and rehabilitative services
        Page 142a
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 158a
    Chapter XX: Department of transportation
        Page 158b
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171a
    Appendix
        Appendix 1
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text









FLORIDA STATE LIBRARY
TALLAHASSEE


F. WILLIAM SUMMERS
STATE LIBRARIAN











With the compliments of the Chief Clerk

Florida House of Representatives




Please

add to your collection or not, as you choose.



















Organization Study
of the
Executive Branch of State Government






FLORIDA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

Tallahassee, Florida

























This report is confidential and intended solely for
the information of the client to whom it is addressed.



March 1969










BOOZ ALLEN & HAMILTON inc.
NEW YORK WASHINGTON CLEVELAND DETROIT
Management Consultants CHCAGO DALLAS LOS ANGELES SAN
TORONTO LONDON DUSSELDORF

245 PARK AVENUE
NEW YORK 10017
697-1900
AREA CODE 212

March 25, 1969




The Honorable Frederick H. Schultz
Speaker of the House of Representatives
State of Florida
118 West Adams Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202



Dear Mr. Speaker:



We are pleased to present our study of the top-level organization of

the executive branch of Florida state government. This report recom-

mends a realignment of the executive branch of Florida state government

to fulfill more effectively the responsibilities of the state.



PLANNING STEPS



Our proposal letter of December 9, 1968, was used as the guide for

conduct of the study, and we have followed that guide in preparing our rec -

ommendations and supportive research materials.



The team which conducted the reorganization study included mem-

bers from several allied professional disciplines including health, educa-

9 tion, finance, and public administration. In addition, other specialists











from the firm participated in selected areas of the study where addi-

tional knowledge and specialized judgments were required.


During the eight-week period allotted to complete this study,

numerous interviews were held in Florida with members of the

executive branch, legislators, professional leaders, state employ-

ees, association representatives, and others.


MAJOR RECOMMENDATIONS


The most important recommendations presented in this report

should be given prompt attention so that the legislative branch may

meet the demanding reorganization deadline that has been set in the

newly adopted constitution. These key recommendations involve:


Creating 18 major departments of state govern-
ment which are responsible for all functions
assigned to the executive branch:

Governor

Department of agriculture and consumer
affairs

Attorney general

Comptroller

Department of education

Secretary of state

Treasurer

Department of administration



-ii-











Department of planning and budgeting

Department of commerce

Department of community affairs

Department of health and environmental
control

Department of law enforcement

Department of natural resources

Department of regulation for banking,
insurance, and utilities

Department of revenue

Department of social and rehabilitative
services

Department of transportation

Consolidating, eliminating, or transferring major
functions in the various agencies, as summarized
in the appendix following the final chapter of the
report

Assigning to the governor expanded executive
responsibility for management of state business

Limiting the management responsibility of cabinet
members to the departments to which they are
elected and limiting their involvement in numer-
ous boards and commissions outside their primary
responsibilities


REPORT ORGANIZATION


This report is organized into 20 chapters. Chapter I presents

the background of the study. Chapter II is a review of the proposed

plan for allocating executive authority in state government



-iii-










organization. Chapter III presents the recommended overall plan of

organization of the executive branch of state government and dis-

cusses the organizational relationships that should exist among the

18 departments. Chapters IV through XX present plans of organiza-

tion of the recommended departments along with a discussion of

their internal functions. The appendix to this report presents a

detailed summary of the recommended disposition of agency and

function within the proposed plan of organization.





We have been particularly impressed by the interest and coop-

eration shown by those directly concerned with the reorganization

and by other individuals in the state with whom we have had contact.

The enthusiasm of these people indicates that the state of Florida

has a firm foundation for continued growth and success in the opera-

tion of state government. We have been especially grateful for the

cooperation shown by Representative Richard A. Pettigrew and his

committee on governmental organization and efficiency along with

his staff led by Mr. William T. Phelps.


We are pleased to have had this opportunity to serve you in

this initial phase and look forward to assisting in your future plans

to implement these recommendations.

Very truly yours,


a/ a














TABLE OF CONTENTS



Page
Number


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

I. INTRODUCTION 1

II. THE EXECUTIVE FUNCTION IN THE NEW
STATE GOVERNMENT 5

III. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION
FOR THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF STATE
GOVERNMENT 13

IV. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND
CONSUMER AFFAIRS 37 ,

V. ATTORNEY GENERAL 42

VI. COMPTROLLER 44

VII. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 48

VIII. SECRETARY OF STATE 60

IX. TREASURER 63

X. DEPARTMENT OF ADMINISTRATION 66

XI. DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING AND BUDGETING 73

XII. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 79

XIII. DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY AFFAIRS 85

XIV. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL 95













TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)



Page
Number


XV. DEPARTMENT OF LAW ENFORCEMENT 118

XVI. DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES 126

XVII. DEPARTMENT OF REGULATION FOR
BANKING, INSURANCE, AND UTILITIES 134

XVIII. DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE 138

XIX. DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND
REHABILITATIVE SERVICES 143

XX. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 159

APPENDIX


















0















INDEX OF EXHIBITS



Following
Page


I. PRESENT ORGANIZATION OF THE EXECUTIVE
BRANCH OF STATE GOVERNMENT 1

II. ILLUSTRATIVE CONCEPT OF THE ALLOCATION
OF EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY IN FLORIDA 8

III. CONCEPTUAL PLAN OF ORGANIZATION WITH
EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY VESTED IN
INDIVIDUAL CABINET MEMBERS 10

IV. CONCEPTUAL PLAN OF ORGANIZATION UNDER
A SINGLE CHIEF EXECUTIVE 11

V. PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION
APPLIED TO THE REORGANIZATION OF THE
EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF FLORIDA STATE
GOVERNMENT 14

VI. PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION APPLIED TO
ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION PLANNING
FOR FLORIDA STATE GOVERNMENT 14

VII. PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE USE OF SINGLE
EXECUTIVES, BOARDS, COMMISSIONS, AND
COUNCILS IN STATE GOVERNMENT 14

VIII. PROPOSED PLAN OF OVERALL ORGANIZATION
OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF STATE
GOVERNMENT 16

IX. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND
CONSUMER AFFAIRS 41

X. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
THE ATTORNEY GENERAL 43














INDEX OF EXHIBITS (continued)



Following
Page


XI. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
THE COMPTROLLER 46

XII. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 53

XIII. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
THE SECRETARY OF STATE 62

XIV. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
THE TREASURER 64

XV. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
THE DEPARTMENT OF ADMINISTRATION 72

XVI. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
THE DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING AND
BUDGETING 77

XVII. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 83

XVIII. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
A DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY AFFAIRS 94

XIX. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
A DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL 107

XX. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
A DEPARTMENT OF LAW ENFORCEMENT 125

XXI. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
A DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES 131














INDEX OF EXHIBIT S (continued)



Following
Page


XXII. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
A DEPARTMENT OF REGULATION FOR
BANKING, INSURANCE, AND UTILITIES 136

XXIII. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
A DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE 141

XXIV. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
A DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND
REHABILITATIVE SERVICES 157

XXV. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR
A DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 170




















0
















I. INTRODUCTION






















*















I. INTRODUCTION



State governments throughout the United States generally lack

the capability of being fully effective in responding to the growing

and complex needs of their citizens. Archaic constitutions, unre-

sponsive and ineffective legislatures, outmoded organizational struc-

tures, and limitations on the authority of state executives are among

their principal deficiencies.


1. THE FLORIDA STATE GOVERNMENT HAS BEEN A PRIME
EXAMPLE OF OUTMODED ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE


The state of Florida governmental organization was typical of

the problem of structural obsolescence. Approximately 200 state

agencies, boards, commissions, and departments existed for con-

ducting the business of state government. Program fragmentation

and inefficient and ineffective duplication of services have resulted

from this proliferation of state agencies. The number of agencies

made the structure of state government incomprehensible and the

complex decision-making system by which their programs were

funded raised serious questions whether the system, because of

complexity, inadvertently was unresponsive to the public will and

need. Exhibit I, following this page, presents the plan of




-1-











organization of the executive branch of Florida state government as

of December 1968.


2. A NEW CONSTITUTION WAS ADOPTED IN 1968 AND
REQUIRES SIMPLIFICATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF
STATE GOVERNMENT THROUGH THE CONSOLIDATION
OF OVERLAPPING, DUPLICATED, AND OVERLY
FRAGMENTED FUNCTIONS AND AGENCIES


The structural inadequacy of Florida state government in light

of the needs of a growing and economically diversified state was

recognized by the public in 1968 when a new constitution was adopted.

This new constitution provides the vehicle by which the state is

embarking upon an ambitious and dramatic program for adapting the

structure and processes of the executive branch of the state govern-

ment to the needs of the future. As such, the constitution provides

a rare opportunity to build a new state structure which preserves the

strengths of the former organization, is free of its obsolescence,

and embraces pertinent and relevant concepts of modern governmen-

tal organization.


The new constitution provides for simplification of the current

structure of the state executive branch by requiring that the execu-

tive functions now dispersed among approximately 200 agencies be

allotted among not more than 25 departments, excluding several spe-

cifically exempted. In adopting a new constitution, the state seeks

to attain several objectives.



-2-










EXHIBIT I
FLORIDA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

PRESENT ORGANIZATION OF
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF STATE GOVERNMENT





...... i ......... I ............ ................ .I ...... .. I ........
i .II .... ........ I ...... I .
















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To adapt the plan of organization of state govern-
ment to the service and program requirements of
the future

To promote the economy, efficiency, and effective-
ness of governmental operations by eliminating
overlapping and duplicative functions and units

To provide state officials with the authority and
the mechanism they require to perform their
duties

To make the overall organization of state govern-
ment and the placement of authority and responsi-
bility within that government more comprehensible
to the public


3. THE NEW PLAN OF ORGANIZATION IS TO BE
IMPLEMENTED BY JULY 1, 1969


The state legislature has the formidable task of passing imple-

menting legislation for the reorganized state government by July 1,

1969. The passage of required legislation must be preceded by

appropriate hearings and due legislative consideration. These delib-

erations must be based upon the development of suitable proposals

for reorganization. Professional assistance has been sought in

developing proposals for reorganizing the state government.















-3-










This report presents a proposed plan of organization for the

executive branch of Florida state government. The report is

addressed to two basic questions:


(1) How may the programs, functions, and activities that

are now being performed by over 200 state agencies be

regrouped and consolidated into not more than

25 departments ?


(2) Where in the executive branch should executive author-

ity over the departments of state government be placed?























II. THE EXECUTIVE FUNCTION IN THE
NEW STATE GOVERNMENT














II. THE EXECUTIVE FUNCTION IN THE
NEW STATE GOVERNMENT




In a sound organization, the executive is responsible for:


Stating organizational purpose and policy

Defining objectives

Developing plans and programs

Setting operational goals

Mustering and allocating available resources

Supervising and coordinating their effective and
efficient use


The success of the executive in government generally can be meas-

ured in terms of the relevance of his policy to needs and the effect

of his programs on these needs.


By requiring the consolidation of state agencies into not more

than 25 departments, the new constitution is a significant step for-

ward in modernizing Florida state government. However, the new

constitution does not fully deal with the question of where responsi-

bility for leadership of the executive branch should be placed. Con-

sequently, the executive authority of the governor, the cabinet, and

the individual cabinet officials is not clear. In this chapter, the




-5-











question of executive leadership is analyzed and recommendations

are presented.


1. FLORIDA NOW HAS A MULTIPLE EXECUTIVE


Executive responsibility and authority for the state are not

vested in a single elected officer. The governor and a six-member

cabinet collectively exercise the responsibility and authority of the

chief executive. The cabinet is comprised of the secretary of state,

attorney general, comptroller, treasurer, commissioner of educa-

tion, and commissioner of agriculture. Each of these officials is

directly elected by popular vote to perform the duties of his office.

Each is responsible to the public for how well he has directed the

activities of his department.


As cabinet members, these officials constitute the member-

ship of a series of cabinet boards and commissions that have signifi-

cant policy, program, finance, and personnel decision-making

authority for a wide range of public services which fall beyond the

jurisdiction of their departments. The governor participates in

cabinet decisions and has one vote among the seven.












-6-











2. THE NEW CONSTITUTION DOES NOT PROVIDE A RATIONAL
SCHEME FOR ALLOCATING THE EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY
OF THE CABINET WITHIN STATE GOVERNMENT


The new constitution raises several issues because there is no

logical scheme for allocating executive authority in the executive

branch.


The concept and membership of the cabinet are
retained, but the authority that the group should
collectively exercise is not defined.

The governor is specifically designated the
"supreme executive power, but the implications
of this broad designation are not stated and his
executive authority is not defined.

The individual cabinet members are clearly
assigned executive authority within their depart-
ments, but their authority beyond their depart-
ments is not established.


This situation poses the question of who will have authority in the

executive branch of Florida state government.


3. THREE ALTERNATIVES FOR ALLOCATING EXECUTIVE
AUTHORITY WERE CONSIDERED


There are basically three alternatives for allocating executive

authority in the executive branch.


Retain the current authority of the cabinet.

Divide executive authority among individual
cabinet members.

Place executive authority in a single chief
executive.
-7-











The appropriateness of these three alternatives is discussed in sub-

sequent sections of this chapter.


4. RETENTION OF THE AUTHORITY OF THE CABINET IS NOT
SUITABLE FOR PROVIDING LEADERSHIP TO THE
EXECUTIVE BRANCH


Retention of the current authority exercised by the governor

and cabinet is an alternative that has been analyzed and evaluated.

Under this system:


Seven officials, the cabinet members and the gov-
ernor, are elected to specific positions with each
having defined duties in his functional areas.

These officials administer the activities of their
departments.

These officials constitute the executive in state
government and as a group exercise policy, pro-
gram, and management decision-making authority
in areas beyond the departments they head.


This concept is presented in Exhibit II, following this page.


Retention of the previous authority of the cabinet in the new

state government is advocated by some.


The system is considered to have functioned in the
past and to be capable of operating in the future.

The perspective provided by seven knowledgeable
and experienced state officials on problems of
state government is thought to be capable of lead-
ing to more appropriate and publicly sensitive
decisions than those made by one man.



-8-










EXHIBIT II
FLORIDA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

ILLUSTRATIVE CONCEPT OF THE ALLOCATION OF
EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY IN FLORIDA



ELECTORATE





ATTORNEY SECRETARY COMMISSIONER COMMISSIONER
GENERAL S OF OF GOVERNOR TREASURER COMPTROLLER OF







CABINET






BOARDS











OPERATING
DEPARTMENTS
)11 II II II











The public will is thought to be better represented
by having seven publicly elected officials decide
questions of public concern.


The arguments above are not sufficient justification for reten-

tion of the previous authority of the cabinet in the new plan of organi-

zation for the state.


The system is incomprehensible to the public.

The cabinet system permits the exercise of legis-
lative authority by cabinet officials in critical
finance and program areas without adequate legis-
lative review.

Cabinet members exercise decision-making
authority in program and functional areas where
they are not publicly accountable.

The group is not collectively responsible for its
decisions.

Advocates of certain programs are permitted to
set priorities in the allocation of resources for
competing programs.

The status of program and functional managers
within state government is depressed because of
the variety of overlapping boards and support staff
which exist over operating units.


These limitations support the conclusion that the previous authority

of the cabinet should not be retained in the new plan of organization.











-9-











5. DIVIDING EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY AMONG INDIVIDUAL
CABINET MEMBERS IS NOT AN APPROPRIATE SYSTEM
FOR PROVIDING LEADERSHIP TO THE EXECUTIVE
BRANCH


A second alternative considered was dividing executive author-

ity among individual cabinet members. Under this concept:


The officials are elected to specific positions.

A group of functions or departments is assigned to
each official.

Each official is responsible for the management of
the programs and activities of the departments
reporting to him.

The officials sit as a group for overall direction
and coordination of statewide matters.


This organizational concept is presented in Exhibit III, following

this page.


There are several limitations inherent in this concept.


Overall coordination and direction are difficult to
achieve among equals.

Accountability for the overall performance of gov-
ernment cannot be established.

Logical groupings of departments performing
diverse functions can be virtually impossible.


Consequently, this kind of approach to assigning executive authority

in state government is not appropriate and it is recommended that it

not be given serious consideration.


-10-












EXHIBIT III
FLORIDA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

CONCEPTUAL PLAN OF ORGANIZATION WITH EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY VESTED IN
INDIVIDUAL CABINET MEMBERS









ELECTORATE





















OPERATING
DEPARTMENTS









0










6. PLACEMENT OF EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY IN A SINGLE
CHIEF EXECUTIVE IS THE MOST SUITABLE SYSTEM FOR
PROVIDING LEADERSHIP TO THE NEW STATE
GOVERNMENT


The third alternative considered was placing executive author-

ity in a single chief executive, the governor. The governor per-

forms the executive function and is responsible to the public for the

policies, programs, and achievements of his administration. This

concept is presented in Exhibit IV, following this page.


With some modifications, this system is most suitable for pro-

viding leadership to the new state government.


The concept is comprehensible to the public and
may already exist in the public mind.

Responsibility for policy development, programs,
and management is clearly fixed.

Responsibility is commensurate with authority.


The consolidation of substantial authority in a single office

may be resisted because of the potential arbitrary use of that author-

ity. Adequate safeguards are available to the legislature to protect

against this possibility.


Legislative approval is required for proposed pol-
icy, legislation, etc.

Legislative approval of proposed funding is
necessary.




-11-











The availability of the legislative audit staff pro-
vides a resource for objective evaluation of the
performance of the administration.

New budgetary systems such as PPBS are making
executive budgets more comprehensible to the
legislature and permit a review of proposed
expenditures on the basis of their policy and pro-
gram implications.





In summary, the multiple executive system in Florida is

neither retained nor abolished by the new constitution. Evaluation

of the retention of the Florida cabinet system or other alternatives

supports the conclusions that the cabinet system should not be

retained and that strengthening the office of governor provides the

most promising system for providing effective executive leadership

to state government.
























-12-










EXHIBIT IV
FLORIDA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
CONCEPTUAL PLAN OF ORGANIZATION UNDER A SINGLE
CHIEF EXECUTIVE






ELECTORATE

CHIEF
EXECUTIVE





1 I- I .OPERATING
l i riI L-_I__ I 1- I I DEPARTMENTS







__ I II II I .- I I I I I
[ n--- r*- -"- -'- -i- -I- -I- --


*L

















III. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR THE
EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF STATE GOVERNMENT
























*














III. RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR THE
EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF STATE GOVERNMENT



The limitations of the plan of organization of Florida state gov-

ernment prior to the new constitution helped, in part, to lead to the

adoption of the new constitution. Apart from the problem of execu-

tive leadership and authority discussed in the previous chapter, the

plan of organization of the executive branch of the state was not

capable of functioning effectively. The state government had

approximately 200 departments and agencies, not all of which were

operational. This proliferation fragmented program planning and

operations as well as confused authority and responsibility within

the organization. The plan of organization was so confusing that the

public could not be assured that the programs being conducted were

necessary or were being implemented effectively.


The overall objectives of the reorganization of state govern-

ment in this report are:


To reduce the number of directly elected officials

To reduce the number of independent boards and
commissions

To consolidate the executive authority of the state
in the office of the governor




-13-











To provide the office of the governor with the
resources and mechanisms required to perform
in that capacity


In developing the proposed plan of organization of state gov-

ernment, specific objectives for Florida were established in the

interest of more effective and efficient government. These objec-

tives cover:


Overall organization planning

Overall administrative organization planning

The use of single and multiple executives to head
major units of state government


Exhibits V, VI, and VII, following this page, present the specific

objectives that guided the reorganization of the executive branch of

Florida state government.


1. THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH SHOULD CONSIST OF 18 UNITS


The proposed plan of organization for the executive branch:


Vests major responsibility for directing the execu-
tive branch in the governor

Retains the six elected cabinet officers

Provides for 18 major units of government that
are organized on the.basis of program, purpose,
or function

Increases significantly the responsibility of the
professional manager/administrator in the admin-
istration of state government


-14-








EXHIBIT V

Florida House of Representatives

PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION
APPLIED TO THE REORGANIZATION OF THE
EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF FLORIDA STATE GOVERNMENT








Organization planning in this study has followed modern basic principles of governmental
organization. These principles are:

The plan of organization should have a hierarchy with lines of authority running
both upward and downward through several levels with a broad functional base at
the bottom and a single executive at the top.

Policy leadership responsibility and accountability should be placed in the state's
chief executive. The governor should have authority commensurate with his
constitutional responsibility as the "supreme executive power" of the state.

Administrative responsibility and authority should be clearly defined in each unit
of the organization.

Every unit and person in the organization should be answerable ultimately to its
chief executive, the governor.

Overlapping jurisdictions and duplication of services, personnel, and equipment
should be eliminated.

Provision should be made for staff services to facilitate overall management of
the organization and to promote coordination of its component divisions.

The plan of organization should be flexible to permit response to changing needs
of the state.








EXHIBIT VI

Florida House of Representatives

PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION APPLIED TO
ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION PLANNING
FOR FLORIDA STATE GOVERNMENT








In drawing up the internal plans of organization of departments:

Functions should be grouped on a logical basis.

Working relationships within and among departments should be defined.

Activities immediately below the department executive should be grouped into
divisions on the basis of major programs, functions, or purposes.

The number of divisions within departments should be sufficiently small to per-
mit the executive to have an effective span of control, yet be large enough to
embrace all major programs and functions of the organization.

Each division should be self-contained insofar as this requirement does not inter-
fere with the necessity for integration and coordination.








EXHIBIT VII (1)

Florida House of Representatives

PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE USE OF
SINGLE EXECUTIVES, BOARDS,
COMMISSIONS, AND COUNCILS IN
STATE GOVERNMENT




1. SINGLE EXECUTIVES TO HEAD DEPARTMENTS SHOULD BE USED WHERE:


Major policy and objectives have been established.

Functions largely consist of administering policy within established guidelines.

Standards and guidelines have been well developed and established by enabling
legislation and/or actions of the governor, where appropriate.

Identification of responsibility and accountability for program decisions is of
major importance.

No compelling reason exists for some other type of agency.


2. BOARDS OR COMMISSIONS ARE GENERALLY APPROPRIATE FOR HEADING DEPARTMENTS
WHERE:


Policy formulation is a primary activity as opposed to administration.

Wide discretionary or controlling powers affect important private interests of
persons or property.

There is need for decision making in highly controversial areas.

Public confidence can be enhanced through group action compared to individual
decision making.

Conflicting interests need to be resolved.

It is important to identify the quasi-judicial powers within the executive branch.

It is imperative that matters be subject to review or regulation by a group con-
cerned with judicial or legal rather than executive considerations.

There is demonstrated need or desirability for freedom in rule making.







EXHIBIT VII (2)











3. EX-OFFICIO BOARDS MAY BE USED WHERE:


Exchange of diverse points of view and understanding between several agencies
of government are desired.

Full-time executive supervision is not required to head certain public agencies.

Opportunities exist to reduce administrative costs by avoiding the need for
additional full-time officials.


4. ADVISORY BOARDS MAY BE USED:


To provide interest groups having special knowledge or interest in public programs
an opportunity to be heard.

To provide a cross section of opinions and views.

To acquire special skills and knowledge needed for developing new approaches
and programs.






















*











S The major units of state government should be designated as

"departments. Major sub-units of departments generally should be

designated as "divisions. In special circumstances, where techni-

cal advisory services are being provided or where operational or

managerial responsibilities are not heavy, "offices" can be sub-

units of a department. The use of this term would depend upon an

analysis of the services performed. Such analysis was not permit-

ted within the time constraints of this study. Consequently, "divi-

sion" was universally applied in this report. The use of "division"

does not preclude subsequent use of the term "office" where

appropriate.


The major units of the executive branch should be:


Governor

Department of agriculture and consumer affairs

Attorney general

Comptroller

Department of education

Secretary of state

Treasurer

Department of administration

Department of planning and budgeting

Department of commerce

Department of community affairs


-15-











Department of health and environmental control

Department of law enforcement

Department of natural resources

Department of regulation for banking, insurance,
and utilities

Department of revenue

Department of social and rehabilitative services

Department of transportation


Exhibit VIII, following this page, presents the proposed plan of

overall organization of the executive branch of state government.


2. GOVERNOR


As noted in Chapter II, the governor should be the state's

chief executive and have primary responsibility for directing the

business of state government. All major units of state government,

except those currently headed by cabinet officers, should report

directly to him.


The governor should have the authority to appoint the heads of

departments reporting directly to him. These appointments should

be confirmed by the senate. However, the governor should have the

authority to remove department heads from office without securing

senate approval.





-16-






















EXHIBIT VIII


FLORIDA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES



PROPOSED PLAN OF OVERALL ORGANIZATION OF THE

EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF STATE GOVERNMENT





ELECTORATE





GOVERNOR

LT GOVERNOR

'MILITARY AFFARs.
*MEDIATION AND
CONCILIATION








CO ISSINEROF COMMISSIONER OF BOARD SECRETARY A DTAMIlSTRATION
COMMIGRSSIONER OF ATTORNEY GENERAL COMPTROLLER EDUCATION OF OF TREASURER C GOVERNOR,
EDUCATION STATE COMPTROLLER,
TREASURER
DIVISIONS VISIONS IVIONS DIVISIONS BOND ISSUES
DIVISUoNS DIvISIAOS
*ADMINISTRATIVE LAW ACCOUNINC LEGAL AFFAIRS *RECEIPTS & NVE5TMENTS
CVII LLAW *ADmINISTrATIV E A RIVE& HISTORY DIBUEMENT
NCRIIINAL LA SER CES ELECTIONS FINANCIAL OPERATIONS
TAXES
LANDS







DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE BOARD OF DEPARTMENT
AND CONSUMER PARDONS OF
AFFAIRS EDUCATION
DIVISIONS DIVISIONS
ANIMAL INDUSTRY *BOARD OF REGENTS
CHEMISTRY EDUCATIONAL
*FRUIT L VEGETABLE SERVICES
INSPECTION COMMUNITYY JUNIOR
*INSPECTION COLLEGES
*MARKETING
*PLANT INDUSTRY
*CONSUMER PROTECTION
ADMINISTRATIVE
SERVICES

DEPDEPARTMENT OF RTMENT OF
PLANNING AND
ADMINISTRATION RDETING
SECRETARY SECRETARY
DIVISIONS DIVISIONS
PERSONNEL *PLANNING & PROGRAMMING
*PURCHASING BUDGETING
*DATA PROCESSING *MANAGEMENT
FACILITIES 5MGOT. IMPROVEMENT
"* TRANSPORTATION
"*COMMUNICATIONS



/ I I I II I I I T
"D |TR REGU TO FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEPDEPARTMENT OFOT T
COMMERCE AFFAIRS ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT RESOURCES BANKING, INSURANCE REVENUE REHABILITATIVE TRANSPORTATION
CONRO UTI ITSER E
SECRETARY SECRETARY BOARDOFEALTH I SECRETARY SER CRETARY HB O RECRS I SECRETARY SECRETARY
DIYISIOINS* D IV DIVISII DIV1MSm DIVISIONS DIS| S IVIIOSION DIVISO DvDI SIONS
REGULATION OF *FEDERAL-STATE AND ENVIRONMENTALL ENGINEERIG INTELLIGENCE & CONSERVATION RANKNING *ASSESSMENT FAMILYT SERVICES TRANSPORTATION
OCCUPATIONS AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE PREVENTIVE MEDICAL SERVICES INVESTIGATION FORESTRY INSURANCE AUDIT *MENTAL HEALTH PLANNING AND
PROFESS IOS RESEARCH N& COMMUNICABLE TECHNICAL SERVICES *WATER RESOURCES *PUBLIC UTILITIES C CAPITAL STOCK TAXES AND RETARDATION PRO GRA
BUSINESS REGULATION DEVELOPMENT DISEASE CONTROL *RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT *.ECREATION AND PARKS NCATOR FUEL T TAES CORRECTION DEVELOPMENT
*COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT *ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY *LABORATORIES ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES MGAME & FRESH S *OU TAXES HE LTR ND MEDICAL HIGNAY SAFETY
*EMPLOYMENT SERVICES *EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS HEALTH FACILITIES PLANNING WATER FISH COMMISSION SERVICES ROAD OPERATIONS
COMMUNITY SERVICES AND CONSTRUCTION SALES TIEINISTTION TATER AARll.
*TRAINING AND PROFESSIONAL LOCAL HEALTH SERVICES EAD EICSTRATIOE TRANSPOl TTTION SYSTEMS
DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES SERVICES SE AVICEISAT CO TIO
SMASS TRANSIT OPERATIONS
*ADMlNISTRATIVE SERVICES











3. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER
AFFAIRS


The department of agriculture should remain intact. Because

responsibility for many consumer protection activities is also

assigned to the department, it is recommended that the name of the

department be changed to "department of agriculture and consumer

affairs. "


The department should be headed by the commissioner of

agriculture and should consist of eight divisions:


S Administrative services
Animal industry
Chemistry
Fruit and vegetable inspection
Inspection
Marketing
Plant industry
Consumer protection


The primary transfer affecting this department is the removal

of pest control and sanitary inspection of food processing plants and

dairies to the division of environmental engineering of the depart-

ment of health and environmental control.


4. ATTORNEY GENERAL


The duties of the office of the attorney general should remain

intact. The attorney general should continue to fulfill his constitu-

tional duty of serving as the state's chief legal officer. The major


-17-











difference in his duties would be his removal from many of the

ex-officio boards on which he serves as a cabinet member.


5. COMPTROLLER


The comptroller is the chief fiscal officer of the state accord-

ing to the constitution. The separation of the chief fiscal officer

from the other administrative processes of government that report

to the chief executive creates problems in organization. Specifically,

if fiscal policy development and accounting systems design responsi-

bilities of a chief fiscal officer were assigned to the comptroller,

they might have to be duplicated elsewhere in the executive branch

to satisfy the governor's management requirements.


Given this problem, the comptroller in the proposed organiza-

tion is not assigned responsibility for fiscal policy or accounting sys-

tems design. Two divisions should be organized for the comptroller:


An accounting division to operate the accounting
system and to conduct the primary pre-audit
function

An administrative services division













-18-











Several statutory functions performed by, but not directly

related to, the constitutional office of comptroller should be trans-

ferred to other departments. These include the transfer of:


Regulation and supervision of banks and other
financial institutions to the department of regula-
tion for banking, insurance, and utilities

Revenue collection to the department of revenue

Administration of abandoned property to the
department of commerce and the department of
regulation for banking, insurance, and utilities

Regulation of retail installment sales including
motor vehicles to the department of commerce

Supervision of financial operation of local govern-
ments to the department of community affairs and
the department of revenue

Supervision and administration of retirement and
pension systems to the department of
administration


6. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


A constitutionally authorized and elected state board of educa-

tion (all cabinet members) and the commissioner of education now

have responsibility for the general supervision of the public schools.

This report proposes recommendations within the present constitu-

tional framework. However, we urge that at some future date the

state of Florida correct two basic problems in organizational con-

cept: (1) change the constitution to require a different method of




-19-











selection for the state board of education and (2) provide for appoint-

ment rather than election of the commissioner of education.


Three divisions are proposed:


University division headed by the board of regents

Division of elementary and secondary school serv-
ices under an assistant commissioner of education

Division of community junior colleges under an
assistant commissioner of education


The functions of the present division of vocational rehabilita-

tion should be transferred to the new department of social and

rehabilitative services and the present public school board and

junior college board should be eliminated.


The following functions should be transferred to the depart-

ment of education:


Textbook purchasing board

Board of vocational education

Board of private education

Industry services advisory board

Junior college board

Library and historical commission

Professional practice commission

Student scholarships and loan commission on
education


-20-











7. SECRETARY OF STATE


The primary constitutional function of the secretary of state is

the keeping of official records of the acts of the legislative and exec-

utive branches. This function should remain with the secretary of

state. Overseeing statewide elections and issuing commissions of

notary public should also remain. Functions of the present Florida

board of archives and history should become a part of the secretary

of state.


Functions that should be transferred include:


Custodial activities of the capitol and grounds and
other state office buildings to the department of
administration

Registration of charitable solicitations, licensing
of private employment and detective agencies, and
issuance of corporate charters to the division of
business regulation in the department of commerce


8. TREASURER


The treasurer is retained in the proposed plan of organization.

However, several major functional assignments that are not well

related to the constitutional assignment of maintenance of state funds

and securities and disbursement of state funds should be removed

from the treasurer.






-21-











The functions administered by the present state
insurance commissioner should be transferred to
the department of regulation for banking, insur-
ance, and utilities.

The office of state fire marshal should become a
part of the division of insurance regulation of the
department of regulation for banking, insurance,
and utilities. However, duties related to arson
investigations should be transferred, along with
any technical positions, to the department of law
enforcement.

Administration of retirement and pension funds
should become a responsibility of the division of
personnel in the new department of administration.

Administration of the Financial Responsibility
Law should be transferred to the new highway
safety division of the department of transportation.


9. DEPARTMENT OF ADMINISTRATION


Responsibility for providing administrative services is now

scattered among departments whose executives are directly respon-

sible to boards having cabinet membership, such as personnel, pur-

chasing, and data processing management. The maintenance,

construction, and general upkeep of state capital property and build-

ings are handled by divisions responsible ultimately to the present

board of commissioners of state institutions or to the agency using

the building. The consolidation of these services in a department of

administration is recommended.


The new department should be directed by a secretary

appointed by the governor. The direct relationship of administrative


-22-











services to major state programs requires that these supporting

services take their operating guidelines from the overall state policy

direction of the governor.


The principal divisions proposed for this department include:


Personnel
Purchasing
S Data processing
S Facilities management
Transportation
Communications


Seventeen separate boards, commissions, agencies, and activ-

ities are proposed for transfer to and consolidation with the new

department of administration. The proposed transfers include relo-

cating the administration of the several state, county, and city

retirement and pension funds in the division of personnel and trans-

ferring the management of public buildings from separate and inde-

pendent divisions to the division of facilities management.


10. DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING AND BUDGETING


The growing and diverse service demands upon state and other

governments are caused by increasing public needs and a changing

definition of the role of government. Unfortunately, resources have

not become available at the rate service demands have grown. Con-

sequently, greater emphasis is required upon systems by which gov-

ernments identify needs, develop programs, and then allocate


-23-











resources among them. During this process, the relationship

between the results attained and the costs generated is important,

since maximum benefits are desired at minimum costs. Evaluation

of competing programs and alternative approaches within a program

is based, in part, on these cost-benefit relationships.


The ability of the state government to plan programs and allo-

cate resources among these in an appropriate manner needs to be

strengthened. It is recommended that the planning and budgeting

function in the state continue to be recognized as a critical element

of the organization and that it be given separate departmental status.

This requires that the state planning director's office be merged

with the state planning and budgeting director's office and that the

planning and budgeting commission be eliminated.


The new department of planning and budgeting should consist

of three divisions:


The division of planning and programming should
include the functional responsibilities of the cur-
rent planning staff.

The division of budgeting should carry out the func-
tional responsibilities of the current budgeting
staff.










-24-











S. The division of management improvement should
assume responsibility for management analysis
and improvement efforts. This division should be
responsible for internal audits and for review of
the organizational structure of the executive
branch to improve effectiveness, efficiency, and
economy of operation.


11. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE


The greatest consolidation of agencies would occur in the pro-

posed creation of a department of commerce. This new department

would consolidate 55 state agencies primarily concerned with regu-

lation, promotion, and control of commerce and labor.


The major divisions of the department of commerce should

include:


Regulation of occupations and professions
S Business regulations
S Employment services
Commercial development


12. DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY AFFAIRS


The creation of an important new department of community

affairs will permit the consolidation of certain state services affect-

ing local governments and will give recognition to the fact that local

government and urban problems have become increasingly important.


The purpose of the department should be service. The depart-

ment will not promote the best interest of the state nor be acceptable


-25-










locally if it becomes another level of government for local officials

to deal with in providing better local programs. The state should be

a partner in the solution of urban problems, and cooperation and

direct state financial support to local government should be

emphasized.


The new department should adopt an advocacy role on behalf of

local governments in their relations with the state and the federal

government. The department should provide advice to the governor

on problems of local government; coordinate and facilitate federal,

state, and local grant programs; coordinate the overall effort of all

state agencies concerned with urban programs; supply financial,

technical, and advisory assistance to local governments; conduct

research to correct problems facing local governments; and pro-

mote cooperative training and personnel programs for all local

offices.


The department should be headed by a secretary appointed by

the governor. A 15-member advisory committee representing city

and county officials and also distinguished citizens interested and

involved in community problems is proposed to provide guidance and

advice to the secretary. An interdepartmental committee including

membership of all state departments having programs with impact

upon local government should be established to provide maximum

program coordination.


-26-











The department should be organized into six divisions:


Federal-state-local assistance
Research and development
Economic opportunity
'Emergency preparedness
Community services
Training and professional development


This department would consolidate the existing state programs

of economic opportunity; housing and urban renewal; local distribu-

tion of federal money for highway safety and law enforcement pro-

grams in accordance with state comprehensive plans; civil defense,

civil defense council, and advisory board; comptroller's function of

supervising the financial operations of local government; state fire

college; law enforcement training program; and local planning

assistance programs.


13. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL
CONTROL


Public health functions are presently assigned to a large num-

ber of agencies of Florida state government. Several major changes

are recommended to develop a department with responsibility for

conducting programs and activities to protect and ensure the public

health. The principal changes recommended include transferring to

the new department the following functions.






-27-











Administration of air and water pollution programs

Regulation of pesticide industry

Administration of sanitary control of food products
and milk and milk products

Administration of sanitary inspection programs
such as those for public lodging and food service
establishments

Hospitalization and treatment program for tuber-
culosis patients

Administration of the hospital and health facility
construction program


Several actions are proposed in the administration of the new

department. First, the name of the new department is recommended

to reflect a new departmental emphasis on the expanded role of

environmental health. Second, the state board of health should con-

tinue to be appointed by the governor. Broader membership on the

board than currently exists is proposed. Third, the executive direc-

tor of the department should serve at the discretion of the board.


The following divisions for the internal organization of the

department are proposed:


Environmental engineering
Preventive medical services
Communicable disease control
S Laboratories
S Health facilities planning and construction
S Local health services
Administrative services




-28-










14. DEPARTMENT OF LAW ENFORCEMENT


Transforming the existing bureau of law enforcement into a

department is recommended for the purpose of consolidating similar

law enforcement investigative activities of other agencies into one

operating department. Better coordination of investigation,

improved deployment of skilled professional investigators, and more

efficient use of technical services and laboratory facilities are the

objectives of the proposed consolidation.


Several departments and agencies whose responsibilities gen-

erally are multijurisdictional and which duplicate the basic functions

of the bureau of law enforcement (such as investigating violations of

criminal law, collecting intelligence data, and conducting laboratory

examinations) would benefit from joint use of professional talent and

facilities including:


State fire marshal--arson investigation

State beverage department--law enforcement and
vice investigation

Florida hotel and restaurant commission--inves-
tigation of establishments involved in vice and
corrupt practices

Department of motor vehicles--auto theft
investigation







-29-










The department of law enforcement should be headed by an

experienced, professionally trained secretary appointed by the gov-

ernor. An advisory committee should be appointed by the governor

to guide and advise the secretary with respect to problems of law

enforcement. This committee should also be responsible for the

transferred activities of the police standards council and should

assist in the development of the statewide comprehensive law

enforcement program.


The internal operations of the department should include the

following divisions:


S Administrative services
S Intelligence and investigation
Technical services
Research and development


The statewide training activity currently included within the

bureau of law enforcement is recommended for transfer to the train-

ing and professional development division of the department of com-

munity affairs in order to assure the best professional training

program for all local government offices. Instructors for these

programs would continue to be drawn from the department of law

enforcement as well as from other appropriate state agencies.









-30-











15. DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


A department of natural resources should be established to

consolidate the functions of 20 separate agencies now operating under

a variety of administrative structures. The major agencies whose

functions should be merged are the board of conservation, board of

forestry, game and fresh water fish commission, board of parks and

historical memorials, soil and water conservation board, and trus-

tees of the internal improvement fund.


The rapidly growing population of the state and the direct effect

this has upon the demand for and use of Florida's natural resources

require that definitive and coordinated programs be planned and effec-

tively carried out to provide for future requirements.


This new department should be under the direction of a secre-

tary appointed by the governor. The department should consist of the

following five divisions, each of which would be administered by a

director and would include an advisory council:


Division of conservation
Division of forestry
Division of water resources
Division of recreation and parks
Game and fresh water fish commission








-31-











16. DEPARTMENT OF REGULATION FOR BANKING,
INSURANCE, AND UTILITIES


These three major regulatory agencies have been placed

together because of their impact on the public and the public's con-

sequent interest in them. In these fields, the sensitivity and impact

of decision making require a continuing legislative and quasi-

judicial role.


Responsibility for these functions should not be placed in the

hands of one person because of the importance of collective thinking

to the development of policy in these sensitive areas and the assur-

ance of fair and impartial treatment to the industries involved and

to the public. A nine-member board of directors appointed by the

governor with senate confirmation should be established to head the

department.


The board of directors should appoint an executive director to

provide administrative guidance to the department. Three divisions

are proposed:


S Banking
Insurance
Utilities


Each division should be headed by an administrator reporting to the

executive director.




-32-











17. DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE


The revenue commission should be abolished and reconstituted

as the department of revenue. The new department should adminis-

ter state taxes such as:


S Gross receipts
S Motor fuel
S Gasoline and like products
S Motor fuels other than gasoline
S Sales, user, and certain other transactions
S Capital stock


In addition, the new department should assume responsibility

for administering excise taxes such as those on liquor, beer, wine,

alcoholic products, and cigarettes from the beverage commission

as well as responsibility for estate and gross receipts taxes from

the comptroller. The railroad assessment board should be abolished

and the department of revenue should assume responsibility for fixing

assessment values on railroads. Local government assessment

standards and taxes on intangibles should be transferred to the

department of revenue from the comptroller.


The new department should be headed by a secretary appointed

by the governor. The following seven divisions should be established

in the department at this time.


Administrative services
Assessments
S The audit


-33-











S Capital stock taxes
S Motor fuel taxes
S Use taxes
S Sales taxes


18. DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES


Social welfare programs and services in the state have lacked

a positive and unified approach to social rehabilitation. The large

number of agencies separately focusing on social welfare has

resulted in fragmented and uncoordinated services to the deprived.


A new department of social and rehabilitative services should

be established as the vehicle for this. A major goal of reorganiza-

tion should be consolidation. The proposed department embodies a

new rehabilitative approach to social welfare with emphasis upon

abandonment of the public welfare label. Fourteen existing agencies

should be transferred to the new department.


The new department should be headed by a secretary appointed

by the governor. Two top-level boards should serve in an advisory

capacity to the secretary. The present welfare board should be

designated as a social service advisory board to provide representa-

tive opinion of a cross section of the public being served. A technical

advisory board consisting of division heads and heads of selected spe-

cial units should be established to assist in developing internal poli-

cies and program coordination.


-34-










The divisions of the proposed department include:


S Administrative services
Family services
Mental health and retardation
S Correction
S Health and medical services administration
S Records administration


19. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION


Transportation activities of the state are not consolidated.

Several agencies are involved in highway operations and several are

engaged in highway safety programs. Overall planning is the respon-

sibility of the present transportation commission, but this activity is

not being conducted.


The goal of reorganization in transportation should be the con-

solidation of planning and operations within a single unit with author-

ity for overall development and implementation of a state

transportation plan. This should be accomplished by the establish-

ment of a new department of transportation.


The new department should be headed by a secretary appointed

by the governor. A transportation advisory board comprised of 12 to

15 members representing various geographic and transportation

interests should be established to replace the state road board and

0 transportation commission.




-35-










Several divisions should be created:


Administrative services

Transportation planning and program development

Highway safety

Road operations

Mass transit operations (when and if the state
assumes an operational responsibility for mass
transit systems)

Water and air transportation systems coordination





In summary, the proposed reorganization of state government

provides that the functions of the state being performed by over 200

state agencies be allotted among 18 units of government. It is fur-

ther proposed that 11 of these departments report to the governor

and that his role as the "supreme executive power" as stated in the

constitution be implemented in full.


Reorganization provides to the state a rare opportunity for

more responsive and efficient government. A continued commitment

to these objectives by the state will help to capture this opportunity.










-36-

















IV. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER AFFAIRS
























*














IV. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER AFFAIRS



At present, agricultural matters are the responsibility of the

department of agriculture. There are nine divisions within the

department which report directly to the elected commissioner:


Administration
Animal industry
Chemistry
Dairy industry
Fruit and vegetable inspection
S Inspection
Marketing
Plant industry
S Standards


1. THE PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF THE PRESENT
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ARE ENFORCEMENT OF
AGRICULTURAL REGULATIONS AND PROTECTION OF THE
CONSUMING PUBLIC


Although the department of agriculture conducts many activi-

ties to promote Florida's agricultural business, most activities

involve consumer protection and are not primarily connected with

the traditional image of crop production and agricultural research.

For example, all experimental work and research projects pertain-

ing to agriculture take place in state-sponsored university programs

beyond the jurisdiction of the department.




-37-











2. THE PRESENT ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT
PROVIDES FOR A COMPREHENSIVE RANGE OF CONSUMER
PROTECTION SERVICES AND SUPPORTING STAFF
SERVICES


The existing nine divisions are responsible for administering

all major facets of agricultural consumer protection. In addition,

other types of special protection services are administered through

the consumer protection council. The following summary presents

the basic divisional duties.


The division of administration provides internal
administrative coordination for all divisions in the
department of agriculture.

The division of animal industry administers the
statutes and regulations of the department pertain-
ing to meat inspection and livestock diseases,
including diseases of poultry.

The division of chemistry conducts chemical analy-
ses and provides technical support to inspection
activities to determine if consumer protection laws
are being adhered to.

The division of dairy industry provides inspection
services to determine if state laws are followed
with regard to the sale, production, sanitation,
and labeling of milk, cream, and milk products.

The division of fruit and vegetable inspection
inspects for grade and maturity of citrus in accord-
ance with regulations of the Florida citrus commis-
sion, and inspects all vegetables, melons, nuts,
and miscellaneous fruit.

The division of inspection provides inspection serv-
ices and enforces laws pertaining to food grades
and standards; diseases of poultry; production of
fertilizer, feed, seed, and pesticides; and inter-,
state transportation of food products.

-38-











S The division of marketing is responsible for adver-
tising and promotional functions, crop and livestock
news reporting, and administration of the Sunflavor
Seal of Quality program.

The division of plant industry is responsible for
detection, control, and eradication of plant pests
when deemed injurious to agricultural and horticul-
tural interests in Florida.

The division of standards inspects to determine the
accuracy of weights and measures used in business
transactions.


This arrangement is generally appropriate except for some overlap-

ping of divisional responsibilities.


3. THE DEPARTMENT'S NAME SHOULD BE CHANGED TO
REFLECT MORE ACCURATELY ITS ACTUAL
RESPONSIBILITIES


The present title of "department of agriculture" does not fully

describe the major functions and services provided by the depart-

ment in the area of consumer protection. Therefore, it is recom-

mended that the more descriptive title of "department of agriculture

and consumer affairs" be adopted to increase public awareness of

the department's primary functions. The performance of the depart-

ment should then be evaluated on the basis of how well this function

is also performed.









-39-











4. AN ELECTED COMMISSIONER SHOULD HEAD THE
DEPARTMENT


As provided for in the constitution, an elected commissioner

should head the proposed department. His administrative responsi-

bilities should be retained, but his decision-making responsibilities

for areas of government beyond his department should be limited.


5. THE DEPARTMENT SHOULD BE REORGANIZED INTO
EIGHT DIVISIONS TO REDUCE OVERLAPPING
RESPONSIBILITIES OF CURRENT DIVISIONS


The present internal organization of the department is gener-

ally satisfactory except that it does cause some unnecessary over-

lapping of divisional activities. It is proposed that the department

be organized into eight divisions:


A division of administrative services to perform
the administrative support activities of the
department

An enlarged division of animal industry which
should be created through the consolidation of the
division of dairy industry with the current division
of animal industry

A division of chemistry

A division of fruit and vegetable inspection
standards

An enlarged division of inspection which would con-
tain the present division of standards

A division of marketing

A division of plant industry



-40-











A division of consumer protection which should
assume the responsibilities of the present office
of consumer services


Exhibit IX, following this page, presents the proposed plan of organi-

zation of the department.















































-41-
















EXHIBIT IX

FLORIDA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER AFFAIRS











ELECTORATE




COMMISSIONER OF
AGRICULTURE AND
CONSUMER
AFFAIRS





DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE AND
CONSUMER
AFFAIRS





DIVISION OF
ADMINISTRATIVE
SERVICES
DIRECTOR





DIVISION OF DIVISION OFDIVISION OF FRUIT DIVISION OF DIVISION OF DIVISION OF DIVISION OF
N OF DIVISION OF AND VEGETABLE
ANIMAL CHEMISTRY INSPECTION MARKETING PLANT INDUSTRY PRO ME
INDUSTRY IINSPECTION PROTECTION
DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR






















V. ATTORNEY GENERAL














V. ATTORNEY GENERAL



The attorney general is responsible primarily fo.r prosecuting

all actions necessary to protect state property and revenue and for

exercising all the power and authority as the public interest may

require. The attorney general is the chief legal advisor to the gov-

ernor and the other officers of the executive branch. At present,

the attorney general has about 30 assistant attorneys general in sev-

eral areas of specialization.


1. THE ATTORNEY GENERAL SHOULD CONTINUE TO BE THE
CHIEF LEGAL ADVISOR TO THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH


Retention of the position of attorney general is provided for in

the new constitution. No change is recommended in the function of

this position or in the method of selection. However, his activities

should be limited to acting as the chief legal advisor to the executive

branch. Decision-making authority beyond his office such as the

attorney general currently exercises should be curtailed.


2. SEVERAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE PLAN OF
ORGANIZATION OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL SHOULD
PROMOTE MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS


The present organizational plan of the attorney general is

essentially sound and should be retained. Five divisions based


-42-











upon subject matter specialization should be organized. These divi- 0

sions are:


Administrative law
S Civil law
S Criminal law
Taxes
Lands


Exhibit X, following this page, presents the proposed plan of organi-

zation for the attorney general.


































-43-

-43-













EXHIBIT X
FLORIDA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR THE ATTORNEY GENERAL












ELECTORATE








ATTORNEY GENERAL











DIVISION OF DIVISION OF DIVISION OF DIVISION OF DIVISION OF
ADMINISTRATIVE CIVIL CRIMINAL TAXES LANDS
LAW LAW LAW
DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR










0 ________________________
























VI. COMPTROLLER














VI. COMPTROLLER



The new constitution designates the comptroller the chief fis-

cal officer of the state and assigns him responsibility for settling

and approving accounts against the state. Under this general

umbrella, the comptroller continues to perform the functions listed

below:


Maintain adequate records and accounts of revenue
and expenditures of all state funds to ensure that
appropriations provided by the legislature are not
over-expended

Pre-audit and issue state warrants in payment of
all claims against the state

Supervise financial operations of local government

Supervise and administer several retirement and
pension systems


In addition to these major responsibilities, state statutes

assign the comptroller responsibility to:


Supervise financial institutions including banks and
certain other activities

Collect revenue from various sources

Administer abandoned property held by a bank or
financial organization in the state





-44-











The organization of the comptroller should be guided by the

following basic principles:


Accounting and fund custodial activities should be
separated so that malpractices in fund custody and
disbursement cannot be obscured by falsifying
accounting records.

The comptroller should be assigned responsibility
for critical financial activities, e.g., fiscal policy
development, design of financial accounting sys-
tem, operation of the accounting system, and pre-
audit of expenditures.

The comptroller should assume responsibilities
outside the financial area only to the extent that
they do not detract from critical financial
activities.


The provision that the comptroller as chief fiscal officer be

elected and be separate from the chief executive presents obstacles

to organizational planning. A range of financial activities that are

critical to the effective management of the state either will have to

be performed beyond the authority of the chief executive or will have

to be duplicated within agencies under the chief executive's jurisdic-

tion. Both of these alternatives are undesirable. Consequently, the

proposed plan of organization presented for the comptroller retains

for the governor responsibility for fiscal policy planning and for

establishing a strong system of accounting and internal control.








-45-











1. ORGANIZE THE COMPTROLLER INTO TWO DIVISIONS


The comptroller currently has eight divisions. It is recom-

mended that these be reduced to two divisions:


An accounting division to operate the established
accounting system and to pre-audit expenditures

A division of administrative services to provide
the office with necessary support services


Two functions normally associated with the role of chief fiscal

officer--fiscal policy planning and development of accounting and

internal control systems--are not included in the proposed comp-

troller and should be performed under the jurisdiction of agencies

reporting to the governor. The proposed plan of organization of the

comptroller is shown in Exhibit XI, following this page.


2. ASSIGN NONRELATED ACTIVITIES OF THE COMPTROLLER
TO OTHER APPROPRIATE UNITS OF STATE GOVERNMENT


The decision-making authority of the comptroller in areas

outside his department should not be continued. Consequently, the

following responsibilities should be transferred:


Supervision of banks and other financial organiza-
tions to the department of regulation for banking,
insurance, and utilities

Revenue collection to the department of revenue





-46-







EXHIBIT XI
FLORIDA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR THE COMPTROLLER

















ELECTORATE





COMPTROLLER
^-----







DIVISION OF DIVISION OF
ACCOUNTING ADMINISTRATIVE
SERVICES
DIRECTOR DIRECTOR
ACCOUNTING *LEGAL COUNSEL
*PRE.AUDIT 0 PERSONNEL
PURCHASING
ACCOUNTING
COMMUNICATIONS
*OFFICE SERVICE
CUSTODIAL











Administration of abandoned property to the
department of commerce

Supervision of financial operations of local govern-
ments to the department of community affairs

Supervision and administration of retirement and
pension systems to the department of
administration














































-47-























VII. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION














VII. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION



The primary function of the state of Florida department of edu-

cation is to promote and encourage the extension and improvement of

education throughout the state. Toward this end, the department

renders advice and assistance to state educational institutions and

agencies, and establishes and enforces appropriate educational and

professional standards for institutions and educators.


1. EDUCATION IS CURRENTLY GUIDED BY AN ELECTED
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION AND AN ELECTED
COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION


A constitutionally authorized and elected state board of educa-

tion and commissioner of education have responsibility for the gen-

eral supervision of the public schools of Florida. The seven

members of the state cabinet, including the commissioner of educa-

tion, comprise the board of education. The specific nature and

scope of their supervisory powers are prescribed by statute.


These responsibilities for public education are presently car-

ried out through the board of regents and the state department of

education.






-48-











The board of regents consists of nine members appointed for

nine-year terms by the governor, with one term expiring annually.

The board regulates and coordinates the state university system and

has responsibility for academic programs, facilities planning and

construction, and review and analysis of general university opera-.

tions. All policies, plans, programs, and budgets are subject to

the review and approval of the state department of education.


The commissioner of education directs and supervises the

activities of the state department of education which provides finan-

cial support and professional services and leadership to the locally

controlled public school systems in the state, including junior col-

leges. In addition to conducting teacher certification and school

accreditation programs, the department advises and assists in the

areas of curriculum and instruction, school plant planning and con-

struction, and general administration. The department also has

jurisdiction over the state's vocational rehabilitation programs.


2. SEVERAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVING THE
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND OPERATIONS OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CURRENTLY EXIST


Our appraisal of the educational system has led to the follow-

ing major conclusions.







-49-











Comprehensive long-range planning and overall
coordination of public education have not received
adequate attention at the top level.

The state board of education, composed of
all cabinet members, has been distracted
from educational policy matters because of
the wide span of management and policy-
making responsibilities of its membership
in other areas of state government.

The commissioner of education has devoted
the major portion of his efforts to the admin-
istration of the state department of education
with major focus upon the K-12 programs.

Articulation of programs between junior colleges
and universities has been inadequate.

In some cases, the authority of boards has not
been clearly defined or delegated. Authority has
not been commensurate with responsibility in all
cases. The relationship between operational
responsibilities and advisory responsibilities of
the board has not always been clearly defined.

An adequate professional staff has not been pro-
vided for the state board of education.


These needs generally have been recognized by state education and

other government officials and plans are being developed to correct

the major problems.


3. THE ROLES OF THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION AND
THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION SHOULD BE
CLARIFIED AND STRENGTHENED


A clear definition of responsibilities is required to ensure

satisfactory development of public education in Florida.




-50-










(1) The State Board of Education Should Actively Fulfill the
Role Established by Florida Statute


As a constitutionally authorized board of education for

Florida, the present board should actively perform its role as

the chief policy-making body for education in the state. The

board should devote its major efforts to fulfilling the following

responsibilities:


Establishing overall educational objectives for the
state of Florida

Developing comprehensive short- and long-range
plans for meeting these objectives

Reviewing proposed plans and programs of each
level of education and approving those which con-
tribute to the achievement of the overall plans and
objectives of the state

Coordinating educational programs

Reviewing and analyzing budgets

Adjudicating controversies between and among the
educational agencies responsible to the board

Establishing major operating policies for the
department of education


(2) The Commissioner of Education Should Be the Executive
Officer of the State Board of Education


The commissioner of education should be the executive

officer of the board and in the performance of his duties

should do the following.



-51-











Recommend educational objectives, plans, and
programs for the state of Florida to the board of
education

Oversee all activities of the central professional
support staff

Make available information required for sound
decision making

Present the positions and policies established by
the board of education to the public

Act as liaison between the board of education and
all other major agencies of the state including the
governor and the cabinet

Provide professional leadership and direction for
effective management of the department and its
staff


(3) A Professional Staff Should Be Created To Support the
Commissioner and the State Board of Education


A professional staff should be provided to enable the

commissioner to perform his responsibilities and to assure

that the board of education's information needs are met.


An associate commissioner of education should be

appointed by the commissioner. He should be a highly quali-

fied educator who will assist the commissioner by supervising

and coordinating the daily activities of the support staff.


The professional support staff should be qualified to

perform the following tasks.




-52-











Develop short- and long-range programs and
financial plans for the support of those programs

Coordinate ongoing programs

Appraise ongoing programs and operations

Analyze and evaluate recommended programs,
annual budgets, and capital outlays in light of
established objectives and master plans


The staff should concern itself with the total educational

program of the state and strive for maximum coordination,

effectiveness, and economy.


4. THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SHOULD BE
ORGANIZED INTO THREE MAJOR DIVISIONS


Three divisions should be established to manage the overall

educational programs of the state, as shown in Exhibit XII, follow-

ing this page.


University division under the overall direction of
the board of regents

Division of educational services under the direc-
tion of an assistant commissioner of education

Division of community junior colleges under the
direction of an assistant commissioner of
education











-53-














EXHIBIT XII
FLORIDA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION






ELECTORATE





COMMISSIONER OF BOARD OF EDUCATION
EDUCATION
CABINET
-- -- --
EDUCATIONAL POLICY
FORMULATION
DEPARTMENT OF
EDUCATION



DIVISION OF DIVISION OF
BOARD OF REGENTS ELEMENTARY AND COMMUNITY JUNIOR
SECONDARY SCHOOL COLLEGES
CHANCELLOR SERVICES COLLEGES
ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER



UNIVERSITY
SYSTEM



*APPOINTED BY GOVERNOR











(1) The Board of Regents Should Be Retained as It Now
Exists


The appointment, authority, responsibility, and top-

level structure of the board of regents and its staff should be

continued. They should remain responsible for the adminis-

tration of all state-operated colleges. Working within the

overall planning of the state board of education and its staff,

the board of regents is responsible for planning the further

improvement and extension of programs and facilities to meet

the need for public higher education in Florida.


(2) A Division of Educational Services Should Be Created


Several divisions of the present state department of edu-

cation should be grouped in a division of educational services;

each would now be a section of the newly created division.

The division of educational services should be subject to the

overall direction and supervision of an assistant commis-

sioner of education who should be appointed by the

commissioner.


The division should consist of school finance; school

administration; curriculum and instruction; vocational, tech-

nical, and adult education; research; and teacher education,

certification, and accreditation.



-54-











The major responsibilities of the division should include:


Assisting local school personnel in the improve-
ment of instruction

Assisting local school systems in planning and
development of facilities

Administering the statewide public school finance
programs

Certifying teachers and other education personnel

Accrediting schools

Providing technical and administrative assistance
in the vocational and technical education areas


The assistant commissioner of educational services

should be responsible for maintaining working relationships

with all educational agencies in the state and for seeking ways

to provide service to them.


(3) The Division of Community Junior Colleges Should Be
Made Directly Responsible to the Commissioner of
Education


This division, under an assistant commissioner, should

be responsible to the commissioner to ensure direct access to

the top level and to clearly establish accountability to that

level.


Responsibilities of this division should not be changed,

except that all policy recommendations should be made to the



-55-











0 state board of education and be subject to its policy approval.

The division should gather and interpret data and make rec-

ommendations concerning all matters relating to community

junior colleges. It also should continue to exercise its pres-

ent authority and responsibility for the coordination and direc-

tion of junior college programs and operations, as well as to

administer the disbursement of state funds to county school

districts. The possibility of changing the method of appoint-

ment of the local junior college board members has not been

considered in this study.


As in the past, the division should continue to utilize the

services of all sections being transferred to the division of

educational services through close and continuous working

relationships.


(4) The Functions of the Present Division of Vocational
Rehabilitation Should Be Transferred to the New
Department of Social and Rehabilitative Services


The objectives and functions of the division of vocational

rehabilitation are more closely related to those recommended

for the proposed department of social and rehabilitative serv-

ices than they are to those of the department of education.

Therefore, the division should be transferred to that

department.



-56-











(5) The Present Public School Board and Junior College
Board Should Be Abolished


The functions of the public school and junior college

boards should be transferred to the state board of education

and these boards should be abolished. The staff support rec-

ommended for the board should permit the assumption of

these functions by the board.


5. THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND STAFFING
PATTERNS RECOMMENDED FOR EDUCATION HAVE BEEN
MADE WITHIN THE LIMITATIONS ESTABLISHED BY THE
NEW FLORIDA CONSTITUTION


Two proposed recommendations fall short of optimum prac-

tice because of constitutional restrictions. The first is the manner

of selecting the state board of education and the second is the

method of selecting the commissioner of education.


(1) The State Board of Education Should Not Be Elected


Politics should not play a significant part in the decision

making of a top-level educational board. Alternative methods

exist which more nearly assure a board membership which is

capable and responsive to the educational needs of the public.

Among these alternative modes of selection are:


Statewide elections on a nonpartisan basis from a
slate of nominees proposed by a respected group
of the state's leading citizens


-57-











Election by legislature--one member elected from
each major political unit and a few elected at large

Nomination by the governor with legislative
approval--the board's numerical membership and
staggered terms operating in such a way that the
governor cannot nominate a majority of the
membership

Other methods which combine features of the
above possibilities in appropriate ways


An effective method of ensuring the continuity of board

deliberations and the experience of its membership is to stag-

ger terms of membership. This feature also is lacking in the

proposed organization due to constitutional restrictions.


(2) The Chief Education Officer of the State Should Be
Responsible Directly to the Governing Board


As the individual primarily responsible for executing

the policy decisions of the board, the commissioner should

serve at the behest of the board. The constitution provides

for a commissioner of education as an elected officer respon-

sible directly to the people. This arrangement can result in

conflict should the commissioner decide not to follow estab-

lished board policy.











-58-











The proposed reorganization of the department of education

should further strengthen Florida's educational system, which has

proved exceptional in several areas. Implementation of the recom-

mended organization should increase the cohesiveness of the state's

approach to education and provide a unified plan to meet the total

educational needs of the state.












































-59-






















VIII. SECRETARY OF STATE














VIII. SECRETARY OF STATE



The present organization of the secretary of state provides for

eight divisions:


Elections
Corporations
S Laws
Buildings and grounds
Charitable solicitations
Uniform commercial code
Licensing
Notary public


The elected secretary of state has constitutional responsibility

for maintaining official records of the legislative and executive

branches of state government and for maintaining the state seal.


1. THE EIGHT DIVISIONS OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE
HAVE CONSIDERABLY MORE THAN RECORD-KEEPING
RESPONSIBILITIES


The secretary of state's original purpose of official record

keeping has been expanded by the addition of statutory responsibili-

ties. A brief summary of these responsibilities by division follows.


Elections division which is responsible for the
general supervision of all statewide elections

Corporations division which is responsible for the
issuance of charters and the maintenance of rec-
ords for corporations doing business in Florida


-60-











Laws division which is responsible for filing and
maintaining all acts and papers of the legislature

Buildings and grounds division which is responsi-
ble for supervising and maintaining the capitol
building and grounds

Charitable solicitations division which registers
all organizations which solicit funds from the pub-
lic for charitable purposes

Uniform commercial code division which super-
vises the interstate code that protects business-
men in transactions involving a security interest
or collateral

Licensing division which licenses and regulates
private employment agencies, private detective
and watchguard agencies, labor union business
agents, and certified shorthand court reporters

Notary public division which commissions notaries
public and keeps records of their oaths and bonds


2. SEVERAL ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE TRANSFERRED FROM
THE SECRETARY OF STATE


The present organization of the secretary of state provides for

functions and responsibilities that should be assigned to other depart-

ments. The proposed organization, which is discussed below,

should focus the activities of the unit upon the basic purpose.for

which it was established.


Several divisions are performing duties that are more closely

allied to the responsibilities of other departments. Therefore, the

following should be transferred.




-61-











Buildings and grounds division to the new depart-
ment of administration

Corporations, uniform commercial code,
licensing, and charitable solicitations divisions to
the division of business regulation in the depart-
ment of commerce

Licensing of certified shorthand court reporters
to the division of regulation of occupations and
professions in the department of commerce


3. ORGANIZATION OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE SHOULD
BE DESIGNED TO REFLECT THE RECOMMENDED
INTERNAL CHANGES


Following the transfer of the above divisions, three divisions

of the secretary of state will be required:


Legal affairs
Archives and history
Elections


Exhibit XIII, following this page, presents the recommended

plan of organization for the secretary of state. All functions now

performed, excluding those being transferred, should be assigned

to one of the three recommended divisions.















-62-







EXHIBIT XIII
FLORIDA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR THE SECRETARY OF STATE


















ELECTORATE






SECRETARY OF STATE










DIVISION OF
DIVISION OF ARCHIVES AND DIVISION OF
LEGAL AFFAIRS I HISTORY ELECTIONS
DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR
















IX. TREASURER






















0














IX. TREASURER



Responsibility for receiving, safeguarding, and disbursing

state monies, bonds, and securities is now vested in the state treas-

urer. Investment of such funds is the responsibility of the board of

administration, which is discussed at the end of this chapter.


In addition, the treasurer has other responsibilities including

being the state insurance commissioner, the state fire marshal, and

the administrator of certain retirement and pension funds.


Three organization principles have been identified in this study

for application to the treasurer.


Accounting and custodial activities should be
separated.

Activities requiring personnel with similar
expertise and technical knowledge should be
grouped together.

Activities with the same objective should be
grouped together for an integrated approach to
attain that objective.












-63-










1. TWO DIVISIONS SHOULD BE ESTABLISHED FOR THE
TREASURER


The treasurer should be an elective post as provided for in the

constitution and should retain the traditional financial responsibili-

ties of that office. The treasurer should consist of two major

divisions.


The division of receipts and disbursements should
be responsible for receiving and releasing funds
and for related record keeping. It should serve as
the centralized custodian of funds throughout the
state government.

The division of financial operations should serve
as staff to the treasurer and the board of adminis-
tration for all financial activities, including bank-
ing, investments, and bond issuance. It should
function as the centralized staff in financial opera-
tions for the entire state government and should
assure that all surplus funds are invested and that
bonds are properly issued.


The proposed plan of organization of the treasurer is shown in

Exhibit XIV, following this page.


2. TRANSFER NONRELATED ACTIVITIES FROM THE
TREASURER


Under the proposed organization, the treasurer should not

retain his responsibilities as the state insurance commissioner, the

state fire marshal, and the administrator of retirement and pension






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EXHIBIT XIV

FLORIDA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

RECOMMENDED PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR THE TREASURER

























ELECTORATE






TREASURER






DIVISION OF DIVISION OF
RECEIPTS AND FINANCIAL
DISBURSEMENTS OPERATIONS
DIRECTOR DIRECTOR
*FUNDS RECEIPT *BANKING
*FUNDS DISBURSEMENT *INVESTMENTS
0 BOND ISSUANCE











funds. These functions are incidental to the primary purposes of s

the treasurer and should be assigned to appropriate departments.






BOARD OF ADMINISTRATION


The board of administration is provided for in the Florida

constitution to act as the investor of state funds. It is appropriate

that this function be the responsibility of a board rather than an

individual because of the totally judgmental aspect involved in reach-

ing investment decisions. The board is also responsible for approv-

ing revenue bonds and it is appropriate that this function be vested in

a board rather than an individual.


The proposed plan of organization provides for retention of the

board of administration but with a role limited to the bonding and

investment processes of state agencies.




















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