Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The horse
 The mule
 The ass
 The ox and the cow
 The sheep
 The cat
 The dog
 The lion
 The tiger
 The elephant
 Back Cover

Group Title: A book of favourite animals : domestic and wild
Title: A book of favourite animals
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00050306/00001
 Material Information
Title: A book of favourite animals domestic and wild
Alternate Title: Favourite animals
Favorite animals
A book of favorite animals
Physical Description: 64 p. : ill. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Austen, Adelaide
William P. Nimmo & Co ( Publisher )
Morrison and Gibb ( Printer )
Publisher: William P. Nimmo & Co.
Place of Publication: Edinburgh
Manufacturer: Morrison and Gibb
Publication Date: 1883
Subject: Animals -- Anecdotes -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1883   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1883
Genre: Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Scotland -- Edinburgh
Statement of Responsibility: by Adelaide Austen.
General Note: Cover: Favourite animals.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00050306
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001624932
oclc - 25768548
notis - AHP9607

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The horse
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    The mule
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    The ass
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    The ox and the cow
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    The sheep
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    The cat
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    The dog
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    The lion
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    The tiger
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    The elephant
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Back Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
Full Text


The Baldwn Library

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Book of Favourite Animals,


Author of' Noble foe,' etc.

















IN compiling this little volume, I have to
acknowledge the assistance of various valu-
able works on Natural History. Also,
Anecdotes of Dogs, by the Rev. Charles
Williams, M.A., and Mr. Pardon's Stories
about Animals, to both of which books I
am indebted for many of the anecdotes
here related.


HE horse is the pet of all pets,
and one of our favourite domestic
animals. Without doubt he is the
most useful, noble, and persevering of the
lower creation; and anecdotes without num-
ber have been recorded of his high qualities
in all ages. Horses are supposed to have
been quite unknown in the new world,
till introduced by the Spaniards; but they
multiplied rapidly in the vast deserts of
that continent, where they ran wild in
great troops of hundreds together. The
inhabitants employed themselves in catch-
ing them by nooses made of rope, and,
after taming them, forced them to work.
Of all countries in the world, Arabia has
produced the most beautiful breed of horses,
and there the art of riding has been carried


to great perfection. The Arabs are/ a wan-
dering race, who have no houses, but live
in tents, which they shift at pleasure. How-
ever poor they may be, they have horses,
which they treat as their own family; and
the children may often be seen playing with
and caressing the gentle animals. They
never beat their horses, but speak to them
as friends, and never attempt to increase
their speed with the spur but in cases of
necessity. The horse is capable of strong
attachment to his master; and many anec.
dotes are related in proof of this quality,
and also of his sagacity.
A farmer, living in the neighbourhood of
Bedford, was returning home from market
one evening in the year 1828, and being
somewhat tipsy, rolled off his saddle into the
middle of the road. His horse stood still;
but after remaining patiently for some time,
and not observing any disposition on the
part of his rider to get up and proceed
further, he took him by the collar and
shook him. This had little or no effect, for
the farmer only gave a grumble of dissatis-
faction at having his repose disturbed. The


animal was not to be put off by any such eva-
sion, however, and applied his mouth to one
of his master's coat-laps, and after several
attempts, by dragging at it, to raise him
upon his feet, the coat-lap gave way. Three
individuals, who witnessed this extraordinary
proceeding, then went up and assisted the
man to mount his horse.
The story of Alexander the Great and
his favourite horse Bucephalus, some of
my young readers may have heard before
Bucephalus was a war-horse of a very high
spirit, which had been sent to Philip, Alex-
ander's father, when the latter was a boy.
This horse was taken out into one of the
parks connected with the palace, and the
king and many of his courtiers went to see
him. The horse pranced about so furiously,
that every one was afraid of him; he seemed
perfectly unmanageable. No one was willing
to risk his life by mounting such an unruly
animal. Philip, instead of being thankful
for the present, was inclined to be in ill-
humour about it. In the meantime the boy
Alexander stood quietly by, watching all the
motions of the horse, and seemed to be


studying his character. Philip had decided
that the horse was useless, and had given
orders to have him sent back to Thessaly,
where he came from. Alexander did not much
like the idea of losing so fine an animal, and
begged his father to allow him to mount the
horse. Philip at first refused, thinking the
risk was too great; but he finally consented,
after his son had urged him a great while.
So Alexander went up to the horse and took
hold of his bridle. He patted him upon the
neck, and soothed him with his voice, show-
ing him at the same time, by his easy and
unconcerned manner, that he was not in the
least afraid of him. Bucephalus was calmed
and subdued by the presence of Alexander,
and allowed himself to be caressed. Alex-
ander turned his head in such a direction aa
to prevent him seeing his own shadow,
which had before appeared to frighten him.
Then he threw off his cloak, sprang upon
the back of the horse, and let him go as fast
as he pleased. The animal flew across the
plain at the top of his speed, while the king
and his courtiers looked on, at first with
extreme fear, but afterwards with the great.


est admiration and pleasure. When Buce-
phalus had got tired of running, he was
easily reined in, and Alexander returned to
the king, who praised him very highly.
Bucephalus became the favourite horse of
Alexander, and was very tractable and
docile, though full of life and spirit. He
would kneel upon his fore-legs at the com-
mand of his master, in order that he might
mount more easily, and was never willing to
have any one mount him but Alexander.
When the horse died, Alexander mourned
for him a great deal. He had him buried
with great solemnity, and built a small city
upon the spot of his interment, which he
named, in honour of his favourite, Buce-
Racehorses are generally descended from
Arabian, being the swiftest of all. This has
always been a favourite sport of the British;
and, to their honour be it said, they have
rarely been excelled by any other nation.
In the reign of Edward I., the most popular
amusement was riding at the ring. But racing
was quite common in the time of Queen
Elizabeth; and James I. established the race-


course at Newmarket, with a view to im-
prove the breed of horses. This course,
which is little less than four miles in length,
was traversed in one instance, by the famous
Childers, in the marvellous space of six
minutes and forty seconds! We also read of
hunting in this country at an early period;
and James I. carried this sport to a tiresome
excess. The principal education of the
hunter is in being taught to leap. The
Irish are indefatigable in their training,
and their horses are renowned as leapers;
while their Hibernian masters are not less
so for their desperate and reckless courage
in riding, which too often results in the ruin
of the horse and the fractured bones of the
Two Irish grooms were drinking at a
public-house door; the one being upon his
master's hunter, which he had brought out
for exercise, the other betted that the horse
could not clear a neighboring wall. The
height, viewed from the horse's back, was tre-
mendous; nevertheless, full to the brim with
Irish mettle and whisky, Patrick offered the
leap to his horse standing, who, after a little


hesitation, reluctantly refused; on which the
irritated rider, turning the horse about, and
cantering him to a considerable distance,
turned him again, and with his riding switch
up about the horse's ears, ran him at the
wall. The generous horse would not refuse
a second time, but made a desperate leap,
and, being incapable of overtopping such an
altitude, his fore-feet struck against the
summit, yet the violence of his exertion
carrying him over, he grounded on the other
side on his head and fore-quarters, both his
fore-legs being broken in the fall; however,
the fellow escaped with only a few con.
tusions. Owing to the absence of his pro.
prietor, the poor animal was kept several
days in torture before he was shot.
But, notwithstanding the high qualities
which have been here recorded of those
noble animals, it would be injustice to say
that they are entirely without faults. Some
of them are vicious and bad-tempered, and
must be approached with caution in the
stable, and managed with great care upon
the road, of which the following anecdote is
an illustration:-


A nobleman, in the early part of the reign
of Louis xv., having a very vicious horse,
which none of the grooms or servants would
ride-several of them having been thrown,
and one killed-asked leave of his Majesty to
have him turned loose into the menagerie
against one of the largest lions. The king
readily consented; and the animal, on a
certain day, was conducted thither. Soon
after the arrival of the horse, the door of
the den was drawn up, and the lion, with
great state and majesty, marched slowly to
the mouth of it, when, seeing his antagonist,
he set up a tremendous roar. The horse
immediately started, and fell back; his ears
were erected, his mane was raised, his eyes
sparkled, and something like a general con-
vulsion seemed to agitate his whole frame.
After the first emotions of fear had subsided,
the horse retired to a corner of the menagerie,
where, having directed his heels towards the
lion, and having reared his head over his left
shoulder, he watched with extreme eagerness
the motions of his enemy. The lion, who
presently quitted his den, sidled about for
more than a minute, as if me.ditting the


mode of attack, when, having sufficiently
prepared himself for the combat, he made a
sudden spring at the horse, which defended
itself by striking his adversary a most
violent blow on the chest.
The lion instantly retreated, groaned, and
seemed for several minutes inclined to give
up the contest; when, recovering from the
painful effects of the blow, he returned again
to the charge with unabated violence. The
mode of preparation for the second attack
was the same as the first. He sidled from
one side of the menagerie to the other for
a considerable time, seeking a favourable
opportunity to seize his prey, during which
time the horse still preserved the same
posture, and kept his head erect and turned
over his shoulder. The lion at length gave
a second spring, with all the strength and
velocity he could exercise, when the horse
caught him with his hoof on the under jaw,
which he fractured. Having sustained a
second and more severe repulse than the
former, the lion retreated to his den as well
as he was able, apparently in the greatest
agony, moaning all the way, in the most


lamentable manner. The horse was soon
obliged to be shot, as no one ever dared to
approach the ground where he was kept.
England is celebrated for the size and
strength of its draught horses, of which the
cavalry of this country was formerly com-
posed, and their power is truly enormous.
The ponies of Wales are greatly admired
for their beauty and neatness, and few horses
are equal to them for enduring fatigue. The
Shetland ponies, which are pretty, shaggy
little animals, but very diminutive, are
reared in great numbers in the Hebrides,
and islands of Scotland, and are supposed
to have been introduced from Scandinavia.
They are very hardy, and remarkable for
their sagacity and faithfulness, and, on ac-
count of those qualities, are great favour-
ites with children learning to ride. There
have been instances of those animals whose
height from the foot to the shoulder scarcely
exceeded three feet; and a man of ordinary
size and strength can lift one of them from
the ground with great ease, which the follow-
ing authenticated account will demonstrate:-
A countryman, about five feet ten inches


in height, was employed many years ago by
the laird of Coll to ride post upon a Shet-
land pony to Glasgow and Edinburgh, the
ordinary weight it carried being fourteen
stone. This postman, being stopped at a
toll-bar near Dumbarton, humorously asked
whether he should be obliged to pay the
toll if he passed on foot carrying a burden;
and being answered in the negative, he took
up horse and bags in his arms, and carried
them through the bar.
An old Shetland pony was so much
attached to a little boy, his master, that he
would place his fore-feet in the hands of
the boy like a dog, thrust his head undei
his arm to court his caresses, and join
with him and a little dog in their noisy
romping. The same animal daily carried
his master to school; he would even walk
alone from the stable to the school-house,
to bring the boy home, and sometimes he
would wait hours for him, having come too
The appetite of the horse is of the most
simple kind, their food being entirely com-
posed of grass and vegetables. The duration


of the life of horses is generally from twenty-
five to thirty years; and those whose know-
ledge is extensive enough are enabled to
judge of their age by their teeth, of which
they have forty, and which exhibit changes
in form and appearance at stated periods.
They cast their hair once a year, either in
spring or autumn; and as they are weaker
at that time than any other, they require
to be more carefully treated and better fed.
Horses do not require so much sleep as
.en, and, on an average, they do not sleep
more than three or four hours of the twenty-
four, which they often do standing. Most
people have a very erroneous idea that the
flesh of the horse is unpalatable to the taste;
but among the Arabs it is considered a great
delicacy, and the Calmuc Tartars seldom eat
any other flesh. It seems now in a fair way
of being introduced into Europe.


E |HE mule far excels the horse for
travelling in a mountainous coun-
try, the former being able to tread
securely where the latter can hardly stand.
their manner of going down the precipices
of the Alps, the Andes, etc., is very extra-
ordinary. In these passages, on one side are
steep eminences, and on the other frightful
abysses, and as they generally follow the
direction of the mountain, the road, instead
of lying on a level, forms at every little
distance deep declivities of several hundred
yards downward. These can be descended
only by mules; and these animals seem
sensible of the danger, and the caution that
is to be used in such descents. When they
come to the edge of one of these precipices,


they stop without being checked by the
rider; and if he inadvertently attempts to
spur them on, they continue immovable,
apparently ruminating on the danger that
lies before them, and preparing themselves
for the encounter. But their address in their
rapid descent is truly wonderful; for in their
swiftest motion, when they seem to have lost
all government of themselves, they follow
exactly the different windings of the road,
as if they had previously settled in their
minds the route they were to follow, and
had taken every precaution for their safety.
Mules bred in cold countries are more
hardy and fit for work than those bred in
hot ones. The general complaint that we
make against them is that they kick and are
stubborn; but this is owing only to neglect
in the breeding of them, for they are as
gentle as our horses in those countries where
they are bred with more care. Savoy pro-
"duces very large mules, but the finest are
bred in Spain. They are chiefly used in
countries where there are rocky or stony
roads, as about the Alps, Pyrenees, etc.
Instead of mild usage, which generally


corrects the worst qualities, the mule is in
this country treated with cruelty from the
first, and is so habituated to blows, that it
is seldom mounted or loaded without ex-
pectation of ill-treatment. Could we prevail
on our countrymen to consider these animals
as their useful qualities merit, and pay due
attention to breaking them in, they might
easily train them for the saddle, for draught,
or for burden. Indeed, it is a wonder that
these creatures are not more propagated in
England, as they are so much hardier and
stronger than horses, are less subject to
diseases, and will live and work to nearly
twice the age of a horse. The Roman ladies
had equipages drawn by mules, as appears
from the medals of Julia and Agrippina;
and at this day, in Spain, the carriages of
the nobility and even of princes are usually
drawn by them.


EGLECTED and abused as asses
are in the British Islands, they
have been held in great esteem in
other countries, even from the earliest
periods of antiquity. In the sacred writ
ings, and especially in the Old Testament,
they are spoken of as in general use
throughout all the Eastern countries, both
for the saddle, and as animals of draught
and burden. Amongst the Romans, too.
they were held in the highest estimation.
They appear to have come originally from
Arabia, and from thence passed into other
countries; but they become weaker and
smaller in proportion to the coldness of the
The ass is strongly attached to his master,


notwithstanding he is usually ill-treated;
he will scent him at a distance, and dis-
tinguish him from any other person. The
voice of these animals is called braying,
and it is a most harsh and discordant noise.
When an ass begins to bray, it often hap-
pens that, if there are others within hearing,
they also immediately exert their voices.
This habit was, in several instances, a
serious inconvenience to our army in Egypt,
when much harassed by the siege of Alex-
andria. Besides camels and horses, there
were a great number of asses employed in
conveying forage for the subsistence of the
troops. During the nights, when the
soldiers, wearied by the fatigues of the
day, were enjoying the few hours of repose
that could be allowed them, one of these
animals would begin to bray, and soon after-
wards a serenade of at least a thousand such
voices would sound through the whole
camp. Vexatious as the noise might be,
there was, notwithstanding, something ex-
tremely ludicrous in such a concert, in
which, occasionally, all the numerous
animals around, both birds and. beasts,


joined their efforts. When the asses were
at last conveyed to Rosetta, it was to the
great joy of every one belonging to the
As the skin of the ass is extremely hard
and very elastic, it is used for different pur-
poses, such as to make drums, shoes, and
thick parchment for pocket-books, which
latter is slightly varnished over. Probably,
too, the bones of asses are harder than those
of any other animals, since the ancients
made their best sounding flutes of them.
In proportion to his size, the ass can carry
a greater weight than any other animal
he sleeps much less than the horse, and
never lies down for that purpose, unless
very much .tired. The largest breed of asses
at this time known in the world is in Spain.


BOUT two hundred and fifty years
ago, there was found in Scotland
a race of wild cattle, which were
of a pure white colour, and had manes like
lions. There are still herds descended from
that savage breed to be seen in the woods
of Drumlanrig, Cadzow Forest, and in the
park belonging to Chillingham Castle,
Northumberland. These cattle are as wild
as any deer; for, on being approached, they
instantly take to flight, and gallop away at
full speed. When it is necessary to kill
any of them, they are always shot; and if
the keeper only wound the beast, he must
take care to keep behind some tree, or his
life would be. in danger from the furious
attacks of the animal, which will never
desist till a period is put to its life.


Frequent mention is made of our wild
cattle by historians. One relates that Robert
Bruce was, in chasing these animals, pre-
served from the rage of a wild bull by the
intrepidity of one of his courtiers, from
which he and his lineage acquired the name
of Turnbull.
In many parts of England, and on the
Continent, the ox is used for labour; he is
particularly serviceable for the plough, and
in drawing heavy loads. There is scarcely
any part of the ox without its use: the
blood, marrow, hide, horns, hair, hoofs, milk,
cream, whey, have each their particular use
in manufactures, commerce, and medicine.
The skin has been of great use in all ages.
The ancient Britons, before they knew a
better method, built their boats with osiers,
and covered them with the hides of bulls,
which served for short coasting voyages.
Vessels of this kind were still in use within
the last half century, on the Irish lakes and
on the Dee and Severn.
Those animals are capable of great attach-
ment to their keepers, and there are plenty
of anecdotes to prove that they are fond "


music. Instances have been known of the
fiercest bulls having been subdued and
calmed into gentleness by music of a plain-
tive kind.
There is a laughable story told of the
effect of music on a bull. A fiddler was
returning home at three o'clock in the morn-
ing with his instrument, from a place where
he had been engaged in his accustomed
vocation. He had occasion to cross a field
where there were some cows, and rather a
saucy bull. The latter took it into his head
to assault the fiddler, who tried to escape.
He did not succeed, however. The bull was
wide awake, and could not let the gentle,
man off so cheaply. The poor fellow then
attempted to climb a tree, but the enraged
animal would not permit him to do that.
The fiddler, who had heard something about
Orpheus, and the wonderful power of music
in subduing the rage of wild beasts, got be-
hind the tree, and commenced playing
literally for his life. Strange as it may ap-
pear, the animal was calmed at once, and
appeared to be delighted with the music.
By and by, the fiddler, finding that his


enemy was entirely pacified, stopped play-
ing, and started homeward as fast as his legs
would carry him; but the bull would not
allow him to escape, and made after him.
The poor fellow, fearing he should be killed,
stopped, and went on fiddling again. The
animal was pacified as before. Our hero
then plied the bow until his arm ached, and
seizing, as he supposed, a favourable oppor-
'unity, he made another effort to run away.
He was probably not accustomed to fiddle
without pay, and he was pretty sure the
customer he was now playing for intended
to get his music for nothing. Well, the
fiddler was no more successful this time
than he was before. The fury of the bull
returned as soon as the strains ceased; and
at last the poor man surrendered himself to
his fate, and actually played for the bull
until six o'clock-about three hours in all
-when some people came to his rescue.


F we are to look for the sheep in its
noblest state, we must seek for it
in the African desert or on the
plains of Siberia. In its present domestic con-
dition in this country, it is, of all animals,
the most defenceless and inoffensive. With
its liberty, it seems to have been deprived
of its swiftness and cunning; and what in
the ass might rather be called patience, in
the sheep appears to be stupidity. Loaded
with a thick fleece, deprived of the defence
of its horns, and rendered heavy, slow, and
feeble, it has no other safety than that which
it finds in the protection afforded it by man.
In the selection of their food, few animals
discover more sagacity than the sheep; nor
is their instinct in foreseeing the approach


of a storm less remarkable. Whole flocks
have been buried under the snow for many
days, in their endeavours to secure them-
selves under the shelter of some hill, and
have afterwards been taken out without
material injury.
No country produces such sheep as
England, either with larger fleeces, or better
adapted to the purposes of the clothier.
Besides the fleece, there is scarcely any
dart of this animal that is not useful to
mankind. The flesh is a delicate and
wholesome food; the skin, when dressed,
forms different parts of our apparel, and is
used for covers of books; the entrails, pro-
perly prepared and twisted, serve as strings
for musical instruments; the bones, calcined,
form a material for refiners' tests; the milk
is thicker than that of cows, and conse-
quently yields a greater quantity of butter
and cheese; in some places it is so rich,
that it will not produce the cheese without
a mixture of water to make it part from the
They perseveringly follow their leader
wherever he goes; but if, in case of sudden


alarm, any one of the flock runs forward to
escape, and thus takes the lead, the rest
generally follow him, regardless of any ob
Of this singular disposition the following
anecdote is an illustration :-A butcher's bo3
was driving about twenty fat wedders through
the town; but they ran down a street along
which he did not want them to go. He ob-
served a scavenger at work with his broom
a little way before them, and called out
loudly for him to stop the sheep. The man
accordingly did what he could to turn them
back, running from side to side, always op-
posing himself to their passage, and bran-
dishing his broom with great dexterity; but
the sheep, much agitated, pressed forward,
and at last one of them came right up to
the man, who, fearing it was about to jump
over his head while he was stooping, grasped
the short broomstick in. both hands, and held
it over his head. He stood for a few seconds
in this position, when the sheep made a spring,
and jumped fairly over him, without touching
the broom. The first had no sooner cleared
this impediment, than another followed, and



mother, in such quick succession, that the
man, perfectly confounded, seemed to lose all
recollection, and stood in the same attitude
till the whole had jumped over him, not one
of them attempting to pass on either side,
though the street was quite clear. As this
took place during wet weather, the man was
entirely bespattered over with mud before
they had all passed, and it is impossible to
conceive a more ludicrous appearance than
the poor fellow made on the occasion.
The sheep has scarcely any marked cha.
racter save that of natural affection, of which
it possesses a very large share. A man was
once passing through a lonely part of the
Highlands in Scotland, when he perceived
a sheep hurrying towards the road before
him. She was bleating most piteously at
the time, and as the man approached nearer,
she redoubled her cries, looked earnestly into
his face, and seemed to be imploring his as-
sistance. He stopped, left his waggon, and
followed the sheep. She led him quite a
distance from the road to a solitary spot,
and at length she stopped. When the tra-
veller came up, he found a lamb completely


wedged in between twb large stones, and
struggling in vain to extricate itself. The
gentleman immediately set the little sufferer
free, and placed it on its feet, when the
mother poured out her thanks and joy in a
long-continued and animated strain of bleat,



HE cat being one of our favourite
domestic. animals, its habits and
manners are too well known to
require much description. Even in its do-
mesticated state this animal retains much
of its primitive ferocil f, perfidy, and cruelty,
nor can it be considered as entirely trusty.
It is generally stated that cats can see in
the dark; but although this is not absolutely
the case,-it is certain that they can see with
much less light than most other animals.
This is owing to the peculiar structure of
their eyes, the pupils of which are capable
of being greatly contracted and dilated, in
proportion to the degree of light by which
they are affected.
The cry of the cat is loud, piercing, and


clamorous; and, whether expressive of love
or anger, is equally unpleasant. Its calls
collect the whole fraternity of neighboring
cats; and on some occasions more than a
hundred have thus been brought together.
Their whiskers appear to increase their sense
of smell, and their fur readily yields electric
sparks when rubbed. In general, they keep
themselves very clean, washing their faces
and behind their ears every time they eat.
The sleep of the cat is generally very
light. They dislike to wet their feet, and
have numerous methods of torturing their
prey before destroying it. The average
duration of a cat's life is about fifteen
years; but we have had instances within
our knowledge of their having attained to
twenty-five and even thirty years of age.
There are many varieties of the domestic
cat, but the most beautiful is the Angora.
Its nose, and the edges of the lips, are of a
fine rose-colour; the eyes, in general, blue or
yellow, and of a sparkling brilliancy, and
its whole aspect mild and composed. The
hair is of a silvery whiteness, remarkably,
thick and long, especially about the neck


and the tail, when elevated above the body,
forms a beautiful plume.
Angora, the place celebrated for these
cats, is in Asia Minor, not far from Smyrna.
The camlets manufactured from the hair of
this animal are celebrated for their fineness
and beauty throughout Asia.
There have been many instances of strong
attachment to the human race in cats; but
this attachment seems to be in general
more for the house in which they have
been brought up than for the persons who
inhabit it. Instances are not uncommon of
cats having returned of their own accord to
the place from which they have been carried,
though at the distance of many miles, and
even across rivers, where they could not, ap-
parently, have had any knowledge either of
the road or the direction in which it would
lead them.
A cat, which had been brought up in a
family, became extremely attached to the
eldest child, a little boy, who was very fond
of playing with her. She bore with the
utmost patience all the rough treatment of
the mischievous child, without ever making


the least resistance. As the cat grew up,
she used to catch mice and bring them alive
into the room where the little boy was, to
amuse him with her prey. If he showed an
inclination to take the mouse from her, she
&et it run, and waited to see if he was able to
catch it. If he did not, she darted at it,
caught it, and again laid it before him. In
this manner the sport continued as long as
the child had any taste for it. At length
the boy was attacked with the small-pox,
and, during the early stages of his illness, the
cat rarely left his bedside; but, as his danger
increased, it was thought necessary to remove
the cat and lock her up. The child died.
On the following day, the cat, having escaped
from her confinement, immediately ran to
the apartment where she hoped to find her
playmate. Disappointed in her expectations,
she sought for him with symptoms of great
uneasiness and loud lamentations all over
the house, till she came to the door of the
room where the corpse lay. Here she lay
down in silent grief till she was again
locked up. As soon as the child was
buried, and the cat set at liberty, she dis-


appeared, and it was not till a fortnight
after that event that she returned to the
well-known apartment, sad and emaciated.
She refused to take any nourishment, and
soon ran away with dismal cries. At length,
compelled by hunger, she made her appear-
ance one day at dinner-time, and continued
to visit the house after that every day at
about the same hour, but always left as soon
as she had eaten the food that was given
her. No one knew where she spent the
rest of her time, until she was found one
lay under the wall of the burying-ground,
lose to the grave of her favourite; and so
strong was the attachment of the cat to her
lost master, that, till his parents removed
to another place, nearly five years after-
wards, she never, except in the seve est
winter weather, passed the night anywhere
else than in the burying-ground, at her
little friend's grave.
A French naturalist gives us an amusing
incident connected with a cat in Prussia.
This animal was quietly sleeping on the
hearth, when one of the children of the
family in which she lived set up a b, is-


terdus crying. Puss left the place where
she was lying, marched up to the child, and
gave her such a smart blow with her paw,
that it drew blood. Then she walked back
with the greatest composure and gravity,
as if satisfied with having punished the
child for crying, and with the hope of in-
dulging in a comfortable nap. No doubt
she had often seen the child punished in
this manner for peevishness; and as there
was no one near who seemed disposed to
administer correction in this instance, Puss
determined to take the law into her own
Cats have sometimes exhibited great
affection for other animals. The celebrated
Arabian horse, Godolphin, and a black cat,
were for many years the warmest friends.
When the horse died, the cat sat upon his
carcase till it was buried; and then, crawl-
ing slowly, and apparently reluctantly,
away, was never seen again, till her dead
body was found in a hay-loft. There was
also a hunter in the stables at Windsor, to
which a cat was so attached, that whenever
he was in the stable, the creature would


never quit his back, her favourite seat; aid
the horse was so well pleased with the cat's
attentions, that, to accommodate his friend,
he slept, as horses often do, standing. This
was, however, observed to injure his health,
and the cat was removed to a distant part
of the country.
The cat is possessed of great maternal
affection, and evinces much courage in de-
fending her young. A cat, which had a
family of kittens, was playing with them
one day in spring near the door of a farm-
house, when a hawk darted swiftly down,
and caught one of the kittens. The assassin
was endeavouring to rise with his prey,
when the mother, seeing the danger of the
little one, flew at the common enemy, who,
to defend himself, let the kitten fall. The
battle presently became dreadful to both
parties; for the hawk, by the power of his
wings, the sharpness of his talons, and the
keenness of his beak, had for a while the
best of it, cruelly lacerating the poor cat,
and actually deprived her of one eye in the
conflict. But Puss, not at all daunted by
this accident, strove with all her cunning


and strength to protect her' little ones, till
she had broken a wing of her adversary. In
this state she got him more within the
power of her claws, the hawk still defending
himself, however, to the best of his ability.
The fight continued for a long time. But at
last victory favoured the mother, and, by a
sudden movement, she laid the hawk mo-
tionless beneath her feet, when, as if exult-
ing in victory, she tore off the head of her
vanquished enemy. Disregarding the loss
of her eye, she immediately ran to her
bleeding kitten, licked the wounds inflicted
by the talons of the hawk, purring, while
she caressed the little one, with the same
affection as if nothing had happened to


HE dog may be called the friend of
man, he is so faithful to his in-
terests. There are many varieties
of this animal, and he is to be found in all
countries. The sagacity they often display
is wonderful, and their affection for their
master is not less so.
A French work, entitled L'Histoire des
Chiens Cdlebres, gives the following incidents
as well attested:-Mustapha, a strong and
active greyhound belonging to a captain of
artillery, raised from its birth in the midst
of camps, always accompanied his master,
and exhibited no alarm even in a battle. In
the hottest engagements it remained near
the cannon, and carried the match in its
mouth. At the memorable battle of Fon-


tenoy, Mustapha's master, the captain of
artillery, received a mortal wound. About
to fire on the enemy, he and several of hit
corps were at that instant struck down t(
the earth by a furious firing, when the dog,
seeing his master bleeding on the ground,
became desperate, and howled piteously.
Nor did he merely give way to unavailing
grief; for a body of French soldiers were now
advancing to gain possession of the piece of
ordnance which was aimed at them from
the top of a rising ground, when Mustapha,
as if he would revenge his master's death,
seized the lighted match with his paws, and
fired the cannon, loaded with case-shot.
Seventy men fell on the spot, and the re-
mainder took to flight.
After this bold and extraordinary stroke,
the dog lay down sadly near the dead body
of his master, tenderly licked his wounds,
remained with the corpse without any sus-
tenance for twenty-four hours, and was even
removed with great difficulty by some of the
comrades of the deceased. This gallant
greyhound was taken to London, and pre-
sented to the king, George ii., who ordered


it to be taken care of as a brave and faithful
public servant.
An English gentleman, incarcerated in a
French prison, came into possession of a
little dog, to which he was soon strongly
attached. An offer of escape was made him
for a consideration, when he was told the
dog must be left behind; but this he de-
clared could not be, and assured his jailer
that the animal would fully attend to any
orders he gave it.
After a time the jailer agreed to the ex.
periment. A large hamper was brought
into the cell one evening. The gentleman
now addressed the dog very earnestly, espe-
cially telling it that it must not make any
noise; he then, with the dog, laid himself
down in the hamper, which Was carefully
packed, and sent to the nearest seaport
during the night. All the next day the
hamper lay about the wharf as if it were of
no value; but at night it was, as previously
arranged, carefully taken on board a vessel,
and a few hours afterwards the gentleman
was once more safe on English ground, the
dog from first to last not having uttered a


single sound. The faithful animal was now
more highly prized than ever, and a place
was assigned it regularly at the table of its
Anecdotes illustrative of the noble qua-
lities of the dog are so numerous, that many
volumes have already been devoted to the
purpose of recording them. I shall there.
fore only relate here an exploit performed
by a Newfoundland dog.
A man called Wilson, residing near a
navigable river, kept a pleasure boat. One
day he invited a small party to accompany
him in an excursion on the river. They set
out. Among the number were Mr. Wilson's
wife and little girl, about three years of age.
The child was delighted with the boat, and
with the water-lilies that floated on the sur
face of the river. Meanwhile a fine New-
foundland dog trotted along the bank of the
stream, looking occasionally at the boat, and
thinking, perhaps, that he would like a sail
Pleasantly onward went the boat, and the
party were in the highest spirits, when little
Ellen, trying to get a pretty lily, stretched


sut her hand over the side of the boat, and
in a moment she lost her balance and fell
into the river. What language can describe
the agony of those parents, when they saw
the current close over their dear child i
The mother, in her terror, could hardly be
prevented from throwing herself into the
river to rescue the drowning girl, and her
husband had to hold her back by force.
No one took any notice of Nero, the faith-
tul dog; but he had kept his eye on the
boat, it seems. He saw all that was going
on; he plunged into the river at the critical
moment when the child had sunk, and dived
beneath the surface. Suddenly a strange
noise was heard on the side of the boat
opposite to the one toward which the party
were anxiously looking, and something
seemed to be splashing in the water. It
was the dog. Nero had dived to the bottom
of that deep river, and found the very spot
where the poor child had sunk. Seizing her
clothes, and holding them fast in his teeth,
he brought her up to the surface of the
water, a very little distance from the boat;
and, with looks that told his joy, he gave the


little girl into the hands of her astonished
father. Then, swimming back to the shore,
he shook the water from his long shaggy
coat, and laid himself down panting to re-
cover from his fatigue. Ellen seemed for
a while to be dead; her face was deadly pale,
and hung upon her shoulder; but by and by
she recovered gradually, and in less than a
week she was well. You may be sure the
dog is a favourite now.


HE lion is an inhabitant of the hot
parts of Asia, such as India and
Persia. A few are still to be met
with in the deserts between Bagdad and
Bassorah; but their proper country is Africa,
where their size is larger, their numbers
greater, and their rage more tremendous,
being inflamed by the influence of a burn-
ing sun on a most arid soil.
The lion is called the king of animals,
on account of his courage, generosity, and
strength. His power is so great, that, as
is affirmed, a single stroke of his paw is
sufficient to break the back of a horse.
The roar of the lion is strong and loud;
but when he is irritated, his cry is shorter,
repeated more suddenly, and is still more


terrible than his roaring. At such times,
he stamps with his feet, beats his sides with
Ais tail, agitates the hair of his head and
mane, moves the skin of his face, and shows
his teeth.
The lurking-place of the lion is generally
chosen near a spring, or by the side of a
river, where he has an opportunity of sur-
prising such animals as resort to the water
to quench their thirst. When hungry, he
will attack any animal that presents itself;
but he is so formidable that all attempt to
avoid him, and this circumstance often
obliges him to conceal himself, and lie in
wait, that he may take his victim by
There is a story told of a poor Hottentot,
who was sent to take his master's cattle to
water at a pool not far from the house. When
he came to the watering-place, he perceived
that a huge lion was lying there, apparently
bathing himself. He immediately ran, with
the greatest terror, through the midst of the
herd of cattle, hoping the lion would be
satisfied with one of the cattle, and allow
him to escape. He was mistaken, however.


The lion dashed through the herd, and made
directly after the man. Throwing his eyes
over his shoulder, he saw that the furious
animal had singled him out. Not knowing
what else to do to get clear of his enemy,
he scrambled up an aloe-tree that happened
to be near. At that moment the lion made
a spring at him, but unsuccessfully, and
fell to the ground. There was in the tree
a cluster of nests of the bird called the
sociable grosbeak, and the Hottentot hid
himself among these nests, in hopes that
he could get out of the lion's sight, and
that the beast would leave him; so he re-
mained silent and motionless for a great
while, and then ventured to peep out of his
retreat. To his surprise; he perceived that
he was still watched. In this way he was
kept a prisoner for more than twenty-four
hours, when at last, the lion, parched with
thirst, went to the pool to drink, and the
Hottentot embraced the opportunity to
come down, and run home as fast as his
legs could carry him.
"Where he has never experienced the
sagacity of man, or the power of his arms,


the lion disdains and sets him at defiance
instead of betraying fear at his approach;
but when acquainted with his ingenuity, he
feels sensible of his inferiority, and employs
stratagem to overcome him.
Many stories are told of the lion's gene-
rosity. That his instincts are subdued in
favour of weaker animals, particularly dogs,
is well known. It was once customary for
those who were unable to pay sixpence
for the sight of the wild beasts in the Tower
of London to bring a dog or a cat as a gift
to the beasts. Among others, a man had
brought a pretty black spaniel, which was
thrown into the cage of the great lion.
Immediately the little animal trembled and
shivered, crouched and threw himself on
his back, put forth his tongue, and held up
his paws, as if praying for mercy. In the
meantime, the lion, instead of devouring
him, turned him over first with one paw,
and then with the other. He smelled him,
and seemed desirous of courting a further
acquaintance. The keeper, on seeing this,
brought a large mess of his own family
dinner, but the lion kept aloof, and refused


to eat, keeping his eye on the dog, and
inviting him, as it were, to be his taster.
At length, the little animal's fears being
somewhat abated, and his appetite quick-
ened by the smell of the food, he approached
slowly, and, with trembling, ventured to eat.
The lion then advanced gently, and began
to partake, and they finished their meal very
quietly together. From this day a strict
friendship commenced between them, con-
sisting of great affection and tenderness on
the part of the lion, and the utmost con-
fidence and boldness on the part of the dog,
insomuch that he would lay himself down
to sleep within the fangs and under the
jaws of his terrible patron. In about twelve
months the little spaniel sickened and died.
For a time the lion did not appear to
conceive otherwise than that his favourite
was asleep. He would continue to smell
him, and then would stir him with his
nose, and turn him over with his paws.
But, finding that all his efforts to awake
him were in vain, he would traverse his
cage from end to end at a swift and
uneasy pace. He would then stop and


look down upon him with a fixed and
drooping regard, and again lift up his head
and roar for several minutes as the sound
of distant thunder. They attempted, but
in vain, to carry the carcase from him.
The keeper then endeavoured to tempt him
with a variety of food, but he turned from
all that was offered with loathing. They
then put several living dogs in his cage,
which he tore in pieces, but' left their
carcases on the floor. His passions being
thus inflamed, he would grapple at the bars
of his cage, as if enraged at this restraint
from tearing those around him in pieces.
Again, as if quite spent, he would stretch
himself by the remains of his beloved
associate, lay his paws upon him, and take
him to his bosom, and then utter his grief
in deep and melancholy roaring for the
loss of his little playfellow. For five days
he thus languished, and gradually declined,
without taking any sustenance, or admitting
any comfort, till, one morning, he was found
-dead, with his head reclining on the carcase
of his little friend. They were both interred


LL writers upon natural history agree
in considering the tiger as the most
beautiful, but at the same time the
most ferocious of quadrupeds; yet it is diffi-
cult to arrive at any correct conclusion
respecting the size or beauty of this terror-
striking creature from his captivity in this
country, as want of exercise and other causes
tend materially to depress the growth, and
render the skin less brilliant than when
they roam at large in their native deserts.
This animal is peculiar to Asia. He is
the most rapacious and cruel of all the
carnivorous tribe, his thirst for blood being
insatiable. Fierce without provocation, and
cruel without necessity, he attacks, destroys,
and tears in pieces every animal with equal


fury and rapacity, never desisting while an
object remains in his sight that he can over-
come. His bravery fears neither the opposi-
tion of men nor animals; the former he not
unfrequently makes his prey, and he is said
by some writers to prefer human flesh to any
other. The roar of this animal is chiefly
heard in the night, and is said to be exceed-
ingly dreadful.
The skin of the tiger is held in great esti-
mation throughout the East, more especially
by the Chinese, who use it as a covering
to the seats for their judges. The general
colour is an orange-yellow ground, with a
series of transverse bands of a blackish hue,
forming a bold and striking contrast. The
Indian physicians attribute several extra
ordinary medical virtues to many portions
of the tiger's body. The tongue, dried and
reduced to powder, they consider as a specific
for nervous diseases; the fat and the eyes, for
many disorders incidental to the human frame.
* The tiger is hunted with great pomp and
ceremony in the East, and is a favourite
diversion in many parts. In the island
of Java, the emperor sometimes makes cri-


minals who are condemned to death fight
with tigers; but even if he ultimately suc-
ceed in killing his ferocious antagonist, he
must suffer death.
An officer, who had long been stationed at
the court of Java, related that he was once
witness to a most extraordinary occurrence
of this kind. A Javanese, who had been
condemned to be torn in pieces by tigers,
and for that purpose had been thrown down
from the top into a large cage, in which
several of those animals were confined, for.
tunately fell exactly upon the largest and
fiercest of them, across whose back he sat
astride, without the creature doing him any
harm, but even, on the contrary, appearing
intimidated, while the others also, awed by
the unusual posture and appearance which
he made, did not attempt to destroy him.
He could not, however, avoid the punish-
ment of death to which he had been con-
demned, for the emperor commanded him to
be shot dead in the cage.
The tiger is cowardly and easily frightened,
as will be seen from the following story:-A
British officer, who lived in India, was re-


turning one evening to the house where he
resided, after dining with another officer,
when he was met by his servants, who were
making a great noise in order to frighten
away a tiger which was known to be prowl-
ing about in the neighbourhood. Although
he had been some years in India, the young
officer had never seen a tiger, as it happened,
except from a distance, and he determined
he would gratify his curiosity, if possible,
and have a good view of the animal. So he
dismissed his servants, and seated himself
opposite the jungle where the tiger was
supposed to be, and there looked out for the
enemy. It was moonlight, and the ferocious
beast soon discovered the officer. The latter
could distinctly see all the motions of his
savage foe. He approached so slowly as
scarcely to make the least noise; then,
crouching down, he prepared to make the
fatal spring at his victim. At this instant,
however, the officer, taking off a bearskin
cap which he wore, swung it in the air,
and shouted as loudly as he could. This so
frightened the tiger, that he made off, and
was soon out of sight among the bushes.


The tigress is very much attached to her
young, and, although furious at all times,
her rage is tremendous when robbed of her


L naturalists agree in giving the
elephant the character of being
the most sagacious animal next
to man. Yet, were we to form our idea of
his capacity from his outward appearance,
we should be led to conceive very meanly
of his abilities; for, at first view, the elephant
presents the spectator with an enormous
mass of flesh that seems scarcely animated.
His huge body, covered with an apparently
callous hide; his misshapen legs, that seem
scarcely formed for motion; his small eyes,
large ears, and long trunk-all give him an air
of stupidity. But our prejudices soon subside
when we come to examine his history, and
will serve to increase our surprise when we
consider the various advantages it derives


from so apparently clumsy a conformation.
Elephants are said not to attain their full
growth till they are thirty years old. Their
longevity is well known: even in a state of
slavery and labour some have been said to live
from one hundred to one hundred and thirty
years. Their flesh is eaten by the natives, and
the trunk is said to be a delicious morsel.
These animals cannot endure cold, and
are averse to an excess of heat. They are
fond of marshy places, and love to wallow
in the mire like a hog. The ordinary food
of the elephant consists of herbs, the tender
branches of trees, fruits, and grain: animal
food they abhor. Elephants often sleep stand-
ing, but are not incapable of lying down, as
is erroneously believed. They are very mild
and harmless, except when wounded, and
are said never to use their weapons but
in self-defence. It is very dangerous to
offer them the least injury, however, for
they run directly at the offender, whom
they either pierce with their tusks, or seize
with their trunk, dart him into the air like
a stone, and then trample him under their


When tamed, the elephant is the most
obedient of all animals, and becomes en-
tirely attached to his keeper; he readily
understands the sound of his master's voice,
be it the language of anger, satisfaction,
or command. He receives his orders with
attention, and lowers his body for the con-
venience of those who mount him, and
caresses his friends with his trunk; the latter
he also uses for the purpose of lifting bur-
dens, and assists those who are loading him;
and when yoked in a waggon or cart, he
pulls cheerfully, unless abused by injudicious
chastisement. A tame elephant will do as
much labour as six or eight horses, but he
requires a quantity of food in proportion.
These animals were much used in war by
the ancient Indians, and are still so em-
ployed in Cochin and other places where
firearms are little used. Both the Greeks
and Romans soon learned to get the better
of these monstrous animals in war: they
opened their ranks, and allowed them to pass
through, only endeavouring to kill their
After being once attacked by man, they


are said never to forget the injury, but seek
every opportunity of revenge. In India,
an elephant-driver one day had a cocoa-
nut given him, which, in order to break,
he struck two or three times against the
elephant's head. The next day, the animal
saw some cocoa-nuts exposed in the street
for sale, and, taking one of them up in his
trunk, he threw it at the driver's head.
A merchant in the East Indies kept a
tame elephant, which was so exceedingly
gentle in his habits, that he was permitted
to go at large. This huge animal used to
walk about the streets in the most quiet
and orderly manner, and paid many visits
through the city to those who were kind
to him. Two cobblers took an ill-will to
this inoffensive creature, and several times
pricked him on the proboscis with their
awls. The noble animal did not chastise
them in the manner he might have done,
and seemed to think they were too con-
temptible to be angry with them. But he
took other means to punish them for their
cruelty. He filled his trunk with water
of a dirty quality, and, advancing toward


them in his ordinary manner, spouted the
whole of the puddle over them. The pun-
ishment was highly applauded by those
who witnessed it, and the poor cobblers
were laughed at for their pains.
Numerous anecdotes have been related of
the sagacity of the elephant, of which the
following well-authenticated facts are an
An elephant of Adsmeer, which often
passed through the bazaar or market, as
he went by a certain herb-woman always
received from her a mouthful of greens.
At length he was seized with one of his
periodical fits of rage, broke his fetters,
and, running through the market, put the
crowd to flight, among others this woman,
who in her haste forgot a little child she
had brought with her. The animal, recol-
lecting the spot where his benefactress was
wont to sit, took up the infant gently in
his trunk, and placed it in safety in a stall
before a neighboring house.
Another was once wounded in battle,
and rendered so furious by the pain she
endured, that she ran about the field


uttering the most hideous cries. One of
the men was unable, in consequence of
his wounds, to get out of her way. The
elephant seemed conscious of his situation,
and for fear she should trample upon him,
took him up with her trunk, placed him
where he would be more safe, and continued
her route.

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