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 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Main














Title: Commercial vegetable insect and disease control guide
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049938/00001
 Material Information
Title: Commercial vegetable insect and disease control guide
Translated Title: Circular / Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 193A ( English )
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Brogdon, James
Marvel, M. E.
Mullin, R. S.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1960
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049938
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Circular 193A


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Commercial Vegetable Insect

And Disease Control Guide



J. E. BROGDON, M. E. MARVEL and R. S. MULLIN






Pest control is essential in producing commercial truck crops.
*.jfU-b m. MMuanlllilaniIT h


June 1960
















CONTENTS
Page
G general .................................................... 3
Pesticide Tolerances .......... .... ........ ................. .... .... ....... ... 4
Insecticide Interval Chart ................. ... ......-------- ................... 8
Fungicide Internal Chart ...................... ....... .... .......... .......... 29

Insects Diseases
B means .... ............................................. ........................................ 11 31
Carrots .................................. ................................ 33
Celery ........................ ......................................... 13 33
Corn, Sw eet .................... ..... .................. ....... ..... 14 36
Crucifers
Broccoli, Brussel Sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower,
Chinese Cabbage, Collards ..-....................-.....-....---. 17 37
Turnip, Mustard ........------............ .. --...........-. ...... 18 39
R adish ................................ ............-................ 18 48
Cucurbits
Cantaloupe, Cucumber, Squash ......................................... 18 39
W aterm elons ...................................... ............... .... .. 18 40
E ggplant .................. .................................. ...... ..... 19 42
Lettuce and Endive (Escarole) ................................------- 20 43
Okra .........-..... .....---........................... ..-- .. 21 -
Onions ....-......... ............. .............. .. 21 44
Pea, English ................- ..- ...... ............. ............... 22 44
Pea, Southern (Cowpeas, Black-eye, Crowders) ............. 22 -
Pepper ......... ............. ... ... ........ 22 44
Potato, Irish ............... --..-. -. .-- ..- ............ 23 46
Potato, Sweet .........-------...--------..~ ....- ........... 24 48
Spinach .. ................. ....... ...... ......... .... 25 -
Strawberry ....-..... ... --.- -............. ---.. ---.......... 25 48
Tom ato ........... .. --.. ......- ... ... .... .....-- ..... 27 49











Commercial Vegetable Insect

And Disease Control Guide


J. E. BROGDON, M. E. MARVEL and R. S. MULLIN


Prepared in cooperation with the following Agricultural Ex-
periment Station Workers (alphabetically by Experiment Sta-
tions and workers within each station):


Central Florida Station, Sanford: J. F. Darby, J. W. Wilson
Everglades Station, Belle Glade: W. G. Genung, E. D. Harris, P. L.
Thayer
Gulf Coast Station, Bradenton: J. P. Jones, E. G. Kelsheimer,
Amegda J. Overman, J. M. Walter
Indian River Field Laboratory, Ft. Pierce: N. C. Hayslip, R. E. Stall
Main Station, Gainesville: C. W. Anderson, A. A. Cook, M. K.
Corbett, P. Decker, L. C. Kuitert, D. A. Roberts, A. N. Tissot,
C. H. Van Middelem, G. F. Weber
North Florida Station, Quincy: W. B. Tappan
Plantation Field Laboratory, Fort Lauderdale: H. I. Borders
Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings: A. H. Eddins, R. B.
Workman
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory, Plant City: A. N. Brooks
Subtropical Station, Homestead: R. M. Baranowski, R. A. Conover,
G. D. Ruehle, D. O. Wolfenbarger
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Leesburg: W.
C. Adlerz, J. M. Crall, N. C. Schenck

Control measures recommended herein are the most effective
within limits of research results and observations with approved
pesticides. Information is given on pesticide tolerances and
minimum days between last application and harvest. There will
be changes; therefore, the user is strongly urged to keep abreast
of developments.


(Circular 193 was printed in March 1959.)


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director







AMOUNTS, RATES, COVERAGE, TIMING,
COMPATIBILITY
Definite information offered in relation to particular crops,
pests and pesticides is stated in appropriate places in the text.
Spray materials are shown in amounts of the listed formulations
per 100 gallons of water. Wettable powder formulations are
given in most instances. Equivalent amounts of liquid concen-
trates can be used. Suggested acre rates should be adjusted to
insure complete coverage but, in general, 20-35 pounds of dust,
50-150 gallons of spray or 20-40 pounds of bait are accepted
amounts from which adjustments may be made.
There is no substitute for close observation and supervision
in developing and maintaining an effective vegetable pest control
program. Constant consideration must be given to weather,
potential incidence of disease or insect, economics, correct identi-
fication, proper timing, nozzle placement, spray pressure, wind
direction and velocity, uniformity and layout of field, stage of
plant development in relation to other plantings, speed of equip-
ment and other things.
Give consideration to the compatibility of pesticide combina-
tions. Although there can be many suitable mixtures of chemi-
cals, a given application must meet several requirements, includ-
ing: (1) each component must be fully effective; (2) must not
be harmful to crop; and (3) the materials must mix readily
and cause no difficulty in operation and maintenance of equip-
ment. In case of questionable compatibility of a mixture of
pesticides, do not attempt the combination. Generally it is not
desirable to mix wettable powders with emulsifiable concentrates.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Insecticides and fungicides are poisonous to man and animals
and should be handled with all precautions given on the label.
The relatively few deaths among workers handling large amounts
of poisonous agricultural products or economic poisons can be
traced to disregard of even the minimum safety directions and
precautions found on product labels. Some violations occur
through ignorance or misunderstanding of the available informa-
tion. Many more violations result from plain carelessness-or
what is worse, recklessness on the part of workers who have
been adequately informed. The key to safe handling is under-
standing coupled with the diligent practice of safe working
habits. Accidents with pesticides can be prevented. Some of







the major causes are: (1) leaving the material within reach of
irresponsible persons; (2) failure to read and follow the use
precautions on the label; (3) carelessness in the disposal of
empty containers.
Parathion belongs to the phosphate group of insecticides which
includes demeton (Systox), TEPP and phosdrin. These materials
are extremely poisonous-take special precautions when you
use them. When handling, mixing and applying such materials,
use clean protective clothing, wear rubber gloves and wear an
approved respirator.
Members of the chlorinated hydrocarbon group of insecticides,
which includes DDT, lindane, chlordane, aldrin, dieldrin and
others, are generally less hazardous to man than many of the
phosphatic insecticides. However, these also must be handled
with proper precautions. If a worker suspects excessive ex-
posure to any insecticide, he should see a doctor immediately.

PESTICIDE TOLERANCES AND MINIMUM DAYS BETWEEN
LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST*
Some of the agricultural chemicals used on vegetables may
remain on them when they are harvested. In excessive amounts
many are injurious to humans. Any contamination of vegetables
and other agricultural foods is a matter of concern to growers,
shippers, the chemical industry, agricultural and public health
authorities, law enforcement officials and the consumer.

WHAT IS A TOLERANCE?
To avoid harmful amounts of residues of agricultural chemi-
cals in our foods, rules for their safe use are provided by law.
One such rule is "tolerance."
Tolerance is simply the amount of a pesticide which scientists
have determined may safely remain as a residue on the food
crop without injury to the consumer. The "tolerance" is specific
for the pesticide and the crop and is established by regulation.
The Food and Drug Administration first considers evidence of
safety and the amount of residue which will remain if the product
is used according to directions on the label. FDA then sets a
"tolerance" which will be safe and which can be met if the direc-
tions are followed. If a tolerance is not necessary for protection
of the consumer, FDA may exempt a particular product from
requirements for a tolerance.
Particularly subject to revision, depending on more current information.







A limited number of pesticide chemicals have been officially
declared safe and do not require either a tolerance or exemption.
Except for these products, no amount of residue of a particular
chemical on a specified crop is permitted if (1) there is no toler-
ance or exemption or (2) the tolerance is zero. However, the
absence of a published tolerance or of an exemption does not
necessarily imply that a pesticide chemical may not be used.
Some pesticide uses-for example, certain dormant sprays and
soil treatments--do not result in residues of the chemical on
the harvested crop. Uses which do not leave residues do not
require tolerances or exemptions and do not have to be passed
upon by the Food and Drug Administration.

THE LAW AND CONSUMER PROTECTION
Under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, a food con-
taining residue in excess of the tolerance is defined as "adulter-
ated" and must not be shipped across state lines. Most states
have laws to deal with crops produced and consumed within their
own boundaries.
The U. S. Food and Drug Administration checks on conditions
and practices during the growing season of each crop, and on
any spray-removal practice by shippers. If excessive residues
from a particular area are suspected, samples are examined from
outgoing shipments of the crop. If residues in excess of toler-
ances are then found, the shipment is removed from the market
by a State or Federal Court order. The law also provides for
action against persons and business firms responsible for viola-
tions.
HOW GROWERS CAN AVOID EXCESSIVE RESIDUES
Generally, growers can avoid residues in excess of tolerances
on harvested crops by applying pesticides on the crops specified,
in the amounts specified and at the times specified in this pub-
lication or on the pesticide label. In many instances the mini-
mum number of days to be allowed between last application and
harvest given in the insecticide and fungicide Interval Charts
in this publication will differ from the number of days specified
on the pesticide label. The intervals not in parentheses in the
insecticide interval chart are based on Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station residue research conducted under Florida
weather conditions and in accordance with Florida dosage recom-
mendations.







The labeling for all pesticides shipped interstate must be
registered with the U. S. Department of Agriculture under the
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. All label-
ing submitted to the Department of Agriculture with applica-
tions for registration is thoroughly examined to remove or modify
any directions for use on particular crops which do not appear
to fulfill the requirements of that law. Among other consider-
ations, USDA determines if any pesticidally effective treatment
is likely to leave excessive chemical residues on the harvested
raw agricultural commodities. If a crop is not named on the
label of a particular pesticide, this may mean that no residue
of that pesticide is permitted on that crop; and hence the treated
crop could not be shipped if it contains a residue of that chemical.
It is not safe to reason that "if a little is good, more will be
better." Observance of the recommended time of application
gives assurance that the pesticide will not contaminate the
edible portion of the fruit or vegetable, or will have been removed
or sufficiently decreased by weathering, decomposition, or other
process so that at harvest the residue will not be excessive.
If you employ airplane or other custom applicators, be sure
they know their business and follow good agricultural practices.

RULES FOR THE PACKER-SHIPPER
How does the packer-shipper who handles the produce of many
individual growers make sure that he does not ship a product
containing excessive residue? Here are two suggestions.
1. He should make it a point to ask each grower and satisfy
himself (during the growing season if possible) that any pesti-
cides used were used only in accordance with registered label
directions or other highly authoritative recommendations.
2. He should follow good commercial practice for the area,
the crop, and the pesticide used, with respect to removal of ex-
cessive residues-by washing, brushing, trimming, etc.

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN EXCESSIVE RESIDUES OCCUR?
If FDA finds residues in excess of tolerances on shipments,
the first action is to protect the consumer by seizure of the goods,
if possible.
If a shipment is seized, the owner has three choices as to
courses of action:
1. He may admit the violation as charged and ask the court
for permission to take the goods under bond for removal of ex-







cessive residues. This must be done under supervision of the
Food and Drug Administration. If reconditioning is successful,
the goods are released.
2. He may deny the violation as charged and have the case
tried on its merits in the Federal court.
3. He may do nothing, in which case the goods will be de-
stroyed, or otherwise disposed of as determined by the Court.
Because of the highly perishable nature of most produce, the
owner should act promptly (a return date of 10 days is usually
specified) if he wishes to act under 1 or 2 above. Prosecution
and court injunction are additional legal measures. They may
be taken against persons or business firms or both.
Most of the pesticide tolerance information above was taken
from Leaflet No. 6, "Protecting Crops and Consumers," Food
and Drug Administration, U. S. Department of Health, Educa-
tion and Welfare.

INSECT CONTROL
VEGETABLE INSECTICIDE INTERVAL CHART
The purpose of the chart (page 8) is to give the minimum
number of days between last application and harvest for foliar
application of approved pesticides as of May 1, 1960. The ab-
sence of an interval for many of the pesticides on some crops in
the chart does not necessarily imply that the pesticides may not
be used on those crops. In many instances a tolerance has been
set, but a definite interval has not been established. These uses
would require such restrictions as "do not apply after blooms
appear" or "do not apply after edible parts start to form," and
others. Also preplanting soil treatments, which generally do
not require time limitations, are not included in the chart.
The listing of a pesticide for a crop does not necessarily con-
stitute a recommendation for control of insects or diseases on
that crop by the Florida Agricultural Extension Service and
Experiment Stations. Recommendations are given under in-
dividual crops or groups of related crops.
The number of days not in parentheses in the chart are based
on Florida Agricultural Experiment Station research which in-
cluded foliar application under Florida conditions and in accord-
ance with Florida dosage recommendations given in this Circular.
There are exceptions, including instances of no residue data on
dust applications involving crops particularly susceptible to resi-
due problems. Where these can be anticipated, they are pointed






VEGETABLE INSECTICIDE INTERVAL CHART (As of May 1, 1960)
The chart gives minimum days that should be allowed between last foliar application and harvest. The number of
days not in parentheses are minimum days between last foliar application and harvest suggested by the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station for the indicated amounts (see footnotes) of insecticides expressed as pounds of active ingredient per
acre. If these dosages are exceeded the days not in parentheses are not applicable and a longer interval must be allowed.
The days in parentheses ( ) are USDA minimum days between last application and harvest for specified dosages.
Do not exceed the dosage on the pesticide label.
Generally the Florida dosage (on which the Florida interval is based) is considerably less than the dosage accepted
by USDA for labels. This explains some of the differences between Florida intervals and those of USDA.


DDT DiazinonI


Dieldrin


Malathion


Parathion |


Phosdrin | Toxaphene


Beans ...................... 5e ( 7) I (7) 3h (1) 3d (15) ( 1) 5f (7)s
Southern peasi ...... 5e ( 7) ___ 3d (15) 5h
Broccoli ................ (14) 7f (5) (30) (3) 7c (21) (1)
Cabbage .................. (21) 7f, o (14)o ( 7) (21) (7) 7c (21) ( 1) 7,o (7)
Cauliflower ............ (21) 7f -( 5) (21) (7) 7c (21) ( 3)
Cantaloupe ............ (7) (5) (3) (1) 3b ( 7) (7)
Watermelon ............ (7) ( 5) (3) (1) 3b (7) b (14)
Carrotm -................. ( 7) (NTL) I (10) (21) (7) (15) I (14) (NTL)
Radishm ............... (7) (NTL) (10) (21) (7) 3a (15)
Turnipm ................ (14) (10) (30) (3) (15) (3)
Celery .................... I 14f (10) (7) 7b (15) (7) 14h
Cucumber ................ ( 7) (5) (7) (7) (1) 3b (15) (1)
Squash .................... (7)1 (5) ( 7)P (7)1 (1) 3b (15) (14)
Lettuce .................... | (30) 14f, k ( 7)k (10) | (21) 7g, k (7)q 10a, k (21) ( 2) 14g,k (7)k
Endive (Escarole) I (30) 14f (10) (21) (7) 10c (21)
Onion ...................... _(10) I(14)n (3) (15) (1)
Potatoes .................. (NTL) (NTL) (14) (21) (NTL) ( 5) ( 1) (NTL)
Sweet potatoes ...... (NTL) (NTL) __(21) (15) 1 (NTL)
Spinach ............. (14) I 14d (10) (21) (7) 10a (21) (4)
Collards .................. (14) 14f (10) (21) 3f (7) 10a (21) ( 3)
Mustard greens .... (14) 14d (21) (7) 10a (21) | ( 3)
Turnip greens ........ I 14d (10) _(3)r 10a (21)( 3)
Tomatoes .-............. (3) 3f (5) (3) ( 7) (1) 3d (10) (1) 3i (3)
Eggplants ........... (3) 3 ( 5) (7) (3) 3d (15) (5) (5)
Peppers .................. (3) 3f (5) (5) (7) (3) 3d (15) (5) (5)
Sweet corn .............. l1h, t | 3d ( 1)
Okra ........................ I( 7) ]_ 3e (21)
Strawberries .......... |5f ( 5) 1 1 (3) 3d (14) (1)


Crop


Aldrin








(Chart Continued)
Chlordane: Strawberries 14f days; washed strawberries 7f days; peas (15)
days; potatoes (NTL) ; carrots (NTL)-do not use top for food or feed.
Demeton (Systox) (foliage application only) : Beans 14b days; broccoli,
brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, muskmelons, potatoes
(21) days; washed strawberries 7b days; watermelon (7) days.
Dibrom: Beans (lima and dry), broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, col-
lards, endive, lettuce, mustard greens, onions (bulb only), peas, spinach,
strawberries, turnips, tomatoes (4) days; potatoes (NTL).
Endrin (zero tolerance): Tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, summer
squash (14) days; potatoes (3) days; cabbage 350 days (at 0.2 lb. active
ingredient per acre).
Ethion: Beans (4) days; melons (7) days; strawberries (14) days; to-
matoes (7) days.
Guthion: Broccoli, cauliflower (15) days; cabbage (21) days; potatoes (14)
days; strawberries (5) days.
Kelthane: Cantaloupe, cucumbers, squash, watermelons, eggplant, pepper,
tomatoes, strawberries (2) days; beans (7) days.
Lindane: Watermelons, cantaloupe (NTL); cucumbers, squash (remove
excess residue).
Methoxychlor: Cantaloupe, cucumber, squash, watermelons, turnip roots,
eggplants, peppers, tomatoes (1) day; beans, southern peas, cabbage,
strawberries (3) days; cauliflower, carrots (roots), radishes (7) days;
broccoli, lettuce, spinach, collards, turnip greens (14) days; potatoes,
sweet potatoes (NTL).
Perthane: Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower (3) days; lettuce (4) days; spinach
(7) days.
Sevin: Beans, cucumber, eggplant, peppers, summer squash, tomatoes (up
to the day of harvest); strawberries (3) days; potatoes (NTL).
TDE: Cucumbers, eggplants, melons, peppers, squash, tomatoes (1) day;
strawberries (5) days; potatoes (NTL).
TEPP.(Zero Tolerance): Truck and vegetable crops (3) days.
Thiodan: Eggplants, peppers, tomatoes (7) days; cucumbers, cantaloupe,
watermelons, squash (14) days; potatoes (NTL).
Trithion: Strawberries (3) days; cantaloupes, watermelons (5) days; beans,
cucumbers, eggplants, peas, peppers, summer squash, tomatoes (7)
days; spinach (21) days; potatoes (NTL).


The amounts of pesticides (expressed in pounds of active ingredient per
acre) used in setting the Florida intervals (see chart) follow:
a = 0.15 lb. b = 0.25 lb. c = 0.3 lb. d = 0.5 lb. e = 0.75 lb.
f = 1.0 lb. g = 1.5 lbs. h = 2.0 lbs. i = 2.5 lbs.

j = Southernpeas include cowpeas, blackeye peas, crowders, etc., but not English peas
k = Head lettuce-outer leaves removed at harvest; not after seedling stage for leaf lettuce
1 = summer squash only m = roots only n = dry onions-not green
o = If outer leaves are removed at harvest p = except 3 days for winter squash
q = 7 days for head lettuce-14 days for leaf lettuce
r = Turnips including tops a = Dust only
t = Do not feed treated forage to dairy animals or animals being finished for slaughter
NTL = No time limitation (when used as recommended).
9







out in the table and in the text. IF DOSAGES ARE EX-
CEEDED, THE MINIMUM DAYS GIVEN IN THE CHART
ARE NOT APPLICABLE AND A LONGER INTERVAL
SHOULD BE ALLOWED BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION
AND HARVEST. Each grower should plan and follow a pest
control program which will assure him of vegetables that do
not contain excessive pesticide residues. Vegetables marketed
with residues exceeding tolerances set by Food and Drug Ad-
ministration are potentially injurious to consumers; may result
in serious financial loss to the grower; and may reduce public
acceptance of fresh Florida vegetables.
In the absence of Florida data, other minimum days between
last application and harvest are shown in parentheses and have
been compiled from information from various USDA Agencies.
These intervals have been established in accordance with specified
dosages or recommendations by USDA. Do not exceed the
dosage given on the pesticide label.

INSECTICIDE FORMULATIONS AND AMOUNTS
Certain insect pests of vegetables, for example aphids and
serpentine leaf miners, are more numerous and more difficult to
control in some areas of the state than in others. These differ-
ences frequently make variations in the dosages of insecticides
necessary to control the same pest. Where there is a range in
amounts in this publication, the higher dosages are aimed at the
more difficult insect problems. For instance, the higher amounts
of the recommended insecticides will usually be needed to con-
trol aphids and serpentine leaf miners in the southern part of
the state, while the lower dosages may be adequate in the
northern part.
Spray materials are shown in amounts of the listed formula-
tion per 100 gallons of water. There may be several formula-
tions of some pesticides. For example, parathion is available as
15% and 25% wettable powders, and as liquid concentrates con-
taining 2, 4 or 8 pounds of active ingredient per gallon. To save
space only one formulation of a pesticide is listed for a particular
pest under a crop. Wettable powder formulations of insecticides
are given in most instances. Equivalent amounts of liquid con-
centrates can be used, however. Suggested acre rates should
be adjusted to insure complete coverage but, in general, 20-35








pounds of dust, 50-150 gallons of spray or 20-40 pounds of bait
are accepted amounts from which adjustments may be made.
The following table can be used as a guide in determining
equivalent amounts of other insecticide formulations that may
be used instead of those given in this publication:


Amount of Formulation (at left) needed to
Insecticide obtain the following amounts of active in-
Formulation gredient:
'_% lb. /2 lb. l% Ib. 1 Ib.

1% dust .............................. 25 50 75 100
2% dust .............................. 12 25 37 2 50
5% dust ............................ 5 10 15 20
10% dust .......................... 2% 5 71/2 10
15% wettable powder ........ 12/3 lbs. 31/3 bs. 5 lbs. 6% lbs.
25% wettable 'powder .......... 1 lb. 2 lbs. 3 lbs. 4 lbs.
40% wettable powder .......... % lb. 1/, lbs. 1/s lbs. 21/2 lbs.
50% wettable powder ......... / lb. 1 lb. 1% lbs. 2 lbs.
23-25% liquid concentrate
(2 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) ........................ 1 pint 1 quart 3 pints 2 quarts
42-46% liquid concentrate
(4 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) ...--.................... % pint 1 pint 11/2 pints 1 quart
60-65% liquid concentrate
(6 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) .......................... pint 2 pint 1 pint 1% pints
72-78% liquid concentrate
(8 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) ........................... 14 pint pint % pint 1 pint


BEANS

(Bush, Lima, Pole)

Spray Dust
Armyworms (Fall, Toxaphene wp, 2/2 lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10%
Southern, yellow- DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
striped), corn
earworm

Apply when armyworms appear, continue at 7-day intervals
until control is complete. Armyworms often migrate into field







or moths lay eggs and larvae develop on grass. When grass is
destroyed, worms migrate to beans. Sulfur may be used as all,
or a part, of the diluent in dusts for beans. Toxaphene may
cause burn and stunting of pole beans.

Spray Dust
Cowpea curculio Toxaphene wp, 2 lbs. 40% Toxaphene 5%
Apply when pods begin to set and repeat weekly. Note com-
ments on toxaphene on pole beans above.

Spray Dust
Bean leafhopper DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
and leafroller
Apply at first signs of leafhoppers 1 to 3 applications at 10-
day intervals, last treatment just before blooming. Under con-
ditions of severe infestations the time interval between applica-
tions may need to be reduced. See remarks above relative to
using sulfur as a diluent. In Everglades, Lower East Coast and
West Coast areas leafhoppers most severe in spring during warm
dry periods, in central and northern Florida most prevalent in
the fall. Young plants suffer most.
Wait for fairly heavy population of leafrollers before apply-
ing insecticide. In some cases, dusting borders of large fields
with airplane is adequate. Usually not necessary to treat whole
field unless acreage is small or infestation is severe.

Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 2%%
21/2 lbs. 40%
Chlordane wp, Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
21/2 Ibs. 40%
Endrin em 21/2 ts.
(1.6 lbs. per gal.)
Apply the insecticide to the soil surface before planting if
cutworms are known to be present, and do not disturb soil for
3 to 5 days. When toxaphene spray is used as a preplanting
treatment, increase the amount to 5 lbs. 40% wp (2 pounds
active ingredient) per acre. Watch young plants for worm
injury and bait, dust or spray immediately. Do not use chlordane
spray or dust after blooms appear. Use endrin as pre-emergence
treatment only. Note comments on toxaphene on pole beans
under armyworms.








A home-made bait can be prepared by thoroughly mixing 5
pounds of 40% wettable chlordane or 6 pounds of 40% wettable
toxaphene with 100 pounds of wheat bran. Moisten bait slightly
just prior to applying. Best to apply bait in late afternoon.

Spray Dust
Mexican bean beetle Parathion wp, 3 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
Malathion wp, 6 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
Rotenone wp, 21/2 lbs. 5% Rotenone 1%
Sevin wp, 1 lb. 50% Sevin 11/22%
Apply when insects are noticed or damage becomes evident.
Spot control may be effective if infestation is found early. Mexi-
can bean beetles are a problem in the North and West Florida
areas. Grower observations in the Gainesville area indicate that
lower dosages of parathion give satisfactory control except when
infestations are very heavy.

Spray Dust
Cucumber beetles, Diazinon wp, 1-11/2 lbs. 25% Diazinon 2%
Serpentine leaf miner Parathion wp, 1-2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Diazinon is the preferred material for leaf miners. Sulfur
is the recommended diluent for diazinon dusts.

Spray Dust
Thrips Parathion wp, 1-11/2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Thrips may be a problem on leaves and pods. DDT or toxa-
phene used for other pests are also effective. Note comments
on toxaphene-see armyworms.

Spray Dust
Stinkbugs Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
Phosdrin wp, 1 lb. 25%
Apply when insects appear. Especially important to insure
low population when pods begin to set.

Lesser cornstalk See under Sweet Corn
borer

CELERY

Spray Dust
Aphids Dibrom em, 1 pt. (8 lb.
per gal.)
Parathion wp, 1% lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%*
Phosdrin em, 1 pt. 25%
13








Aphids transmit some virus diseases. This fact makes their
control important. Keep ditches and roadways free of weeds
and watch closely for aphids. DDT emulsifiable concentrate is
effective as a preventive if used in a regular 7-to 10-day schedule,
but is not too effective against established infestations. Under
some conditions DDT emulsion causes injury to small seedlings
and should be used with caution on young plants. Good coverage
is essential.
Spray Dust
Armyworms and Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10%*
cutworms
When toxaphene spray is used as a preplanting treatment for
cutworms, increase the amount to 5 lbs. 40% wp (2 lbs. active
ingredient) per acre and do not disturb soil for 3 to 5 days.

Spray
Thrips DDT em, 1 qt. 25%
Garden fleahopper

Spray Dust
Serpentine leaf miner Parathion wp, 12-2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%*
Insufficient Florida residue information on these dusts on celery.
When active ingredient of dust applied exceeds the amount in the recom-
mended spray application on which Florida interval (see chart) has been
established, a longer interval should be allowed.

CORN, SWEET

Spray Dust
Aphids and Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
red spiders
Infestations of the above insects may become heavy enough
to require control measures in some areas of the state.

Spray
Fall armyworms DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50%
and corn earworms Toxaphene wp, 4 lbs. 40%
feeding in corn bud Parathion em, 1/ pt. (4 lbs. per gal.)
Make first application for budworms when feeding is ob-
served. Repeat at 1-to 2-week intervals, depending on severity
of infestation. Direct the spray from above and from each side
of the plant to the upper leaves to thoroughly wet and run down
into the bud-whorl.







Spray Dust
Earworm DDT em, 3-4 qts. 25% DDT 10%
Parathion 2%
DDT 5%-Parathion 1%
Timing and good coverage are absolutely essential for good
earworm control. All treatments must be started when the
silks first appear and continued until all the silks are dry or
brown. Applications of one of the insecticide materials recom-
mended above will give adequate control when applied at 48-
hour intervals to sweet corn silking during the fall, winter and
early spring. The 3 to 4 quarts of DDT emulsion should be
applied in 50 gallons of water to 1 acre. The dust must be applied
at the rate of 25 to 30 pounds per acre. Dust or spray should be
directed at the silks.
Earworm infestations become heavier as the spring season
progresses. Apply 4 quarts 25% DDT emulsion in 50 gallons
of water per acre at 48-hour intervals or one of the recommended
dusts at 24-hour intervals from midspring to early summer. In
late spring or early summer, the effectiveness of the emulsion
can be increased by adding 1.75 gallons of white mineral oil to
50 gallons of spray. Apply white mineral oil only when heavy
earworm infestations are expected, as it may reduce yield. Never
use the white mineral oil when growing conditions are poor and
the corn has a tendency to be unthrifty. Under such conditions
white mineral oil may cause husk discoloration and stunted ears.

Spray Dust
Silk-fly Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
Check for adult flies and if present make first application
just before silking. One to 3 applications may be needed.

Spray
Corn Stem Weevil DDT em, 4 qts. 25%
Treatments must be started when the first seedling emerges
from the soil and continued at 4-day intervals for 6 applications
or until the corn stem is 1/2 inch or more in diameter. Sprays
must be directed to the lower stem and the adjoining soil. Use
overhead nozzles to apply 50 gallons per acre until the foliage
begins to form a canopy that prevents the spray from reaching
the ground and lower stem. Then, add a nozzle to each side of
the row and increase the rate to 100 gallons per acre. Cultiva-
tion should be as infrequent as possible during this spray schedule
and should immediately precede a spray application.







DDT 50% wp at 6 pounds per 100 gallons is slightly less effec-
tive than the 25% em at 4 quarts per 100 gallons. If it is abso-
lutely necessary to use the wettable powder it should be used at
6 to 8 pounds per 100 gallons. DDT dusts and granules have
not been evaluated.
The corn stem weevil has been recognized as a pest only in the
Everglades.

Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, 5 lbs. Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 2%%
(Preplanting 40%
Treatment) Chlordane wp, 22 lbs. Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
40%
Aldrin wp, 2 lbs. 25%
Endrin em, 21/2 pts.
(1.6 lbs. per gal.)
Use dust, spray or bait as pre-emergence treatments, and do
not disturb soil for 3 to 5 days.

Wireworm
Apply aldrin or heptachlor at 3 to 5 pounds active ingredient
or chlordane at 4 to 6 pounds active ingredient per acre 2 to 3
weeks before planting. Distribute evenly over the soil surface
and disk into the soil to a depth of 6 inches. Use the higher
dosage on muck. These materials mixed with fertilizers and
applied in bands are generally less effective than application by
the above method.

Lesser Cornstalk Borer
In the Everglades area apply parathion or aldrin or hepta-
chlor, using wetting agent or detergent in spray water to help
wet soil and webbing; make first application broadcast (covering
rows and middles) just before crop emerges using 3 pounds 15%
parathion wp or 2 quarts aldrin or heptachlor emulsion (2 pounds
aldrin or heptachlor per gallon) per acre; make second applica-
tion as soon as crop emerges and before cultivation, using 3
pounds 15% parathion wp or 1 quart aldrin or heptachlor emul-
sion per acre. Higher gallonage (up to 300 per acre) of more
dilute coarse sprays at about 100 pounds pressure may be more
effective. In West Coast area DDT or chlordane at 11/2 pounds
actual material per acre as a spray or dust is recommended at
the time young plants break through the ground. High gallon-
age coarse sprays at about 100 pounds pressure are preferred.








CRUCIFERS


Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli
(Adding a spreader-sticker in sprays applied to the foliage of
crucifers at rate recommended by the manufacturer may improve
control.)
Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion em, % pt. Parathion 2%
(4 lb. per gal.)
Demeton (Systox) em,
1% pts. (2 lbs. per gal.)
Phosdrin em, 1 pt. 25%
Spray Dust
Serpentine Parathion em, 1/ pt. Parathion 2%
leaf miner (4 lb. per gal.)

Spray Dust
Cabbage looper, Endrin em, 1 pt. (1.6 lbs. Endrin 2%*
armyworms, per gal.) Parathion 2%
other foliage Parathion em, %-1 pt. Toxaphene 10%
caterpillars (4 lb. per gal.)
Phosdrin em, 1-2 pts. 25%
Toxaphene em, 1Vz-2 pts.
(6 lbs. per gal.)
Insufficient Florida residue information on this dust on cabbage.
When active ingredient of dust applied exceeds the amount in the recom-
mended spray application on which Florida interval (See Chart) has been
established, a longer interval should be allowed.
Cabbage loopers become increasingly difficult to control with
increase in size. Large mature loopers have not been controlled
with double dosages of combinations of insecticides. Do not
apply endrin or toxaphene to broccoli or cauliflower after .edible
parts begin to form.

Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene em, 3 pts. Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 2%%
(Preplanting (6 lbs. per gal.)
Treatment) Endrin em, 2%1 pts. Endrin 2%
(1.6 lbs. per gal.)
Make preplanting treatment to the soil surface if worms
are present, and do not disturb soil for 3 to 5 days. After plant-
ing, regular sprays of toxaphene at 1/ to 2 pints or endrin at 1
pint per 100 gallons of water will prevent the establishment of
cutworms. Dusts or bait can be used. See home-made bait
under Bush and Pole Beans.

Mole-Cricket
Apply aldrin at 2 pounds active ingredient or chlordane at
4 pounds active ingredient per acre as a spray or dust, or a 2%








chlordane or aldrin wheat bran bait evenly over the soil surface
before seeding or transplanting if tunnels are evident. After
plants are up, use a bait. Apply fresh bait in late afternoon
when soil is moist and warm.
For seedbeds use a poison bait; or drench with an emulsion
containing 1/4 pound actual chlordane in 100 gallons of water
per 1,000 square feet of seedbed area.

Wireworm
Apply aldrin at 3 to 5 pounds active ingredient or chlordane at
4 to 6 pounds active ingredient per acre 2 to 3 weeks before plant-
ing. Distribute evenly over the soil surface and disk into the
soil to a depth of 6 inches. Use the higher dosage on muck.
These materials mixed with fertilizers and applied in bands are
generally less effective than application by the above method.

Radish, Turnip, Mustard
Spray Dust
Aphids Malathion wp, 4 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1-2%*
Phosdrin wp, 1 lb. 25%
Insufficient Florida residue information on these dusts on the above
vegetables. When active ingredient of dust applied exceeds the amount in
the recommended spray application on which Florida interval (See Chart)
has been established, a longer interval should be allowed between last
application and harvest.
Note: Phosdrin not cleared on radish as of May 1,1960.

Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene 21/2%
Chlordane 2%
See home-made bait under Bush and Pole Beans.

Spray Dust Bait
Mole-cricket Chlordane 2%
Apply before seeding.

CUCURBITS

Cantaloupe, Cucumber, Squash, Watermelon
Spray Dust
Serpentine leaf miner Diazinon em, 1 pt. 25% Diazinon 2%
Parathion wp, 1-11/2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
There have been some instances of injury to watermelons by diazinon
wettable powder sprays. This appears to be cleared up.








Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 1-1/2 Ibs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Phosdrin wp, 1 lb. 25%
Thiodan wp, 1 lb. 500
Spray Dust
Melonworm, squash Lindane wp, 1 lb. 25% Lindane 1Y%%
bug, pickleworm, Parathion wp, 1-1% Ibs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
cucumber beetles Phosdrin wp, 1 lb. 25%
Rindworms on Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
watermelons Phosdrin wp, 1-2 lbs. 25%
The corn earworm feeding as a rindworm has been quite
troublesome in central and south Florida. DDT is the specific
control for corn earworms, but is not generally recommended
on cucurbits because of possible injury to plants. However, after
the melons are near maturity, the possibility of injury may be
so slight that improved control with DDT may warrant its use.
To avoid injury to bees which are necessary for pollination,
spraying or dusting with insecticides should be delayed until late
afternoon or evening. It is suggested that parathion spray be
applied early enough that it dries before dew fall, reducing
possibilities of foliage burn. Do not apply parathion when plants
are wet or very young.

EGGPLANT
Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 1/2-2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Thiodan wp, 1 lb. 50%
Begin applications when aphids appear; repeat at 10-day to
2-week intervals.
Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 212%
2 lbs. 40%
Chlordane wp, Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
21/2 lbs. 40%
Apply before planting if worms are present or at first signs
of worm damage to young plants. When toxaphene spray is
used as a preplanting treatment, increase the amount to 5
pounds 40% wp per acre and do not disturb soil for 3 to 5 days.
See home-made bait under Bush and Pole Beans. Moisten
slightly just prior to applying. Best to apply bait in late after-
noon.
Spray Dust
Corn earworm, other DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
foliage caterpillars
flea beetles,
Colorado potato
beetles








Spray Dust
Spider mites Kelthane wp, 11/2-2 bs. Kelthane 2%
(red spiders) 182%%
Malathion wp, 4 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
More than one kind of spider mite infest eggplant. Para-
thion, malathion and sulfur are effective against the common
red spider, but do not control certain other species. Kelthane is
a new miticide that has given good control of all species that
infest eggplant. Sulfur is the suggested diluent for parathion
and malathion dusts.
Spray Dust
Thrips DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
Parathion wp, 1-11/2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Sulfur may be used as a diluent for DDT or parathion dust,
thus aiding in the control of spider mites (red spiders).

Spray Dust
Serpentine leaf miner Parathion wp, 11%-2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Apply when infestation appears; 1 to 2 applications at 7-day
intervals should be sufficient.

LETTUCE AND ENDIVE (ESCAROLE)
Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 1-1/2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%*
Phosdrin wp, 1 lb. 25%
Note: Phosdrin not approved for use on endive as of May
1, 1960.
Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, Toxaphene 5% Toxaphene 22%
2/2 lbs. 40%
Chlordane wp, Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
21/2 bs. 40%
If possible prepare land at least a month before planting and
apply bait, spray or dust a week before seeding or transplanting.
See home-made bait under Bush and Pole Beans. When toxa-
phene spray is used as a preplanting treatment, increase the
amount to 5 pounds 40% wp per acre, and do not disturb soil
for 3 to 5 days. Toxaphene dusts and sprays may injure young
seedlings or newly transplanted lettuce or endive.

Spray Dust
Banded cucumber DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%*
beetle, caterpillars Parathion wp, 1-1% lbs. 15% Parathion 2%*
Phosdrin wp, 1-2 lbs. 25%
20








Note: Phosdrin not approved for use on endive as of May
1, 1960.
Spray Dust
Lygus bug DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
Apply when damage is noted.

Mole-cricket See mole-cricket under Crucifers.
Wireworms See under Crucifers.
Insufficient Florida residue information for these dusts on lettuce
and endive. When active ingredient of dust applied exceeds the amount in
the recommended spray application on which Florida interval (See Chart)
has been established, a longer interval should be allowed between last appli-
cation and harvest.

OKRA

Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 11-2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Begin applications when aphids appear; repeat at 10-day to
2-week intervals.

Spray Dust
Okra caterpillar DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%*
Apply when infestation or leaf injury is first noted.

Spray Dust
Serpentine leaf miner Parathion wp, 11/2-2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Apply when infestation seems general; 1 to 2 applications at
7-day intervals should be sufficient.

Spray Dust
Stinkbugs Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
Apply when insects appear.


ONIONS

Spray Dust
Thrips Parathion wp, 1-1% lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Malathion wp, 3 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
Apply when thrips appear; repeat when necessary. Use
250-300 pounds pressure and direct nozzles over rows close to
plants. Addition of spreader-sticker to spray is suggested and
coverage down into sheaths is very important.

Spray Dust
Serpentine leaf miner Parathion wp, 1-11/ lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%

21








Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene 2%%
Chlordane 2%

Apply before planting if cutworms are present or at first
signs of worm damage to young plants. Apply baits in late
afternoon. See home-made bait under Bush and Pole Beans.

PEA, ENGLISH
Spray Dust
Aphids, Parathion wp, 11/22 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
serpentine leaf miner
Begin applications as soon as insects appear; repeat at 10-day
intervals as needed.

PEA, SOUTHERN
(Cowpeas, Black-eye, Crowder, etc.)
Spray Dust
Cowpea curculio Toxaphene wp, 21/2 lbs. 40% Toxaphene 5%
Apply when pods begin to set and repeat weekly.
Spray Dust
Serpentine leaf miner Parathion wp, 1%-2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Apply when infestations seem general; 1 to 2 applications at
7-day intervals should be sufficient.
Spray Dust
Stinkbugs Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
Toxaphene wp, 21/ lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10%
Apply when insects appear. Especially important to insure
low population when pods begin to set.
Spray Dust
Leafhopper and DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
leaf-roller
See comments on these insects under Bush and Pole Beans.

Lesser cornstalk borer See under Sweet Corn

PEPPER


Serpentine leaf
miner
Aphids

Aphids may
diseases.


Spray Dust
Diazinon wp, 1-1% lbs. 25% Diazinon 2%
Parathion wp, 11/2-2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Parathion wp, 1/2-2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Thiodan wp, 1 lb. 50%
transmit certain viruses which cause mosaic









Fall armyworm,
Southern armyworm,
corn earworm


Spray
DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50%


Apply when worms appear and at intervals of about 10 days
if infestation continues.

Spray Dust
Pepper weevil DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
Apply when infestation becomes evident. Cut open fallen
blossom buds and small fruits for evidence of infestations.


Thrips


Spray Dust
Parathion wp, 1-1/2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%


Apply when thrips are noted in blooms; repeat with 1 to 3
applications at 7-day intervals. Attempt thorough coverage
just before blooming.

NOTE: The use of dust or wettable powder formulations of
DDT without an aphicide is likely to result in a build-up of aphids.


See under Crucifers.


Spray
Toxaphene wp,
21/2 lbs. 40%
Chlordane wp.
2Y lbs. 40%


Dust Bait
Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 2%%
Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%


Apply before planting if cutworms are present or at first
signs of cutworm damage to young plants. When toxaphene
spray is used as a preplanting treatment, increase the amount to
5 pounds 40%o wp per acre and do not disturb soil for 3 to 5
days. Best to apply bait in late afternoon. See home-made bait
under Bush and Pole Beans.


Lesser cornstalk
borer


See under Sweet Corn.


Aphids


Armyworms,
loopers, other
caterpillars


POTATO, IRISH

Spray
Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15%
Phosdrin wp, 1 lb. 25%
Thiodan wp, 1 lb. 50%
Endrin em, 1 pt. (1.6 lbs.
per gal.)
Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15%
Phosdrin wp, 1-2 lbs. 25%
Thiodan wp, 1 lb. 50%
Toxaphene wp, 21/2 Ibs. 40%
23


Dust
Parathion 2%


Endrin 2%

Parathion 2%

Toxaphene 10%


Dust
DDT 5%


Mole-cricket

Cutworms








Bait Spray Dust
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 2%%
2V/ lbs. 40%
Chlordane, wp Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
2/2 lbs. 40%
See home-made bait under Bush and Pole Beans. When
toxaphene spray is used as a preplanting treatment, increase the
amount to 5 pounds 40% wp per acre and do not disturb soil
for 3 to 5 days.
Spray Dust
Colorado potato DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
beetle
NOTE: The use of dust or wettable powder formulations of
DDT without an aphicide is likely to result in a build-up of aphids.

Spray Dust
Leaf-footed plant Chlordane wp, 21/2 lbs. 40% Chlordane 5%
bug, green stink- Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
bug Phosdrin wp, 1 lb. 25%
Thiodan wp, 2 lbs. 25%
Serpentine leaf Diazinon wp, 1-1% lbs. 25% Diazinon 2%
miner, banded Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
cucumber beetle
Wireworm See under Crucifers.
Wireworms in the Hastings area are resistant to aldrin and
chlordane and are not controlled by these insecticides. Parathion
at 2 pounds active ingredient or diazinon at 1 to 2 pounds active
ingredient per acre are recommended. Apply as directed under
Crucifers.

POTATO, SWEET
Spray Dust
Armyworms, horn- DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
worms, other Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10%
caterpillars,
gold bug
Begin applications when insects appear; 1 to 2 applications
usually sufficient. Thorough coverage is difficult where vines
are dense. It may be necessary to insert dust nozzles into vines
to get adequate coverage and satisfactory control.
Sweet potato weevil: Sanitation. Use certified or weevil-free
seed.
Based on research conducted on the control of sweet potato
weevils by the USDA, growers who are in need of a chemical
control may use the following treatments.








Seedbed Treatment.-Dust with 2 percent dieldrin. Make
the first application when the first scattered plants show color
in the stems. Make the second application when all the plants
are up. Make additional applications after each pulling. Apply
the material so as to cover all of the soil surface around the
plants, using at each application 1/4 pound of dust per 100 feet
of row, or on beds 1/4 pound per 80 square feet of surface.
Field Treatment.-When the vines begin to meet in the
middle or the largest roots are 1/2 inch in diameter, use 75 pounds
per acre of 2 percent dieldrin dust. Apply the insecticide to the
soil rather than the foliage in a 6- to 8-inch band on each row
along the plant crowns. Ask your local inspector or county
agent how best to apply the insecticide.
Harvest all sweet potatoes before December 1 and cull out
any infested ones.
When storing or banking sweet potatoes, dust them with 10
percent DDT at the rate of 1 ounce per bushel as you bank them.
Dust the ground and straw used.
CAUTION: Wash all potatoes which have been dusted before
eating or feeding to livestock.
Try to use all your potatoes by March 1, being certain to
destroy all infested potatoes, and do not allow volunteer plants
around old storage sites. These and plants left in the field are
almost certain to carry over weevils from year to year.

SPINACH
Spray Dust
Aphids, caterpillars, Malathion wp, 4 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
other chewing Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1-2%*
insects Phosdrin wp, 1-2 lbs. 25%
Insufficient Florida residue information on these dust on spinach. When
active ingredient of dust applied exceeds the amount in the recommended
spray application on which Florida interval (see chart) has been estab-
lished, a longer interval should be allowed between last application and
harvest.
STRAWBERRY
Spray Dust
Pameras DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%*
Parathion wp, 1-11/2 lbs. 15% Parahtion 1-2%*
Malathion wp, 4 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
Insufficient Florida residue information on these dusts on strawberries.
When active ingredient of dust applied exceeds the amount in the recom-
mended spray application on which Florida interval (see chart) has been
established, a longer interval should be allowed between last application
and harvest.








Parathion gives better control than malathion. Malathion is
safer than parathion, but should be handled with the proper
precautions. See caution below on use of parathion and mala-
thion.
Spray Dust
Flower thrips Parathion wp, 1-1 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%*
Note comments on parathion.

Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Chlordane wp. Chlordane 5%* Chlordane 2%
2 lbs. 40%
For control of cutworms distribute the dust or spray evenly
over the soil surface. Baits should be moistened and applied
in late afternoon. See home-made bait under Bush and Pole
Beans.
Spray Dust
Lesser cornstalk Chlordane wp, 2 lbs. 40% Chlordane 5%*
borer, field DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%*
cricket Parathion wp, 1-1Yz lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%*
Flea beetles, DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%*
Leaf rollers Parathion wp, 1-11 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%*
Spider mites Kelthane wp, 1Y2-2 lbs. Kelthane 2%
(red spiders) 18V2%
Malathion wp, 4 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%*
Insufficient Florida residue information on these dusts on strawberries.
When active ingredient of dust applied exceeds the amount in the recom-
mended spray application on which Florida interval (see chart) has been
established, a longer interval should be allowed between last application
and harvest.
More than one kind of spider mite infest strawberries. Para-
thionri malathion and i.ilftir are effective against the common
red spider, but do not control certain other species. Kelthane
has 'given control of all species that infest strawberries and is
the preferred miticide. Sulfur is the suggested diluent for
parathion and malathion dusts. See cautions below on use of
parathion and malathion.

Mole-crickets See mole-crickets under Crucifers.
Wireworms,'citrus root weevil :'See wireworms under Crucifers.

CAUTION: To prevent injury to leaves, apply insecticides
when plants are dry. Where recommended and needed, parathion
and malathion should be applied immediately after harvesting.
Wait at least 3 days before harvesting again.
26








TOMATO


Spray Dust
Parathion wp, 11/2-2 Ibs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Thiodan wp, 1 lb. 50%


Armyworms,
tomato fruitworms,
loopers


DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50%
Phosdrin wp, 1-2 lbs. 25%
TDE (DDD) wp, 2 lbs. 50%
Thiodan wp, 1 lb. 50%


DDT 5%
TDE (DDD) 5%


Hornworms TDE (DDD) wp, 2 lbs. 50% TDE (DDD) 5%

Parathion is effective against newly hatched hornworms.


Serpentine leaf
miner, banded
cucumber beetle


Spray Dust
Diazinon em, 1-11/ pts. 25% Diazinon 2%
Parathion wp, 11/2-2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%


Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply insecticides twice a
week when there are heavy migrations of adult leaf miners from
nearby abandoned host vegetable fields. There have been some
instances of injury to tomatoes by diazinon wettable powder
sprays. This appears to be cleared up.


Stinkbugs, other
plant bugs


Spray
Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15%
Phosdrin wp, 1 lb. 25%
Thiodan wp, 1 lb. 50%


Dust
Parathion 2%


Spray
Toxaphene wp,
2% Ibs. 40%
Chlordane wp,
21/2 lbs. 40%


Dust Bait
Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 2/2%
Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%


For control of soil-infesting cutworms spray or dust evenly
over the soil surface. Moisten baits and distribute in late after-
noon. Apply toxaphene or chlordane sprays or dusts to the soil
before plants emerge or plants are set in the field. When toxa-
phene spray is used as a preplanting treatment, increase the
amount to 5 pounds 40% wp per acre and do not disturb soil for
3 to 5 days. Regular sprays of DDT, TDE or parathion will
prevent the establishment of cutworms after the crop is planted.
See home-made bait under Bush and Pole Beans.

Wireworms See under Crucifers

Mole-cricket, field cricket See under Crucifers


Aphids


Cutworms







DISEASE CONTROL


VEGETABLE FUNGICIDE INTERVAL CHART
The purpose of the chart (page 29) is to give the minimum
number of days between last application and harvest for applica-
tion of approved fungicides as of May 1, 1960. The absence of an
interval for many of the fungicides on some crops in the chart
does not necessarily imply that the fungicides may not be used
on those crops. In many instances a tolerance has been set, but
a definite interval has not been established. These uses would
require such restrictions as "do not apply after blooms appear"
-or "do not apply after edible parts start to form," and others.
Also preplanting soil treatments, which generally do not require
time limitations, are listed only in a few instances.
The listing of a fungicide for a crop does not necessarily con-
stitute a recommendation for control of a disease on that crop
by the Florida Agricultural Extension Service and Experiment
Stations. Recommendations are given under individual crops
or groups of related crops.
In the fungicide chart (page 29) there are 3 columns under
each fungicide listed. The first column lists the allowable ppm
tolerance for the designated vegetable. This is set by the Food
and Drug Administration. The second column lists the number
of days needed between the last application and harvest for the
material to be reduced below the allowable tolerance. This
figure is determined by the USDA and is based on the amount of
active ingredient listed in column 3. Thus, if a fungicide, say
ferbam, is listed as 7-4-3.0, it means that after 4 days an applica-
tion of 3.0 pounds of active ingredient will have been reduced to
not more than 7 parts per million. The 3.0 pounds active in-
gredient would mean 3 pounds, 15 ounces of 76% material per
acre. (Four pounds of 76% material would be 3.04 pounds active
ingredient.) IF DOSAGES ARE EXCEEDED, THE MINIMUM
DAYS GIVEN IN THE CHART ARE NOT APPLICABLE AND
A LONGER INTERVAL SHOULD BE ALLOWED BETWEEN
THE LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST.
Each grower should plan and follow a disease control pro-
gram which will assure him of vegetables that do not contain
excessive fungicide residues. Vegetables marketed with resi-
dues exceeding tolerances set by the Food and Drug Administra-
tion may be injurious to consumers, may result in serious finan-
cial loss to the grower, and may reduce public acceptance of fresh
Florida vegetables.




VEGETABLE FUNGICIDE INTERVAL CHART


CAPTAIN DICHLONE FERBAM MANEB PCNB STREPTO- ZINEB ZIRAM






Black-eyed
peas 17 7 7
Broccoli 100 7 10 B 2.8 0 S EE 7 7 4.8 7 7 3.0
Cabbage 100 0 P 0.4 7 C 2.3 10 7 BB 0 S EE 7 7 4.8 7 7 3.0
Cantaloupe 100 NTL 3.8 7 7 NTL 4.0 7 NTL 3.0 7 NTL 3.0
Carrot 100 NTL 1.8 7 E 3.0 7 NTL 3.0 7 E 3.0 7 E 3.0
Cauliflower 100 7 10 S EE 7 7 4.8 7 7 3.0
Celery 100 C 4.5 3 NTL 1.12 7 3.0 10 F CC O C 200 7 F 3. 7 F 3.0



Chinese
Cabbagck-eyed 100 10 7
peas 7 1


Collards 100 7 10 25 7 7 3.0 7
Corn-abbagsweet 100 C 2.3110 7 BD 2. S EE7 7 4.8 7 7 3.0


Cucua 100 NTL 3.0 7 7 NTL 3.0 O X 400 7 NTL 3.0 7 NTL 3.0
gCarrot 100 NTL 1.8 7 E 3.0 7 NTL 3.0 7 T 3.0 7 NTL 3.0
CaulEndive (Esc.) 100 7 10 U DD 257 7 4.8 7 7 3.0


Lettucelery 100 NTL 2.5 NTL 0.75 7 C 1.5 10 U DD T 22.5 25 U 3.0 7 F 3.0
Chinese
Cabbage 100 10 _25 7 3.0




Mustard
Collagreens 100 7 10 25 7 3.0
Onionweet 100 NTL 17 7 NTL 3.0 7 7 .0 7
PeCucumber 100 NTL 3.0 7 C 1.3 7 NTL 3.0 V 7.50 X 00 7 NTL 6.5 7 NTL 3.0
Potatoes 100 NTL .0 0 NTL 1.3 NTL 3.0 0.1 NTL .0 A FF NT M 3.0 7 NTL 3.0
Radi(Esc.) 100 U DD 25 7 NTL 2.4 7 NTL 3.0
Spinaettuce 100 NTL 2.5 1 7 C 1.5110 U DD J T 22.5 25 7 3.0 7
greens 100 7 10

SOnon 100 NTL 1.5 7 7 NTL 4.0 I 7 3.0 7.
PeppStrawberries 100 NTL 3.8 15 3 0.375 7 14 3.0 0 V 5 7 N7 2.5 7 NZ 4.6
Tomatoes 100 NTL 5.0 3 NTL 1.25 7 14 4.0 70 NTL 4.0 0 V 7.5 X 200 7 NTL 3.0 7 NTL 3.0
Turnips 100 7 7 7 NTL 3.0 7 NTL 3.0
Spinach 100 NTL 1.10 2.75 7 3.0
Watermelons 100 NTL 3.8GG 7 7 NTL 4.0 7 NTL 3.0 7 NTL 3.0
Strawberries 1100 NTL 3.8 15 3 0.375 7 14 3.0 1 7 7 2.5 7 Z 4.6
Tomatoes 100 NTL 5.01 3 NTL 1.251 7 14 4.01 7 NTL 4.0 0 V 7.5 1 0 X 200 7 NTL 3. 7 NTL 3.0
Turnips 100 7 NTL 3.0 7 NTL 3.0
Turnip
greens 100 110 7 7 3.0
Watermelons 100 NTL 3.8 7 7 7 NTL 3.0 7 NTL 3.0








Other Fungicides
Copper fungicides-Exempt if used in accordance with good agricultural
practices. Not exempt if used at time of or after harvest.
Chloranil-Celery-O-Preplant soil treatment at 0.8 lb. per acre.

Dyrene-Celery-10 ppm-NTL, treated celery should be washed and
trimmed.
Onion-1 ppm on dry onions. Do not use on green onions.
Potatoes-1 ppm-NTL.
Tomatoes-10 ppm-NTL.
Karathane-Cantaloupe-0-7 days-0.5 Ib. per acre.
Cucumber-O-7 days-0.5 lb. per acre.
Squash-0-7 days-0.5 lb. per acre.
Strawberries-O-21 days-6 oz. per acre.
Watermelon-O-7 days-9 oz. per acre.
Nabam plus zinc sulfate-same as zineb.
Nabam plus manganese sulfate-same as maneb.
Thiram-Celery-O-Plant bed treatment at 0.25 Ib. per 1,200 sq. ft.
Strawberries-7 ppm-3 days-3.3 lbs. per acre.
Tomatoes-7 ppm-NTL-1.0 lb. per acre.
Sulfur-Exempt.

Guide to Limitations in Fungicide Interval Chart
NTL No time limitation.
O No residue allowed. No residue will remain on crop when the product
is used precisely as directed.
A Preplant soil treatment.
B Remove residue by washing or trimming if application made within
3 days of harvest.
C Plant bed treatment.
D Kernel and cob. Do not feed treated forage to dairy animals or ani-
mals being finished for slaughter.
E Seven days if tops are to be used as food or feed.
F Remove residues by stripping, trimming, and washing. No time
limitation.
G Three days, or trim and wash.
H Seven days, wash.
J Seven days or wash.
K Five days for head lettuce, 7 days for leaf lettuce.
L On green onions.
M Foliage applications only.
N Seven days summer squash, NTL winter squash.
P Twenty-eight days after setting. (On cabbage-combined with 30%
sulfur.)
Q Dry onions. Do not use on green onions.
R Soil and seed treatment, or 2.0 pounds per acre if applied to base of
plants before bloom.
S Transplant solution or soil preplant treatment.
T Plants 2-3 inches high.
U Leaf lettuce-7 days and wash. Head lettuce-5 days, strip and trim.








V Trench treatment at transplanting time.
W Before pods set, or on seed crops. Do not feed treated plants to
livestock.
X Until first fruits set. Do not use after edible portion begins to form.
Y Application when first true leaves appear. Plant beds only, 75-100
days from harvest.
Z Twenty to 40 days after early bloom. If applied within 7 days of
picking, remove residue by washing.
AA 2.1 lbs. per acre in spray, 2.8 lbs. per acre in dust.
BB 1.8 lbs. per acre in spray, 2.6 lbs. per acre in dust.
CC 3.2 lbs. per acre in spray, 2.8 lbs. per acre in dust.
DD 2.4 lbs. per acre in spray, 3.2 lbs. per acre in dust.
EE Transplant solution-4.5 pounds per 100 gallons of water, % pint per
plant.
Soil treatment-60 pounds per acre broadcast prior to transplanting,
or 40 pounds per acre row treatment before transplanting.
FF 195 pounds per acre broadcast prior to planting, or 65 pounds per
acre row treatment prior to planting.
GG Summer squash 3.0 pounds per acre, winter squash 3.8 pounds per acre.

BEANS

BUSH AND LIMA
Rust.-For severe rust condition, usually during spring
months when sulfur alone will not give control, the following
program is advised:
Spray with maneb (80%) at 1.5 pounds per 100 gallons water
or use sulfur plus 3.5% maneb dust, beginning at emergence
and continuing at 7-day intervals until a few days before harvest.
When rust is less severe during fall and winter, sulfur spray
at 16 pounds per 100 gallons water or sulfur dust should give
adequate control.
To be most effective, rust control should be started before
the leaves are infected. The control obtained before flowering
has more effect on yield than control later in the crop.
Powdery Mildew.-Same as for rust control.
Bacterial Blight.-No fungicidal control.
Halo blight and common bacterial blight are carried in and
on the seed (also soil). Seed treatment is not beneficial and
sprays in the field usually are not effective. Secure blight-free
seed from Western areas where proper production precautions
have been taken. Rotate crops.
Root Rots.-All cover crops should be chopped down and al-
lowed to dry completely before being plowed under. Plow under
cover crops 6 to 8 weeks in advance of planting and prepare
seedbed 5 to 10 days ahead of planting.
31







Spraying seed and soil in a 6- to 8-inch band in the opened
furrow at planting time with a 50-50 mixture of captain 50%
and PCNB 75% at the rate of 8 pounds per acre has resulted in
improved stands. Protection cannot be expected for more than
a week or 2 after seed germinates. Be sure not to exceed 8
pounds per acre, particularly during cool rainy periods of mid-
winter.
Sclerotinia.-Flooding fields for 5 to 6 weeks during summer
months will effectively reduce the number of sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils apply 500 to 700 pounds of cyanamid per acre.
Broadcast and disk in prior to planting; no waiting period neces-
sary on marl. Cyanamid not necessary if land is flooded 3
weeks or more during summer. On sand apply 900 pounds of
cyanamid and wait 3 months before planting.

POLE
Rust.-Use rust-resistant varieties of pole beans where these
are locally adapted.
For the most severe rust conditions, which usually occur dur-
ing the spring months beginning with February, when sulfur
alone will not give adequate control, the following program is
advised:
1. Spray with maneb (80%) 1.5 pounds per 100 gallons water
beginning with emergence and continuing until poles are set.
Apply sprays often enough to cover new growth as it appears.
2. After staking, dust with sulfur plus 3.5% maneb twice
weekly until beans are setting, thereafter at 5 day intervals until
about 10 days before harvest ceases. Use 30 to 50 pounds per
acre per application, depending on plant size.
When rust is less severe, during fall and winter months, sulfur
dust alone will give adequate control. Also, if sulfur plus maneb
dust is used during this period, the interval between applications
may be lengthened to 5 to 7 days.
To be most effective, rust control should be started before
the leaves are infected. The control obtained before flowering
has more effect on yield than control later in the crop.
Powdery Mildew.-Same as for rust control.
Bacterial Blight.-Same as bush beans.
Root Rots.-Same as bush beans.
Sclerotinia.-Same as bush beans.







CARROTS
Alternaria Leaf Blight
Spray
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc sulfate 36% or
Copper, 3 lbs. of 48-53% insoluble copper or
Ziram 76%, 2 lbs.
Leaf blights of carrot are serious in some localities and of
minor importance in other seasons or localities.
In early plantings it may be satisfactory to begin applications
when plants are 5 to 8 inches high and repeat at weekly intervals.
In later plantings, if the disease is established in the area, it
may be necessary to begin applications shortly after emergence
of the seedlings (3-inch stage).
Bacterial Blight.-Seed treatment in mercuric chloride
(1:1000) or hot water. Treat seed 10 minutes in water at 126F.,
or 10 minutes in 1:1000 mercuric chloride (1 ounce crystals in
71/2 gallons water). Wash seed and dry.
CAUTION: Mercuric chloride is extremely poisonous and
corrosive and must be handled with extreme care. Use a wood
or earthenware container for treating seed with mercuric chlo-
ride. Take every precaution to keep away from children and
animals. Used material should be disposed of in a safe place.

CELERY
TRANSPLANT BED

Pre-Plant Treatment
Fungi, Nematodes and Weeds.-Gases; Methyl Bromide and
Chloropicrin-Release methyl bromide under a gas-proof cover
with a special applicator. Inject chloropicrin at a depth of 6
inches at 1-foot intervals and cover it with a gas-proof cover
to confine the gas to the area to be treated. In each case the
covers may be removed 24 to 48 hours after application. Allow
3 to 7 days after treatment for the gases to escape from the soil
before seeding. Two gallons of chloropicrin or 24 pounds of
methyl bromide per 1,200 square feet of soil are recommended,
but half these amounts have been effective after August.
These gases are highly toxic and should not be inhaled.
Drenches; Chemicals applied to the surface of the soil with
sufficient water to distribute them through the root zone of the
plants. The materials recommended are listed in Table 1. These
may be substituted for the gases under cover. They cost less








and are more convenient to apply, but they are less effective,
particularly during July and August when the soil temperature
sometimes goes above 85 F. A waiting period of 2 weeks be-
tween treatment and seeding is necessary for most of the
drenches, except treatment 9 in Table 1, which requires only
a 3- to 7-day waiting period. If you follow this method of fumi-
gation, prepare the seedbeds and keep them moist at least 1
week before application to insure effective herbicidal activity.
Apply the chemicals or mixtures of chemicals with a watering
cart, garden hose proportioner, or a sprinkling can. Agitate the
solutions or emulsions when applying to prevent settling out.
Approximately 20 gallons of water per 100 square feet of seed-
bed or 250 gallons per 1,200 square feet of seedbed is necessary
to obtain adequate penetration. After treatment, the seedbed
should not be raked or cultivated beyond a depth of 2 inches be-
cause of the danger of exposing viable weed seeds.
The chemicals in some of the drenches are highly toxic and
should not be inhaled or allowed to come in contact with the
skin. Wear a gas mask containing a canister for protection
against organic vapors, rubber gloves, boots, and apron when
mixing or applying the chemicals. This is particularly important
when a person is exposed to the chemicals over a period of sev-
eral days.

TABLE 1.-CHEMICALS OR MIXTURES OF CHEMICALS RECOMMENDED FOR THE
CONTROL OF SOIL PESTS IN CELERY SEEDBEDS.

Quantity per
Chemicals 1,200 Sq. Ft.
Seedbed

1. Methyl bromide .............. ..- ..... .... ...... .... 24.0 lbs.
2. Chloropicrin ................ ........... .......... 2.0 gals.
3. Allyl alcohol .. ..- ......... ......... ........ .......... 1.1 gals.
*EDB (ethylene dibromide 83% emulsible) ................... 1.3 pts.
Formaldehyde 40% ................................... ........... ..... 2.8 gals.
4. Allyl alcohol ..... .. ..... ....... .................. 1.1 gals.
Dichloropropene and dichloropropane mixtures (D-D,
Telone) .... ....................................................................... 3.3 qts.
Formaldehyde 40% ........................................ -- ........... 2.8 gals.
5. Sodium methyl dithiocarbamate (Vapam, VPM) ........... 2.1 gals.
6. DM TT (Mylone 85W ) ............. ................. ...................... 8.3 lbs.
7. Allyl alcohol ............................................................... 1.1 gals.
Dichloropropene and dichloropropane mixtures (D-D,
Telone) ....... ........... .................... ............. ...... ........ 3.3 qts.
8. Allyl alcohol ...... ...... ........ ........... .............. 1.1 gals.
*EDB (83% emulsible) .. .......... ................ .............. .. 1.3 pts.
9. Allyl alcohol ...................................................... 1.1 gals.
1,2 dibromo-3-chloropropane 50% emulsible .................... 3.0 pts.

Not cleared for use on celery as of May 1, 1960.







The chemicals for mixtures listed in Table 1 may be pur-
chased separately and mixed, or some of them may be purchased
already mixed, bottled, and ready to use.

Post-emergence Treatment
Fungi.-Spray with thiram 50%, 1 pound in 100 gallons of
water. In the Everglades area, spray with zineb (2 pounds per
100 gallons) plus thiram (11/ pounds per 100 gallons) plus
streptomycin 50 ppm. Neutral copper (2 pounds of 48-53% in-
soluble copper) may be substituted for thiram if desired.
Begin application soon after plants emerge and repeat at
4- to 7-day intervals, depending on weather. Apply about 15
gallons of the spray per 1,200 square feet of bed area. Increase
amount as plants become larger.

Field Diseases
Early and Late Blight
Spray
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Dyrene 50%, 2 lbs. or
Maneb 80%, 11/ lbs. or
Maneb 80%, Dyrene 50%, 50-50 mixture, 2 lbs. or
Maneb 80%, ferbam 76%, 50-50 mixture, 2 lbs. or
Maneb 80%, ziram 76%, 50-50 mixture, 2 lbs. or
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. or
Ferbam 76%, 2 lbs. or
Fixed coppers, 3 lbs. of 48-53% insoluble copper
Early Blight.-Begin applications at weekly intervals and
shorten to 4 or 5 days if conditions become favorable for the
development of the disease. On peat soils after 2 applications
of any of the organic materials, follow with 1 application of
copper.
In the Sanford-Oviedo-Zellwood areas, Dyrene, maneb, the
maneb-Dyrene mixture, the maneb-ferbam mixture, and copper
have given best results.
In the Everglades area begin applications immediately after
plants are set and repeat at 4- to 5- day intervals. Dyrene,
nabam plus zinc sulfate, and maneb are most effective. Dyrene
at 1 pound mixed in the spray tank with 4 pounds of 48-53%
insoluble copper is equally effective against early blight and in
addition offers some control of bacterial blight.
Late Blight.-Tests conducted during the past 2 years in
which diseased transplants were secured from local growers have







shown the following to be the best of a total of 57 treatments:
maneb-Dyrene mixture, Dyrene, nabam plus zinc sulfate, maneb-
ferbam mixture and maneb.
For best coverage, three nozzles (1 overhead and 1 on each
side) per row and from 50 to 75 gallons per acre are recom-
mended for adequate coverage of young plants. On plants ap-
proaching maturity from 150 to 200 gallons of spray with 5
nozzles per row (1 overhead and 2 on each side) are recommended
when the disease becomes severe.
Pink Rot.-Since the disease is not serious every year it is
difficult to recommend a definite control program. Each of the
following control measures has reduced Sclerotinia, but when
conditions become favorable for the development of the disease
it may be necessary to combine all of them in order to obtain
a satisfactory control:
(1) Rotate with a crop not as susceptible to Sclerotinia, such
as sweet corn.
(2) Flood the soil either completely, partially, or intermit-
tently for a period of 6 weeks during the summer.
(3) Treat the soil with cyanamid at the rate of 900 pounds
per acre on sand at least 3 months before transplanting. This
long waiting period is necessary only in the Sanford area.
Mosaic.-The virus causing mosaic is transmitted by aphids.
At present the only effective control measure consists of eradicat-
ing the principal weed host, wandering jew, from the vicinity
of the crop. It is particularly important to do this in the seed-
bed areas. This eradication must be complete before the celery
seedbeds are planted.

CORN, SWEET
Helminthosporium Leaf Blights
Spray
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc sulfate 36% or
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. or
Maneb 80%, 11% Ibs.
Nabam plus zinc sulfate or zineb properly applied once or
twice weekly, depending on weather and disease conditions and
locations, will give economic control. For crops in the "whorl
stage" of growth the sprayer should have 2 nozzles over the
row to direct a generous quantity of the spray into the whorl,
in addition to the side nozzles required for complete coverage







of unfurled leaves. Application of fungicide should cease 10
days before harvest unless younger corn is growing nearby.
These same materials may also control corn rust.
In the Everglades and Sanford areas, maneb, 80% (11/2
pounds/100) is also recommended. It may also control corn rust.
In the Sanford area during "normal" seasons, 4 applications
of fungicide may be sufficient.
In the Homestead area maneb and nabam plus manganese
sulfate have caused injury.

CRUCIFERS
CABBAGE, CAULIFLOWER, BROCCOLI, BRUSSEL SPROUTS,
CHINESE CABBAGE, COLLARDS
Spray materials do not stick easily to the waxy leaves of
most crucifers. Use a sticker-spreader as recommended by the
manufacturer on large plants in seedbeds and on plants in the
field.
Transplant Bed
Pre-plant Treatment
Fungi-Nematodes and Weeds.-See celery transplant bed.

Post-emergence Treatment
Downey Mildew and Alternaria Leaf Spot.-Use nabam 19%
(2 quarts plus /4 pound zinc sulfate 36% per 100 gallons water)
or zineb 65% (2 pounds per 100 gallons water) for all crucifers.
Begin applications 7 to 10 days after planting, or before.
Repeat 3 times a week. Continue the treatment until plants
are set in the field. Total number of applications may vary from
6 to 15, depending upon season and weather. Use 80 to 150
gallons spray or 15 to 35 pounds dust per acre at each applica-
tion, depending on size of plants.
Plow under abandoned seedbeds and harvested fields to pre-
vent diseases from spreading to new plantings.

Field Diseases
Downy Mildew and Alternaria Leaf Spot
Spray Dust
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc sulfate 36% or
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. or Zineb 6.5%
Maneb 80%, 11/ lbs.







Where seed is sown directly in the field, spray seedlings with
nabam plus zinc sulfate or zineb as recommended for downy
mildew in seedbeds. Stop treatment when plants are thinned
to a stand. If alternaria leaf spot and downy mildew are de-
veloping rapidly when heads are half grown, resume treatment
with nabam plus zinc sulfate, zineb, or maneb and use 100 to
150 gallons spray or 25 to 30 pounds of dust per acre every 6 to 7
days.
Black Rot.-Take every possible precaution to secure disease-
free plants. Do not locate seedbeds or field plantings on land
planted to any crucifer during the preceding 12 months.
Cabbage seed grown in the Puget Sound area are reported
to be free of black rot, but the hot water treatment is recom-
mended regardless of source. Hot water treatment is carried
out as follows:
Treat seed at 122' F. Cabbage and brussel sprouts should
be treated 25 minutes; broccoli, cauliflower, collards, Chinese
cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, rutabaga and turnips should be treated
18 minutes.
Fill cheesecloth bags about 2/% full of seed. Tie the tops and
immerse in a container of water at the temperature indicated.
Keep the water temperature within 10 of that specified. Keep
the seed under water and stir to maintain uniform temperature.
At the end of the period, remove seed from the hot water and
plunge into cold water, then spread out and dry. Treatment is
a delicate operation and is best performed by a trained operator
using special equipment.
Test seed for germination before treating with hot water.
Weak seed may be killed while good seed will stand treatment
and germinate well if planted within 2 months.
It may be more convenient and economical to have seed treated
at central seed treating plants. At present the Hastings Potato
Growers Association at Hastings, Florida, is the only seed treat-
ing plant in the state of which the authors know. This asso-
ciation will treat seed (hot water) for any location in the state
for control of black rot of cabbage. It may be that in the near
future other hot water seed-treating units will be established.
Blackleg.-Use same treatment as for black rot.
Yellows.-No control after soil is infected except use of re-
sistant varieties. Growers should take every possible precaution
to secure disease-free transplants.







TURNIPS AND MUSTARD
Downey Mildew
Spray Dust
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc sulfate 36% or
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. Zineb 6.5%
When weather favors development of the disease, begin ap-
plications when seedlings emerge and repeat at 3- to 4-day inter-
vals. Addition of a spreader-sticker may be advisable.
In the Hastings area, downy mildew is seldom observed and
is of no consequence. The cabbage downy mildew fungus does
not attack turnip and mustard.
Leaf Spots.-Exact controls of the various leaf spot condi-
tions reported on these crops have not been fully determined.
Alternaria might be controlled by nabam plus zinc sulfate ap-
plications. Cerecosporella may be still another cause and nabam
plus zinc sulfate has not been an effective control. A regular
schedule of alternate sprays or dusts with maneb and zineb is
suggested.
CUCURBITS
CUCUMBER, CANTALOUPE, AND SQUASH
Downey Mildew
Spray Dust
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc sulfate or
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. or Zineb, 4-62%%
Maneb 80%, 11/ lbs.
Downy mildew is serious in all parts of the state during warm,
damp weather. Spraying every 3 to 4 days, beginning before
runners start, is necessary. In seasons of light infection, ap-
plications may be delayed until runners form and intervals may
be somewhat longer. Neither zineb dust nor weekly sprays are
generally sufficient to control the disease.
Maneb may be injurious to cantaloupe and cucumbers. Zineb,
alternating with maneb, is preferred because it is less injurious.
There are several varieties of cucumbers resistant to downy
mildew.
Anthracnose.-Same as for downy mildew.
Powdery Mildew
Spray
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Karathane, 8 to 16 oz.







The fungicides used for downy mildew give some control of
powdery mildew but will not give sufficient control. Karathane
may be added to the carbamates to eradicate powdery mildew
when it appears. If powdery mildew is a persistent problem,
for best results use Karathane on a preventive basis; i.e., on a
regular schedule (every 5 to 7 days) before the disease appears.
During cool weather sulfur may be used on squash (2 to 4
pounds) and on cucumber (no more than 2 pounds) 2 or 3 times
to control powdery mildew. Sulfur should never be used on
cantaloupe.
Angular Leaf Spot.-Use only disease-free seed, or treat seed
for 6 minutes in mercuric chloride (1 ounce crystals in 71/2 gal-
lons water), followed by rinsing in clear water and drying.
CAUTION: Mercuric chloride is extremely poisonous and
corrosive and must be handled with extreme care. Use a wood
or earthenware container for treating seed with mercuric chlo-
ride. Take every precaution to keep away from children and
animals. Used material should be disposed of in a safe place.
Weekly applications of copper sprays (3 pounds of 48-53%
insoluble copper per 100 gallons) help to control spread of the
disease in the field. Copper will not give satisfactory control
of powdery mildew and thus is not a substitute for the other
materials. Repeated copper applications may cause yellowing
of leaf margins and possibly reduce yields.
Blossom Blight.-No control recommended.
Rodents.-See Watermelons.
Mosaic.-Most mosaic symptoms in these crops are caused
by an aphid-transmitted virus that occurs naturally in wild
cucumber. Elimination of this weed around the field before
planting will help greatly in reducing losses from this virus.

WATERMELONS
Anthracnose, Gummy Stem Blight, and Downy Mildew.*-
These major diseases of watermelons can be controlled with
fungicides. The severity of these diseases varies from year to
year, depending on weather and other factors. Usually 1 or
more of them cause damage in Florida. In dry seasons the
value of fungicides may not be apparent, especially in northern
Copper (3 pounds of 48-53% insoluble copper per 100 gallons) may
be used alternately with zineb or maneb where downy mildew is the only
disease of importance. Copper spray will not control anthracnose and
some coppers cause leaf burning on watermelons.







Florida. Higher yields of higher quality melons usually result
from a systematic disease control program.
Inadequate coverage of foliage is probably the most common
cause of poor disease control. Complete coverage of both foliage
and fruit is essential for adequate disease control. It is neces-
sary to cover the underside of the leaves as well as the topside.
Spraying is preferable to dusting because better coverage is
possible. The use of a spreader-sticker is recommended.
Apply fungicides before diseases appear and continue them
afterwards. Make the first application soon after plants begin
to grow and before runners start. Weather conditions will govern
the number and timing of subsequent applications. In general,
3 to 5 sprays are sufficient in northern and central Florida, while
7 or more may be needed in southern Florida.

Spray Dust
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Alternate applications of:
Zineb 65%, 21bs. plus sticker, and Zineb, 4-61/%%
Maneb 80%, 12 lbs. plus sticker
Wilt.-Fusarium wilt is soil-borne and cannot be controlled
with fungicides. The use of resistant varieties, along with ro-
tations and new land, is the best control measure. Resistant
varieties (Blacklee, Fairfax, Charleston Gray) should not be
planted for 3 years or more following watermelons. When it is
necessary to use land which has been previously planted to water-
melons, delayed thinning is recommended with Charleston Gray.
For wilt-susceptible varieties a minimum of 8 years between
crops is desirable.
There is always danger of wilt occurring on new land con-
taminated by Fusarium from water, tools and cattle which came
in contact with infected fields.
Rodents.-Seed treatment- place 5 pounds of seed in a 5-
gallon container with a dust-proof lid. Weigh and measure out
the following materials before you start the treatment.
Make a 10% latex-water mixture by putting 0.8 ounce of
Dow Latex 512-R in a 1/-pint container and filling with water.
Then pour this solution over seed. Place lid on container and
tumble seed until uniformly moistened with adhesive.
Next, measure out 0.8 ounce endrin 50W and 5.0 ounces
thiram 75 and blend together, then add mixture to seed and
tumble until seed are evenly coated.







Then, measure out 0.8 ounce of aluminum powder (extra fine)
and add to seed and tumble until seed are evenly coated.

NOTE.-This entire seed treatment must be completed within
3 to 5 minutes, before the adhesive sets.
Finally, spread the treated seed out to dry for 24 hours before
planting. Treat only 5 pounds of seed in 5 gallon container.
You may treat larger quantities with larger equipment.
CAUTION: Endrin is extremely toxic and should not be
breathed or allowed to get on clothing or skin. If accidentally
spilled on skin or clothing, change clothes and wash immediately
with soap and water. Read and follow labels on packages ex-
plicitly. Commercially prepared packets of all ingredients with
measuring bottle are available in 5-, 10- and 20-pound packets
through pesticide distributors in Florida.
Seed-borne Diseases.-Where rodent control seed treatment
which contains thiram as an ingredient is not used, a seed treat-
ment for control of seed-borne diseases is recommended.

Ounces per Teaspoons per
100 Lbs. Seed Pound of Seed
Chloranil 48% 6 %
or
Thiram 50% 4 1/

EGGPLANT

Phomopsis.-Florida Beauty is still resistant to Phomopsis
blight. However, more of the disease has been found in the
field the past 3 seasons. Only disease-free plants should be
transplanted from seedbed to field.

Spray
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Two applications of ferbam or zineb-
3 lbs. 76% ferbam
or
2 lbs. 65% zineb
To make 6 gallons spray, use 3 ounces (22 level
tablespoonfuls) of ferbam, or 2 ounces (8 level
tablespoonfuls) of zineb.
Make the 2 applications 10 days apart, with the first at the
initial signs of any damping-off in the seedbed.
No field control recommendations, provided healthy plants
are set to the field.








LETTUCE AND ENDIVE
Downy Mildew
Spray
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Nabam 19%, 2 qts., plus % lb. zinc sulfate 36% or
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. or
Maneb 80%, 1% lbs.
Begin applications when disease appears; repeat at 4- to 5-day
intervals.
Spray twice weekly during cool, wet weather. Where rows
are spaced 18 inches apart, apply 150 to 200 gallons spray per
acre. Nabam plus zinc sulfate may cause injury.

Alternaria Leaf Spot
Spray
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Ziram 76%, 2 lbs.
For lettuce only, begin applications when disease appears;
repeat at 4- to 5-day intervals.
Nabam plus zinc sulfate, as applied for downy mildew control,
should offer a measure of control for leaf spot and is suggested
for use at 7-day intervals.
Drop.-Since the disease is not serious every year it is diffi-
cult to recommend a definite control program. Each of the fol-
lowing control measures has reduced drop, but when conditions
become favorable for the development of the disease it may be
necessary to combine all of them in order to obtain a satisfactory
control:
(1) Rotate with a crop not as susceptible to this disease,
such as sweet corn.
(2) Flood the soil either completely, partially, or intermit-
tently for a period of 6 weeks during summer.
(3) Treat the soil with cyanamid at the rate of 900 pounds
per acre on sand at least 3 months before transplanting. This
long waiting period is necessary only in the Sanford area. On
marl soils, apply 500-700 pounds of cyanamid per acre and disk
in 7 to 10 days before setting plants.
Mosaic.-Most severe on head lettuce. The recommended
control is to use only seed which has been indexed as mosaic-free.
Field spread may be reduced by aphid control.
43








ONIONS
Downy Mildew and Blast
Spray Dust
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc sulfate 36%
plus spreader-sticker or
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. plus sticker Zineb 6%%
When weather conditions favor the development of disease,
begin applications when seedlings emerge; repeat at intervals
of 3 to 4 days. In certain seasons it may be possible to begin
applications on a weekly schedule, shifting to twice-weekly ap-
plications if necessary.
It is extremely difficult to obtain adequate foliage coverage
due to the waxy nature of the onion plant. Successful control
has been reported by timing dust applications to coincide with
fine films of moisture forming on the leaf surface at certain
periods of the day.

PEA, ENGLISH
Powdery Mildew
Spray Dust
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Sulfur wp, 10 lbs. Dusting sulfur, 325 mesh
Begin applications when signs of disease appear. Repeat at
10- to 14-day intervals, or often enough to keep the disease under
control. Do not apply when plants are wet or during periods
of high temperature (above 900 F.).
Powdery mildew sometimes becomes serious during winter
months. It is usually necessary to adhere to a strict spray pro-
gram to keep it under control.

PEPPER
Transplant Bed

Pre-plant Treatment
Fungi, Nematodes and Weeds.-See celery transplant bed.

Post-emergence Treatment
Same as field treatment. See below.

Field Diseases
Damping-Off.-Avoid planting on low or poorly drained areas.
Do not follow peppers with peppers-rotate with non-susceptible
44








crops. A chemical soil treatment with SMDC (Vapam, VPM)
on direct-seeded peppers may be tried where damping-off and
other soil-borne troubles, such as nematodes and weeds, are a
problem. Inject 5 to 6 inches deep on the prepared bed at the
rate of 1 pint per 100 lineal feet of row or in 2 bands at the same
rate for 2 row beds. Good moisture for seeding and compaction
of the bed following application is essential for success. A wait
of at least 3 weeks before seeding is necessary for chemicals to
escape. The PCNB plus captain row treatment is the same as
for beans.
Frogeye Spot
Spray
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc sulfate 36% or
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. or
Ziram 76%, 2 lbs. or
Copper, 3 lbs. of 48-53% insoluble copper
In plant beds, begin spraying when plants are 2 to 3 inches
high and repeat at 7-day intervals. In fields after plants have
become established, repeat at 7- to 10-day intervals as needed.
Frogeye spot is not usually a serious disease and when
weather conditions are not favorable for its development, the
spray schedule may be modified.
A weekly spray schedule alternating copper and nabam is
suggested.
Bacterial Spot
Spray
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Copper, 4 lbs. of 48-53% insoluble copper plus 200 PPM
streptomycin sulfate
In plant beds, begin when plants emerge and repeat at 7-day
intervals. Copper may offer a measure of control during periods
of light infection. However, it will not give control during rainy,
windy periods particularly favorable for spread of the disease.
A suggested seedbed program is as follows: during rainy
periods, spray once weekly with copper (4 pounds of 48-53%
insoluble copper) plus streptomycin 200 ppm. At other times,
spray only with copper.
For field control, streptomycin at 100 ppm plus 4 pounds of
48-53% insoluble copper will reduce disease during rainy season.
Do not use streptomycin after fruit has started to form.
Viruses.-Use tobacco mosaic-resistant varieties where pos-
sible. Those recommended are Yolo Wonder, Resistant Giant
and Allbig.








Workers handling pepper plants should wash hands with
strong soap and water or 70% alcohol before handling plants.
This is most important for workers who use tobacco.
To reduce insect transmission of viruses from wild host
plants (nightshade, ground cherry and others) several practices
are suggested:
1. Eradicate wild plants in fencerows and on ditch banks
during season when crops are not growing.
2. Plant barrier crops around pepper fields. A 50-foot strip
of a non-susceptible crop, such as corn, beans, etc., tends to trap
insects flying in until they become non-infective.
3. Spray barrier crop with suitable insecticide at least weekly
to reduce population of insect vectors. See insect control recom-
mendations.
4. Destroy old infected crops before planting following crops
alongside them.
POTATO, IRISH
Numerous virus, bacterial and fungus diseases are controlled
by always planting certified seed.
Late Blight and Early Blight
Spray
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc sulfate 36% or
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. or
Maneb 80%, 1% lbs.
In south Florida, begin spraying for late blight when plants
have emerged and continue at 4- to 5-day intervals.
In the Hastings area, begin when the plants are 6 to 8 inches
high, if late blight does not show earlier, and continue at 4- to
5-day intervals.
Scab.-In areas where soil reaction is usually pH 6.0 or
higher and scab has caused excessive losses, treat seed with hot
or cold formaldehyde solution or acidulated mercuric chloride
solution. Certified seed, crop rotation, and holding the pH below
5.4 will assist in controlling scab. Do not treat seed when po-
tatoes are to be grown in areas where scab has caused little
trouble.
(1) COLD FORMALDEHYDE: 1 pint 40% in 30 gallons
water.
Soak uncut tubers 11/ hours, then remove and air out
thoroughly. This treatment is more effective when







sacked tubers are first soaked in water for 2 minutes
before soaking them in formaldehyde or mercury solu-
tions. This softens the scab lesions.
(2) HOT FORMALDEHYDE: 3.3 quarts 40% per 100 gal-
lons water.
Dip uncut sacked tubers for 3 to 4 minutes in the solu-
tion held at 122 to 124 F. Stack sacks on end to dry.
Potatoes may be cut for planting any time after the
sacks have dried. Temperature of the hot solution must
be kept within the range indicated to give control of the
disease without injuring the tubers.
(3) ACIDULATED MERCURIC CHLORIDE: 6 ounces mer-
curic chloride plus 1 quart commercial hydrochloric
acid in 25 gallons water.
Soak sacked uncut tubers for 5 minutes, allow to drip
and plant immediately, or dry out. This treatment is
safe for potatoes planted on sandy and marl soils, but
not safe on muck and peat soils. This material is poison-
ous and corrosive and treated seed should not be eaten
or fed to livestock.
CAUTION: Mercuric chloride is extremely poisonous and
corrosive and must be handled with extreme care. Use a wood
or earthenware container for treating seed with mercuric chlo-
ride. Take every precaution to keep away from children and
animals. Used material should be disposed of in a safe place.
Sclerotinia.-Flooding fields for 5 to 6 weeks during summer
months will reduce the number of sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils, where sclerotinia has attacked the previous
crop, apply 400 to 600 pounds of cyanamid per acre before plant-
ing. Distribute evenly and thoroughly mix with the surface soil.
Cyanamid is not necessary if soil has been flooded 3 or more
weeks during summer.
Corky Ringspot.-This disease appears as brown rings, arcs
and spots on the surface of tubers and brown corky areas in the
flesh; in severe cases tubers are malformed and cracked. Affect-
ed tubers are not salable. The disease is caused by a tuber-and
soil-borne virus. Sebago, Red Pontiac and many other potato
varieties are susceptible. Pungo and Plymouth are resistant
to corky ringspot and are recommended for planting in infected
soil in the Hastings area.







POTATO, SWEET
Scurf, Wilt and Black Rot.-Seed Selection: Many diseases
may be reduced by growing enough seed from vine cuttings to
produce next year's seed supply. Select hills at digging time that
are free of disease, have desirable varietal characteristics, and
have at least 4 or 5 No. 1 potatoes per hill. Take special care in
digging and storing the seed potatoes, handling as little as possi-
ble to prevent bruising.
Plant Bed Site: Locate the bed where sweet potatoes and
tobacco have not been grown within 3 years. If permanent beds
are to be used, remove soil to a depth of 12 inches, drench the
bed and frame with a solution of 1 pint of formaldehyde per 15
gallons water, then replace with new soil.
Seed Treatment: (pay strict attention to precautionary label
statements.)
Semesan Bel: 1 pound to 7Y to 8 gallons water for 1 minute;
bed or dry in the shade.
Plant Treatment: Cuttings from the seedbed-cut 1 inch
above soil line (rather than pulling with roots on) will give
effective control of black rot and scurf.
Internal Cork.-Seed stock should be free of internal cork, a
disease for which there is no other known control. Cork-free
seed potatoes are available.

RADISH
Downy Mildew
Spray Dust
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc sulfate 36% or
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. Zineb 4-6%
When weather is favorable for the development of the disease,
apply on a twice weekly schedule.

STRAWBERRY
Anthracnose.-Copper, 3-4 lbs. of 48-53% insoluble copper,
plus spreader-sticker.
Anthracnose occurs during rainy season; apply to plants and
runners every week.
Leaf Spots
Spray Dust
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Captan 50%, 2-4 lbs. or
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. or Zineb 6%%
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc sulfate 36%







Produce plants free of leaf spot in nursery to reduce spraying
required in the field.
Bud Rot.-No chemical control known. Frequent shallow
cultivations around the plants to keep the soil surface dry will
aid in reducing incidence of the disease.

Fruit Rots
Spray Dust
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Captan, 3-5 lbs. Captan 6%
Treat at weekly intervals starting at full bloom.


TOMATO
Transplant Bed
Pre-plant Treatment
Fungi, Nematodes and Weeds.-Use methyl bromide and
SMDC transplant bed treatments as recommended for celery.
Post-emergence Treatment
Bacterial Spot.-Streptomycin, 100 ppm plus copper (4 lbs.
of 48-53 % insoluble copper) is best control available, being super-
ior to either material alone, but it may not be adequate under
the most severe conditions. Begin applications at emergence of
seedlings and continue on a 4- to 5-day schedule. Complete cov-
erage is essential. Control in plant bed helps reduce subsequent
losses in field, if plants are set at end of rainy season.
Late Blight
Spray
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. or
Maneb 80%, 1.5 lbs.
In cool, damp weather, begin spraying upon emergence and
continue every 4 to 5 days. Thorough coverage is essential.
Alternate maneb and zineb to avoid injury.
Gray Leaf Spot.-As for late blight, except that applications
every 5 to 7 days should be sufficient. Use resistant varieties
where these are adaptable.

Field Diseases
General.-For prevention of fungus diseases of foliage com-
binations of 1 lb. of maneb and 1 lb. of Dyrene are recommended.
If gray leaf spot or Botrytis becomes troublesome increase







Dyrene to standard dosage. If late blight becomes troublesome
increase maneb to standard dosage.

Late Blight
Spray
Material per 100 Gallons Water
Maneb 80%, 1% lbs. or
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. or
Dichlone 50%, % lb.
In southern parts of the state begin applications immediately
after transplanting or emergence and continue at 4- to 5-day
intervals. In areas or seasons when the disease is less severe
the time between applications may be 5 to 7 days.
Nabam plus zinc sulfate is too injurious for regular use on
tomatoes.
Early Blight.-Same as for late blight except dichlone is not
effective.
Gray Leaf Spot.-Same as for late blight except that Dyrene,
2 pounds per 100 gallons, is also recommended.
Use resistant varieties where these are recommended.
Dyrene, although superior to maneb and zineb for gray leaf
spot control, is inferior for control of late blight. Therefore, use
Dyrene when gray leaf spot is the principal disease and when
late blight is not a threat. Combinations of Dyrene and maneb
or zineb may be used when both gray leaf spot and late blight
are threats as listed above.
CAUTION: Dyrene, if used as a spray in combination with
copper, should not be applied in a larger quantity than 1 pound
of 50% Dyrene with 4 pounds of 48-53% insoluble copper per
100 gallons of water when day temperatures are in excess of
850 F.
Bacterial Spot.-Copper (3 lbs. of 48-53% insoluble copper)
sprays may be useful under light to moderate conditions but are
inadequate under severe conditions. Combinations of insoluble
copper, 4 pounds of 48-53%, and streptomycin, 100 ppm, are
more effective. Best results are obtained by beginning to spray
at emergence and continuing on 4- to 5-day schedule, more fre-
quently if rains wash off residues. Applications begun after the
disease is well established have little value. Do not apply strepto-
mycin after fruits have started to form.
Phoma.-Same as for late blight.

50







Fusarium Wilt.-No chemical control. Use resistant varieties
or new land.
Sclerotinia.-Flooding fields for 5 to 6 weeks during summer
months will reduce the number of sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils apply cyanamid at the rate of 500 to 700 pounds
per acre, 7 to 10 days before setting plants in the field; distribute
evenly and disk thoroughly after application. Cyanamid not
needed on soils flooded 3 or more weeks during summer. On
sand apply 900 pounds and wait 3 months before planting.
Gray Mold.-Spray with Dyrene (2 lbs. of 50%) on gray
leaf spot susceptible plants. Dichlone (0.5 lb. of 50%), ferbam
(3.0 lbs. of 76%) or Dyrene may be used on gray leaf spot resis-
tant varieties. Dichlone is preferred in cool weather on gray
leaf spot resistant plants, if late blight is a threat. Ferbam or
Dyrene is preferred when temperatures exceed 800 F. These
materials may be added to maneb or zineb to control all the im-
portant fungus diseases of tomatoes. It is important to begin
spraying with effective materials before the minimum daily
temperatures fall below 650 F., or before the vines of ground
tomatoes begin to fall over.
CAUTION: Dyrene, if used as a spray in combination with
copper, should not be applied in a larger quantity than 1 pound
of 50% Dyrene with 4 pounds of 48-53% insoluble copper per
100 gallons of water when day temperatures are in excess of
85 F.
Tobacco mosaic virus.-Direct seed if possible; use high
clearance spray and cultivation equipment; have workers hand-
ling plants wash hands with soap and water after smoking.
Potato virus Y and Tobacco etch virus.-Eradicate wild host
plants (nightshade, ground cherry, volunteer tomato plants)
before the crop is planted. Avoid planting subsequent crops next
to diseased early plantings until after the early plantings have
been destroyed. Avoid tomatoes in close proximity to potatoes.
Pseudo-curly top virus.-Destroy nightshade and ragweed
growing in and around the field before planting the crop. If the
disease appears in the field, spray the margin of the field with
parathion to kill the treehoppers that transmit the virus.




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