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 Historic note
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Title: Commercial vegetable insect and disease control guide
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 Material Information
Title: Commercial vegetable insect and disease control guide
Translated Title: Circular / Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 193E ( English )
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Brogdon, James
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1965
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Bibliographic ID: UF00049929
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Front Matter
        Front matter
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
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        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
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        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
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        Page 53
        Page 54
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






CIRCULAR 193E
AUGUST 1965


B






'I


I S

I-

I


commercial vegetable insect


and disease control


guide


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA











Commercial Vegetable Insect

And Disease Control Guide

J. E. BROGDON, M. E. MARVEL and R. S. MULLIN



Prepared in cooperation with the following workers in the Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences:
Central Florida Station, Sanford: J. F. Darby, H. L. Rhoades,
J. W. Wilson
Everglades Station, Belle Glade: W. G. Genung, E. D. Harris, P. L.
Thayer, C. Wehlburg, J. A. Winchester
Gulf Coast Station, Bradenton: J. P. Jones, E. G. Kelsheimer,
A. J. Overman, J. M. Walter
Indian River Field Laboratory, Ft. Pierce: N. C. Hayslip
Main Station, Gainesville: A. A. Cook, M. K. Corbett, P. Decker,
W. G. Eden, D. Habeck, L. C. Kuitert, V. G. Perry, D. A.
Roberts, A. N. Tissot, C. H. Van Middelem, R. E. Stall, R. F.
Stuffer, R. E. Waites, G. C. Smart.
North Florida Station, Quincy: W. B. Tappan
Plantation Field Laboratory, Fort Lauderdale: H. I. Borders
Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings: R. B. Workman
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory, Plant City: A. N. Brooks
Subtropical Station, Homestead: R. M. Baranowski, R. A. Conover,
J. W. Stobel, D. O. Wolfenbarger
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Leesburg: W.
C. Adlerz, J. M. Crall, N. C. Schenck


The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the
products named and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion
of others of suitable composition.


A Revision of Circular 193 D
This revision June 1965



COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director













CONTENTS
Page

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ..................................... .......... ......... ............ ............. 2

FACTORS CONCERNING PESTICIDE APPLICATIONS ................-.... .............. 3

PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND TOLERANCES .................................................... 6


INSECT CONTROL ....--

DISEASE CONTROL ..


--- 9


PEST CONTROL MEASURES ..._-.... .------.....---- ..-----.. ... Insects Diseases
Beans -.-........---------------- - ..--------.......... .. ..__ .... 11 28
Carrots --- -- ---...---.. ......_ .................. .... 13 30
Celery _. ........ .............. ..........-------------. ... .. ... 13 30
Corn, Sweet -------..---- ---.... 14 33
Crucifers
Cabbage .. --------...-- .. ........ ..... ............ 16 34
Broccoli and Cauliflower --......-----------------... 17 34
Brussels Sprouts and Chinese Cabbage -..- 34
Collards .-.--------------.-----------------.... 17 34
Mustard and Turnips -------- 17 36
Rutabagas ---.------..... ... .......----- ---- 17 -
Radishes ....... ... --------. ---- ---.......... ...___. 17 34
Cucurbits
Cantaloupe, Cucumber, Squash ----- 18 36
Watermelons ---------- -......... 18 38
Eggplant .------.. ------.. ........... 19 40
Lettuce --------.. ... ...------ --. ...-----. ....- ...... .. 19 40
Endive (Escarole) --- .. ..... ... .... 20 40
Okra .----------------- ------ -- 20 41
Onions -- .... .... ......... .... ... ....-------------0.... .. 20 41
Peas .....-----------... ........ ......20 42
Peas, Southern (Cowpeas, Black-eye, Crowder) .----- 21 -
Peppers -.---------------21 42
Potatoes ---. --------..-- ....----- 22 44
Potatoes, Sweet ---- --------- 23 45
Spinach ---- ------------ 24 -
Strawberries --------------- --- 24 46
Tomatoes ----... ..----. -------..~.25 47


COMMON, CHEMICAL AND TRADE NAMES OF INSECTICIDES

COMMON, CHEMICAL AND TRADE NAMES OF FUNGICIDES

POISON CONTROL CENTERS -------


Inside back page










SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Read and Heed the Precautions on the Label.-Relatively
few deaths have occurred among workers handling poisonous
agricultural products or economic poisons. Those that have
occurred can be traced to disregard of even the minimum safety
directions and precautions found on product labels. Some vio-
lations occur through ignorance or misunderstanding of the
available information. Many more violations result from plain
carelessness-or what is worse, recklessness on the part of work-
ers who have been adequately informed. The key to safe handl-
ing is understanding coupled with the diligent practice of safe
working habits. Accidents with pesticides can be prevented. Some
of the major causes are (1) leaving the material within reach
of irresponsible persons; (2) failure to read and follow the use
precautions on the label; (3) carelessness in the disposal of
empty containers.

ORGANIC PHOSPHATE INSECTICIDES*
The organic phosphate group of insecticides includes para-
thion, phosdrin, malathion, dibrom, demeton (Systox), Guthion,
dimethoate (Cygon) and others. Some of these are highly toxic
while others are relatively safe. All of them, however, can be
used safely by following the precautions on the label.
Early symptoms and signs of organic phosphate insecticide
poisoning include headache, giddiness, blurred vision, weakness,
chest discomfort, nervousness; a little later-nausea, cramps,
diarrhea, sweating, tears, salivation.

CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON INSECTICIDES*
Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, which include DDT,
lindane, chlordane, aldrin, dieldrin and others are generally less
hazardous to man than many of the phosphatic insecticides.
However, these also must be handled with proper precautions.
Symptoms and signs of poisoning by chlorinated hydrocarbon
insecticides include headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and
prostration. In more severe cases convulsions may occur with
or without warning symptoms. Coma may follow.
If a worker suspects excessive exposure to any insecticide, he should
see a doctor immediately.











A Note from the Authors


Control measures recommended here are the most effective
within limits of research results and observations with approved
pesticides. Information is given on pesticide tolerances and min-
imum days between last application and harvest. There will be
changes; therefore, the user is strongly urged to keep abreast
of developments through county agents, experiment stations,
industry, etc.


FACTORS CONCERNING PESTICIDE APPLICATIONS

Careful planning, close observation, coordination and super-
vision are essential in developing and maintaining an effective
vegetable pest control program. Constant consideration must
be given to sanitation, potential incidence of diseases or insects,
weather, economics, correct identification, proper timing, nozzle
placement, spray pressure and agitation, wind direction and veloc-
ity, uniformity and layout of field, stage of plant development
in relation to other plantings, speed of equipment and thorough
coverage.
Sanitation.-Destroy crop remains following last harvest as
well as control volunteer crop plants and weed hosts in unused
fields, along field edges and in the production fields. It is a good
practice to rotate vegetable crops with cover crops or other crops
that are not susceptible to the same pests. Fallowing and clean
cultivation reduce many pests in fields not being used. So does
flooding with water for 6 to 8 weeks once a year. These meas-
ures might be considered where sod is not needed to reduce plant
bed erosion and sand burn.
Sanitation practices will aid in the control of many hard-to-
control pests as leaf miners, aphids and certain diseases.
Weather.-Weather factors have tremendous effect on the
incidence of plant pests, the tolerance of plants to damage by
the pests, the effectiveness of pesticide treatments and the like-
lihood of damage to the plants from pesticide treatments. Some
pesticides are ineffective at low temperatures; some are effective
for very short periods at high temperatures. Rains will often
wash pesticides from the plant, making an additional application








necessary. Wind will decrease the effectiveness of sprays by
blowing spray droplets or dust particles away before they are
deposited upon the plant.
Compatibility.-Most spray mixtures perform satisfactorily.
There can be many suitable mixtures of chemicals, but a given
application must meet several requirements, including: (1) each
component must be fully effective and (2) must not be harmful
to crop; and (3) the materials must mix readily and cause no
difficulty in operation and maintenance of equipment. It is advis-
able not to mix insecticides and/or fungicides with soluble
fertilizers. In case of questionable compatibility of a mixture of
chemicals, do not attempt the combination.
Formulations.-Pesticides may be applied as emulsions, wet-
table powder sprays, dusts, granules or baits. The effectiveness
of a pesticide and its potential for damage to crop plants is partly
determined by the quality of the emulsifiable concentrate, wet-
table powder, dust or granule used.
WP is the abbreviation used for wettable powder formula-
tions; 2E, 4E, 6E and 8E are designations for liquid concentrates
containing 2, 4, 6 and 8 pounds of active ingredient per gallon.
Dusts.-For control of insects and diseases, sprays are gener-
ally more effective than dusts; however, there are certain times
when dusts are more practical. Under those conditions when it is
desirable to use dusts, the amount of active ingredient per acre
recommended is, in most cases, the same as with sprays. For
example, if 2 lbs. of a material containing 75% active ingredient
is to be applied per acre this would be 11/2 lbs. active ingredient
per acre. If a 5% dust were used, 30 lbs. of the dust would
contain the 11/ lbs. active ingredient.
Amounts.-Spray materials are shown in amounts of the
listed formulation per 100 gallons of water unless otherwise in-
dicated. There may be several formulations; for example, para-
thion is available as 15% and 25% wettable powders and as
liquid concentrates containing 2, 4 or 8 pounds of active ingredi-
ent per gallon. To save space only one formulation is listed for
a particular pest under a crop. Wettable powder formulations
are given in most instances, but equivalent amounts of liquid
concentrates can be used. Suggested acre rates should be
adjusted to insure complete coverage; in general, 20 to 35 pounds
of dust, 50 to 150 gallons of spray or 20 to 40 pounds of bait
are accepted amounts from which adjustments may be made.









The following table can be used as a guide in determining
equivalent amounts of other insecticide formulations that may
be used instead of those given in this publication:


Amount of Formulation (at left) needed to
obtain the following amounts of active in-
Insecticide gredient:
Formulation
% lb. 2 lb. % Ib. 1 lb.


1% dust ........................... ..... 25
2% dust ................................ 122
5% dust ................................ 5


10% dust ............................
15% wettable powder ........
25% wettable powder ........


2%
1% lbs.
1 lb.


40% wettable powder ........ % lb.


50% wettable powder ........
23-25% liquid concentrate
(2 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) .......................
42-46% liquid concentrate
(4 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) ..........................
60-65% liquid concentrate
(6 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) .......................
72-78% liquid concentrate
(8 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) ...--...... .............


2 lb.


1 pint


1/ pint


1/ pint


'4 pint


50 75 100
25 37 50
10 15 20


5 7%
3% lbs. 5 lbs.


10
6% lbs.


2 lbs. 3 lbs. 4 lbs.
11/ lbs. 1%/ lbs. 2 lbs.


1 lb.


1 lbs. 2 lbs.


1 quart 3 pints 2 quarts


1 pint 11/ pints 1 quart


2/ pint 1 pint 1% pints


/ pint % pint 1 pint


Certain pests of vegetables, for example aphids and serpen-
tine leaf miners, are more numerous and more difficult to con-
trol in some areas of the state and some seasons than in others.
These differences frequently make variations in the dosages nec-
essary to control the same pest. Where there is a range in
amounts in this publication, the higher dosages should be used
where control is most difficult. For instance, the higher amounts
will usually be needed to control aphids and serpentine leaf
miners in the southern part of the state, while the lower dosages
may be adequate in the northern part.
Spraying pressure should not be excessive. Excessive spray-
ing pressure causes spray droplets to be broken down so small







that they drift and are not deposited on the plant. In addition,
high spraying pressures cause undue wear on engines, pumps,
nozzles and other sprayer parts. If fog is formed at the nozzles,
the spraying pressure is too great.
The speed of the sprayer should not exceed 5 miles per hour.
Greater speed results in poor coverage.


PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND TOLERANCES

Most of the residue and tolerance information below was
taken from Leaflet No. 6, "Protecting Crops and Consumers,"
Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health,
Education and Welfare.
Some of the chemicals used on vegetables may remain when
they are harvested and marketed. In excessive amounts, many
are injurious to humans. Any contamination of vegetables and
other agricultural foods is a matter of concern to growers, ship-
pers, the chemical industry, agricultural and public health
authorities, law enforcement officials and the consumer.

WHAT IS A TOLERANCE?
To avoid harmful amounts of residues of agricultural chem-
icals in or on our foods, regulations for their safe use are
provided by law. One such regulation concerns "tolerance."
Tolerance is the amount of a chemical that scientists have
determined may safely remain as a residue on the food crop
without injury to the consumer. Tolerances for specific chem-
icals in or on crops are established by regulation. The Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) first considers evidence of safety
and the amount of residue that will remain if the product is
used according to directions on the label. FDA then sets a tol-
erance that is safe and can be met by growers if directions are
followed. If a tolerance is not necessary to protect the con-
sumer, FDA may exempt a particular product from requirements
for a tolerance.
A limited number of chemicals have been officially declared
safe and do not require either a tolerance or exemption. Except
for these products, no amount of residue of a particular chem-
ical on a specified crop is permitted if (1) there is no tolerance
or exemption or (2) the tolerance is zero. However, the absence
of a published tolerance or exemption does not necessarily
imply that a chemical may not be used. Some pesticide uses-








for example, certain dormant sprays and soil treatments-do
not result in residues of the chemical on the harvested crop.
Uses that leave no residues do not require tolerances or exemp-
tions and do not have to be passed upon by the Food and Drug
Administration.

THE LAW AND CONSUMER PROTECTION
Under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, a food
containing a residue in excess of the tolerance is defined as
"adulterated" and must not be shipped across state lines. Most
states, including Florida, have laws to deal with crops produced
and consumed within their own boundaries.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration checks on condi-
tions and practices during the growing season of each crop, and
on any spray-removal practice by shippers. If vegetables from
a particular area are suspected of having excessive residues,
samples are examined from outgoing shipments of the crop. If
residues in excess of tolerance are found, the shipment is re-
moved from the market by a state or federal court order. The
law also provides for action against persons and business firms
responsible for violations.

HOW GROWERS CAN AVOID EXCESSIVE RESIDUES
Generally, growers can avoid residues in excess of tolerances
on harvested crops by applying pesticides only on the crops speci-
fied, in the amounts specified and at the times specified in this
publication or on the label. It is not safe to reason that "if a
little is good, more will be better." The recommended amount
as well as the recommended time of application should be
observed. Growers should be especially careful in measuring
and applying the higher concentrated chemicals to be sure not
to exceed the recommended amounts. Examples of high con-
centrate materials are 8 pounds per gallon parathion, 8 pounds
per gallon toxaphene, 93% nabam and 20% toxaphene dust.
The labeling for all pesticides shipped interstate must be
registered with the U. S. Department of Agriculture under the
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. All appli-
cations for labeling submitted to the Department of Agricul-
ture are thoroughly examined to remove or modify any direc-
tions for use on particular crops that do not appear to fulfill the
requirements of that law. Among other considerations, USDA








determines if a chemical is likely to leave excessive residues on
the harvested raw agricultural commodities. If a crop is not
named on the label, this may mean that no residue of that
chemical is permitted on that crop; and hence the treated crop
could not be shipped if it contained a residue of that chemical.
Drift of pesticide onto adjacent crops should be prevented.
Consideration of the wind direction and velocity, adjoining crops,
and methods of application is extremely important.
Growers are urged to consider carefully the locations of
various crops when planning their farming operations. Special
consideration should be given to planting in the same general
area those crops likely to receive the same approved chemicals.
Do not locate a crop adjacent to another if either is likely to be
treated with a chemical not cleared on the other. Also, two
crops should not be planted next to each other if one will require
insecticide applications during the time of harvest of the other
crop.
Application of chemicals with ground equipment results in
less drift than application by aircraft under similar conditions.
Sprays, especially coarse sprays, drift less than dusts. Higher
spray pressures result in more drift than lower pressures.
Each grower should plan and follow a control program that
will assure him of vegetables without excessive residues. Veg-
etables marketed with residues exceeding tolerances set by Food
and Drug Administration are potentially injurious to consumers,
may result in serious financial loss to the grower, and may reduce
public acceptance of fresh Florida vegetables.

RULES FOR THE PACKER-SHIPPER

How can the packer-shipper who handles the produce of
many individual growers make sure that he does not ship a
product containing excessive residue? Here are two suggestions:
1. He should pointedly ask each grower about his practices
and satisfy himself (during the growing season, if possible) that
all pesticides were used only in accordance with registered label
directions or other highly authoritative recommendations.
2. He should follow good commercial practice for the area,
the crop and the pesticide used, with respect to removal of exces-
sive residues-by washing, brushing, trimming, etc.








WHAT HAPPENS WHEN EXCESSIVE RESIDUES OCCUR?

If FDA finds residues in excess of tolerances on shipments,
the first action is to protect the consumer by seizure of the
goods, if possible.
If a shipment is seized, the owner may choose one of three
courses of action:

1. He may admit the violation as charged and ask the court
for permission to take the goods under bond for removal of
excessive residues. This must be done under supervision of the
Food and Drug Administration. If reconditioning is successful,
the goods are released.
2. He may deny the violation as charged and have the case
tried on its merits in the federal court.

3. He may do nothing, in which case the goods will be de-
stroyed, or otherwise disposed of as determined by the court.

Because of the highly perishable nature of most produce, the
owner should act promptly (a return date of 10 days is usually
specified) if he wishes to act under 1 or 2 above.
Prosecution and court injunction are additional legal meas-
ures that may be taken against persons or business firms or both.


INSECT CONTROL

The amounts of insecticides recommended below as sprays
are for 100 gallons of water unless otherwise indicated. "Mini-
mum Days to Harvest" means the minimum number of days
that should be allowed between last foliar application and har-
vest. The intervals that follow are based on Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station research where available. The other
intervals are based on USDA information. If the dosages recom-
mended in this publication are exceeded, the minimum days
given may not be applicable and a longer interval should be
allowed.








GENERAL SOIL INHABITING INSECTS
Insecticide recommendations are constantly changing. New
uses are being added and old recommendations may be with-
drawn, especially for insecticides applied to the soil. Growers
should make sure that the insecticides they plan to use are
approved and recommended for the crop.
Cutworms.-Apply toxaphene, TDE or chlordane at 2 pounds
active ingredient (5 pounds of 40% WP or 20 pounds of 10% dust)
per acre to the soil surface before planting if cutworms are known
to be present. Do not disturb soil for three to five days. A
21/2% toxaphene or 2% chlordane bait can be used as above at
20 to 40 pounds per acre. If cutworm damage to young plants
is noted, baits should be used at once. Regular applications of
approved pesticides, including DDT, parathion, toxaphene, etc.
for control of foliage insects will prevent the establishment of
cutworms. Use only those recommended for the particular crop.
A home-made bait can be prepared by thoroughly mixing 5
pounds of 40% chlordane wettable powder or 6 pounds of 40%
toxaphene wettable powder with 100 pounds of wheat bran.
Moisten bait slightly with water and apply in late afternoon.
Use freshly mixed baits.
Mole Crickets.-Broadcast aldrin (except potatoes, carrots,
sweet potatoes) at 2 pounds or chlordane at 4 pounds active
ingredient per acre as a spray, dust or granule, or a 2% chlor-
dane or aldrin wheat bran bait evenly over the soil surface at
20 to 40 pounds per acre before seeding or transplanting if
insects are present. After plants are up, use a fresh bait on
soil (not plants) in late afternoon when soil is moist and warm.
For seedbeds use a bait; or drench with an emulsion con-
taining 1/4 pound actual chlordane in 100 gallons of water per
1,000 square feet of seedbed area. Treatments should be made
a few days before seeding.
Limited tests in the Gainesville area indicate that diazinon
at 2 pounds active ingredient per acre applied as a spray, dust
or granule will control mole crickets.
Wireworms.-Apply parathion or diazinon at 2 pounds active
ingredient per acre on mineral soils; on organic soils apply para-
thion at 5 pounds or diazinon at 4 pounds active ingredient per
acre. Distribute evenly over the soil surface 2 to 3 weeks before
planting and immediately mix into the upper 6 inches of soil.
Also see Systemic Insecticides for Soil Application under
Potatoes.








BEANS
Bush, Lima, Pole
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Dimethoate (Cygon) 2.67E, 1 pt. 30
Demeton (Systox) 2E, 1 pts. 21
Parathion 15% WP, 11/-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 3
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Armyworms DDT 50% WP, 2 lbs. DDT 5% 5
Corn Earworm Sevin 80% WP, l/4 lbs. Sevin 5% NTL*
Toxaphene 40% WP, 21/ lbs. Toxaphene 10% 5
Cowpea Curculio Toxaphene 40% WP, 21/ lbs. Toxaphene 10% 5
Bean Leafhopper Dimethoate (Cygon) 2.67E, 1 pt. 30
Bean Leafroller Parathion 15% WP, 11/-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 3
Sevin 80% WP, 1%/ lbs. Sevin 5% NTL*
Toxaphene 40% WP, 21 lbs. Toxaphene 10% 5
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 7t
Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 1
Mexican Bean Malathion 25% WP, 5 lbs. Malathion 5% 1
Beetle Parathion 15% WP, 3 lbs. Parathion 2% 3
Rotenone 5% WP, 21 lbs. Rotenone 1% 1
Sevin 80% WP, % lb. Sevin 12-2% NTL*
Leaf Miners Dimethoate (Cygon) 2.67E, 30
Cucumber Beetles %-1 pt.
Diazinon 25% WP, 1-2 lbs. Diazinon 2% 7
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 7t
Thrips Parathion 15% WP, 1-1 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 3
Stinkbugs Parathion 15% WP, 2 lbs. Parathion 2% 3
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Sevin 80% WP, 11/ lb. Sevin 5% NTL*
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 7t
Saltmarsh Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 1
Caterpillar Toxaphene 40% WP, 212 lbs. Toxaphene 10% 5
Lima Pod Borer Parathion 15% WP, 11/2-2 lbs. 3
Cutworms See page 10.
Wireworms See page 10.
Lesser Cornstalk See following discussion under
Borer No. 10.
NOTE: Toxaphene and Sevin may cause some injury to Pole Beans.

*No time limitation when used as recommended.
t Guthion cleared only on snap beans as of May 1, 1965.

1. Armyworms.-Apply insecticides when armyworms ap-
pear; continue at seven-day intervals until control is complete.
Sulfur may be used as all, or a part, of the diluent in dusts for
beans.

2. Cowpea Curculio.-Apply insecticides when cowpea cur-
culio appears, especially when pods begin to set, and repeat







weekly. In areas where this pest is numerous, small plants
should also be protected.
3. Leafhoppers.-Apply insecticides at first sign of leaf-
hoppers. Make one to three applications at 10-day intervals.
During severe infestations the time interval between applica-
tions may need to be reduced. In Everglades, Lower East Coast
and West Coast areas leafhoppers are most severe in spring
during warm dry periods, while in central and northern Florida
they are most prevalent in the fall.
4. Leafrollers.-Wait for fairly heavy populations of leaf-
rollers before applying insecticides. In some cases, dusting
borders of large fields by airplane is adequate. It is usually
not necessary to treat the whole field unless the acreage is small
or the infestation is severe.
5. Mexican Bean Beetle.-These pests are a problem in the
north and west Florida areas. Observations in the Gainesville
area indicate that lower dosages of parathion give satisfactory
6. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply in-
secticide twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy
migrations of adult leaf miners from nearby abandoned host
vegetable fields or on older plants when weekly applications are
not giving satisfactory control. Weekly applications of dimetho-
ate (Cygon) have given good control. Diazinon has not been
effective in the Homestead and Lower East Coast areas in recent
years. Parathion will usually give control in Central and North
Florida.
7. Thrips.-These insects may be a problem on leaves and
pods. DDT or toxaphene used for other pests is also effective
against this insect.
8. Stinkbugs.-Apply insecticides when stinkbugs appear.
It is especially important to insure low population when pods
begin to set.
9. Lima Pod Borers.-Apply weekly when insects appear.
10. Lesser Cornstalk Borer.-In the Everglades area apply
parathion, aldrin or heptachlor, using a wetting agent or deter-
gent in the spray water to help wet the soil and the webbing.
Make first application broadcast (covering rows and middles)
just before crop emerges, using 3 pounds 15% parathion WP
or 2 quarts of aldrin 2E or heptachlor 2E per acre. Make
12








second application as soon as crop emerges and before cultiva-
tion, using 3 pounds 15% parathion WP or 1 quart of aldrin 2E
or heptachlor 2E per acre. Higher gallonage (up to 300 per acre)
of more dilute coarse sprays at about 100 pounds pressure may
be more effective. In West Coast area 11/2 pounds actual DDT
or chlordane per acre as a spray or dust is recommended at the
time young plants break through the ground. A preplanting
application of Aldrin for wireworms has controlled this pest on
Everglades muck.
The lesser cornstalk borer is an erratic pest with outbreaks
during the dry periods. It is doubtful that routine control meas-
ures would be profitable.

CARROTS
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Parathion 15% WP, 1%-2 lbs. 15
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Leaf Miners Diazinon 25% WP, 1-2 lbs. 10
Parathion 15% WP, 1%-2 lbs. 15
Armyworms Sevin 80% WP, 11/ lbs. NTL
Cutworms Toxaphene See page 10.
Wireworms See page 10.

CELERY
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 4
Parathion 4E, % pt. Parathion 1-2% 15
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 3
Demeton (Syston) 2E, 28
112 pts.
Foliage DDT 2E, 1 qt. 14
Caterpillars Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 3
Toxaphene 8E, 1-2 pts. 21*
Leaf Miners Diazinon 2E, 1-2 pts. 7
Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 4
Thrips DDT 2E, 1 qt. 14
Garden Fleahopper
Cutworms Toxaphene-See page 10.
Wireworms See page 10.

The 21 days is for 2 pints of toxaphene 8E. For 1 pint the minimum interval is 14 days.

1. Aphids.-Keep ditches and roadways free of weeds and
watch closely for aphids.








2. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply in-
secticides twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy
migrations of adult leaf miners or to older plants when weekly
applications are not giving control. Parathion usually will give
control in Central and North Florida.

CORN, SWEET
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Parathion 4E, 1/ pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Spider Mites Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. Phosdrin 11/ % 1
Fall Armyworms DDT 2E, 2 qts. **
and Parathion 4E, 1/ pt. **
Corn Earworms Toxaphene 8E, 1%1 pts. **
feeding in bud
Silk-Fly Parathion 4'E, z pt. 3
Earworms DDT 2E, 4 qts* DDT 10% NTLt
Sevin 80% WP, 21 lbs. Sevin 10% NTLt
DDT 5%-Parathion 1% 3
Parathion 2% 3
Corn Stem Weevil DDT 2E, 4 qts. **
Cutworms See page 10.
Wireworms See page 10.
Lesser Cornstalk See under beans, page 12.
Borer
These amounts should be mixed in 50 gallons of water and applied to one acre.
** These usages should not result in a residue problem on the edible ears.
t No time limitation when used as recommended.
1. Aphid and Spider Mite.-Infestations of these pests may
become heavy enough to require control measures in some areas
of the state.
2. Fall Armyworms and Corn Earworms Feeding in the
Corn Bud.-Spray weekly or more often, depending on severity
of infestation. For clean-up of budworms and fall Armyworms, a
routine application of insecticide should be made between the
appearance of the tassel above the whorl and appearance of silks.
Direct the spray from above and from each side of the plant to
the upper leaves to thoroughly wet and run down into the bud-
whorl. Spray pressure should not be excessively high; 150 pounds
per square inch or lower is preferable. There should not be any
fog coming from the nozzles.
A mixture of 2 quarts of DDT 2E with 1/4 pint of parathion
4E or with 3/4 pint of toxaphene 8E has given better control than
any of these materials when used alone.
3. Silk-fly.-Check for adult silk-flies just prior to and during
silking.








4. Earworms.-For control, timing and good coverage are
essential. Treatments must be started when the silks first ap-
pear and continued until all the silks are dry or brown. Addi-
tional applications may be needed where renewed silk growth
occurs after normal browning. Applications of one of the rec-
ommended insecticides will give control when applied at 48 hour
intervals to sweet corn silking during October through March.
During the rest of the year apply one of the recommended insec-
ticides every 24 hours. The amount of DDT or Sevin recom-
mended in the preceding table should be mixed with 50 gallons
of water and applied to one acre. The dust must be applied at
25 to 30 pounds per acre. Dusts or sprays should be directed
to thoroughly cover the silks. Improved control has been obtained
by adding 1/) pound of actual Sevin to DDT 2E. DDT WP should
not be substituted for the 2E.
5. Corn Stem Weevil.-Treatments must be started when
the first seedlings emerge from the soil and continued every
four days or two times a week for six applications or until the
corn stem is 1/2 inch or more in diameter. Sprays must be di-
rected to the lower stem and the adjoining soil. Use overhead
nozzles to apply 50 gallons per acre until the foliage begins
to form a canopy that prevents the spray from reaching the
ground and lower stem. Then, add a nozzle to each side of the
row and increase the rate to 100 gallons per acre. Cultivation
should be as infrequent as possible during this spray schedule
and should immediately precede a spray application. Two quarts
of DDT 2E plus 1 pint of toxaphene 8E seems about equal to
4 quarts of DDT 2E in effectiveness. Four quarts of DDT 2E
plus 1 pint of toxaphene 8E seems superior to 4 quarts of DDT
2E alone.
Eight pounds of 50% DDT WP plus 8 ounces of Triton X-100
seems to be about equal to 4 quarts of DDT 2E in effectiveness.
Pre-emergence chemical weed control (see Extension circu-
lar 196A) and delay of the first cultivation until after the final
corn stem weevil spray has resulted in better corn stem weevil
control. The corn stem weevil has been recognized as a pest
only in the Everglades.
CRUCIFERS
Adding a spreader-sticker in sprays applied to the foliage
of crucifers at the rate recommended by the manufacturer may
improve control.








Cabbage
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Dimethoate (Cygon) 2.67E, 21
1-11/2 pts.
Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 4
Parathion 4E, /2-1 pt. Parathion 2% 10*
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Demeton (Systox) 2E, 21
11/2 pts.
Leaf Miners Dimethoate (Cygon) 2.67E, 21
%Y-1 pt.
Diazinon 2E, 1-2 pts. Diazinon 2% 7
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 21
Cabbage Loopers Dibrom 8E, 2 pts. 4
Other Foliage Parathion 4E, 1 pt. Parathion 2% 10
Caterpillars Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 1
Toxaphene 8E, 2 pts. Toxaphene 10% 14
(See comments under cab-
bage loopers below)
Cutworms See page 10. After planting, regular foliage sprays of
toxaphene, or parathion as for cabbage loopers will
prevent the establishment of cutworms.
Mole Crickets See page 10.
Wireworms See page 10.
The 10-day interval is for 1 pint of Parathion 4E. For /' pint the minimum interval
is 7 days.
1. Cabbage Loopers.-These insects become increasingly dif-
ficult to control with increase in size. Large mature loopers
have not been controlled with double dosages of combinations of
insecticides. Make applications on a preventive schedule at
weekly intervals or more often if needed. The following com-
bination sprays, with the minimum interval between last appli-
cation and harvest of cabbage in parenthesis, are suggested:
a. One pint of parathion 4E plus 1 quart of toxaphene 8E
(14 days).
b. One quart of DDT 2E plus 1 quart of Guthion 2E (21
days).
c. One half pint of parathion 4E plus 1 quart of Thiodan 2E
(7 days).
d. One quart of toxaphene 8E plus 2 quarts of DDT 2E
(21 days).
2. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply in-
secticides twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy
migrations of adult leaf miners, or to older plants when weekly
applications are not giving control. Weekly applications of dime-
thoate (Cygon) have given good control. Diazinon has not been
effective in the Homestead and Lower East Coast areas in recent
years. Parathion will usually give control in Central and North
Florida.









Broccoli and Cauliflower
Recommendations are the same as for cabbage with the follow-
ing exceptions. Do not apply DDT and/or toxaphene after edible
parts start to form. Do not apply phosdrin to cauliflower within
three days of harvest. Do not apply diazinon to cauliflower or
broccoli within five days of harvest. Do not apply Guthion to broc-
coli or cauliflower within 15 days of harvest. Do not apply Thio-
dan to cauliflower after edible parts start to form.

Collards
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 4
Parathion 4E, %-1 pt. Parathion 2% 15*
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 3
Leaf Miners Diazinon 2E, 1-2 pts. Diazinon 2% 10
Parathion 4E, 1 pt. Parathion 2% 15
Cabbage Loopers Parathion 4E, 1 pt. Parathion 2% 15
Other Foliage Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 3
Caterpillars Toxaphene 8E, 2 pts. Toxaphene 10% 28**
Cutworms See page 10.
Mole Cricket SSe page 10.
Wireworms See page 10.
The 15-day interval is for 1 pint of parathion 4E. For 1/ pint the minimum interval
is 10 days.
** The interval for toxaphene dust is 21 days.


Mustard, Turnips, Rutabagas
MIN. DAYS


INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Malathion 25% WP, 4 lbs. Malathion 5% 7*
Foliage **Dibrom 8E, 1-2 pts. 4
Caterpillars Parathion 15% WP, 11/-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 15*
**Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 3
Cutworms Toxaphene or chlordane baits-See page 10.
Mole Cricket See page 10.
Except 3 days for malathion on rutabagas & turnips and 7 days for parathion on
rutabagas.
** Phosdrin and dibrom not cleared on rutabagas as of May 1, 1965.
Radishes


MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Malathion 25% WP, 4 lbs. Malathion 5 % 7
Parathion 15% WP, 11/-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 7
Foliage DDT 50% WP, 2 lbs. DDT 5% NTL*
Caterpillars Toxaphene 40% WP, 2/2 lbs. Toxaphene 10% NTL*
Cutworms Toxaphene or chlordane baits-See page 10.
Mole Crickets See page 10.
No time limitation when used as recommended.
17








CUCURBITS


Cantaloupe, Cucumber, Squash, Watermelon


MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Leaf Miners Dimethoate (Cygon) 2.67E, 7*
3%-1 pt.
Guthion 2E, 2 pts.
Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 7**
Aphids Dimethoate (Cygon) 2.67E, 7*
% -1 pt.
Demeton (Systox) 2E, 1/2 pts. 7t
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Parathion 15% WP, 1-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 3
Thiodan 50% WP, 1 lb. NTL
Cucumber Beetles Lindane 25% WP, 1 lb. Lindane 11/2% 1
Melonworm Parathion 15% WP, 1-2 Ibs. Parathion 1-2% 3
Pickleworm Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Squashbug
Rindworms on Guthion 2E, 2 pts.
Watermelon Parathion 15% WP, 2 lbs. Parathion 2% 3
Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts 1
Thiodan 50% WP, 1 lb. NTL
Cutworms See page 10. Use preplant treatment or apply baits to soil
(not plants) after plants are up.
Mole Crickets See page 10.
Dimethoate cleared only on watermelons as of May 1, 1965.
Do not apply Guthion to watermelons or cantaloupes within 14 days of harvest.
It is not registered on cucumbers and squash as of May 1, 1965.
** Except 4 days on cucumbers and summer squash.
t 7 days for watermelons and 21 days for cantaloupes. It is not registered on cucumbers
and squash as of May 1, 1965.


Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply insecti-
cides twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy migra-
tions of adult leaf miners from nearby abandoned host vege-
table fields or on older plants when weekly applications are not
giving control. Weekly applications of dimethoate (Cygon) has
given good control. Parathion and diazinon will usually give
satisfactory control of leaf miners in Central and North Florida.

To reduce injury to bees, which are necessary for pollination,
spraying or dusting should be delayed until late afternoon or eve-
ning. It is suggested that parathion spray be applied early
enough to dry before dew falls, reducing possibilities of foliage
burn. Do not apply parathion when plants are wet or very young.









EGGPLANT
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Demeton (Systox) 2E, 1-11/ pts 7***
Parathion 15% WP, 11/2-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 3
Thiodan 50%WP, 1 lb. 1
Corn Earworm and DDT 50% WP, 2 lbs. DDT 5% 5
Other Caterpillars Thiodan 50% WP, 1 lb. 1
Potato Beetles Sevin 80% WP, 114 lbs. Sevin 5% NTL
Flea Beetles
Spider Mites *Kelthane 18/2% WP, 112-2 lbs. *Kelthane 2% 2
(red spiders) Malathion 25% WP, 4 lbs. Malathion 5% 3
Parathion 15% WP, 2 lbs. Parathion 2% 3
Thrips DDT 50% WP, 2 lbs. DDT 5% 5
Parathion 15% WP, 1-112 Ibs. Parathion 1-2% 3
Leaf Miners Parathion 15% WP, 11/2-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2.% 3
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. **
Cutworms See page 10.
Kelthane has caused some injury to eggplant; as a result, the manufacturer has
withdrawn label registration for its use on eggplant.
** Do not apply after edible parts start to form.
*** Do not apply more than 2 applications per season.
1. Spider Mites.-More than one kind of spider mite infest
eggplant. Parathion, malathion and sulfur are effective against
the common red spider, but do not control certain other species.
Kelthane controls all species that infest eggplant. Sulfur is the
suggested diluent for parathion and malathion dusts.
2. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners and apply
control measures when infestation appears. Guthion is more
effective than parathion, but should not be applied after edible
parts start to form.

LETTUCE
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Parathion 15% WP, 11/2 lbs. 15
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 2
Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 4
Banded Cucumber DDT 50% WP, 2 lbs. 14*
Beetle Parathion 15% WP, 11/2 lbs. 15
Caterpillars Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 2
Lygus Bug Toxaphene 40% WP, 21z lbs. 14*
Sevin 80% WP, 1%1 lbs. 14**
Cutworms See page 10.
Mole Cricket See page 10.
Wireworms See page 10.
Head lettuce only-outer leaves removed at harvest.
** Except 3 days on head lettuce.








ENDIVE (ESCAROLE)
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 4
Parathion 15% WP, 11/2 lbs. 14
Caterpillars DDT 50% WP, 2 lbs. 14
Banded Cucumber Parathion 15% WP, 1% lbs. 14
Beetle
Lygus Bug
Cutworms See page 10.
Mole Cricket See page 10.
Wireworms See page 10.
OKRA
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Parathion 15% Parathion 1-2% 3
WP, 11/2-2 lbs.
Okra Caterpillar DDT 50% WP, 2 lbs. DDT 5% 7
Sevin 80% WP, 11/ lbs. Sevin 5% NTL*
Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 1
Leaf Miners Parathion 15% Parathion 1-2% 3
WP, 1/2-2 lbs.
Stinkbugs Parathion 15% WP, 2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 3
Sevin 80% WP, la lbs. Sevin 5% NTL*
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
No time limitation when used as recommended.
ONIONS
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Thrips Diazinon 25% WP, 1-2 lbs. 10
Malathion 25% WP, 3 lbs. Malathion 5% 3
Parathion 15% WP, 1-1/2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 15
Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 1
Leaf Miners Diazinon 25% WP, 1-2 lb.s 10
Parathion 15% WP, 112-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 15
Cutworms Baits-See page 10.
1. Thrips.-Apply insecticide when thrips appear; repeat
when necessary. Direct nozzles over rows close to plants. Addi-
tion of spreader-sticker to spray is suggested. Spraying down
into sheaths is very important.
PEAS
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Malathion 25% WP, 4 lbs. Malathion 5% 3
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Parathion 15% WP, 12-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 10
Leaf Miners Diazinon 25% WP, 1-2 lbs. NTL
Parathion 15% WP, 1%-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 10

20




PEAS, SOUTHERN
Cowpeas, Black-eye, Crowder, etc.
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Parathion 15% WP, 112-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 3

Cowpea Curculio Toxaphene 40% WP, 2 lbs. Toxaphene 10% 5
Leaf Miners
Parathion 15% WP, 1/2-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 3
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 7**
Stinkbugs Parathion 15% WP, 2 lbs. Parathion 2% 3
Toxaphene 40% WP, 22 Ibs. Toxaphene 10% 5
Sevin 80% WP, 1/4 lbs. Sevin 5% NTL*
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 7**
Bean Leafhoppers DDT 50% WP, 2 lbs. DDT 5% 5
Bean Leafroller Parathion 15% WP, 11%-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 3
Toxaphene 40% WP, 22 lbs. Toxaphene 10% 5
Sevin 80% WP, 11 lbs. Sevin 5% NTL*
Lesser Cornstalk
Borer See under beans, page 12.
No time limit when used as recommended.
** Do not apply more than 4 times per season.
1. Cowpea Curculio.-Apply insecticides when cowpea cur-
culio appears, especially when pods begin to set, and repeat
weekly.
2. Stinkbugs.-It is important to maintain good control of
stinkbugs as soon as pods begin to set.
3. Bean Leafhoppers and Bean Leaf Rollers.-See comments
under Beans page 12.
PEPPERS
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Leaf Miners Dimethoate (Cygon) 2.67E, 14
%-1 pt.
Diazinon 25% WP, 1-2 Ibs. Diazinon 2% 5
Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 4
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 5*
Aphids Demeton (Systox) 2E, 1-11/ pts. 3
Dimethoate (Cygon) 2.67E, 14
%-1 pt.
Parathion 15% WP, 11/2-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 3
Thiodan 50% WP, 1 lb. 1
Armyworm (fall DDT 2E, 1 qt. DDT 5% 3
and southern) Thiodan 50% WP, 1 lb. 1
Corn Earworm Toxaphene 40% WP, 21/2 lbs. Toxaphene 10% 5
Sevin 80% WP, 1% lbs. Sevin 5% NTL
Pepper Weevil DDT 2E, 1 qt. DDT 5% 3
Thrips DDT 2E, 1 qt. DDT 5% 3
Parathion 15% WP, 1-11/ lbs. Parathion 1-2% 3
Cutworms See page 10.
Mole Cricket See page 10.
Lesser Cornstalk
Borer See under Beans page 12.
NOTE: The use of dust or wettable powder formulations of DDT with-
out an aphicide is likely to result in a build-up of aphids.
This interval for a maximum of 4 treatments. If more than 4 treatments applied,
allow 14 days to harvest.






1. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply in-
secticides twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy
migrations of adult leaf miners, or to older plants when weekly
applications are not giving control. Weekly applications of dime-
thoate (Cygon) have given good control. Diazinon has not been
effective in the Homestead and Lower East Coast areas in recent
years. Parathion will usually give control in Central and North


Florida.
2. Pepper Weevil.-Apply DDT when
evident. Cut open fallen blossom buds and
dence of infestations.
POTATOES


infestation becomes
small fruits for evi-


MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Demeton (Systox) 2E, 21
1-11/2 pts.
Dimethoate (Cygon) 2.67E, 7
1-11 pts.
Meta-Systox-R 2E, 112 pts. 7
Thiodan 50% WP, 1-2 lbs. NTL*
(Also see Systemics, below.)
Armyworms Parathion 15% WP, 2 Ibs. Parathion 2% 5
Loopers Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 1
Other Caterpillars Thiodan 50% WP, 1-2 lbs. NTL*
Toxaphene 40% WP, 21 lbs. Toxaphene 10% NTL*
Banded Cucumber Thiodan 50% WP, 1-2 lbs. NTL*
Beetle Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 7
Colorado Potato DDT 2E, 1 qt. DDT 5% NTL*
Beetle Thiodan 50% WP, 1-2 Ibs. NTL*
Leaf-Footed Plant Parathion 15% WP, 2 lbs. Parathion 2% 5
Bug Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Green Stinkbug Thiodan 50% WP, 1-2 lbs. NTL*
Leaf Miners Dimethoate (Cygon) 2.67E, 7
%3-1 pt.
Diazinon 25% WP, 1-2 lbs. Diazinon 2% 14
Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. NTL*
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 7
Cutworms See page 10.
Wireworms See Page 10. Also Systemic Insecticides below.
NOTE: The use of dust or wettable powder formulations of DDT with-
out an aphicide is likely to result in a build-up of aphids.
No time limitation when used as recommended.
1. Systemic Insecticides for Soil Application.-Phorate (Thi-
met) and Di-Syston will give some control of aphids on potatoes.
Di-Syston is more effective, however neither material will give
control for the full growing season.
Apply Thimet or Di-Syston at the rate of 30 pounds of 10%
granules per acre at planting in the seed piece furrow.
22





In tests against Conoderus wireworms in the Hastings area,
these materials applied as above in the seed piece furrow have
given satisfactory control. In limited tests against light infesta-
tions of Melanotus wireworms in the Homestead area, phorate
(Thimet) applied as above in the seed piece furrow has given
satisfactory control.
2. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply
insecticides twice a week to small plants when there are heavy
migrations of adult leaf miners from nearby abandoned host
vegetable fields, or on older plants when weekly applications are
not giving control. Weekly applications of dimethoate (Cygon)
have given good control, but have caused discoloration of potato
foliage in the Homestead area at the higher dosage recommended
for aphids. Diazinon has not been effective in the Homestead and
Lower East Coast area in recent years. Parathion will usually
give control in Central and North Florida.
POTATOES, SWEET
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Armyworms DDT 50% WP, 2 Ibs. DDT 5% NTL*
Hornworms Toxaphene 40% WP, 22 lbs. Toxaphene 10% NTL*
Other Caterpillars
Gold Bug
No time limitation when used as recommended.

Begin applications when insects appear; one to two applica-
tions usually are sufficient. Thorough coverage is difficult where
vines are dense. It may be necessary to insert dust nozzles into
vines to get adequate coverage and satisfactory control.
Sweet Potato Weevil.-Practice sanitation and use certified
or weevil-free seed.
SEEDBED TREATMENT.-Dust with 2% dieldrin. Make the
first application when the first scattered plants appear. Make
the second application when all the plants are up. Make addi-
tional applications after each pulling. Apply the material so
as to cover all of the soil surface around the plants, using at
each application 1/ pound of 2% dieldrin dust per 100 feet of
row; on beds use 1/4 pound per 80 square feet of surface.
FIELD TREATMENT.-When the vines begin to meet in the mid-
dle or the largest roots are 1/2 inch in diameter, use 75 pounds of
2% dieldrin dust per acre. Apply the insecticide to the soil
rather than the foliage in a 6- to 7-inch band on each row along
the plant crowns.
Harvest all sweet potatoes before December 1 and cull out
any infested ones.








When storing or banking sweet potatoes, dust them with
10% DDT at the rate of 1 ounce per bushel as you bank them.
Dust the ground and straw used.

CAUTION: Before eating or feeding to livestock, wash all
potatoes, which have been dusted with DDT.
Potatoes should be used by March 1, being certain to destroy
all infested potatoes. Do not allow volunteer plants around old
storage sites; these and plants left in the field are almost certain
to carry weevils over from year to year.

SPINACH
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Malathion 25% WP, 4 lbs. 7
Caterpillars Parathion 15% WP, 1%-2 lbs. 15
Other Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 4
Chewing Insects Dibrom '8E, 1-2 pts. 4


STRAWBERRIES
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Pameras DDT 50% WP, 2 lbs. DDT 5% 5
Flower Thrips Malathion 25% WP, 4 lbs. Malathion 5% 3
Parathion 15% WP, 112-2 lbs. Parathion 1-2% 3
Field Crickets DDT 50% WP, 2 lbs. DDT 5% 5
Flea Beetles Parathion 15% WP, 1/2-2 lbs. Parathion 2% 3
Leaf Rollers
Spider Mites Kelthane 181/% WP, 1/2-2 lbs. Kelthane 2-3% 2
Malathion 25% WP, 4 lbs. Malathion 5% 3
Parathion 15% WP, 2 lbs. Parathion 2% 3
Cutworms See page 10.
Mole Cricket See page 10.
Wireworms See page 10.
Citrus Root Weevil Same as Wireworm.

1. Pameras.-Parathion gives better control of pameras than
malathion. Malathion is safer than parathion, but should be
handled with the proper precaution. See following caution on
use of parathion and malathion.
2. Spider Mites.-More than one kind of spider mite infest
strawberries. Parathion, malathion and sulfur are effective
against the common red spider, but do not control certain other
species. Kelthane has given control of all species in most areas.
Sulfur is the suggested diluent for parathion and malathion
dusts. If the above materials do not control spider mites, ethion
24








25% WP at 2 pounds per 100 gallons of water is suggested.
Wait at least two days before picking.

CAUTIONS: Where recommended and needed, parathion
and malathion should be applied immediately after harvesting.
Wait at least three days before harvesting again.

TOMATOES
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Dimethoate (Cygon) 2.67E, 21
%3-1 pt.
Parathion 15% WP, 2-3 lbs. Parathion 2% 3
Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 1
Thiodan 50% WP, 1-2 lbs. 1
Armyworms DDT 50% WP, 2 lbs. DDT 5% 3
Tomato Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 1
Fruitworms Sevin 80% WP, 1a lbs. Sevin 5% NTL*
Hornworms TDE (DDD) 50% WP, 2 lbs. TDE (DDD) 5% 1
Thiodan 50% WP, 1-2 lbs. 1
Loopers Parathion 15% WP, 2-3 lbs. Parathion 2% 3
Phosdrin 2E, 2 pts. 1
Thiodan 50% WP, 2 lbs. 1
Leaf Miners Dimethoate (Cygon) 2.67E, 21
%--1 pt.
Diazinon 25% WP, 1-2 lbs. Diazinon 2% 1
Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 4
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. NTL*
Stinkbugs Parathion 15% WP, 2-3 lbs. Parathion 2% 3
Other Plant Bugs Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Sevin 80% WP, 1%' lbs. Sevin 5% NTL*
Thiodan 50% WP, 1-2 lbs. 1
Banded Cucumber Thiodan 50% WP, 1-2 lbs. 1
Beetle Guthion 2E, 2 pts. NTL*
Cutworms See page 10. Regular sprays of DDT, TDE or parathion
will prevent the establishment of cutworms after the
crop is planted.
Wireworms See page 10.
Mole Cricket See page 10.
Field Cricket Same as Mole Cricket.
No time limitation when used as directed.


1. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply in-
secticides twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy
migrations of adult leaf miners from nearby abandoned host
vegetable fields, or on older plants when weekly applications are
not giving control. Weekly applications of dimethoate (Cygon)
have given good control. Diazinon has not been effective in the
Homestead and Lower East Coast areas in recent years. Para-
thion will usually give control in Central and North Florida.

25











COMMON, CHEMICAL AND TRADE NAMES OF
CERTAIN INSECTICIDES

Several of the newer insecticides became well known by
trade names before common names were assigned to them. Some
publications continue to use the well-established trade names,
others use both names, while still others use only the newly
designated common names. This has resulted in some confusion
and uncertainty for those who are not aware of the common
names.
This chart gives (1) the common name, (2) the chemical
name used in the USDA Summary of Registered Agricultural
Pesticide Chemical Uses, and (3) the trade name which became
well known before a common name was designated.


Common Name Chemical Name (USDA Summary) Trade Name

carbaryl 1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate Sevin
carbophenothion O,O-diethyl S-p-chlorophenylthiomethyl Trithion
phosphorodithioate
demeton O,O-diethyl O (and S)-2-(ethylthio) ethyl Systox
phosphorothioates
dimethoate O,0-dimethyl s- (methylcarbamoylmethyl) Cygon
phosphorodithioate
dioxathion 2,3-p-dioxanedithiol-bis- (O,0-diethylphos- Delnav
phorodithioate)
endosulfan 6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a- Thiodan
hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxa-
thiepin-3-oxide
mevinphos 2-carbomethoxyl-l-methylvinyl dimethyl Phosdrin
phosphate (a-Isomer)
naled 1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethyl dimethyl Dibrom
phosphate
phorate O,0-diethyl S-(ethylthiomethyl) phosphor- Thimet
odithioate
phosphamidon 2-Chloro-2-diethylcarbamoyl-l-methylvinyl Dimecron
dimethyl phosphate
tetradifon 2,4,5,4'-tetrachlorodiphenyl sulfone Tedion








DISEASE CONTROL

The amounts of fungicide recommended as sprays are for
100 gallons of water. Materials recommended as dusts are to be
used at 20 to 35 pounds per acre. "Minimum Days to Harvest"
means the minimum number of days that should be allowed be-
tween last foliar application and harvest. If the dosages recom-
mended in this publication are exceeded, the minimum days
given may not be applicable and a longer interval should be
allowed.
COMMON, CHEMICAL, AND TRADE NAMES
OF CERTAIN FUNGICIDES

Several of the fungicides have become well known by trade names.
Some have no common names assigned to them. Some publications con-
tinue to use the well-established trade names, others use both names, while
still others use only the newly designated common names. This has resulted
in some confusion and uncertainty for those who are not aware of the
common names.
This chart gives (1) the common names, (2) the chemical names used
in the USDA Summary of Registered Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Uses,
and (3) some trade names of materials listed in this publication.



COMMON NAME CHEMICAL NAME SOME TRADE NAMES


Captan


Chloranil

Copper





Ferbam



Maneb

Premixed
maneb
Nabam


Nabam (wet-
table powder)


N-trichloromethylmercapto-
4-cyclohexene-1:2-
dicarboximide
Tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone

Various


Zinc ion + manganese ethylene
bisdithiocarbamate complex
2, 4-Dichloro-6-o-Chloroanilino-
s-Triazine
Ferric dimethyl dithiocarbamate

2-Capryl-4,6-Dinitrophenyl
Crotonate
Manganous ethylene bisdithio-
carbamate
Manganous etheylene bisdithio-
carbamate plus zinc sulphate
Disodium ethylene bisdithiocar-
bamate

Disodium ethylene bisdithiocar-
bamate
27


Stauffer captain, Ortho
captain, Orthocide

Spergon Wettable,
Spergon
Tribasic copper sul-
phate, C-O-C-S, Basic
copper fungicide
Dithane M-45

Dyrene

Fermate, Karbam
black,
Stauffer ferbam
Karathane

Manzate, Dithane M-22,
Miller 6582
Manzate D, Dithane
M-22 special
Dithane D-14, Nabam
liquid fungicide, Par-
zate liquid fungicide
Dithane A-40, Nabamt








COMMON NAME CHEMICAL NAME SOME TRADE NAMES
PCNB Pentachloronitrobenzene Terraclor
Streptomycin Streptomycin Agri-strep, Agrimycin
100, Agrimycin 17,
Phytomycin
Sulphur Sulphur Sulphur
Thiram Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide Thylate, Thiram 75-W
Thiramad
Zineb Zinc ethylene bisdithiocarba- Dithane Z-78, Parzate
mate C,Ortho zineb

BEANS
Bush and Lima
Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonas phaseoli and Pseudomonas
phaseolicola).-No chemical control.
Halo blight and common bacterial blight are carried in and
on the seed and soil. Seed treatment is not beneficial, and sprays
in the field usually are not effective. Secure blight-free seed
from western areas where proper production precautions have
been taken. Rotate crops.
Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe polygoni).-Same as for rust
control.
Root Rots.-All cover crops should be chopped down and
allowed to dry completely before being plowed under. Plow
under cover crops six to eight weeks in advance of planting and
prepare seedbed 5 to 10 days ahead of planting.
Spraying seed and soil in a six- to eight-inch band in the
opened furrow at planting time with a 50-50 mixture of captain
50% plus PCNB 75% at the rate of 8 pounds per acre has re-
sulted in improved stands. Protection cannot be expected for
more than a week or two after seed germinates. Be sure not to
exceed 8 pounds per acre, particularly during cool, rainy periods
of mid-winter.
Rust (Uromyces phaseoli typica).-For severe rust condition,
usually during spring months when sulfur alone will not give
control, the following program is advised:
Spray with maneb (80%) at 1.5 pounds per 100 gallons of
water or use sulfur plus 3.5% maneb dust, beginning at emerg-
ence and continuing at seven-day intervals until a few days
before harvest. Minimum days to harvest: 4.
When rust is less severe during fall and winter, sulfur spray
at 16 pounds per 100 gallons of water or sulfur dust should give
adequate control. 28







To be most effective, rust control should be started before
the leaves are infected. The control obtained before flowering
has more effect on yield than control late in the crop season.
Sclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-Flooding fields for
five to six weeks during summer months will effectively reduce
the number of sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils, apply 500 to 700 pounds of cyanamid per acre.
Broadcast and disk in prior to planting; no waiting period is
necessary on marl. Cyanamid is not necessary if land is flooded
three weeks or more during summer. On sand apply 1,000
pounds of cyanamid and wait three months before planting.

Pole Beans
Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonas phaseoli and Pseudomonas
phaseolicola).-See under Bush Beans.
Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe polygoni).-Same as for rust con-
trol.
Root Rots.-See under Bush Beans.
Rust (Uromyces phaseoli typica).-Use rust-resistant va-
rieties of pole beans where these are adapted.
For the most severe rust conditions, which usually occur
during the spring months beginning with February, when sulfur
alone will not give adequate control, the following program is
advised:
1. Spray with maneb (80%), 1.5 pounds per 100 gallons of
water, beginning with emergence and continuing until poles are
set. Apply sprays often enough to cover new growth as it
appears.
2. After staking, dust with sulfur plus 3.5% maneb twice
weekly until beans are setting, thereafter at five-day intervals
until about 10 days before harvest ceases. Use 30 to 50 pounds
per acre per application, depending upon plant size. Minimum
days to harvest: 4.
When rust is less severe, during fall and winter months, sul-
fur dust alone will give adequate control. Also, if sulfur plus
maneb dust is used during this period, the interval between
applications may be lengthened to five to seven days. Minimum
days to harvest: 4.
To be most effective, rust control should be started before
the leaves are infected. The control obtained before flowering
has more effect on yield than control later in the crop season.
Sclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-See under Bush
Beans.







CARROTS
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Alternaria Leaf Zineb 75%, 2 lbs., or 7*
Blight Copper, 4 lbs. 48-53% NTL**
(Alternaria metallic copper
dauci)
7 days if tops used for food or feed.
** No time limitation when used as recommended.

In early plantings it may be satisfactory to begin applications
when plants are five to eight inches high and repeat at weekly
intervals. In later plantings, if the disease is established in the
area, it may be necessary to begin applications shortly after
emergence of the seedlings (three-inch stage).
Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonas carotae).-Seed treatment:
Treat seed 10 minutes in water at 1260F., (see Crucifers) or 10
minutes in 1:1000 mercuric chloride (1 ounce crystals in 71/2
gallons of water). Wash seed and dry.
CAUTION: Mercuric chloride is extremely poisonous and
corrosive and must be handled with extreme care. Use a wood
or earthenware container for treating seed with mercuric chlo-
ride. Take every precaution to keep away from children and
animals. Used material should be disposed of in a safe place.

CELERY
Transplant Bed
Fungi, Nematodes and Weeds.-Preplant treatment: Gases.-
Release methyl bromide under a gas-proof cover with a special
applicator or inject chloropicrin at a depth of six inches at one-
foot intervals (6 to 8 inch intervals on organic soil) and cover
the treated area with a gas-proof cover. In each case the covers
may be removed 24 to 48 hours after application. Allow three to
seven days after treatment for the gases to escape from the soil
before seeding. Two gallons of chloropicrin or 24 pounds of
methyl bromide per 1,200 square feet (2 pounds per 100 square
feet) of soil are recommended, but half these amounts have
been effective after August.
These gases are highly toxic and should not be inhaled.
Preplant Treatment: Drenches.-The materials recommended
are listed in the table on page 31. These may be substituted
for the gases under cover. They cost less and are more conveni-
ent to apply, but they are less effective, particularly during July








and August, when the soil temperature sometimes goes above
85 F. A waiting period of two weeks between treatment and
seeding is necessary for most of the drenches, except treatment
10 in the table, which requires only a three- to seven-day waiting
period. With this method of fumigation, prepare the seedbeds
and keep them moist at least two weeks before application to in-
sure effective herbicidal activity. Apply the chemicals or mix-
tures of chemicals with a watering cart, garden hose propor-
tioner or sprinkling can. Agitate the solutions or emulsions
when applying to prevent settling out. Approximately 20 gallons
of water per 100 square feet or 240 gallons per 1,200 square feet
of seedbed is necessary to obtain adequate penetration. After
treatment, the seedbed should not be raked or cultivated beyond
a depth of 2 inches because of the danger of exposing viable weed
seeds. (See first paragraph on page 32.)

RECOMMENDED CHEMICALS
Control of Soil Pests in Celery Seedbeds

Quantity per
Chemicals 1,200 Sq. Ft.
Seedbed

1. Methyl bromide ........................................ ..... ... 24.0 lbs.
2. Chloropicrin ............................................... 2.0 gals.
3. Allyl alcohol ......................----------------.... 1.1 gals.
EDB (ethylene dibromide 88% emulsible) .......................... 1.3 pts.
Formaldehyde 40% .............................................................. 2.8 gals.
4. Allyl alcohol .................................................................. 1.1 gals.
Dichloropropene and dichloropropane mixtures (D-D,
Telone, Vidden D) ............................................................ 3.3 qts.
Formaldehyde 40% ............................................... 2.8 gals.
5. SMDC (Vapam, VPM)* .............................. ........................ 2.1 gals.
6. DMTT (Mylone 85W)* ................................. ........... 8.3 lbs.
7. DMTT (Mylone 50W ) ......................................... 14.0 lbs.
8. Allyl alcohol ............................................. .... 1.1 gals.
Dichloropropene and dichloropropane mixtures (D-D,
Telone, Vidden D) ..................... .................. ............ .. 3.3 qts.
9. A llyl alcohol ............................................ ............................... 1.1 gals.
EDB (83% em ulsible) ................................. .......................... 1.3 pts.
10. Allyl alcohol ..................................... ... ...... ................. 1.1 gals.
1.2 dibromo-3-chloropropane 50% emulsible
(Nemagon, Fumazone) ............. ...... ..................... 3.0 pts.

A 25% to 50% reduction in dosage if treated area is covered with
plastic film. Full dosage under plastic film is equal to methyl bromide.

The chemicals for mixtures listed above may be purchased separately
and mixed, or some of them may be purchased already formulated, ready
for use.








The chemicals in the drenches are highly toxic and should
not be inhaled or allowed to come in contact with the skin. Wear
a gas mask containing a canister for protection against organic
vapors and wear rubber gloves, boots and apron when mixing
or applying the chemicals. This is particularly important when
a person is exposed to the chemicals over a period of several
days.
Fungi.-Post-emergence treatment.-On organic soils, fixed
copper at 4 pounds of 48-53% metallic applied at weekly intervals
is sufficient for disease control until covers are removed. After
this, use control measures recommended for field diseases.

Field
Bacterial Blight (Pseudomonas cichorii).-On organic soils
during the late spring and early fall when bacterial blight is
usually present, apply fixed copper at 4 pounds of 48-53 % metallic
twice each week or every four to five days, depending on rainfall.
No time limitation when used as recommended.
Do not apply foliar nitrogen during the seasons favorable
for bacterial blight, and avoid over-fertilization with soil-applied
nitrogen. To help prevent spread of the bacterium keep workers
and farm equipment from brushing against wet plants.

MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Early Blight Dyrene 50%, 2 Ibs., or NTL*
Late Blight Maneb 80%, 1/2 lbs., or NTL*
Maneb 80%, Dyrene 50%, 50-50
mixture 2 lbs., or NTL*
Nabam 22%, 2 qts.
(1 lb. 93% WP) plus
% lb. zinc sulfate, 36%. NTL*
Wash and trim. No time limitation when used as recommended.

Early Blight (Cercospora apii).-Begin applications at week-
ly intervals and reduce to four or five days if conditions become
favorable for disease development. On organic soils after two
applications of any of the organic materials, follow with one
application of copper.
On organic soils begin applications immediately after plants
are set and repeat at 4- to 5-day intervals. Dyrene or maneb is
most effective. Dyrene at 1 pound mixed in the spray tank with
4 pounds of 48-53% metallic copper is equally effective against
32







early blight and in addition offers some control of bacterial
blight.
Late Blight (Septoria apii).-Use three year old seed. Early
blight control measures are effective for late blight control.
Pink Rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). Since the disease is
not serious every year, it is difficult to recommend a definite con-
trol program. Each of the following control measures has re-
duced Sclerotinia, but when conditions become favorable for the
development of the disease, it may be necessary to combine all
of them in order to obtain a satisfactory control.
(1) Rotate with a crop not susceptible to Sclerotinia, such
as sweet corn.
(2) Flood the soil either completely, partially, or intermit-
tently for a period of 6 weeks during the summer.
(3) Treat the soil with cyanamid at the rate of 1,000 pounds
per acre on sand at least 3 months before transplanting.
(4) Spray weekly with a mixture of 4 lbs. ferbam plus 2
lbs. hydrated lime. Remove residue by stripping, trimming and
washing.
Rhizoctonia Stalk Rot (Rhizoctonia solani).-Direct a spray
nozzle on each side of the row toward the base of the plants
and apply 11/2 pounds thiram, 11/ pounds Dyrene or 4 pounds
fixed copper, 48-53% metallic, per 100 gallons of water. Spray
applications should be made in combination with those for early
blight control.
Mosaic.-The virus causing mosaic is transmitted by aphids.
At present the only effective control measure consists of eradicat-
ing the principal weed host, wandering jew, (Commelina spp.)
from the vicinity of the crop. It is particularly important to do
this in the seedbed area. This eradication must be complete
before the celery seedbeds are planted.

CORN, SWEET
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Helminthosporium Maneb 80%, 11/ lbs., or NTL*
Leaf Blights- Nabam 22%, 2 qts. (1 lb. 93%
(Helminthosporium WP) plus %3 lb. zinc sulfate
maydis and 36%, or NTL*
Helminthosporium Zineb 75%, 2 lbs. NTL*
turcicum)
Kernel and cob: no time limitation. Do not feed treated forage to livestock.







Maneb, nabam plus zinc sulfate, or zineb properly applied once
or twice weekly, depending on weather and disease conditions
and locations, will give economic control. For crops in the "whorl
stage" of growth, the sprayer should have two nozzles over the
row in addition to the side nozzles required for complete cover-
age of unfurled leaves. Application of fungicide should cease
10 days before harvest unless younger corn is growing nearby.
These same materials also control corn rust. Where practicable
use Helminthosporium resistant varieties.
Bacterial Leaf Blight (Pseudomonas alboprecipitans).-No
chemical control.
CRUCIFERS
Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower,
Chinese Cabbage, Collards, Radishes
Spray materials do not stick easily to the waxy leaves of
most crucifers. Use a sticker-spreader as recommended by the
manufacturer on large plants in seedbeds and on plants in the
field.
Transplant Bed
Fungi, Nematodes and Weeds.-Preplant treatment: See cel-
ery transplant bed.
TRANSPLANT BED TREATMENTS
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Alternaria Leaf Spot Nabam 22%, 2 qts. (1 lb. 93% (See
(Alternaria brassicae) WP) plus %/ lb. zinc sulfate field
Downy Mildew 36%), or treatments)
(Peronospora parasitica) Zineb 75%, 2 lbs., or
Maneb 80%,l'1% lbs., or
Chloranil 48%, 4 lbs.*
Io not use on cauliflower or Chinese Cabbage.

In the Hastings area, begin applications 7 to 10 days after
the seed is planted or before then, if mildew is present. Repeat
three times a week except when temperatures drop to 40F or
lower or heavy rains interrupt the schedule. Continue treatment
until plants are set in the field. Total number of applications
may vary from 6 to 15, depending upon season and weather.
Use 80 to 150 gallons of spray or 15 to 35 pounds of dust per
acre at each application, depending on size of plants.
Plow under abandoned seedbeds and harvested fields to pre-
vent diseases from spreading to new plantings. Eradicate all
crucifers in vicinity of seedbed.








FIELD TREATMENTS
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Alternaria Leaf Spot Nabam 22%, 2 qts. (1 lb.
(Alternaria brassicae) 93% WP) plus 3/4 lb. zinc
Downy Mildew sulfate 36%, or 7*
(Peronospora parasitica) Zineb 75%, 2 lbs., or 7*
Maneb 80%, 11/ lbs. 7**
NTL on radishes.
** No time limitation when used as recommended on cauliflower and brussels sprouts.
Remove residues on broccoli by washing or trimming if treated within 3 days of harvest.
Do not use on Chinese cabbage, collards, or radishes.
Where seed is sown directly in the field, spray seedlings with
nabam plus zinc sulfate, zineb or chloranil as recommended for
downy mildew. Stop chloranil treatments when plants are
thinned. If alternaria leaf spot and downy mildew are a prob-
lem, continue treatment with nabam plus zinc sulfate, zineb or
maneb; use 100 to 150 gallons of spray or 25 to 30 pounds of
dust per acre every six to seven days.
Bacterial Leaf Spot of Cabbage (Pseudomonas cichorii).-
No chemical control.
Black Rot (Xanthomonas campestris).-Take every possible
precaution to secure disease-free plants. Do not locate seedbeds
or field plantings on land planted to any crucifer during the
preceding 12 months.
Cabbage seed grown in the Puget Sound area are reported
to be free of black rot, but the hot water treatment is recom-
mended regardless of source. Hot water treatment is carried
out as follows:
Treat seed at 1220F. Cabbage and brussels sprouts should
be treated 25 to 35 minutes; broccoli, cauliflower, collards, Chi-
nese cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, rutabaga and turnips should be
treated 18 minutes.
Fill muslin bags about /3 full of seed. Tie the tops and
immerse in a container of water at the temperature indicated.
Keep the water temperature within one degree of that specified.
Keep the seed under water, and stir to maintain uniform tempera-
ture. At the end of the period, remove seed from the hot water
and plunge into cold water, then spread out and dry. Treatment
is a delicate operation and is best performed by a trained opera-
tor using special equipment. It may be more satisfactory to
have seed treated at the nearest central seed treating plant. A
University of Florida publications, Extension Agricultural Engi-
neering Mimeo Report No. 61-1, gives instructions for construc-
tion and operation of a central hot water seed treating unit.








Test seed for germination before treating with hot water.
Weak seed may be killed, while good seed will stand treatment
and germinate well if planted within two months.
Yellows (Fusarium oxysporum f. conglutinans).-The only
control after soil is infested is use of resistant varieties. Grow-
ers should take every possible precaution to secure disease-free
transplants.

TURNIPS AND MUSTARD
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Downy Mildew- Nabam 22%, 2 qts. (1 lb. 93%
(Peronospora parasitica) WP) alus zinc sulfate 36%,
% lb., or 7*
Zineb 75%, 2 lbs. 7*
Turnip roots; no time limitation.

When weather favors development of the disease, begin
applications as soon as seedlings emerge and repeat at three- to
four-day intervals. Addition of a spreader-sticker may be
advisable.
In the Hastings area, downy mildew is seldom observed and
is of no consequence. The cabbage mildew fungus does not
attack turnip and mustard.
Leaf Spots.-Exact controls of the various leaf spot conditions
reported on these crops have not been fully determined. Nabam
plus zinc sulfate may control Alternaria but is not effective
against Cercosporella. A regular schedule of alternate sprays
or dusts of maneb and zineb is suggested.

CUCURBITS
Cantaloupe, Cucumber and Squash
Angular Leaf Spot (Pseudomonas lachrymans).-Use only
disease-free seed, or treat seed for six minutes in mercuric chlo-
ride (1 ounce crystals in 71/2 gallons of water), followed by
rinsing clear water and drying.
CAUTION: Mercuric chloride is extremely poisonous and cor-
rosive and must be handled with extreme care. Use a wooden or
earthenware container for treating seed with mercuric chloride.
Take every precaution to keep away from children and animals.
Used material should be disposed of in a safe place.








Weekly applications of copper sprays (4 pounds of 48-53%
metallic copper per 100 gallons) help to control spread of the
disease in the field. Copper will not give satisfactory control of
powdery mildew and thus is not a substitute for the other ma-
terials. Repeated copper applications may cause yellowing of
leaf margins and possibly reduction of yields. No time limitation
when used as recommended.
MIN. DAYS
DISEASES SPRAY TO HAVEST
Anthacnose Zineb 75%, 2 lbs., or NTL
(Glomerella cingulata Maneb 80%, 112 lbs. NTL
var. orbiculare)
Downy Mildew
(Pseudoperonospora cubensis)
Gummy Stem Blight
(Mycosphaerella citrullina)
Powdery Mildew 8-16 oz. Karathane 7
(Erysiphe cichoracearum)
Cucumber Scab Maneb 80%, 11/2 lbs. NTL
(Cladosporium cucumerinum)

Anthracnose, Downy Mildew and Gummy Stem Blight.-
Maneb may be injurious to cantaloupe and cucumbers. Zineb
alternated with maneb, is preferred because it is less injurious.
Downy mildew is serious in all parts of the state during
warm, damp weather. Spray every three to four days, begin-
ning before runners start, if necessary. In seasons of light
infection, applications may be delayed until runners form and
intervals may be longer.
There are several varieties of cucumbers and cantaloupe that
are resistant to downy mildew but fungicides should be used to
prevent other diseases.
Powdery Mildew.-The fungicides used for downy mildew
give some control of powdery mildew, but will not give sufficient
control. Karathane at the rate of 8 to 16 ounces in 100 gallons
of water may be added to the carbamates to control powdery
mildew when it appears. If powdery mildew is a persistent
problem, use Karathane on a preventative basis, i.e., on a regular
schedule (every five to seven days) before the disease appears.
Minimum days to harvest: 7.
During cold weather, sulfur may be used on squash (2 to 4
pounds) and on cucumber (no more than 2 pounds) two or three
times to control powdery mildew. Sulfur should never be used
on cantaloupe.








Viruses (Mosaics).-Most mosaic symptoms in these crops
are caused by aphid-transmitted viruses that occur naturally in
wild hosts. Elimination of weeds around the field before planting
will help greatly in reducing losses from virus diseases.
Rodents.-See under Watermelons.
WATERMELONS


MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Anthracnose
(Glomerella cingulata Maneb 80%, 1 lb. NTL
var. orbiculare) plus zineb 75%, 1 lb.; NTL
Downy mildew or Premixed Maneb 80%
(Pseudoperonospora cubensis) plus Zinc 11 lbs. *, or NTL
Gummy stem blight Dithane M-45, 80%,
(Mycosphaerella citrullina) 11/2 lbs. NTL
Cercospora leaf spot
(Cercospora citrullina)
Alternaria leaf spot
(Alternaria cucumerina)
Bacterial leaf spot Copper (48-53%) 3 lbs. NTL
(Pseudomonas lachrymans)__.


Mosaic INo chemical control
*See table on page 27.
Copper (3 pounds of 48-53% metallic copper per 100 gallons)
may be used alternately with zineb or maneb where downy mil-
dew is the only disease of importance or bacterial leaf spot occurs
with other foliar diseases. Copper will not control Anthracnose,
and can cause leaf burning on watermelons.
The major foliar diseases of watermelons can be controlled
with fungicides. The severity of these diseases varies from
year to year, depending on weather and other factors. Usually
one or more of them cause damage in Florida. In dry seasons,
the value of fungicides may not be apparent, especially in north-
ern Florida. Higher yields of higher quality melons usually
result from a systematic disease control program.
Inadequate coverage of foliage is probably the most common
cause of poor disease control. Complete coverage of both foliage
and fruit is essential for adequate disease control. It is neces-
sary to cover the underside of the leaves as well as the topside.
Spraying is preferable to dusting because better coverage is
possible.
Make the first application soon after plants begin to grow
and before runners start. Weather conditions will govern the
number and timing of subsequent applications. In general three
to five sprays are sufficient in northern and central Florida, while
seven or more may be needed in southern Florida.
38








Seed-Borne Diseases.-Most commercial seed are previously
treated by the seed producer and a special treatment need not
be applied by the grower unless desired. The following mate-
rials can be used at the indicated rates.

Ounces per Teaspoons per
100 Lbs. Seed Pound of Seed
Chloranil 48% ................................................. 6
or
Thiram 50% ..................................... 4 z

Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. niveum).-This disease is
caused by a fungus that inhabits the soil and cannot be controlled
with fungicides. The use of resistant varieties, along with rota-
tions and new land, is the best control measure. Delayed thin-
ning is recommended with Charleston Gray when this variety
is planted on land previously grown in watermelon. A maximum
number of years between watermelon crops is desirable, even
with resistant varieties. Some wilting can be expected with
susceptible varieties even on new land.
There is always a possibility that wilt may occur on new
land even with resistant varieties as a result of infestations
through drainage water, tools, or cattle that come in contact
with infested fields.
Rodents.-Seed treatment.-Place 5 pounds of seed in a five-
gallon container with a dust-proof lid. Weigh and measure out
the materials before you start the treatment.
Make a 10% latex water emulsion by putting 0.8 fluid ounce
(5 teaspoons) of Dow Latex 512-R (48% solids) or 0.8 fluid
ounce (5 teaspoons) poly vinyl acetate or 1/4 pint Rhoplex AC-33
(46% solids) in a 1/2 pint container and filling with water. Pour
this solution over seed. Place lid on container and tumble seed
until uniformly moistened with adhesive.
Next, measure out 0.8 ounce endrin 50W and 5.0 ounces thi-
ram 75 and blend together; add mixture to seed and tumble
until seed are evenly coated.
Then, measure out 0.8 ounce of aluminum powder (extra
fine) and add to seed and tumble until seed are evenly coated.
NOTE: This entire seed treatment must be completed within
three to five minutes, before the adhesive sets.
Finally, spread the treated seed out to dry for 24 hours be-
fore planting. Treat only 5 pounds of seed in five-gallon con-
tainer. You may treat larger quantities with larger equipment.







CAUTION: Endrin is extremely toxic and should not be
breathed or allowed to get on clothing or skin. If accidentally
spilled on skin or clothing, change clothes and wash immediately
with soap and water. Read and follow precautions on labels on
packages explicitly. Commercially prepared packets of all in-
gredients with measuring bottle are available in 5-, 10- and 20-
pound packets through pesticide distributors in Florida.

EGGPLANT

Phomopsis Blight (Phomopsis vexans).-Florida Market is
resistant to the tip over stage of Phomopsis blight. However,
the fruit rot and leaf and stem lesion stages are serious problems.
Only disease-free plants should be transplanted from seedbed
to field.
TRANSPLANT BED SPRAY
3 lbs. 76% ferbam
or
2 lbs. 75% zineb
To make 6 gallons of spray, use 3 ounces (22 level tablespoons full)
ferbam, or 2 ounces (8 level tablespoonfulls) of zineb.
Make two applications when plants emerge and repeat at
seven-day intervals. For general foliage and fruit disease control
apply 70% zineb at 11/ lbs./100 gallons on a regular schedule
every 5 to 10 days. A suitable spreader sticker will be beneficial
in coverage on fruit.
Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum). No chemical
control. Use new land or rotate with non-susceptable crops.
LETTUCE AND ENDIVE
Alternaria Leaf Spot (Alternaria sonchi).-For lettuce only,
use ziram 76%, 2 pounds in 100 gallons of water, and begin appli-
cations when disease appears; repeat at four- to five-day
intervals.
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Downy Mildew Nabam 22%, 2 qts. (1 lb. 93%
(Bremia lactucae) WP) plus % lb. zinc sulfate
36%, or 7*
Zineb 75%, 2 lbs., or 7*
Maneb 80%, 1/2 lbs. 7*
5 days on head lettuce.

Begin applications when disease appears; repeat at four- to
five-day intervals.
Spray twice weekly during cool, wet weather. Where rows
are spaced 18 inches apart, apply 150 to 200 gallons spray per
acre. Nabam plus zinc sulfate may cause injury.








Drop (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-Since the disease is not
serious every year, it is difficult to recommend a definite control
program. Each of the following control measures has reduced
drop, but when conditions become favorable for the development
of the disease, it may be necessary to combine all of them in
order to obtain a satisfactory control.
(1) Rotate with a crop not susceptible to this disease, such
as sweet corn.
(2) Flood the soil either completely, partially or intermit-
tently for a period of six weeks during the summer.
(3) Treat the soil with cyanamid at the rate of 1,000 pounds
per acre on sand at least three months before transplanting. On
marl soils, apply 500 to 700 pounds of cyanamid per acre and disk
in 7 to 10 days before setting plants.
(4) Spray weekly with a mixture of 4 pounds ferbam plus 2
pounds hydrated lime. Remove residue by stripping, trimming
and washing.
Mosaic.-Most severe on head lettuce. The recommended
control is to use only seed which has been indexed as mosaic-
free. Field spread may be reduced by aphid control.
OKRA
Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum).-Apply weekly
sprays of sulphur at 16 lbs. sulphur per 100 gallons of water,
or dust with 325 mesh dusting sulphur.
Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum). No chemical
control. Use new land or rotate with non-susceptable crops.
ONIONS
MIN. DAYS
DISEASES SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Downy Mildew Nabam 22%, 2 qts.
(Peronospora (1 lb. 93% WP) plus
destructor) % lb. zinc sulfate, 36% 7*
Blast plus spreader sticker, or
(Botrytis sp.) Zineb 75%, 2 lbs., Zineb 6%% 7*
Purple Blotch plus sticker, or
(Alternaria porri) Maneb 80%, 1% lbs., plus NTL
sticker

No time limit on dry onions; 7 days on green onions.
When weather conditions favor the development of disease,
begin applications when seedlings emerge; repeat at intervals
of three to four days. In certain seasons, it may be possible
to begin applications on a weekly schedule, shifting to twice-
weekly applications if necessary.








It is extremely difficult to obtain adequate foliage coverage
because of the waxy nature of the onion plant. Successful con-
trol has been reported by timing dust applications to coincide
with formation of fine films of moisture on the leaf surface at
certain periods of the day.

PEAS
Powery Mildew (Erysiphe polygoni).-Spray with 10 pounds
of wettable sulfur in 100 gallons of water or dust with 325 mesh
dusting sulfur.
Begin applications when signs of disease appear. Repeat at
10- to 14-day intervals, or often enough to keep the disease under
control. Do not apply when plants are wet or during periods of
high temperatures (above 90F).
Powdery mildew sometimes becomes serious during winter
months. It is usually necessary to adhere to a strict spray pro-
gram to keep it under control.

PEPPERS
Fungi, Nematodes and Weeds.-Pre-plant treatment in trans-
plant bed: See celery transplant bed.
Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria).-Use 4 pounds
of copper (48-53% metallic copper) plus 11/. pounds of maneb,
or premixed maneb plus zinc or Dithane M-45. Do not use
Dithane M-45 after fruit begins to set.
Copper (4 pounds of 48-53% metallic copper) will give some
control and addition of streptomycin (up to 400 ppm) will con-
trol the disease in areas where the causal bacterium is suscepti-
ble. Streptomycin is generally ineffective in south Florida
because of resistant strains of the spot bacterium.
Spray applications should be started at emergence of seed-
lings and continued on a 4 to 5 day schedule. Complete coverage
is essential. In plant beds, begin spraying when plants emerge
and repeat twice weekly.
Damping-off (Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia spp., etc.).-Avoid
planting on low or poorly drained areas. Do not follow peppers
with peppers. A chemical soil treatment with SMDC (Vapam,
VPM) on direct-seeded peppers may be tried where damping-off
and other soil-borne troubles, such as nematodes and weeds,








are a problem. Inject five to six inches deep on the prepared
bed at the rate of 1 pint per 100 lineal feet of row or in two bands
at the same rate for two row beds. Good moisture for seeding
and compaction of the bed following application is essential for
success. A waiting period of at least three weeks before seed-
ing is necessary for chemicals to escape. The PCNB plus captain
row treatment is the same as for beans.
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Frogeye Spot Zineb 75%, 2 lbs., or NTL*
Cercospora Copper, 4 lbs. of 48-53%
capsici metallic copper, or NTL*
Maneb 80%, 113 lbs. NTL*
No time limit when used as recommended.

In plant beds, begin spraying when plants are two to three
inches high and repeat at seven-day intervals. In fields after
plants have become established, repeat at 7- to 10-day intervals
as needed.
Frogeye spot is not usually a serious disease, and when weath-
er conditions are not favorable for its development, the spray
schedule may be modified.
Viruses.-Use tobacco mosaic-resistant varieties where pos-
sible.
Workers handling pepper plants should wash hands with
strong soap and water or 70% alcohol before handling plants.
This is most important for workers who use tobacco.
To reduce insect transmission of viruses from wild host plants
(nightshade, ground cherry and others) several practices are
suggested:
(1) Eradicate wild plants in fencerows and on ditch banks
during season when crops are not growing.
(2) Plant barrier crops around pepper fields. A 50-foot strip
of a non-susceptible crop (corn, beans, etc.) tends to trap insects
flying in until they become non-infective.
(3) Spray barrier crop with suitable insecticide at least
weekly to reduce population of insect vectors. See insect control
recommendations.
(4) Destroy old infected crops before planting following crops
alongside them.









POTATOES


Numerous virus, bacterial and fungus diseases are controlled
by always planting certified seed.
Corky Ringspot.-This disease is caused by a tuber and soil-
borne virus. Pungo is highly resistant to corky ringspot and is
recommended for planting in infested soil.
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Early Blight Maneb 80%, 11/ lbs., or NTL*
(Alternaria solani) Zineb 75%, 2 lbs., or NTL*
Late Blight Nabam 22%, 2 qts. (1 lb. 93%
(Phytophthora WP) plus % lb. zinc sulfate
infestans) 36%, or NTL*
Dithane M-45, 80%, 1%2 lbs., or NTL*
premixed maneb 80%, 11/ lbs. NTL*
No time limitation when used as recommended.
In south Florida, begin spraying for late blight when plants
have emerged and continue at four- to five-day intervals.
In the Hastings area, begin spraying when the plants are
six to eight inches high, if late blight does not show earlier, and
continue at five- to seven-day intervals; or use a more economical
method of control by spraying the plants following eight con-
secutive days when the seven-day average daily temperatures
range from 500 to 770F. and the ten-day total rainfall is 1.01
inches or greater. When the latter method is used, intervals
between spraying may vary from 5 to 14 days or more depending
upon the severity of late blight and the duration of periods when
temperatures and rainfall favor its development.
Scab (Streptomyces scabies).-In areas where soil reaction
is usually pH 6.0 or higher and scab has caused excessive losses,
treat seed with hot or cold formaldehyde solution or acidulated
mercuric chloride solution. Certified seed, crop rotation and
holding the pH below 6.0 will assist in controlling scab. Do not
treat seed when potatoes are to be grown in areas where scab
has caused little trouble.
(1) COLD FORMALDEHYDE: 1 pint 40% in 30 gallons of water. Soak
uncut tubers 1%1 hours, then remove and air thoroughly. This treat-
ment is more effective when sacked tubers are first soaked in water
for two minutes before soaking them in formaldehyde or mercury
solutions. This softens the scab lesions.
(2) HOT FORMALDEHYDE: 3.3 quarts 40% per 100 gallons of water.
Dip uncut sacked tubers for three to four minutes in the solution
held at 122 to 124F. Stack sacks on end to dry. Potatoes may be
cut for planting any time after the sacks have dried. Temperature
of the hot solution must be kept within the range indicated to give
control of the disease without injuring the tubers.









(3) ACIDULATED MERCURIC CHLORIDE: 6 ounces mercuric chloride
plus 1 quart commercial hydrochloric acid in 25 gallons of water.
Soak sacked uncut tubers for five minutes, allow to drip and plant
immediately, or dry out. This treatment is safe on muck and peat
soils. This material is poisonous and corrosive; treated seed should
not be eaten or fed to livestock.
CAUTION: Mercuric chloride is extremely poisonous and
corrosive and must be handled with extreme care. Use a wood
or earthenware container for treating seed with mercuric chlo-
ride. Take every precaution to keep away from children and
animals. Used material should be disposed of in a safe place.
Sclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-Flooding fields for
five to six weeks during summer months will reduce the number
of sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils, where sclerotinia has attacked the previous
crop, apply 400 to 600 pounds of cyanamid per acre before plant-
ing. Distribute evenly and thoroughly mix with the surface soil.
Cyanamid is not necessary if soil has been flooded three or more
weeks during the summer.

POTATOES, SWEET

Black Rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata), Scurf (Monilochaetes in-
fuscans), and Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. batatas).-These
diseases will be kept under control with the following practices:
Seed Selection: Many diseases may be reduced by growing
enough seed from vine cuttings to produce next year's seed sup-
ply. Select hills at digging time that are free of disease, have
desirable varietal characteristics, and have at least four or five
Number 1 size potatoes per hill. Take special care in digging
and storing the seed potatoes, handling as little as possible to
prevent bruising.
Plant Bed Site: Locate the bed where sweet potatoes and to-
bacco have not been grown within three years. If permanent
beds are to be used, remove soil to a depth of 12 inches, drench
the bed and frame with a solution of 1 pint of formaldehyde per
15 gallons of water, then replace with new soil.
CAUTION: Seed Treatment: (Pay strict attention to pre-
cautionary label statements.)
Semesan Bel: 1 pound to 71/2 to 8 gallons of water for 1 min-
ute; bed or dry in the shade.
Plant Treatment: Cuttings from the seedbed will give effec-
tive control of black rot and scurf. Cut 1 inch above soil line
rather than pulling with roots on.








Internal Cork.-Seed stock should be free of internal cork,
a disease for which there is no other known control. Cork-free
seed potatoes are available.

STRAWBERRIES
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum fragariae).-Occurs most often
in nursery beds, causes spotting and girdling of runners and
leaf stems. Most severe with high temperature and moisture.
Spray with three to four pounds of 48-53 percent metallic cop-
per from basic copper plus spreader sticker or dust with 6 per-
cent copper dust at 20 to 35 pounds per acre and use on a pre-
ventive schedule once a week or more often. No time limit
between last application and harvest.
Rhizoctonia Bud Rot (Rhizoctonia solani).-Most prevalent
during cool, humid weather. Favored by fog and heavy dew.
Avoid areas where this disease has been prevalent on previous
crops particularly where heavy legume cover crops have been
grown. Cut and allow cover crops to thoroughly dry before
turning under.
Leaf Spots (common, scorch, blight).-In the nursery spray
with three to four pounds of 48-53 percent metallic copper from
basic copper in 100 gallons of water at 75 to 150 gallons per acre
or dust with 6 percent copper dust at 20 to 35 pounds per acre
at seven to ten-day intervals. Use lower rates on small plants.
In fruiting fields, use two pounds of 75 percent zineb in 100
gallons of water, or 20 to 35 pounds of 61/2 percent zineb dust
per acre at seven-day intervals until full bloom, then switch to
three to five pounds of 50 percent captain in 100 gallons of water
or 20 to 35 pounds of 6 percent captain dust per acre at seven-
day intervals, throughout fruiting season. The captain treat-
ment may be used throughout the season. Use the three-pound
rate before bloom and the five-pound rate following bloom.
Black Root.-This condition occurs on older plants in the
nursery. These plants will produce new lateral roots and vig-
orous plants when transplanted. Good soil aeration two to three
weeks prior to digging aids in new root initiation.
Sclerotium Rot (Southern blight) (Sclerotium rolfsii).-De-
velops during hot, wet weather and is most severe in the nursery
during the summer. This fungus attacks plants at the soil line
and invades both the crown and roots, causing sudden death of








plants. Avoid areas where this disease has been prevalent on
previous crops, particularly where heavy legume cover crops
have been grown. Cut and allow cover crops to thoroughly dry
before turning under.
Fruit Rots.-Use 50 percent captain, as recommended for leaf
spots, at seven-day intervals. No time limitation between last
application and harvest.
Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum).-No chemical
control. Use new land or rotate with non-susceptable crops.

TOMATOES
Transplant Bed

Fungi, Nematodes and Weeds.-Pre-plant treatment: Use
methyl bromide and SMDC (Vapam, VPM) transplant bed treat-
ments as recommended for celery.
Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria).-Use 4 pounds of
copper (48-53% metallic copper) plus 11/2 pounds of maneb, or
premixed maneb plus zinc, or Dithane M-45.
Copper (4 pounds of 48-53% metallic copper) will give some
control and addition of streptomycin (up to 400 ppm) will con-
trol the disease in areas where the causal bacterium is suscepti-
ble. Streptomycin is generally ineffective in south Florida be-
cause of resistant strains of the spot bacterium.
Spray applications should be started at emergence of seed-
lings and continued on a 4 to 5 day schedule. Complete coverage
is essential. Control in plant beds helps reduce subsequent losses
in field.
Gray Leaf Spot (Stemphylium solani).-Treat as for late
blight, except that applications every five to seven days should
be sufficient. Use resistant varieties where these are adaptable.
Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans).-Same as field control.
Field
For general control of fungus diseases of foliage, the combina-
tion of 1 pound of maneb and 1 pound of Dyrene* is recommended.
No time limitation when used as recommended. If gray leaf spot
or Botrytis becomes troublesome, increase Dyrene* to 2 pounds.
If late blight becomes troublesome, increase maneb to 11/2 pounds.

See footnote on page 48.








Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria).-Follow recom-
mendations listed above under transplant bed. No time limita-
tions on copper and maneb. Do not use streptomycin after fruit
begins to form.
Early Blight (Alternaria solani).-Control as for late blight
except that dichlone is not effective.
Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. lycopersici).-No
chemical control. Use resistant varieties or new land.
Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum).-No chemical
control. Use new land or rotate with non-susceptible crops.
Gray Leaf Spot (Stemphylium solani).-Control as for late
blight except that Dyrene*, 2 pounds per 100 gallons, is also rec-
ommended.
Use resistant varieties where they are adapted.
Dyrene* although superior to maneb and zineb for gray leaf
spot control, is inferior for control of late blight. Therefore,
use Dyrene* when gray leaf spot is the principal disease and
when late blight is not a threat. Combinations of Dyrene* and
maneb or zineb as listed previously may be used when both gray
leaf spot and late blight are threats.
Gray Mold.-(Botrytis cinera).-The disease does not deve-
lop on plants grown on soils of calcareous nature. Liming prac-
tices can decrease the disease development. Spray with Dyrene*
(2 pounds of 50%) on gray leaf spot susceptible plants. Thiram
(2 pounds of 50%), Dyrene*, or ferbam (3 pounds of 76%) may
be used for control of gray leaf spot resistant varieties. Ferbam
is adequate under routine conditions, but is inferior to Thiram
or Dyrene* under severe conditions. Dichlone (3/ pound of 50%)
will give some control when being used for late blight control.
These materials may be added to maneb or zineb to control the
important fungus diseases.
Gray Wall (Physiologic).-Use resistant varieties.
Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans).-Spray with maneb
80%, 11/2 pounds per 100 gallons of water, or Dithane M-45, 80%,
112 pounds, or premixed maneb plus zinc 80%, 11/2 pounds, or
zineb 75%, 2 pounds per 100 gallons, or dichlone 50%, % pounds
per 100 gallons. Dichlone should be used with caution if tempera-
ture is above 85F.
CAUTION: Dyrene, if used as a spray combination with copper,
should not be applied in a larger quantity than 1 pound of 50% Dyrene
with 4 pounds of 48-53% metallic copper per 100 gallons of water when day
temperatures are in excess of 85*F.








In southern parts of the state, begin applications immedi-
ately after transplanting or emergence and continue at four- to
five-day intervals. In areas or seasons when the disease is less
severe, the time between applications may be five to seven days.
Phoma (Phoma destructiva).-See Late Blight.
Sclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-Flooding fields for
five to six weeks during summer months will reduce the number
of sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils apply cyanamid at the rate of 500 to 700 pounds
per acre, 7 to 10 days before setting plants in the field; distribute
evenly and disk thoroughly after application. Cyanamid is not
needed on soils flooded three or more weeks during summer.
On sand apply 900 pounds and wait three months before planting.
Potato Virus Y and Tobacco Etch Virus.-Eradicate wild host
plants (nightshade, ground cherry, volunteer tomato plants)
BEFORE the crop is planted. Avoid planting subsequent crops
next to diseased early plantings until after the early plantings
have been destroyed. Avoid tomatoes in close proximity to
potatoes.
Pseudo-Curly Top Virus.-Destroy nightshade and ragweed
growing in and around the field before planting the crop. If the
disease appears in the field, spray the margin of the field with
parathion to kill the tree hoppers that transmit the virus.
Tobacco Mosaic Virus.-Direct seed if possible; use high
clearance spray and cultivation equipment; have workers
handling plants wash hands with soap and water after smoking.
Note: Materials listed for use in spraying tomatoes may be
used to time of harvest (NTL) except streptomycin and Dithane
M-45 which can not be used after fruit buds begin to form.








SPRAY NOTES







SPRAY NOTES







SPRAY NOTES









POISON CONTROL CENTERS IN FLORIDA*

City Hospital


Bartow ----------
Belle Glade ----
Bradenton ------
Daytona Beach --
Ft. Lauderdale -.
Ft. Myers _------
Gainesville -----
Gainesville ------
Jacksonville _-----
Key West ---
Lakeland --
Leesburg --
Melbourne -----.--
Miami ---
Miami Beach -
Naples --..-
Ocala __
Orlando --
Panama City -
Pensacola ----.---
Plant City -
Pompano Beach
Punta Gorda -
St. Petersburg
Sarasota --
Tallahassee --
Tampa ---
Titusville -
West Palm Beach
Winter Haven


------------------ Polk County Hospital
---- Belle Glade Memorial Hospital
.- ----- Manatee Memorial Hospital
..----_------ Halifax District Hospital
Broward General Hospital
...---..---- -- Lee Memorial Hospital
-_..--- Alachua General Hospital
-..-..-- J. Hillis Miller Health Center
--- --_----- St. Vincent's Hospital
--...---._.-- Monroe General Hospital
Lakeland General Hospital
--------- Leesburg General Hospital
----------- Brevard Hospital
--- Jackson Memorial Hospital
Mt. Sinai Hospital of Greater Miami
.--_.-.--- Naples Community Hospital
_---- Munroe Memorial Hospital
_- --Orlando Memorial Hospital
Bay County Memorial Hospital
-----.-----Baptist Hospital
South Florida Baptist Hospital
__- North District Hospital
_- Charlottee Community Hospital
------- Mound Park Hospital
--_ Sarasota Memorial Hospital
Tallahassee Memorial Hospital
----- Tampa General Hospital
SJess Parrish Memorial Hospital
------ Good Samaritan Hospital
Winter Haven Hospital, Inc.


Poison Control Centers have been established at each of the above
hospitals to furnish prompt and up-to-date information, during the day or
night, on the symptoms and treatment of cases resulting from exposure to
poisons, including pesticides. When calling any of these hospitals, ask for
the POISON CONTROL CENTER.










Four Keys to
Pesticide Safety


U


1. READ THE LABEL ON EACH PESTICIDE (
ER BEFORE EACH USE. HEED ALL C
AND WARNINGS. if


2. STORE PESTICIDES IN THEIR ORIGINAL LABELED
CONTAINERS.
KEEP THEM OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN
AND IRRESPONSIBLE PEOPLE.


3. APPLY PESTICIDES ONLY AS DIRECTED.


4. DISPOSE OF EMPTY CONTAINERS PROMPTLY
AND SAFELY. % -.


t


--


Io


ll


(


C


m


7BEFORE USING AN



PESTICID


\F




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